CHAPTER 6 Suspension System
•Supports the weight. •Provides a smooth ride. •Allows rapid cornering without extreme body roll. •Keeps tires in firm contact with the road. •Prevents excessive body squat (body tilts down in rear) when accelerating or heavily loaded..
•Prevents excessive body dive (body tilts down in •front) when braking). •Allows front wheels to turn side-to-side for steering. •Works with the steering system to keep the wheels in correct alignment.
Control arm – movable lever that fastens the steering knuckle to the vehicle’s body or frame.
Steering Knuckle – provides a spindle or bearing support for the wheel hub.
. bearings and wheel assembly.
Ball Joints – swivel joints that allow control arm and steering knuckle to move up and down and side to side.
Springs – supports the weight of the vehicle. permits the control arm and Wheel to move up and down.
Shock absorbers or dampeners – keeps the suspension from continuing to bounce after spring compression and extension.
Control arm bushing – sleeves that allows the control arm to swing up and down on the frame.
•Limits spring compression-extension movements to smooth the vehicle’s ride.
•Without shock absorbers. the vehicle would continue to bounce up and down long after striking dip or hump in the road.
Rubber bushings fit between the bar and the control arms. The sway bar is made of spring steel
It fastens to both lower control arms and to the frame.Stabilizer
A sway bar. or stabilizer bar. is used to keep the body from leaning excessively in sharp turns.
Non-independent suspension has both right and left wheel attached to the
same solid axle. When one wheel hits a bump in the road.
Independent suspension allows one wheel to move up and down with minimal
effect to the other. its upward movement causes a slight tilt of the other wheel.
Test Your Understanding level the diagram
Which one is independent and non-independent?
Leaf springs are now limited to the rear of some cars.Type Suspension System Spring
Coil spring is the most common type of spring found on modern vehicles.
Consists of several layers of metal (called "leaves") bound together to act as a single unit.
Leaf springs & Coil spring
•It will then try to return to its original shape.Suspension System Spring
Torsion bar (large spring rod)
•One end is attached to the frame and the other to the lower control arm. moving the control arm to its original place.
•Up and down of the suspension system twists the torsion bar.
driving through rough terrains won't be a problem
. Because of this. It does this by using an air-filled cylindrical chamber that's positioned between the wheels and the vehicle's body.Suspension System Spring
• Uses air to give the vehicle the support it needs.
• The vibrations made by the wheels are then absorbed by this component with the help of stored air.
Type of Suspension System
Strut assembly (MacPherson struts)
•Consists of a shock absorber. a coil spring. and an upper damper unit. •Strut assembly often replaces the upper control arm.
This side-to-side motion is known as scrub
. If you look head-on at this type of system.DOUBLE WISHBONE SUSPENSION
Type of double-A or double wishbone suspension
Wheel spindles are supported by an upper and lower 'A' shaped arm. The lower arm carries most of the load. parallelogram system that allows the spindles to travel vertically up and down.
The super-weird thing about this is that as the spindle turns for steering.
. The basic principle of it is the same. These are joined at the top and bottom of the spindle thus forming the wishbone shape. but instead of solid upper and lower wishbones. it alters the geometry of the suspension by torquing all four suspension arms.MULTI-LINK SUSPENSION
It's currently being used in the Audi A8 and A4 amongst other cars. Spring is separate from the schock absorber. each 'arm' of the wishbone is a separate item.
the shock will be transferred to the other wheel.
. on which the wheels are mounted. both wheels share the same axle.SOLID AXLE SUSPENSION
The solid axle front suspension system mainly consists of a solid axle or axle housing. When one wheel rides on a bump. In this suspension system. and work as one unit.
. I’ll use a simple chart to help identify the advantages the swing axle has over the solid axle and highlight some of the shortcomings of this suspension design as well.SWING AXLE
It is. set up so that the axles pivot about a location somewhere near the center of the car and allow the wheels to travel up and down through their respective arcs. This system was eventually adapted for rear suspensions as can be found on the old beetles. as the name suggests.
With trailing arm and semi-trailing arm suspensions the wheels are free to bounce independently
design in which one or more arms (or "links") are connected between the axle and the chassis
•If oily and wet. •Good – no more then two rebounds.Suspension System
Checking Shock Absorber Condition
Bounce test •Push down on one corner of vehicle’s body. replace it.
. •Release the body and count the number of times the vehicle rebounds.
Leaking Shocks •Check for signs of leakage.
before removing it.
. Warning – A compressed coil spring has a tremendous amount of stored energy.Suspension System
Replacing Coil Springs
Need to compress the coil spring.