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Smo 2010

Smo 2010

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Raffles Institution

Singapore Mathematics Olympiad
Training
Department of Mathematics
2010
Contents
1 Problem Solving - Generalities, Basic Techniques 11
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3 Methods of Argument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.3.1 Deduction and Symbolic Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.3.2 Argument by Contradiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.3.3 Mathematical Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.4 Other important strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2 Fundamental Tactics for Solving Problems 20
2.1 Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1.1 Geometric Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.2 Algebraic Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.1.3 Symmetry in Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.2 The Extreme Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.3 The Pigeonhole Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4 Invariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3 Functions and Basic Algebra 30
3.1 Functions and their inverses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.2 Basic Characteristics of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.3 Common Classes of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.3.1 The Modulus Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.3.2 Polynomial Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.3.3 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.3.4 Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4 Integer and Fractional Parts of a Real Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.5 Miscellaneous Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4 Sequences 41
4.1 1st order linear recurrence relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.2 2nd order linear recurrence relation with constant coefficients . . . . . . . . 42
Raffles Institution - Singapore Mathematics Olympiad Training Page 1
CONTENTS
4.3 Miscellaneous Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5 Series 48
5.1 Trigonometric Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.2 Past Year SMO Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6 Inequalities - Techniques and the Standard Few 53
6.1 Overview of some ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.1.1 When does equality occur? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.1.2 Change of variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.1.3 Create symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.2 Toolbox - The Standard Few . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.2.1 Triangle Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.2.2 A square is always positive! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6.2.3 The Power Means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6.2.4 Cauchy-Schwarz and Holder inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.2.5 Rearrangements, Chebyshev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.3 Smoothing, convexity and Jensen’s inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.4 Tangent Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.5 Isolated Fudging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.6 Past Year SMO Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7 Inequalities - The Less Standard Few 68
7.1 Schur’s Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.2 Majorization and Muirhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.3 n − 1 Equal Value Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
8 Inequalities - The Ugly Few 72
8.1 Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.1.1 Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.1.2 Maxima and Minima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
8.2 Lagrange Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
8.3 Local versus Global Extremum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
9 Polynomials 76
9.1 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
9.2 Miscellaneous Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10 Functional Equations 80
10.1 Generalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
10.2 Some initial advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
10.3 Functional equations over N, Z and Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
10.4 Other advice and methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
10.5 Miscellaenous Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Page 2
CONTENTS
11 Addition and Multiplication; Permutations and Combinations 87
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
11.2 Addition and Multiplication Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
11.3 Permutations and Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
11.4 Miscellaneous Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
12 Bijection Principle and Examples 96
12.1 Bijection Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
12.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
13 Recursions 100
13.1 Solving recursive relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
13.1.1 First order linear recursive relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
13.1.2 Second order linear recursive relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
13.2 Formulating recursive relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
13.3 Using a graph to set-up recursive relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
13.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
14 Principle of Inclusion and Exclusion 108
14.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
14.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
15 Counting in Two Ways: Fubini’s Principle 112
15.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
15.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
16 Generating Functions 117
16.1 Ordinary Generating Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
16.2 Some Modelling Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
16.3 Exponential Generating Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
16.4 Exponential generating functions for permutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
16.5 Distribution Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
17 Basic Geometry Toolkit 124
17.1 Transformations of the plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
17.1.1 Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
17.1.2 Reflection about a point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
17.1.3 Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
17.1.4 Reflection about a line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
17.1.5 Homothety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
17.1.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Page 3
CONTENTS
18 Circle and Triangle Geometry 128
18.1 Basic Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
18.1.1 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
18.2 Triangle Geometry, Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
18.2.1 Basic Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
18.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
18.3 Miscellaneous Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
18.3.1 Try these yourself... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
19 Coordinate Geometry and Barycentric Coordinates 146
19.1 Coordinate Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
19.2 Barycentric Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
19.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
20 Complex Numbers 160
20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
20.2 Preliminaries and Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
20.2.1 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
20.2.2 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
20.3 Useful Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
20.3.1 Basic Angle Properties Between Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
20.3.2 Properties of the Unit Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
20.3.3 Similar Triangles, Concyclicity and Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
20.3.4 Some Special Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
20.4 Worked Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
20.5 Final Word of advice for analytic methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
20.5.1 Advantages of the Complex Number Method . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
20.5.2 Disadvantages of the Complex Number Method . . . . . . . . . . . 169
20.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
20.7 Miscellaneous Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
21 Inversive Geometry 172
21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
21.2 Preliminaries and Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
21.3 Useful Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
21.3.1 Poles and Polars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
21.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
22 Divisibility, Prime Numbers and Arithmetic Functions 176
22.1 Some Basic Stuff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
22.2 Greatest common divisor (gcd) and lowest common multiple (lcm) . . . . . 177
22.3 Euclidean Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
22.3.1 Euclidean Algorithm and Bezout’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
22.3.2 Gauss’s Lemma and consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Page 4
CONTENTS
22.4 Prime Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
22.4.1 Prime Numbers and some important results . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
22.4.2 p-adic Valuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
22.5 Arithmetic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
22.5.1 The divisor function d(n) and the sum of divisors σ(n) . . . . . . . 181
22.5.2 Euler’s ϕ function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
22.6 Miscellaenous Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
23 Congruences 187
23.1 Definition, some initial properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
23.2 Order of an element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
23.3 Chinese Remainder Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
23.4 Congruences modulo p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
23.5 Miscellaneous Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
24 Diophantine Equations 191
24.1 Some reflexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
24.2 Using Congruences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
24.3 Infinite Descent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
24.4 Discriminant Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
24.5 Vieta’s relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
24.6 2nd order equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
24.7 Miscellaneous Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Page 5
Foreword
The International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) is the most important and prestigious math-
ematical competition for high-school students. The first IMO was held in Brasov, Romania
in July, 1959. This year will be the 51st edition, to be held in Astana, Kazakhstan.
Singapore has taken part in the IMO since 1988. So this year will be the 22nd year we
are taking part. Each year, 6 students will be chosen to represent Singapore. Currently,
the national team is selected through a National Team Selection Test in April/May from the
training team, which comprises the top 20-25 2nd round results in the Singapore Mathemat-
ical Olympiad (SMO).
In the 22 years of Singapore’s participation, we have had 1 single gold medal, from
Senkodan Thevendran in IMO 1996. Needless to say, this haul is not the most impressive.
However, the IMO is probably the “hardest” science olympiad, in the sense where creativity,
insight and perhaps even talent, are required. The drill and mug mode (i.e. regurgitation and
rote learning) which we Singaporeans are so good at, which probably explains why we excel
at Physics, Chemistry and Biology olympiads, is less applicable here.
Nevertheless in the 22 years, 72 of the 132 students that have represented Singapore have
been Rafflesians. Many of them have gone on to receive other prestigious awards like the
President’s Scholarship and Public Service Commission Overseas Merit Scholarship. Char-
maine Sia has also been recently awarded the Alice T Schafer Prize for the most outstanding
undergraduate woman in mathematics in the United States.
Are you ready to be the next?
Why this set of notes?
This set of notes first came about in 2008 from the SMO training sessions at Raffles Insti-
tution. I have tried to draw the ideas for this set of notes from my experiences attending
SIMO training sessions during 1998-1999 as well as conducting training sessions for SIMO
during 2001-2003. I have also used quite a number of other resources, such as problem solv-
ing books, mathematical journals and online forums. Each chapter has worked examples,
exercises and solutions. Included are also past year SMO questions, to which some have
Raffles Institution - Singapore Mathematics Olympiad Training Page 6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . .Contents 1 Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . .Singapore Mathematics Olympiad Training Page 1 . . . . . . . 4 Sequences 4. . .5 Miscellaneous Problems . . . . . . . . .4 Invariants . 2. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Basic Characteristics of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Other important strategies . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Algebraic Symmetry . . . . . .3. . . . .3. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Techniques 1. . . . . . Fundamental Tactics for Solving Problems 2. 3. . . . .2 The Extreme Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Functions and their inverses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Geometric Symmetry .3 The Pigeonhole Principle . . . .3 Symmetry in Polynomials . 2. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2nd order linear recurrence relation with constant coefficients . . . . Raffles Institution . . .1 Deduction and Symbolic Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1st order linear recurrence relation . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Methods of Argument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 2. . 2. . . . . . .2 Polynomial Functions . . . 2. . . . . . .3 Trigonometric Functions . . . 11 11 12 15 15 15 16 18 19 20 20 21 23 24 25 25 27 28 30 30 31 33 33 34 35 36 38 39 41 42 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . 3. . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .1 The Modulus Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . .4 Integer and Fractional Parts of a Real Number 3. .1 Symmetry . . .Generalities.4 Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .3 Common Classes of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . 3 Functions and Basic Algebra 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Argument by Contradiction . . . . . . . . .3 Mathematical Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Getting Started . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . .

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