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Green… From An Architect Point of View …
Ghozlan, Ayah Section : 03
PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control
Dr. Tarek Saker
INTRODUCTION GREEN CONSTRUCTION
*EMBODIED ENERGY *THE LEED PROGRAM * ADVANTAGES
** HEATING, VENTILATION AND COOLING SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ** ALTERNATIVE ENERGY PRODUCTION * BUILDING PLACEMENT * SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS * WATER MANAGEMENT
** RE‐USING STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS ** SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY IN ARCHITECTURE
SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS * BENEFITS * GREEN BUILDING MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA ** RESOURCE EFFICIENCY **INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) **ENERGY EFFICIENCY **WATER CONSERVATION **AFFORDABILITY *THREE BASIC STEPS OF PRODUCT SELECTION ** RESEARCH
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3 of 21 . Tarek Saker ** EVALUATION ** SELECTION * RECYCLED MATERIALS * LOWER VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS V. VIII.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. THE VALUE OF GREEN BUILDINGS CONCLUSION REFERENCES NOTES VII. VI.
all resources we cannot afford to waste. soaring housing costs. Green Architecture began with the first Earth Day in 1970. Buildings and development have an enormous impact on our quality of life and the quality of our environment. both in construction and in operations. economic. Buildings expend 40% of the world’s energy. Economic factors have also helped the green movement by causing changes in building materials. The Engineers. Architects and Developers of today. 4 of 21 . economic instability.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. dwindling natural resources. critical levels of air pollution and an inordinate amount of waste produced each day it is essential to begin taking steps to prevent this pattern from continuing down the road of environmental destruction. and has grown in popularity as awareness of the earth’s many ecological problems became more wide spread. environmentally sound spaces in which we can thrive and endure. This is most notable in changes to heating and cooling systems. share an obligation to create new and innovative structures that turn this cycle around. Tarek Saker INTRODUCTION In a time faced with an energy crisis. and technology. water shortages. Buildings of the future need to take the step beyond shelter and work places and perform as efficient. 25% of its wood harvest and account for 16% of its water consumption. and improvements in insulation and window construction. more than ever.
In other words. If we consider this accounting methodology when building. seem to devote much importance on what is known as embodied energy. will review a building. materials. Such rating systems as the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). Unfortunately at this time. low‐maintenance products for our construction needs. The calculation must be complete enough to include the extraction of raw materials including the associated energy or fuels used for its extraction to the end of the products lifetime. Although there is no magic formula. transport it and process it for its intended use. its assembly. Tarek Saker GREEN CONSTRUCTION The "Green" refers to a method of design and construction that minimizes burdens on our natural resources and the environment.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. There are many certification organizations and rating systems for new constructions. cost‐effective. With energy reliance in the 21st 5 of 21 . green building design involves finding the delicate balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment. its calculation would ideally include the total energy consumed during a products life time. success comes in the form leaving a lighter footprint on the environment through conservation of resources. manufacture it. there does not seem to be standardized method for calculating a materials embodied energy. however. including removal and energies required for its reuse. The selection of materials is reviewed by its ability to be recycled or reused. its durability. None of the systems available however. while at the same time balancing energy‐efficient. we then have a quantiﬁable means of our consumption. Other energies to be included in the calculation are transportation. and how it exchanges with its environment. and its local availability. Sustainable or ‘Green Building’ design and construction is the opportunity to use our resources more efficiently. energy from manipulation and processing equipment. and other processing requirements right down to the heating. “EMBODIED ENERGY” Embodied Energy refers to the total energy required to procure a material from its raw state. while creating healthier and more energy‐ efficient homes. manufacturing. cooling and lighting of the processing facility.
it provides us with a means to quantify our use and our waste. we are ultimately building sustainably and then able building within our means. safeguarding water quality and water efficiency. The LEED program is a voluntary national standard for developing high‐ performance sustainable buildings. conservation of materials and resources. we are also reducing the effects of the use these associated energy types. it would be ideal to see materials durability and recoverability factor included as well. Green Building Council (USGBC). That’s would be a truly green building. “THE LEED PROGRAM” Responding to the increased global interest and awareness of environmental issues and the principle of sustainable development. we can accurately measure a building’s energy requirement. and indoor environmental quality. This could be assembled in a handbook for architects and builders to establish buildings total energy requirements.S. if we reduce the total embodied energy in the building. Imagine a building equipped with renewable energy sources which will eventually completely offset the total energy required to construct the building. Products with lower embodied energies are typically more economical. and are less damaging to the environment. environmental assessment systems have been created specifically for the construction industry. If a sustainability rating system could be created which included a materials embodied energy.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. The rating system awards points for a range of state‐of‐the‐art strategies including sustainable site planning. Through the use of embodied energy calculations. One example is the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System developed by the U. There is a clear advantage to building with a low total embodied energy. energy efficiency and renewable energy use. Tarek Saker century being primarily based on carbon based fuels. By using the least amount of energy to build a structure and by being conscious of our dependence for this energy. Since construction is one of the most energy intensive and wasteful processes. easier to work with. 6 of 21 .
Reduced environmental impacts. as well as requirements for their own public‐sector buildings. storing and handling fuels. protecting wetlands and endangered species. owners from the public and private sector are attracted to the concept of green construction and are starting to demand high‐ performance buildings. lower operating costs. and handling hazardous materials. build "green. higher productivity due to increased occupant comfort and health (which also may lead to reduced insurance costs). “ADVANTAGES” There are numerous advantages to designing for sustainability that far outweigh the up‐front construction costs." and achieve certifications such as LEEDs or participate in programs such as EPA's National Performance Track. An EMS is a tool that helps companies from all industries manages their environmental impacts. As interest expands. managing waste. reduced strain on local infrastructure. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop an environmental management system (EMS) "template" that is specifically designed for the construction industry. In the construction industry. More and more. 7 of 21 . Tarek Saker As part of a nationwide effort toward conservation and sustainability. a construction company will be able to identify company actions that impact the environment. set improvement goals. preserving natural resources. Some environmental impacts to address in an EMS include controlling soil erosion and sedimentation.S. and plan how to achieve them. the Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) is working with the U. the construction industry is increasingly challenged to demonstrate its commitment to the environment. Some state and local governments have established "green" guidelines and incentive programs. Building on the EMS template.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. an EMS would provide the necessary framework for contractors to effectively manage environmental obligations. and community stewardship are just some of the benefits. minimizing dust and noise.
Low energy designs also requires the use of (mobile) solar shading. by means of awnings. to relieve the solar heat gain in summer and to 8 of 21 . Also site and building orientation have a major effect on a building's HVAC efficiency. In the broad context. air and compost streams. and air conditioning (HVAC) system is a well insulated building. and development space. on‐site energy recycling technologies can effectively recapture energy from waste hot water and stale air and transfer that energy into incoming fresh cold water or fresh air. HEATING. “SUSTAINABLE ENERGY” Energy efficiency over the entire life cycle of a building is the most important single goal of sustainable architecture. Significant amounts of energy are flushed out of buildings in the water. Passive Solar Building Design allows buildings to harness the energy of the sun efficiently without the use of any active solar mechanisms such as photovoltaic cells or solar hot water panels. but may require more ventilation capacity to expel polluted indoor air.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. sustainable architecture seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials. energy. Off the shelf. Typically passive solar building designs incorporate materials with high thermal mass that retain heat effectively and strong insulation that works to prevent heat escape. Recapture of energy for uses other than gardening from compost leaving buildings requires centralized anaerobic digesters. Architects use many different techniques to reduce the energy needs of buildings and increase their ability to capture or generate their own energy. ventilating. blinds or shutters. A more efficient building requires less heat generating or dissipating power. Tarek Saker SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE Sustainable architecture is a general term that describes environmentally‐conscious design techniques in the field of architecture. Sustainable architecture is framed by the larger discussion of sustainability and the pressing economic and political issues of our world. VENTILATION AND COOLING SYSTEM EFFICIENCY The most important and cost effective element of an efficient heating.
when it is sited to work with the forces of nature. Louvers or light shelves are installed to allow the sunlight in during the winter (when the sun is lower in the sky) and keep it out in the summer (when the sun is high in the sky). low energy buildings typically have a very low surface area to volume ratio to minimize heat loss. In the northern hemisphere this usually involves installing a large number of south‐facing windows to collect direct sun and severely restricting the number of north‐ facing windows. Preventing excess solar gain by means of solar shading devices in the summer months is important to reduce cooling needs. In Warmer Climates where cooling is a primary concern. 9 of 21 . and when renewable energy is utilized. Coniferous or Evergreen Plants are often planted to the north of buildings to shield against cold north winds.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. In addition builders often opt for sprawling single story structures in order to maximize surface area and heat loss. an integrated energy system will increase in efficiency: when the building is well insulated. when heat is recaptured (to be used immediately or stored). In addition. Deciduous Trees are often planted in front of windows to block excessive sun in summer with their leaves but allow light through in winter when their leaves fall off. provide much better insulation than single‐pane glass windows. when the heat plant relying on fossil fuels or electricity is greater than 100% efficient. This means that sprawling multi‐winged building designs (often thought to look more "organic") are often avoided in favor of more centralized structures. Tarek Saker reduce the need for artificial cooling. Masonry building materials with high thermal mass are very valuable for retaining the cool temperatures of night throughout the day. Certain window types. heating systems are a primary focus for sustainable architecture because they are typically one of the largest single energy drains in buildings. particularly the especially cool winds coming from nearby bodies of water. In Colder Climates. a poor insulator. such as double or triple glazed insulated windows with gas filled spaces and low emissivity (low‐E) coatings. In climates with four seasons. Buildings are often designed to capture and channel existing winds. Windows are placed to maximize the input of heat‐creating light while minimizing the loss of heat through glass. passive solar designs can also be very effective.
such structures often serve as the unknowing frontlines of suburban sprawl. For small wind turbines. sheep wool. rammed earth. wood fiber plates. Although many may envision the ideal environmental home or office structure as an isolated place in the middle of the woods. residential. and light industrial areas more accessible for those traveling by foot. high and ultra high performance concrete. or public transit. and some buildings even move throughout the day to follow the sun. they usually increase the energy consumption required for transportation and lead to unnecessary auto emissions. maintenance costs can be a deciding factor at sites with marginal wind‐ harnessing capabilities. coconut. Tarek Saker ALTERNATIVE ENERGY PRODUCTION Active solar devices such as photovoltaic solar panels help to provide sustainable electricity for any use. “SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS” Some examples of sustainable building materials include recycled denim or blown‐in fiber glass insulation. which is one of the strongest and fastest growing woody plants. vermiculite.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. Ideally. Roofs are often angled toward the sun to allow photovoltaic panels to collect at maximum efficiency. small wind systems are generally more expensive than larger wind turbines relative to the amount of energy they produce. Careful mixed use zoning can make commercial. Linoleum. baked earth. sisal. flax linen. clay. Second. bicycle. sustainably harvested wood. In considering costs. First. most building should avoid suburban sprawl in favor of the kind of light urban development articulated by the New Urbanist movement. Trass. The use of undersized wind turbines in energy production in sustainable structures requires the consideration of many factors. “BUILDING PLACEMENT” One central and often ignored aspect of sustainable architecture is building placement. panels made from paper flakes. At low‐wind sites. as proposed in the Principles of Intelligent Urbanism. and non‐toxic low‐VOC glues and paints. this kind of placement is often detrimental to the environment. cork. and bamboo. calcium sand stone. locally‐obtained stone and rock. maintenance can consume much of a small wind turbines revenue. see grass. 10 of 21 . expanded clay grains.
Mess halls.” 11 of 21 .PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. The reduction in use of new materials creates a corresponding reduction in Embodied Energy. New Jersey. Architectural design can play a large part in influencing the ways that social groups interact. Alabama. While the existing social constructs can be seen to influence architecture. Communist Russia's Constructivist Social condensers are a good example of this. RE‐USING STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS Some sustainable architecture incorporates recycled or second hand materials. Cost/effectiveness is an important issue in sustainable architecture projects. and one of the most efficient designs here in is the Public Housing Approach. buildings which were designed with the specific intention of controlling or directing the flow of everyday life to "create socially equitable spaces". The same can be said for environmentally sustainable design. These methods." located at Rock Lodge Club in Stockholm. yet incorporate communal spaces eg. Tarek Saker Sustainable Materials will be fatherly discussed with more details later on. this can be seen in many of Rural Studio's buildings in and around Hale County. the opposite can also be true. is that “Architecture Can Lead The Way For A Greater Community. if successful. This approach lets everyone have their own sleeping/recreation space. and in the design of ALA Himmelwright's "model fireproof farmhouse. when combined with on‐site food waste composting and off‐site recycling. Often sustainable architects attempt to retro‐fit old structures to serve new needs in order to avoid unnecessary development. Sustainable Architectural Design can help to create a sustainable way of living within a community. SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY IN ARCHITECTURE The building structure must also be considered. An overtly socially sustainable building. can reduce a house's waste to a small amount of packaging waste. incorporating things such as grey water systems for use on garden beds. “WASTE MANAGEMENT” Sustainable Architecture focuses on the on‐site use of waste. Latrines & public showers. and composting toilets to reduce sewage. can help people to see the benefit of living sustainably.
“GREEN BUILDING MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA” • • • • • Resource efficiency Indoor air quality Energy efficiency Water conservation Affordability 12 of 21 . Depending upon project‐specific goals. installation. reuse.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. construction and operation of building projects. In addition. • Energy conservation. processing. • Improved occupant health and productivity. transport. rather than nonrenewable resources. integrating green building materials into building projects can help reduce the environmental impacts associated with the extraction. Green materials are environmentally responsible because impacts are considered over the life of the product. Using green building materials and products promotes conservation of dwindling nonrenewable resources internationally. fabrication. Building and construction activities worldwide consume 3 billion tons of raw materials each year or 40 percent of total global. Green Building Materials are composed of renewable. The use of green building materials and products represents one important strategy in the design of a building. • Greater design flexibility. “BENEFITS” Green Building Materials offer specific Benefits to the building owner and building occupants: • Reduced maintenance/replacement costs over the life of the building. Tarek Saker SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS The concept of sustainable building incorporates and integrates a variety of strategies during the design. recycling. an assessment of green materials may involve an evaluation of one or more of the criteria listed below. • Lower costs associated with changing space configurations. and disposal of these building industry source materials.
recyclable and or source reduced product packaging). SALVAGED. • NATURAL. quality. or value of a product. reproductive toxicants.g. RECYCLED OR RECYCLABLE PRODUCT PACKAGING: Products enclosed in recycled content or recyclable packaging. or generally improving the appearance. REFURBISHED. components. minimizing waste (recycled. OR REMANUFACTURED: Includes saving a material from disposal and renovating. PLENTIFUL OR RENEWABLE: Materials harvested from sustainably managed sources and preferably have an independent certification (e. Tarek Saker RESOURCE EFFICIENCY Resource Efficiency can be accomplished by utilizing materials that meet the following criteria: • RECYCLED CONTENT: Products with identifiable recycled content. and systems found locally or regionally saving energy and resources in transportation to the project site.. REUSABLE OR RECYCLABLE: Select materials that can be easily dismantled and reused or recycled at the end of their useful life. LOCALLY AVAILABLE: Building materials. RESOURCE EFFICIENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS: Products manufactured with resource‐efficient processes including reducing energy consumption.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. performance. repairing. 13 of 21 . and reducing greenhouse gases. restoring. including postindustrial content with a preference for postconsumer content. or irritants as demonstrated by the manufacturer through appropriate testing. • • • • • • INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) Indoor air quality is enhanced by utilizing materials that meet the following criteria: • LOW OR NON‐TOXIC: Materials that emit few or no carcinogens. DURABLE: Materials that are longer lasting or are comparable to conventional products with long life expectancies. certified wood) and are certified by an independent third party. functionality.
SYSTEMS OR EQUIPMENT: Products that promote healthy IAQ by identifying indoor air pollutants or enhancing the air quality. • Research • Evaluation • Selection 14 of 21 . Products that also maximize resource and energy efficiency while reducing chemical emissions. or no‐VOC mechanical attachment methods and minimal hazards. WATER CONSERVATION Water Conservation can be obtained by utilizing products and systems that help reduce water consumption in buildings and conserve water in landscaped areas. AFFORDABILITY Affordability can be considered when building product life‐cycle costs are comparable to conventional materials or as a whole. components. and systems that require only simple. • • • • ENERGY EFFICIENCY Energy Efficiency can be maximized by utilizing materials. MOISTURE RESISTANT: Products and systems that resist moisture or inhibit the growth of biological contaminants in buildings. and systems that help reduce energy consumption in buildings and facilities. non‐toxic. Tarek Saker MINIMAL CHEMICAL EMISSIONS: Products that have minimal emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). components. are within a project‐ defined percentage of the overall budget.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control • Dr. The environmental assessment process for building products involves three basic steps. or low‐VOC methods of cleaning. HEALTHFULLY MAINTAINED: Materials. “THREE BASIC STEPS OF PRODUCT SELECTION” Product selection can begin after the establishment of project‐specific environmental goals. LOW‐VOC ASSEMBLY: Materials installed with minimal VOC‐producing compounds.
One tool that uses the LCA methodology is BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) software. Then it may become necessary to process both descriptive and quantitative forms of data. building industry articles. EVALUATION This step involves confirmation of the technical information. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluation of the relative "greenness" of building materials and products. product warranties. a recycled content assessment between various manufacturers of medium density fiberboard is a relatively straightforward "apples to apples" comparison. the evaluator may request product certifications from manufacturers to help sort out possible exaggerated environmental product claims. as well as filling in information gaps. recycled content data. 2. Although rather simple in principle. It allows users to balance the environmental and economic performance of building products. Tarek Saker 1. environmental statements. 15 of 21 . For example. However. government regulations. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) test data. RESEARCH This step involves gathering all technical information to be evaluated. Research helps identify the full range of the project’s building material options. building codes. and durability information. this step may involve researching other environmental issues. The software was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire Research Laboratory. and other sources of product data. LCA addresses the impacts of a product through all of its life stages. For example. Evaluation and assessment is relatively simple when comparing similar types of building materials using the environmental criteria. the evaluation process is more complex when comparing different products with the same function. source material characteristics. model green building product specifications. this approach has been difficult and expensive in actual practice (although that appears to be changing).PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. including manufacturers' information such as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). In addition.
arsenic. windows. However. To discourage insect damage. Tarek Saker 3. such as bamboo. Many harmful substances (including formaldehyde. wood from the trees which were cut to make room for the building would be re‐used as part of the building itself. rather than the building insulation materials that may contain carcinogenic or toxic materials such as formaldehyde. thus preserving the tree. The total score of each product evaluation will indicate the product with the highest environmental attributes. a common fallacy is that "green" materials are always better for the health of occupants or the environment. When new materials are employed. insulation may be made from low VOC (volatile organic compound)‐emitting materials such as recycled denim or cellulose insulation. and asbestos) are naturally occurring and are not without their histories of use with the best of intentions. This step often involves the use of an evaluation matrix for scoring the project‐specific environmental criteria. “LOWER VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS” Low‐impact building materials are used wherever feasible: for example. Thus. “RECYCLED MATERIALS” Architectural salvage and reclaimed materials are used when appropriate as well. renewed. the subject of 16 of 21 . Many other parts are reused as well. Any good dimension stone is similarly reclaimed. mantels. or cork oak. thus reducing the consumption of new goods. such as doors. Individual criteria included in the rating system can be weighted to accommodate project‐specific goals and objectives. Organic or milk‐based paints may be used. frequently any good wood is reclaimed. if a new structure is being constructed in a wooded area. these alternate insulation materials may be treated with boric acid. for example. which can be harvested for commercial use after only 6 years of growth. in which only the outer bark is removed for use. and sold as flooring. green designers look for materials that are rapidly replenished. and hardware. When possible. SELECTION.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. When older buildings are demolished. A study of emissions from materials by the State of California has shown that there are some green materials that have substantial emissions whereas some more "traditional" materials actually were lower emitters. building materials may be gleaned from the site itself.
and Environmental Engineering at the University of Miami that compared three green products and their non‐green counterparts found that even though both the green products and the non‐green counterparts both emitted levels of VOCs. the amount and intensity of the VOCs emitted from the green products were much safer and comfortable for human exposure. Green products are usually considered to contain less VOCs and be better for human and environmental health. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be found in any indoor environment coming from a variety of different sources. Architectural. they can cause additive and multiplicative effects. This is because many VOCs have been known to cause sensory irritation and central nervous system symptoms characteristic to sick building syndrome. Tarek Saker emissions must be carefully investigated before concluding that natural materials are always the healthiest alternatives for occupants and for the Earth.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. VOCs have a high vapor pressure and low water solubility and are suspected of causing sick building syndrome type symptoms. 17 of 21 . and when there are many VOCs present. indoor concentrations of VOCs are higher than in the outdoor atmosphere. A case study conducted by the Department of Civil.
It has also kind of become the cause to support in the entertainment industry. There are reports suggesting that it costs just as much to build green as a conventional building. there's a great deal of interest. operations. conserving energy. But if a building owner puts in an alternative energy system. So. Now more people and businesses opt for green buildings. and why paying more now saves money down the road. It is also becoming much more available and the costs have come down. On the commercial side. Every indication is that it is becoming the way of the future. I think that people are almost getting panicky about energy prices. and that's driving them to look at ways of creating energy efficient buildings. There's a push politically. There's a lot of technology available to homeowners that can greatly improve their environment and health. I think it’s because there's an awareness of the importance of efficiency.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. especially when the cost of doing so is not much more than purchasing products that have those harmful chemicals in them. and improving occupants' health. Tarek Saker THE VALUE OF GREEN BUILDINGS Green buildings were once the domain of visionary architects and their rich clients. When they understand the benefits of low volatile organic compounds (VOC) carpets and paint. Alternative water systems are more expensive. it's going to be more expensive. Is green construction and renovation more expensive? It's hard to get an accurate estimate of the additional costs of building green. There's a much bigger sense of urgency about energy efficiency today than before. and automobiles. as well as improving their health. green buildings offer really profound economic value. Many people are interested in doing their part for the environment. 18 of 21 . I think we'll continue to move forward on energy conservation and environmental consciousness. much of the increased cost reflects how green you want your building to be. and a lot of the building codes are now going toward green. and how much that improves their home environment. lets discuss why green construction and renovation may become standard building practice. Now in 2009.
PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. This is actually going to save money. the water comes out and turns itself off. you start thinking they are really behind the times. and it's not inherently more expensive. that when you have a manual sink." you notice when it's not green. Tarek Saker CONCLUSION My sense is that green building is going to become standard building practice. I think it’s nice when you go into restrooms in businesses and airports. I don't know if I'm typical. As long as that message goes out. I think we'll be seeing more and more green homes. it's green. "Oh. 19 of 21 . but it is interesting that I'm starting to notice companies that are not green. that instead of noticing. It has become so common that once you put your hands under the sink. We need to be careful not to saturate green because people see it as potentially increasing costs in these hard economic times.
http://www.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr.com/en/globalissues/energy_co2/energy_eﬃci ency/ 3. http://www.org/wiki/Sustainable_architecture 5. http://knowledge.allianz.doityourself.ciwmb.ca/?p=40 4. http://en.gov/ 2.com/stry/greenconstruction 20 of 21 .wikipedia. http://greenconstruction. Tarek Saker REFERENCES 1.ca.
PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. Tarek Saker NOTES 21 of 21 .
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