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I have been approached by lot of people to teach them system design for the HVAC&R product development and I thought it fit for them to start from basics as without solid foundation there can be no building.So I thought of compiling the basic formulae first and then go for the system design aspects.It has taken me considerable time to compile these formulae. I would like to thank Ms. Ashima Saxena for helping me in editing the list of the compilation.

Thermodynamic Design Formulae Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 EQUATION F=ma P= F /A ρ=m/V W=Fd PE = m g H KE = ½ m V2 Q = m Cp( t2 - t1 ) Q = m ( h2 - h1 ) W - Q = dE Cpa = 1.005 kJ/kgK Cpw = 4.193 kJ/kgK Cpv = 1.884 kJ/kgK Q = - k A dt/dx Q = hc A ( ts - tf ) Q=σ A Fε FA (t1⁴-t2⁴) Re = ρ V Dh / µ Pr = µ Cp / k Nu = hc D / k Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.4 Moist Air Phase Formulae P = Pa + Pv Dalton's Law of partial pressure FORMULAE Newton's law of motion Pressure Density Work Potential energy Kinetic energy Sensible heat Total heat 1st law of thermodynamics Heat capacity of dry air Heat capacity of water Heat capacity of water vapor Conduction Convection Radiation Reynolds number Prandtl number Nusselt number Dittus-Boelter

Heat Transfer Formulae

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Pv = R T Ra = 0.1.t1 ) Cpm = 1.6105 exp [ 17.w hd = hc / Cpm Room Heat Formulae Q = Uo Ao ( to .27 t / (237.wb )/ ( 2800 .622 Pv / (P .2.27 / Ψ .adp ) Qs = h A (db .W) hfg.6 + 1.4615 kJ/kgK W = 0.85 db 0.023 wb] hfg = 2501.023 kJ/kgK Qt = ma (h2 .9 .h1 ) SHR = Qs / Qt b = ( db0 .1.6105) f = Pv / Ps Pv = Psw .ti ) r = ro + Σ t/K + ri Qsg = SHGF SC A CLF Q = U A CLTD Perfect gas law Gas constant of dry air Gas constant of water vapor Humidity Vapor pressure from humidity True density of moist air Magnus saturation pressure Dew point temperature using the Magnus equation Relative humidity Carrier vapor pressure Enthalpy Latent heat of water vapor Mass flow of dry air Sensible duty at typical air-conditioning conditions Total duty Sensible heat ratio Bypass factor Sensible heat at wet wick Latent heat at wet wick Mass transfer coefficient Heat conduction through a wall Wall resistance Solar heat gain Air Psychometric Formulae Cooling load temperature difference method Cold Room Formulae .3 wb ) H = 1.622/W] r = (1+W) / v Ps = 0.287 kJ/kgK Rv = 0.w .wb) Ql = hd A (Ws.adp ) / ( dbi .3+t) ] t = 237.1] where Ψ = ln (Ps / 0.005 db + W [ 2500.3 / [17.Pv) Pv = P / [1+0.4189 t ma = ρ Qa Qs = ma Cpm ( t2 .8( P.Psw )( db .

Ntu (1.165 sin 2B .45 sin ( 360 (284+n) / 365) LST = CT + (Lstd .hi ) dQ = hr dAi ( ti .0.Lloc)/15 + E + DT E = 0.sin d cos l) / cos β cos θ = cos β cos λ sin Σ + sin β cos Σ IDN = A e -B / sin β IdH = C IDN ID = IDN cos θ dQ = hd dA ( ha .dto) / Ln( dti / dto ) Q = e Qmax e = (1 .ti ) Q = U A lmtd Lmtd = (dti .Cr)) / (1 .tr ) dQs = hc dA ( ta .46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 Qpulldown = m C dT Qlatent = m ∆W λ Qrespiration = m R Solar Angle Formulae d = 23.025 sin B B = 360 (n.81) / 364 h = 15 (LST .126 c os B .exp(.12) sin β = cos l c osh cos d + sin l sin d cos φ = (cos d sin l cos h .0.Cr exp(Ntu (1-Cr)) Cr = Cmin / Cmax Ntu = U A / Cmin Solar Radiation Formulae Pull down load Latent load Heat of respiration Solar Declination Local Solar Time Equation of Time Parameter in E Hour angle Altitude angle Solar Azimuth Angle to surface normal Direct Normal Solar Flux Diffuse Horizontal Solar Flux Direct Solar Flux on Surface Heat flow on the c oil air side Heat flow on the c oil fluid side Air sensible heat Duty from UA LMTD method Log mean temperature difference Effectiveness method Counter-flow effectiveness Capacity ratio Number of transfer units Coil Calculation Formulae 69 Steam Formulae Latent heat of vaporization at 2 bar λ = 2164 kJ/kgK gauge pressure .

70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 81 82 83 84 Law 1 Law 2 Law 3 λ = 333.3 (ab)0.6 kJ/kg dPfriction = ½ ρ ƒ L V2 / Dh 1/√ƒ = -2 Log [ ε / (3.25 dP = ½ ρ V2 [ (A1/A2)2 .4 ( 1 .625 / (a+b)0.51 / (Re √ƒ) ] Dh = 4 A / P P + ½ ρ V2 + ρ g H = constant P1 + ½ ρ V2 + r g H1 = P1 + ½ ρ V2 + ρ g H1 + Ploss dP = ½ ρ Vd2 [ 0.1 ] dP = ½ ρ V2 [ 1 .Vd/Vu)2 ] Def = 1.7 Dh) + 2.(A1/A2) ]2 Re ≈ 67 V Dh ρ = const ω = c onst ω ~ 1/√ρ Q~ω Q = const Q ~ 1/√ρ Latent heat of freezing D'Arcy Weisbach friction equation Colebrook friction factor Hydraulic diameter Bernoulli equation Modified Bernoulli Branch straight through dp Effective diameter of rectangular duct dP for ideal flow through a nozzle dP for sudden enlargement standard air with V (m/s) and Dh (mm) Fan Laws SP ~ ω2 SP ~ ρ SP = const Pw ~ ω3 Pw ~ ρ Fluid Flow in Pipes Formulae Duct Design Calculation Formulae Pw ~ 1/√ρ .

HVAC System Design Eqaution

HVAC System Design Eqaution

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