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MasteringPhysics Assignment 4 - Electric Flux & Gauss Law

Due: 8:00am on Friday, January 20, 2012 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Switch to Standard Assignment View]

Gauss's Law

Learning Goal: To understand the meaning of the variables in Gauss's law, and the conditions under which the law is applicable. Gauss's law is usually written

where Part A

is the permittivity of vacuum.

How should the integral in Gauss's law be evaluated? ANSWER: around the perimeter of a closed loop over the surface bounded by a closed loop over a closed surface Correct In the integral for Gauss's law, the vector represents an infinitesimal surface element. The magnitude of is

the area of the surface element. The direction of volume. Part B

is normal to the surface element, pointing out of the enclosed

In Gauss's law, to what does refer? ANSWER: the net charge inside the closed surface the charge residing on insulators inside the closed surface all the charge in the physical system any charge inside the closed surface that is arranged symmetrically Correct The major use of Gauss's law is to determine an electric field when the charge distribution, both inside and outside the Gaussian surface, is symmetric. Of course, the electric field can always be found by adding up (or integrating) the contributions of all the charge in the problem. In highly symmetric situations, however, Gauss's law is much simpler computationally than dealing with all such contributions, and it provides better physical insight, too.

Flux is the amount of a vector field that "flows" through a surface. and ± Calculating Flux for Hemispheres of Different Radii Learning Goal: To understand the definition of electric flux. implies that only the component of normal to the surface contributes to 3.3 Evaluate the scalar product Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct .1 Definition of electric flux Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Simplifying the integrand Hint not displayed Hint A. where is the flux through a surface with differential is the electric field in which the surface lies. makes an angle with the electric field. involving the electric field at the surface.Calculating Electric Flux through a Disk Suppose a disk with area is placed in a uniform electric field of magnitude . Part A What is the electric flux through the surface of the disk that is facing right (the normal vector to this surface is shown in the figure)? Assume that the presence of the disk does not interfere with the electric field. The disk is oriented so that the vector normal to its surface. 2. and how to calculate it. . It is an integral over a surface. We now discuss the electric flux through a surface (a quantity needed in Gauss's law): area element . There are several important points to consider 1. The scalar (dot) product . Hint A. and in this expression: . . as shown in the figure. is a vector with magnitude equal to the area of an infinitesmal surface element and pointing in a direction normal (and usually outward) to the infinitesmal surface element.

and any constants. are centered at a point charge and are facing due to the point each other so that their edges define an annular ring (surface 3). . try to pick a surface that is either parallel or perpendicular to easy to compute. .2 Find the area of surface 1 Hint not displayed Express in terms of ANSWER: = . What is the electric flux through the annular ring. The field at position charge is: where is a constant proportional to the charge. as shown. Part A . That is. . and any needed constants. . so that the dot product is When you compute flux. of respective radii and . Two hemispherical surfaces.1 Apply the definition of electric flux Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: 0 = Correct Part B What is the electric flux through surface 1? Hint B. . 1 and 2.1 Apply the definition of electric flux Hint not displayed Hint B. where is the angle between and . and is the unit vector in the radial direction. surface 3? Hint A.the integral. . . .

470 ? ANSWER: 0 = Correct Part B What is the total electric flux due to these two point charges through a spherical surface centered at the origin and with radius = 1. ANSWER: = Correct . Exercise 22.2 Find the area of surface 2 Hint not displayed Express in terms of .85 . A good rule of thumb is that the flux through a surface is proportional to the number of field lines that pass through the surface. and any constants or other known quantities. despite the fact that surface 2 has a larger area. .10 A point charge = 3.25 . This is because of the inverse square. this means that there is the same number of field lines passing through both surfaces. Observe that the electric flux through surface 1 is the same as that through surface 2. .40 ? ANSWER: -226 = Correct Flux out of a Cube A point charge of magnitude is at the center of a cube with sides of length Part A . . Part A is located on the x-axis at = 1.75 is on What is the total electric flux due to these two point charges through a spherical surface centered at the origin and with radius = 0.75 the y-axis at = 1. behavior of the electric field surrounding a point particle.70 ? ANSWER: -650 = Correct Part C What is the total electric flux due to these two point charges through a spherical surface centered at the origin and with radius = 2.Correct Part C What is the electric flux passing outward through surface 2? Hint C. If you think in terms of field lines.1 Apply the definition of electric flux Hint not displayed Hint C. and a second point charge = -5.

2 Calculate the total electric flux Hint not displayed Hint A. The electric field in and around the cube . ANSWER: = Correct Just as the shape of the surface does not affect the total electric flux coming out of that surface. Part B What would be the flux through a face of the cube if its sides were of length Hint B. The only relevant quantity is the total enclosed charge. The sides of the cube are parallel to the coordinate planes. Note the similarity of the next problem with Discussion problem 22. . ANSWER: = Correct The shape of the surface enclosing a charge.What is the electric flux through each of the six faces of the cube? Hint A. in this case a cube. does not affect the total electric flux through the surface.34 ? Flux through a Cube A cube has one corner at the origin and the opposite corner at the point is given by .1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A. The flux depends only on the total enclosed charge. its size does not make any difference in the total electric flux either.3 Flux through a face Hint not displayed Use for the permittivity of free space.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Use for the permittivity of free space.

and .2 Flux through the Hint A. . if we were to set electric field becomes . face Hint not displayed face Hint not displayed face Hint not displayed face Hint not displayed Correct Part C What is the net charge inside the cube? Hint C. so that the . and ANSWER: = Correct Part B Notice that the flux through the cube does not depend on or . . .5 Flux through the Hint A. Both of the above statements are true.1 Definition of flux Hint not displayed Hint A. . ANSWER: = . Why? ANSWER: does not generate any flux across any of the surfaces.3 Flux through the Hint A. Equivalently.Part A Find the total electric flux through the surface of the cube. Hint A. . then the flux through the cube would be zero. The flux into one side of the cube is exactly canceled by the flux out of the opposite side.4 Flux through the Hint A. .1 Gauss's law Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of .6 Putting it together Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of .

5. ANSWER: = 5.00 from the left face of the left-hand sheet? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.25 from the inner surface of the right-hand sheet? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. These . upwards. and . nonconducting plastic sheets. = 3. 1. carry uniform charge densities and on their surfaces.00 . Correct Part C What is the magnitude of the electric field at point .00 from the left face of the left-hand sheet? . 5. Part A What is the magnitude of the electric field at point . downwards.59×105 Correct Part D . Use Gauss's law to find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the following points. ANSWER: = 3.32 Two very large. to the right.Correct Exercise 22. each 10. . as shown in the following figure surface charge densities have the values = -7.90 .0 thick. far from the edges of these sheets.33×105 Correct Part B What is the direction of the electric field at point ANSWER: to the left.

ANSWER: = 1. to the right. The total charge on the shell is .46 A conducting spherical shell with inner radius and outer radius has a positive point charge center.40 .28 A conductor with an inner cavity.20 Part A How much charge is on the inner surface of the conductor? ANSWER: 8. upwards. Correct . like that shown in Fig.What is the direction of the electric field atpoint ANSWER: to the left. The charge within the cavity.20 = Correct Part B How much charge is on the outer surface of the conductor? ANSWER: -2.23c from the textbook. carries a total charge of +5. is -8. in the middle of the right-hand sheet? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. 1. Correct Part E . insulated from the conductor. downwards.19×105 Correct Part F What is the direction of the electric field at point ANSWER: to the left.80 = Correct . in the middle of the right-hand sheet? Exercise 22. upwards. downwards.22. and it is insulated from its surroundings located at its . How much charge is on Problem 22.25 from the inner surface of the right-hand sheet? What is the magnitude of the electric field at point . to the right.

and appropriate constants. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables ANSWER: = Correct Part B Derive the expression for the electric field magnitude in terms of the distance from the center for the region . . and appropriate constants. and appropriate constants. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables ANSWER: 0 = Correct Part C Derive the expression for the electric field magnitude in terms of the distance from the center for the region . . and appropriate constants. . . . . and appropriate constants. . . . Part A Derive the expression for the electric field magnitude in terms of the distance from the center for the region . . . Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables ANSWER: = Correct Part D What is the surface charge density on the inner surface of the conducting shell? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables ANSWER: = Correct Part E What is the surface charge density on the outer surface of the conducting shell? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables . .. . . .

ANSWER: = Correct .

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