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# Pump Selection Procedure (from Applied Fluid Mechanics by R. Mott, 5th ed.

) Sample Design Problem: Figure 1 shows a system in which a pump is required to deliver at least 225 gal/min of water at 60F from a lower reservoir to an elevated tank maintained at a pressure of 35.0 psig. Design the system and specify a suitable pump. Then determine the operating point for the pump in the system you have designed and give the performance characteristics for the pump at the operating point. Step 1. Propose the general layout of the system. This is completed for the sample problem as shown in Figure 1. The following are its primary features.  The pump is placed near to the source and located below the level of the fluid in the reservoir. This eases the ability of the pump to draw fluid without priming and it should maintain a relatively high pressure at the pump inlet to decrease the probability of Figure 1. System for the Sample Design Problem creating cavitation in the pump.  The suction line is a total of 8.0 feet long.  A fully open gate valve is placed in the suction line before the pump to permit the inflow to be shut off when the pump is not in operation. It may also facilitate service or replacement of the pump.  In the discharge line a check valve is placed. It prohibits the backflow of fluid from the upper tank when the pump is not operating.  A fully open butterfly valve beyond the check valve is also included. The butterfly valve can be shut off to isolate the pump for service or replacement. It could also be used as well for a modest throttling (purposely adding resistance to the flow to control the amount of fluid delivered) to fine tune the delivery of water.  The discharge line contains two standard elbows and a total of 360 feet of pipe. Step 2. Specify the sizes for the pipes. Refer to the attached tables for guide (Tables 1.1 and 1.2 Pipe size selection based on flow velocity).  A 3 ½-inch Schedule 40 steel pipe is suitable for the suction line, giving a velocity of approximately 7.5 ft/sec. Its flow area is 0.06868 ft2 and its inside diameter is 0.2957 ft. The actual flow velocity is

Using a 2 ½-inch Schedule 40 steel pipe for the discharge line will result in a velocity of approximately 15 ft/s. Its actual flow area is 0.03326 ft2 and its inside diameter is 0.2058 ft. The actual flow velocity is

Table 2. This is the desired operating point for the pump.3 in Chapter 11 (Mott) for this part of the process.501 299.6 the calculation of energy losses may be used for this.9 flow rate for the proposed system.8 curve) on the system curve and observing where they intersect.334 224.223 189. Total energy lost as computed is 299. For this problem. we have hS = 80 ft hv = 0 hF = ? hP = TDH = 160. The difference in elevation between these two points is 80 points.445 271. Point 2 is taken at the surface of the upper tank where the pressure is 35.77 ft + hF Step 4.3 superimposing the pump rating curve (the 9-inch impeller diameter 225 0. Using the energy balance equation. point 1 is taken at the surface of the lower reservoir where the pressure is 0 psig.4 system curve. 275 0. Evaluate all energy losses at the desired flow rate.6 flow rate from 0 to 275 gal/min and solve for the corresponding TDH.167 177. The 2 x 3 – 10 pump operating at 3500 rpm shown in Figure 2 is suitable. determine the equation for the total head on the pump at the desired operating conditions. For this problem. 100 0. 250 0.278 205.3 .111 168.056 162.557 331. The desired operating point lies between the curves for the 8-inch and 9-inch diameter impellers. Create the system curve and determine the actual operating Q (gpm) Q (cfs) TDH (ft) point for the pump.4 Figure 10 is a graph showing the operating point.1 Step 7. You may choose to use a spreadsheet similar to that in Figure 11. let us inspect the pump curves shown in Figures 2 to 8. The same spreadsheet used for 50 0.9 The values are recorded in Table 2. We must choose the 9-inch impeller to deliver at least the desired 225 gal/min flow rate. Determine the operating point for the selected pump by 200 0.390 246. 150 0. Specify a suitable pump. (We vary the 75 0.8 The system curve is a plot of the total head (TDH) versus the 25 0.1 175 0. System Curve Step 6. Figure 9 shows the graph of the 125 0. Step 5.8 ft when the flow rate is 225 gal/min. 0 0 160.612 366. Then using the equation for the Total Dynamic Head (TDH).0 psig and the velocity is very nearly zero. First specify the reference points in the system that encompass all of the work the pump is required to do.Step 3.

. Also. an enlargement is required to mate the 2-inch discharge port of the pump to the 2 ½-inch discharge pipe. Determine the performance of the pump at the operating curve. If necessary. A reducer is required. We have selected a 3 ½-inch suction line and the pump has a 3inch suction port. 2 x 3 -10 Flow rate (Capacity): Total head: Efficiency: Input power: NPSH required: Centrifugal pump with a 9-inch impeller operating at 3500 rpm 240 gal/min 320 ft 57% 33 hp 8. found by referring to the full chart of pump performance in Figure 8. Connections are required in this design. provide a means of connecting the selected pipe sizes to the connections for the pump if they are of different sizes.Step 8. The results for this problem are listed below.0 and the added energy loss should have negligible effect on the operating point of the pump. For the gradual reducers and expanders the K-factor for each is typically much less than 1.0 ft Step 9. Gradual reducers and expanders are recommended to minimize the energy losses added to the system by these elements.

801 3.5479 2.1 Pipe Size Selection based on Flow Velocity (English units) Suction Lines Flowing to the Inlet to a Pump Recommended Range of Velocity: 3 to 20 ft/s Volume flow rate (gal/min) for given velocity Pipe Size Flow Area Velocity (ft/s) Sch 40 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 8 10 (ft2) 0.08840 0.84 4.06868 308 463 617 4 0.2 1 0.560 2.1 92.00370 16.03326 0.3 224 299 3 0.05132 230 346 461 3 1/2 0.150 30 28.01039 0.169 1.08840 397 595 794 5 0.02333 104.2006 0.338 3.01414 0.8 157 210 2 1/2 0.11 12.3 127 210 299 461 617 794 1.690 4.0 19.338 3.1390 0.9 1 1/4 0.153 .00211 0.252 3.7 63.559 2.9 33.3 1 1/2 0.00600 0.61 24.2 35 47.248 1.7 41.2 53.559 2.03326 149.248 6 0.5 20.8 69.9 46.00211 9.05132 0.8 80.5 119 187 270 468 738 7.9 40.2006 901 1.5 67.9 3/4 0.897 6.5 7.5 95.9 33.9 40.191 1.3472 1.47 16.118 10 0.1390 624 936 1.06868 0. p.8 140 190 314 448 691 925 1.351 1.98 8.460 15 14.4 116.702 4.2 157 224 346 463 595 936 1351 2.0 31.845 10 9.4 70 95.6 78.380 Sch 40 (ft2) 10 15 20 1/2 0.7 70 93.21 18.677 7.2 127 2 0.6 159 262 373 576 771 992 1.6 26.Table 1.920 Pipe Size Discharge Lines Flowing from the Outlet of a Pump Recommended Range of Velocity: 10 to 30 ft/s Volume flow rate (gal/min) for given velocity Flow Area Velocity (ft/s) 25 23.690 20 18.01039 46.47 14.5 105 149 230 308 397 624 901 1.02333 0.872 2..2 24.4 49.3472 0.4 53.00370 0.01414 63.5479 3 2.9 93.4 44.6 112 173 231 298 468 676 1.460 3.00600 26.920 Reference: Applied Fluid Mechanics by Robert Mott.801 8 0. 5th Ed.118 4.08 14.

3 28. p.42 12 20.71 1.4 50.6 46.03 15.653E-04 10.653E-04 1.6 51.574E-04 6.6 17.6 21.5 6 1/2 1.0 to 6.5 105 151 261 412 3 2.03 12 1 1/4 9.213E-03 88.4 46.099 th Reference: Applied Fluid Mechanics by Robert Mott.4 35.8 2 1/2 3.0 38.25 1.71 6.5 3.960E-04 3..01864 201 302 403 8 0.02 10.57 7042 1 5.5 77.8 1 1/2 1.5 83.7 103 138 177 279 403 697 1.2 100 154 207 266 418 604 1.82 10.Table 1.7 3 4.960E-04 2.5 58.437E-04 5.768E-03 51.6 70.1 26.8 28.18 5.381E-03 8.0 m/s Pipe Size Sch 40 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 8 10 Flow Area (m2) 1.2 103 3 1/2 6.5 67.574E-04 9.649 Sch 40 (m2) 3 4.8 66.0 m/s Pipe Size Flow Area Volume flow rate (m3/hr) for given velocity Velocity (m/s) 7.01291 139 209 279 6 0.2 21.374 9 6.80 11.1 31.1 50.03226 0.05090 Volume flow rate (m3/hr) for given velocity Velocity (m/s) 1 0.1 35.4 129 172 222 349 503 871 1.12 3.6 25.47 4.4 2 2.2 23 33 51 69 89 139 201 348 550 4.4 14.52 7.03226 348 523 697 10 0.3 42.18 4.01 3.59 2.28 15.7 66.1 18.314E-03 2.01291 0.768E-03 6.24 2.01864 0.381E-03 68.9 103 138 4 8.154 .23 3/4 3.1 66.090E-03 4.7 133 177 5 0.1 17.2 23. 5 Ed.2 Pipe Size Selection based on Flow Velocity (SI units) Suction Lines Flowing to the Inlet to a Pump Recommended Range of Velocity: 1.29 9.78 4.57 9.73 7.1 46.090E-03 33.437E-04 3.1 77.213E-03 0.05090 550 825 1.02 9.314E-03 14.5 5.0 to 9.71 5.2 103 133 209 302 523 825 6 4.167E-03 23.045 1.1 116 183 2.23 7.4 15.12 3.6 20.0 29.35 11.099 Discharge Lines Flowing from the Outlet of a Pump Recommended Range of Velocity: 3.3 35.167E-03 3.

Composite rating chart for a line of centrifugal pumps. Illustration of pump performance for different impeller diameters. Figure 3.Figure 2. .

Figure 4. Performance chart for 2 x 3 – 10 centrifugal pump at 3500 rpm. Figure 5. Pump performance for different impeller diameters with power required. . Pump performance for 2 x 3 – 10 centrifugal pump operating at 1750 rpm.

Pump performance for different impeller diameters with efficiency. Performance chart for 2 x 3 – 10 centrifugal pump at 3500 rpm. Pump performance for different impeller diameters with net positive suction head required.Figure 6. Figure 7. Performance chart for 2 x 3 – 10 centrifugal pump at 3500 rpm. .

.Figure 8. Composite performance chart for 2 x 3 – 10 centrifugal pump at 3500 rpm. System curve for the Sample Design Problem. Figure 9.

moderate head applications. vane) are used in applications requiring moderate capacities and high heads or for fluids with high viscosities. Single-stage centrifugal pumps operating at 3500 rpm are economical at lower flow rates and moderate heads. Operating point for the Sample Design Problem.. Another parameter that is useful in selecting the type of pump for a given application is the specific speed. 5. In general: 1. gear.Figure 10. Multistage pumps are desirable at high head conditions. Two or more types of pumps may give satisfactory service under the same conditions. 6. and the type of fluid may dictate a particular choice. defined as: where N = rotational speed of the impeller (rpm) Q = flow rate through the pump (gal/min) H = total head on the pump (ft) The specific speed is often combined with the specific diameter to produce a chart like that shown in Figure 12. but it should be emphasized that boundaries between zones are approximate. Figure 11 shows one method for deciding what type of pump is suitable for a given service. Rotary pumps (e. Mixed flow and axial flow pumps are used for very high flow rates and low heads. Such factors as cost. 3. Some general conclusions can be drawn from such a chart. Special high speed centrifugal pumps operating well above the 3500-rpm of standard electrical motors are desirable for high heads and moderate capacities. Reciprocating pumps are used for flow rates up to about 500 gal/min and from very low heads to as high as 50. Such pumps are driven by steam turbines or gas turbines. The specific diameter is given by .000ft of head. mostly in high capacity. Centrifugal pumps are used over a wide range of conditions. 2. 4.g. 7. suction conditions. physical size.

000.000. Figure 11. . Axial flow pumps are used from 7.000 to about 7. Pump selection chart. From Figure 12. we can see that radial flow centrifugal pumps are recommended for specific speeds from about 400 to 4.000 to over 60. Mixed flow pumps are used from 4.where D is the impeller diameter in inches.000.

New York. N. (Excerpted by Mott with special permission from Chemical Engineering. 10020. Inc. Specific speed versus specific diameter for centrifugal pumps. 1978..Y. Copyright 1978 by McGraw-Hill.) .Figure 12. April 13.

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