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Articles
Critical reading Critical pedagogy Pedagogy of the Oppressed Paulo Freire John Dewey Joe L. Kincheloe Shirley R. Steinberg Anti-oppressive education Anti-bias curriculum Anti-racism in mathematics teaching Multicultural education Curriculum studies Teaching for social justice Inclusion (education) Humanitarian education Student-centred learning Critical literacy Critical consciousness Praxis (process) Hidden curriculum Consciousness raising Poisonous pedagogy Reconstructivism Critical theory Political consciousness Mikhail Bakhtin Book review Hermeneutics Thomas Kuhn Cyril Burt Critical thinking Information literacy Exegesis 1 3 7 10 17 31 36 40 41 43 46 52 54 59 68 69 74 79 82 84 87 90 93 94 99 101 112 114 126 130 137 145 160

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Critical reading

1

Critical reading
Critical reading is a form of skepticism that does not take a text at face value, but involves an examination of claims put forward in the text as well as implicit bias in the text's framing and selection of the information presented. The ability to read critically is an ability assumed to be present in scholars and to be learned in academic institutions.
"...a story has as many versions as it has readers. Everyone takes what he wants or can from it and thus changes it to his measure. Some pick out parts and reject the rest, some strain the story through their mesh of prejudice, some paint it with their own delight. " John Steinbeck, The Winter of our Discontent

Levels of understanding
Understanding of • • • • Single words Single sentences (grammar) Text Compositions, rhetorics and genres Ideological influences

There are no simple relations between these levels. As the "hermeneutic circle" demonstrates, the understanding of single words depends on the understanding of the text as a whole (as well as the culture in which the text is produced) and vice versa: You cannot understand a text if you do not understand the words in the text. The critical reading of a given text thus implies a critical examination of the concepts used as well as of the soundness of the arguments and the value and relevance of the assumptions and the traditions on which the text is based. "Reading between the lines" is the ability to uncover implicit messages and bias.

Symptomatic reading
Thurston (1993, p. 638) introduces the concept of "symptomatic reading": "Symptomatic reading is used in literary criticism as a means of analysing the presence of ideology in literary texts. French Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser develops the technique of symptomatic reading in Reading Capital"

The reciprocal nature of reading and writing
When you read, you have to seek information, and you are confronted with different views, which forces you to consider your own position. In this process, the reader is converted to a "writer", whether or not he writes or publishes his own ideas. Reading and writing are thus reciprocal processes, reading is an active process, and the best way to learn critical reading is probably by training academic writing. Bazerman (1994) writes about the active role of the reader, and remarks (p. 23): "The cure for real boredom is to find a more advanced book on the subject; the only cure for pseudo-boredom is to become fully and personally involved in the book already in front of you". Bazerman's book is informed by an advanced theoretical knowledge of scholarly research, documents and their composition. For example, chapter 6 is about "Recognizing the many voices in a text". The practical advises given are based on textual theory (Mikhail Bakhtin and Julia Kristeva). Chapter 8 is titled "Evaluating the book as a whole: The book review", and the first heading is "books as tools".

Ed. & Duffy. J. Shortly after he died. The Reading of Theoretical Texts. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Human knowledge is always an interpretative clarification of the world. approaches and definitions. The Problem of Information Naïveté. Literature • Althusser. In this way hermeneutics challenge the positivist view that science can cumulate objective facts. which can be seen as an hermeneutic interpretation of the sciences because it conceives the scientists as governed by assumptions which are historically embedded and linguistically mediated activities organized around paradigms that direct the conceptualization and investigation of their studies. G. According to Mallery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Vol. P. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. The Informed Writer: Using Sources in the Disciplines. This field was until recently associated with the humanities. which have formed our beliefs and thinking. Thought & Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking. 4th ed. 1-2.. Shapiro (Vol 1.F. not a pure. 59(7). Houghton Mifflin Company. Hermeneutics may thus be understood as a theory about critical reading. Tucker's paper (1994) is illuminative on both how "critical reading" was performed in the discovery of the falsified data as well as in many famous psychologists "non-critical reading" of Burt's papers. pp. 1124–1127. R. (1992). by S. • Bazerman. By conclusion is critical reading not just something that any scholar is able to do. Reading Capital. • Brody.g. London: Routledge. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Hurwitz. A Critique of Criticism in the Social Sciences. 596-611). T. C. interest-free theory. 5 edition. Translated by Ben Brewster. This paper thus demonstrates how critical reading (and the opposite) may be related to beliefs as well as to interests and power structures. Hurwitz & Duffy (1992) the notion of a paradigm-centered scientific community is analogous to Gadamer's notion of a linguistically encoded social tradition. the version developed by Hans-Georg Gadamer) has demonstrated that the way we read and interpret texts is dependent on our "pre-understanding" and "prejudices". Generally we read papers within our own culture or tradition less critically compared to our reading of papers from other traditions or "paradigms". Scientific revolutions imply that one paradigm replaces another and introduces a new set of theories. This situation changed when Thomas Samuel Kuhn published his book (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Louis & Balibar. .C. Interpretation and overinterpretation. (2003). S. D.. Roberta (2008). IL: University of Chicago Press. Hermeneutics (e. Tucker shows that the recognized experts within the field of intelligence research blindly accepted Cyril Burt's research even though it was without scientific value and probably directly faked: They wanted to believe that IQ is hereditary and considered uncritically empirical claims supporting this view. London: New Left Books. Mahwah. NJ. not with science. • Eco. 2nd ed. • Halpern. • Mallery. Etienne (1970). Observations are always made on the background of theoretical assumptions: they are theory dependent. Chicago. • Kuhn. his studied of inheritance and intelligence came into disrepute after evidence emerged indicating he had falsified research data. IN: Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence. • Ekegren.. A famous example The psychologist Cyril Burt is known for his studies on the effect of heredity on intelligence. (1999).Critical reading 2 Epistemological issues Basically critical reading is related to epistemological issues. Hermeneutics. (Routledge Studies in Social and Political Thought. Umberto (1992). Charles (1994). (1962. 19). 1970). The way we read is partly determined by the intellectual traditions.

"[1] Based in Marxist theory.Critical reading • Riegelman. 638). R. "learning". and connect knowledge to power and the ability to take constructive action. N. recognize authoritarian tendencies. . or discourse. "reflection". John (1993). CA: Sage Publications. critical pedagogy draws on radical democracy. Makaryk. PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. experience. object. What's behind the research? Discovering hidden assumptions in the behavioral sciences. in particular students whom they believe have been historically and continue to be disenfranchised by what they call "traditional schooling". Toronto: University of Toronto Press. anarchism. IN: Encyclopedia of contemporary literary theory: Approaches. (1994)." thus highlighting the contestable and antagonistic moral and political grounds of the ideals of citizenship and "public wisdom". Critical pedagogue Ira Shor defines critical pedagogy as: "Habits of thought. Facts and fiction in the discovery of Sir Cyril Burt's flaws. & Williams. Ed. (2004). first impressions. 335-347. CRITICAL READING: A GUIDE [1] • What Is Critical Reading? [2] References [1] http:/ / www. and speaking which go beneath surface meaning. root causes. text. writing. and personal consequences of any action. event. subject matter. dominant myths. and other movements that strive for what they describe as social justice. and the impact that these actions have on the students. Richard K. 129) Critical pedagogy includes relationships between teaching and learning. and "relearning". brocku. reading. despite the "opaque prose" and lofty claims of Giroux. criticalreading. to understand the deep meaning. htm Critical pedagogy Critical pedagogy is a philosophy of education described by Henry Giroux as an "educational movement. these varying moral perspectives of what is "right" are to be found in what John Dewey [3] has referred to as the tensions between traditional and progressive education." (Empowering Education. official pronouncements. com/ critical_reading. Brent D. Symptomatic reading. policy. (P. and mere opinions. organization. feminism. received wisdom. • Slife. mass media. guided by passion and principle. by Irena R. Philadelphia. terms. • Thurston. 3 External links • Lye. Its proponents claim that it is a continuous process of what they call "unlearning". "evaluation". ("A Consumers Guide to the Behavioral Sciences"). scholars. he interprets the goal of Giroux's form of critical pedagogy "to create political radicals. traditional clichés. php [2] http:/ / www. Thousand Oaks. social context. Philosopher John Searle[2] suggests that. ideology. William H. John (1997). ca/ english/ jlye/ criticalreading. to help students develop consciousness of freedom. 30. Studying a Study and Testing a Test: How to Read the Medical Evidence. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. process. 5th ed. • Tucker. (1995).

"[4] Postmodern. J. and the rich at the expense of everyone else. reflection. application. that students should be equally receptive to alternative ways of knowing. Many contemporary critical pedagogues have embraced postmodern. feminist. and Profound Benefits in Ed Denzin. the mass media. males. philosopher Stephen Hicks[6] describes the motives and practical application of "postmodern education" In education. Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies><Four Arrows (2011) Differing Worldviews: Two Scholars Argue Cooperatively about Justice Education (Sense)> Writing from outside the critical pedagogy camp. and the rich. S. Social transformation is the product of praxis at the collective level. According to his writings. aka Don Trent Jacobs. arguably the most celebrated critical educator. and of power. anti-essentialist perspectives of the individual. institutions. postmodernism rejects the notion that the purpose of education is primarily to train a child’s cognitive capacity for reason in order to produce an adult capable of functioning independently in the world. Four Arrows. challenges the anthropocentrism of critical pedagogy and writes that to achieve its transformative goals there are other differences between Western and Indigenous worldview that must be considered. and class identity. Kincheloe and Shirley R. Kincheloe and Steinberg also embrace Indigenous knowledges in education as a way to expand critical pedagogy and to question educational hegemony.[5] In line with Kincheloe and Steinberg's contributions to critical pedagogy. and queer theories all play a role in further explaining Freire’s ideas of critical pedagogy. it should focus on the achievements of non-whites. and so the language to be used is that which will create a human being sensitive to its racial. males. sexual. nationality. and it should teach students that science’s method has no better claim to yielding truth than any other method and. discuss in their criticisms the influence of many varied concerns. females. Steinberg have created the Paulo and Nita Freire Project for International Critical Pedagogy at McGill University. and the poor. accordingly. (2008)Indigenous Knowledges in Education: Complexities. such as bell hooks and Peter McLaren. <Kincheloe." which is defined as the power and know-how to take action against oppression while stressing the importance of liberating education. and social change. Postmodern education should emphasize works not in the canon. anti-racist. it should highlight the historical crimes of whites. postcolonial."[4] Realizing one’s consciousness ("conscientization") is a needed first step of "praxis. Education’s method of molding is linguistic. of language. the project attempts to move the field to the next phase of its evolution. educational practice must be recast totally. That oppression in turn leads to an educational system that reflects only or primarily the interests of those in positions of power. N. military identification. Our current social context. ethnicity. To counteract that bias. . sexuality. evaluation. In this second phase critical pedagogy seeks to truly become a worldwide. In agreement with this perspective. and age. That view of education is replaced with the view that education is to take an essentially indeterminate being and give it a social identity. & Steinberg. Dangers. and social structures. and race/spiritual relations. shifting its main focus on social class to include issues pertaining to religion.Critical pedagogy 4 Background Critical pedagogy was heavily influenced by the works of Paulo Freire. "Praxis involves engaging in a cycle of theory." while citing reasons for resisting the possibilities to change. disrupting oppressive regimes of power/knowledge. this way of thinking allows them to "recognize connections between their individual problems and experiences and the social contexts in which they are embedded. "while at the same time retaining the Freirean emphasis on critique. Freire heavily endorses students’ ability to think critically about their education situation."[4] Contemporary critical educators. however. "including globalization. is characterized by oppression that benefits whites.[4] Joe L. and then back to theory. gender. decolonizing movement dedicated to listening to and learning from diverse discourses from peoples around the planet. race.

Ira Shor. Furthermore. feminism. His initial focus targeted adult literacy projects in Brazil and later was adapted to deal with a wide range of social and educational issues. Ira Shor.[7] Any analysis of critical pedagogy must begin with an examination of the work of Paulo Freire who is generally considered to be “the inaugural philosopher of critical pedagogy. the same tradition is now regarded as oppressive. Gloria Ladson Billings. Other critical pedagogues known more for their anti-schooling. Henry Giroux. provides for an example of how critical pedagogy is used in the classroom. The efforts of such teachers are credited with having bolstered student resistance and activism. anti-discriminatory way. Shor suggests that students undergo . In doing so. Examples in the classroom As mentioned briefly in the background information. bell hooks.[9] Literature Authors of critical pedagogy texts include not only Paulo Freire. Freire’s praxis required implementation of a range of educational practices and processes with the goal of creating not only a better learning environment. Sandy Grande and others. or deschooling perspectives include Ivan Illich.[11] who is greatly influenced by Freire. Antonio Gramsci and Michel Foucault. Searle[10] argues that critical pedagogy's objections to the Western canon are misplaced and/or disingenuous: Precisely by inculcating a critical attitude." Freire seldom used the term "critical pedagogy" himself when describing this philosophy. Joe L. Educationalists including Jonathan Kozol and Parker Palmer are sometimes included in this category. and democratic ideologies. legal racialization implemented by the regime drove members of the radical leftist Teachers' League of South Africa to employ critical pedagogy with a focus on nonracialism in Cape Town schools and prisons. Wilhelm Reich. Howard Zinn. bell hooks. points out the importance of engaged pedagogy and the responsibity that teachers as well as students must have in the classroom: Teachers must be aware of themselves as practitioners and as human beings if they wish to teach students in a non-threatening. The Rouge Forum is an online organization led by people involved with critical pedagogy. Peter McLaren. Teachers collaborated loosely to subvert the racist curriculum and encourage critical examination of religious. Kincheloe. Radical Teacher is a magazine dedicated to critical pedagogy and issues of interest to critical educators. postcolonialism. Freire’s pedagogy revolved around an anti-authoritarian and interactive approach aimed to examine issues of relational power for students and workers. Marxism. The texts once served an unmasking function. and the discourse theories of Edward Said. Shor suggests that the whole curriculum of the classroom must be re-examined and reconstructed. Donaldo Macedo. and Matt Hern. but also Michael Apple. unschooling. a professor at the City University of New York. as mentioned above. John Holt. Shor develops these themes in looking at the use of Freirean teaching methods in the context of everyday life of classrooms. Ironically. Much of the work draws on anarchism. He favors a change of role of the student from object to active. humanist.[8] The center of the curriculum used the fundamental goal based on social and political critiques of everyday life. György Lukács. Self-actualisation should be the goal of the teacher as well as the students. and social circumstances in terms of spirit-friendly. now we are told that it is the texts which must be unmasked. in particular. political. but also a better world.Critical pedagogy 5 Examples History During South African apartheid. military. institutional settings. Freire himself maintained that this was not merely an educational technique but a way of living in our educative practice. Antonia Darder. the "canon" served to demythologize the conventional pieties of the American bourgeoisie and provided the student with a perspective from which to critically analyze American culture and institutions. critical subject. John Taylor Gatto.

1990 [11] http:/ / www. Students need to be helped by teachers to separate themselves from unconditional acceptance of the conditions of their own existence and once this separation is achieved. & R. (1998). Dewey. one of the potential outcomes is that the students themselves assume more responsibility for the class. Searle. vol. Power is thus distributed amongst the group and the role of the teacher becomes much more mobile. New York: Peter Lang.Critical pedagogy a struggle for ownership of themselves. (October 27. Pedagogy of Freedom: Ethics. Steiner. History of Schools and Schooling Series. htm) The Freire International Project for Critical Pedagogy (http:/ / freire. Critical Pedagogy on the Web (http:/ / mingo. 18-19. Alan (2003). 1990. Freirean Pedagogy. org/ thinkers/ hooks. and Civic Courage (Clarke. Tempe. Of course achieving such a goal isn't automatic nor easy. Bahruth (Eds. [9] Freire.). Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. . In S.. (1990) The Storm Over the University. Boston. P. not to mention more challenging. pp. Shor states that students have previously been lulled into a sense of complacency by the circumstances of everyday life and through the processes of the classroom. Massachusetts: South End Press. they can begin to envision and strive for something different for themselves. then students may be prepared for critical re-entry into an examination of everyday life. Trans. I. H. htm [12] Shor. [7] Wieder. December 6. John. P. ISBN 0-8204-6768-5. P. Democracy. ca/ ) [6] Hicks. Voices from Cape Town Classrooms: Oral Histories of Teachers Who Fought Apartheid. education. as Shor suggests that the role of the teacher is critical to this process. 2010) "Lessons From Paulo Freire". infed. 39. ISBN 1-59247-646-5. Experience and Education. (1938). AZ: Scholargy Press. The New York Review of Books. edu/ ~stevens/ critped/ page1. H. info-science. McLaren. (2004) Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault. P. mcgill. In a classroom environment that achieves such liberating intent. John. uiowa.). Krank. Retrieved 10/20/10. 1-22). (2000).C. Chronicle of Higher Education. (1980). New York & London: Falmer Press. [10] Searle. Praxis and Possibilities: Projects for the New Millennium (pp.”[12] 6 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Giroux. [8] McLaren. Stephen R. Critical Teaching and Everyday Life. Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of Possibility. This encourages growth of each student’s intellectual character rather than a mere “mimicry of the professorial style.

In the book Freire calls traditional pedagogy the "banking model" because it treats the student as an empty vessel to be filled with knowledge. Freedom is not an ideal located outside of man.[1] The book is considered one of the foundational texts of critical pedagogy. According to Freire. not by gift.Pedagogy of the Oppressed 7 Pedagogy of the Oppressed Pedagogy of the Oppressed Author(s) Original title Language Publication date Paulo Freire Pedagogia do Oprimido Portuguese 1968 Published in English 1970 Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Portuguese: Pedagogia do Oprimido). and four chapters. However. Freire admits that the powerless in society can be frightened of freedom. . objected to its use in classrooms. Instead. and was translated and published in English in 1970. The second chapter examines the "banking" approach to education — a metaphor used by Freire that suggests students are considered empty bank accounts that should remain open to deposits made by the teacher. he argues for pedagogy to treat the learner as a co-creator of knowledge. It must be pursued constantly and responsibly. a term first coined by Freire in this book.[4] Summary Translated into several languages.[2] Arizona's former Superintendent of Public Instruction. he argues the banking approach stimulates oppressive attitudes and practices in society.000 copies worldwide. and society. proposes a pedagogy with a new relationship between teacher. a preface. According to Donaldo Macedo. this "authentic" approach to education must allow people to be aware of their incompleteness and strive to be more fully human. most editions of Pedagogy of the Oppressed contain at least one introduction/foreword. a former colleague of Freire and University of Massachusetts Amherst professor. Pedagogy of the Oppressed is a revolutionary text. and people in totalitarian states risk punishment reading it. written by educator Paulo Freire. nor is it an idea which becomes myth.[3] The book has sold over 750. It is rather the indispensable condition for the quest for human completion". He writes. like a piggybank. Freire rejects the "banking" approach. (47) According to Freire. This attempt to use education as a means of consciously shaping the person and the society is called conscientization. Dedicated to what is called "the oppressed" and based on his own experience helping Brazilian adults to read and write. Tom Horne. student. The first chapter explores how oppression has been justified and how it is overcome through a mutual process between the "oppressor" and the "oppressed" (oppressors–oppressed distinction). In addition. claiming it results in the dehumanization of both the students and the teachers. Freire advocates for a more world-mediated. Freire includes a detailed Marxist class analysis in his exploration of the relationship between what he calls "the colonizer" and "the colonized". "Freedom is acquired by conquest. freedom will be the result of praxis — informed action — when a balance between theory and practice is achieved. mutual approach to education that considers people incomplete. Examining how the balance of power between the colonizer and the colonized remains relatively stable. It was first published in Portuguese in 1968.

One of Freire's dictums is that: "there neither is. This is in line with the Alvaro Viera Pinto's use of the word/idea in his "Consciencia Realidad Nacional" which Freire contends is "using the concept without the pessimistic character originally found in Jaspers" (Note 15. unity. see also (http:/ / willmedia. com/ books?id=xfFXFD414ioC& printsec=frontcover& dq=pedagogy+ of+ the+ oppressed& hl=fi& ei=iMVbTInnCtvNjAfk84jyAw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false) [5] Stern. org/ html/ 16_3_ed_school. or Maria Montessori) and contains virtually none of the information typically found in traditional teacher education (e. Freire rejects traditional education as "official knowledge" that intends to oppress. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. ad-hoc copies of Pedagogy of the Oppressed were distributed underground as part of the "ideological weaponry" of various revolutionary groups like the Black Consciousness Movement. Sol. pedagogyoftheoppressed. In the 1970s and 1980s the book was banned and kept clandestine. Freire suggests that populist dialogue is a necessity to revolution.[5] Influences The work was strongly influenced by Frantz Fanon and Karl Marx. html). Chapter 3) in reference to Karl Jaspers's notion of 'Grenzsituationen'.Pedagogy of the Oppressed The third chapter developed the use of the term limit situation with regards to dimensions of human praxis. City Journal.g. Others include the student-teacher dichotomy and the colonizer-colonized dichotomy. [7] Archie Dick (2010) "Librarians and Readers in the South African Anti-Apartheid Struggle". (http:/ / books. manipulation.g. or age-appropriate learning).16 http:/ / www. organization and cultural synthesis (overcoming problems in society to liberate human beings).[7] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. This is in contrast to antidialogics which use conquest. "'The Ed Schools' Latest—and Worst—Humbug" (http:/ / www. Spring 2009. to use a pedagogy that. found that Pedagogy of the Oppressed was one of the most frequently assigned texts in their philosophy of education courses. To the contrary. 14 of them among the top in the country. 3. Sol Stern[5] notes that Pedagogy of the Oppressed ignores the traditional touchstones of Western education (e. intangible ideas. com/ 2011/ 01/ 17/ opinion/ 17mon2. testing. "does not conceal — in fact. Sol. "Pedagogy of the Oppressor" (http:/ / www. and the concept of divide and rule. in Freire's words. nor has ever been. city-journal. which proclaims — its own political character". City Journal. p. no. html). city-journal. will. In his article for the conservative-leaning City Journal. Such course assignments are a large part of the reason the book has sold almost 1 million copies. Vol. 2 [6] Stern. "leftist math teachers who care about the oppressed have a right. This is but one example of the dichotomies Freire identifies in the book. edu/ ramgen/ CAS/ cas2007-01-30. org/ 2009/ 19_2_freirian-pedagogy. uiuc.. 8 Spread Since the publication of the English edition in 1970. google. through the use of cooperation. rv) . an educational practice in zero space-time—neutral in the sense of being committed only to preponderantly abstract." According to later critics. John Dewey. com/ about/ Freire 2006. August 19. p. 9. The last chapter proposes dialogics as an instrument to free the colonized. cultural invasion. 2010. Pedagogy of the Oppressed has achieved "near-iconic status" in America's teacher-training programs. that impeding dialogue dehumanizes and supports the status quo. Rousseau. no discussion of curriculum. 16. A 2003 study looking at the curricula of 16 schools of education. Vol. which is a remarkable number for a book in the education field.. html?emc=eta1 Publisher's Foreword in Freire. heirs to Freire's ideas have taken it to mean that since all education is political. according to Sol Stern. public lecture given in Tampere Main Library.[6] During the South African anti-apartheid struggle. nytimes. No. New York: Continuum. indeed a duty. Spring 2006. Paulo (2000). 19.

au/subject/education/freire/pedagogy/ index. 30th Anniversary ed. • Freire. Paulo. . Pedagogy of the Oppressed. The Frozen Dialectics of Paulo Freire (http://www.com/~rougeforum/freirecriticaledu.htm) • A detailed chapter by chapter summary (http://www.Pedagogy of the Oppressed 9 Bibliography • Freire. Paulo. in NeoLiberalism and Education Reform. Issues in Freirean pedagogy • • • • • • • • Conscientization Critical consciousness Critical pedagogy Popular education Teaching for social justice Adult literacy Adult education Praxis External links • Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire (http://marxists. New York: Continuum.anu. Hampton Press. 2006. 2006.com/en/node/27123).edu. htm).comminit. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum.pipeline. 2007. • Rich Gibson.

from whom he learned a great deal. Freire became familiar with poverty and hunger during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Steinberg. Mao Zedong. 1997) was a Brazilian educator. Ph. 2002) . Antonia Darder. In school. James D. These experiences would shape his concerns for the poor and would help to construct his particular educational viewpoint.D (pron. Brazil.: /ˈfrɛəri/. Portuguese: [ˈpawlu ˈfɾeiɾi]. Henry Giroux. Louis Althusser.[1][2][3] Biography Freire was born September 19. Herbert Marcuse.[4] Eventually his family's misfortunes turned around and their prospects improved. In 1931. 1921 to a middle class family in Recife. Experience showed me once again the relationship between social class and knowledge" (Freire as quoted in Stevens. September 19.Paulo Freire 10 Paulo Freire Paulo Freire Born September 19. 1921 Recife. Freire stated that poverty and hunger severely affected his ability to learn. philosopher. Kirylo Died Nationality Occupation Known for Influenced by Influenced Paulo Reglus Neves Freire. . Augusto Boal. Karl Marx. which is considered one of the foundation texts of the critical pedagogy movement. Antonio Gramsci. Ivan Illich. the family moved to the less expensive city of Jaboatão dos Guararapes. Erich Fromm. and his social life revolved around playing pick up football with other poor children. Kincheloe. São Paulo. Emmanuel Mounier Peter McLaren. He is best known for his influential work. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Brazil May 2. I wasn't dumb. This influenced his decision to dedicate his life to improving the lives of the poor: “I didn't understand anything because of my hunger. he ended up four grades behind. author Theories of education Jean-Paul Sartre. It wasn't lack of interest. Frantz Fanon. Joe L. Pernambuco. Shirley R. and in 1933 his father died. 1921 – May 2. My social condition didn't allow me to have an education. 1997 (aged 75) São Paulo. Brazil Brazilian Educator. and influential theorist of critical pedagogy.

he never actually practiced law but instead worked as a teacher in secondary schools teaching Portuguese. and acted as a supervisor for its adult literacy project from 1980 to 1986. Because of political feuds between Freire. The next year. or it becomes the ‘practice of freedom’. Massachusetts. When the PT prevailed in the municipal elections in 1988. Freire and Araújo fell in love. In the process. Education as the Practice of Freedom. Frantz Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth (1961). A friend came to him and reminded him that he had promised his wife that he would serve on the doctoral thesis committee for his wife's best friend. which emphasized the need to provide native populations with an education which was simultaneously new and . but also from modern Marxist and anti-colonialist thinkers." —Richard Shaull. Working primarily among the illiterate poor. Freire died of heart failure on May 2. first published in Portuguese in 1968.Paulo Freire Freire enrolled at Law School at the University of Recife in 1943. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. particularly Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique. In 1979. Maria had lost her husband. drawing on Paulo Freire[6] Paulo Freire contributed a philosophy of education that came not only from the more classical approaches stemming from Plato. Freire was imprisoned as a traitor for 70 days. the means by which men and women deal critically with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world. In 1964. a military coup put an end to that effort. a fellow teacher. Freire began to embrace a non-orthodox form of what could be considered[5] liberation theology. She brought a lot of energy back to his life. The two worked together and had five children. Maria Araújo. literacy was a requirement for voting in presidential elections. Freire published his first book. In 1967. in many ways his Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970) may be best read as an extension of. Freire married Maria Araújo Freire. Although admitted to the legal bar. In 1961. and in 1962 he had the first opportunity for significant application of his theories. more specifically phenomenology. when General Ernesto Geisel became the then dictator president beginning the process of a slow and controlled political liberalisation. 11 Theoretical contributions "There is no such thing as a neutral education process. Pedagogy of the Oppressed was published in both Spanish and English. 1997 in São Paulo. In 1946. After a brief exile in Bolivia. and moved back in 1980. In fact. People close to him felt that he given up after the loss of his wife and worried that he might die. he was appointed director of the Department of Cultural Extension of Recife University. Freire moved to Geneva. or reply to. On the strength of reception of his work. Freire worked in Chile for five years for the Christian Democratic Agrarian Reform Movement and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. He also studied philosophy. the Brazilian government approved the creation of thousands of cultural circles across the country. he married Elza Maia Costa de Oliveira. his wife Elza died. he was able to return to Brazil. In 1986. USA. During this time Freire acted as an advisor on education reform in former Portuguese colonies in Africa. He followed this with his most famous book. vastly expanding its reach. In response to this experiment. when 300 sugarcane workers were taught to read and write in just 45 days. After a year in Cambridge. Freire joined the Workers' Party (PT) in the city of São Paulo. a Christian socialist. Education either functions as an instrument which is used to facilitate the integration of generations into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity to it. who continues with her own educational work. the book wasn't published in Brazil until 1974. In 1944. Freire was appointed Secretary of Education for São Paulo. Freire agreed. and successive authoritarian military dictatorships. Switzerland to work as a special education advisor to the World Council of Churches. and the psychology of language. In Brazil at that time. Freire was offered a visiting professorship at Harvard University in 1969. Freire was appointed Director of the Department of Education and Culture of the Social Service in the state of Pernambuco.

"those who authentically commit themselves to the people must re-examine themselves constantly" (Freire. Lenin. 16). however. thinkers like John Dewey were strongly critical of the transmission of mere facts as the goal of education. but Freire comes close to insisting that it be completely abolished. Teachers. have political notions they bring into the classroom (Kincheloe. differentiates between the two positions in an unjust society.[8] Freire believed that "education makes sense because women and men learn that through learning they can make and remake themselves. Freire champions that education should allow the oppressed to regain their sense of humanity. and inhibits their creative power" (Freire. As he states: No pedagogy which is truly liberating can remain distant from the oppressed by treating them as unfortunates and by presenting for their emulation models from among the oppressors.Paulo Freire modern (rather than traditional) and anti-colonial (not simply an extension of the culture of the colonizer). Freire.[7] Likewise. The way students are taught and what they are taught serves a political agenda. 54). Nevertheless. and has since been reprised by many authors including Engels. Freire makes no direct reference to his most direct influence for the distinction. themselves. Freire believed education to be a political act that could not be divorced from pedagogy. he also acknowledges that in order for this to occur.[11] Also. 1970. a culture of silence can cause the "dominated individuals [to] lose the means by which to critically respond to the culture that is forced on them by a dominant culture. 1970. because women and men are able to take responsibility for themselves as beings capable of knowing — of knowing that they know and knowing that they don't" (Freire. Student-teacher dualism More challenging is Freire's strong aversion to the teacher-student dichotomy. In addition. The oppressed must be their own example in the struggle for their redemption (Freire. 60). p."[12] Social domination of race and class are interleaved into the conventional educational system. 2008). 77).[10] Freire's work. silenced and suppressed self-image into the oppressed. He notes that "it transforms students into receiving objects. the system of dominant social relations creates a culture of silence that instills a negative. 2004. p. in turn overcoming their condition. explaining that “education is a regulation of the process of coming to share in the social consciousness. Culture of silence According to Freire. reprising the Oppressors–oppressed distinction. p. Simone Weil and others. 1970. In Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970). laying the foundation for what is now called critical pedagogy. 15)[9] 12 Banking model of education In terms of actual pedagogy. in which the student was viewed as an empty account to be filled by the teacher. through . the oppressor and the oppressed. the oppressed individual must play a role in their liberation. Teachers and students must be made aware of the "politics" that surround education. the oppressors must also be willing to rethink their way of life and to examine their own role in the oppression if true liberation is to occur. This dichotomy is admitted in Rousseau and constrained in Dewey. The learner must develop a critical consciousness in order to recognize that this culture of silence is created to oppress. Gramsci. Marx. The basic critique was not new — Rousseau’s conception of the child as an active learner was already a step away from tabula rasa (which is basically the same as the “banking concept”). p. Freire defined this as a main tenet of critical pedagogy. leads men and women to adjust to the world. It attempts to control thinking and action. and that the adjustment of individual activity on the basis of this social consciousness is the only sure method of social reconstruction” (1897. p. updated the concept and placed it in context with current theories and practices of education. Freire is best known for his attack on what he called the "banking" concept of education. which stems back at least as far as Hegel in 1802. Dewey often described education as a mechanism for social change.

Freire's work has also influenced the so-called "radical math" movement in the United States. Donaldo Macedo. The director is Dr. The Institute now has projects in many countries and is currently headquartered at UCLA Graduate School of Education and Information Studies where it actively maintains the Freire archives. . Since the publication of the English edition in 1970. a UCLA professor and author of Freirean books including La praxis educativa de Paulo Freire (1978).htm At his death. It has been influential in helping to develop planetary education projects such as the Earth Charter as well as countless international grassroots campaigns per the spirit of Freirean popular education generally. Kincheloe. Freire was working on a book of ecopedagogy. a social commentator critical of the entry of Freire's Marxist-inspired teachings into the mainstream curriculum. One of McLaren's edited texts. The Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Conference is held each spring and is guided by the theory and practice of these two liberatory practitioners. performance/performance art. according to Sol Stern. "Paulo Freire and Revolutionary Pedagogy for Social Justice. Here Joe L. and Henry Giroux. Ira Shor. Carlos Torres. Joe L. MA.Paulo Freire which the “culture of silence” eliminates the "paths of thought that lead to a language of critique”[13] 13 Global impact Freire's major exponents in North America are Peter McLaren. PAULO was given formal responsibility for setting the occupational training standards for people working in this field. Freire's chief critic in the US is Dr Rich Gibson. TIE. a platform of work carried on by many of the Freire Institutes and Freirean Associations around the world today. etc." http:/ /richgibson. McLaren has also provided a comparative study concerning Paulo Freire and the Argentinian revolutionary icon Che Guevara. This agency was approved by the New Labour Government to represent some 300.000 community based education practitioners working across the UK. race/gender/class/sexual orientation/geography analysis. which is set to open in September 2013. the Paulo Freire Institute [15] was established in São Paulo to extend and elaborate upon his theories of popular education. community organizing. comparative education models. Paulo Freire: A Critical Encounter.com/freirecriticaledu. community-based analysis. Pedagogy of the Oppressed has achieved near-iconic status in America's teacher-training programs. The Paulo and Nita Freire Project for International Critical Pedagogy has been founded at McGill University. Kincheloe and Shirley R. The Conference networks a wide variety of people with interests in Freire and Augusto Boal—liberatory education and theatre. Connections of Freire's non-dual theory and pedagogy has also recently been made with eastern philosophical traditions such as the Advaita Vedanta[16] In 1999 PAULO a National Training Organisation. In 2012 a group of educators in Western Massachusetts received permission [17] from the state to found the Paolo Freire Social Justice Charter School [18] in Holyoke. which emphasizes social justice issues and critical pedagogy as components of mathematical curricula [14] In 1991. expounds upon Freire's impact in the field of critical education. Steinberg have worked to create a dialogical forum for critical scholars around the world to promote research and re-create a Freirean pedagogy in a multinational domain. named in honour of Friere was established in the United Kingdom.

[9] Freire. Infed. during their residency at the Second Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Conference in Omaha. . net/ essays/ pedagogy_oppressed. org/ PF-life_and_work_by_Peter. (1897). com/ bibliography/ ). and Adult Education: Possibilities for Transformative Action. pg 5 [7] Freire. 1996. [12] "Paulo Freire" (http:/ / www. org/ [16] Bharath Sriraman. The Mathematics Enthusiast. Freire. Paulo Freire Institute. umt. 2007 [17] http:/ / www.org. Critical Pedagogy Primer. uiowa. Blogs. the University of Nebraska at Omaha. htm). (2004). Freire.[20] Notes [1] "The New Observer" (http:/ / www. Mathew Zachariah. Retrieved 2012-11-12. by Peter Mayo. . co. [3] "Paulo Freire and informal education" (http:/ / www. Massachusetts. htm). html).miami. [8] Kincheloe. edu/ ep/ contemporaryed/ Paulo_Freire/ paulo_freire.co. edu/ ~stevens/ critped/ page1. pdf). com/ 2012/ 02/ 29/ holyoke-charter-school-gets-green-light-from-state-1) [20] "bibliography « Pedagogy of the Oppressed" (http:/ / www. P. com/ books?id=gZq6NB6R-P8C) [11] "Marxist education:Education by Freire" (http:/ / tx. miami.Paulo Freire 14 Recognition • King Baudouin International Development Prize 1980. [2] "Why Paulo Freire’s “Pedagogy of the Oppressed” is just as relevant today as ever | Sima Barmania | Independent Uncategorized Blogs" (http:/ / blogs. Monograph 1. cpusa. htm). Retrieved 2012-11-12. [6] Gramsci. 2008 [5] Peter Lownd. org/ [15] http:/ / www. Macmillan. Giroux" (http:/ / faculty. Justinwyllie. org/ school/ classics/ freire. New York: Peter Lang. [13] (Giroux. [4] Stevens.cpusa. Retrieved 2012-11-12.L.org. . 1992 Bibliography Freire wrote and co-wrote over 20 books on education. Paradigm.com. won state approval on 28 February 2012. justinwyllie. My pedagogic creed (http:/ / books. fordham.net. math. edu/ TMME/ Monograph1/ ). [14] http:/ / www. Professor of Education at the University of Calgary. " Freire's Life and Work (http:/ / www. called the Paulo Freire Social Justice Charter School. . html)". • An independent public high school in Holyoke. google. He was nominated for the prize by Dr. J. bostonglobe. . html [18] http:/ / paulofreirecharterschool. radicalmath. pdf). uk/ 2011/ 10/ 26/ why-paulo-freires-pedagogy-of-the-oppressed-is-just-as-relevant-today-as-ever/ ). pedagogyoftheoppressed. Paulo Freire was the very first person to receive this prize. independent. 2011-10-26. and is scheduled to open in the fall of 2012. Critical Pedagogy on the Web (http:/ / mingo. info-science.uk. along with Augusto Boal. Retrieved 2012-11-12. 80) (A Presentation by) John Cortez Fordham University. (2008). 2001. 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2012-11-12. education. "Culture. Pedagogy of Indignation. Tx. [10] Dewey.independent. P. org/ [19] Hampshire Gazette (http:/ / dailyhampshiregazette. Boulder: Colorado. ISBN 1-85649-614-7. pedagogy and related themes. 1999. (1970). . (2002). paulofreireinstitute. Retrieved July 18. infed. Marx and Vivekananda" (http:/ / www. 2nd Ed. J. Power and Transformation in the Work of Paulo Freire by Henry A. C. com/ metro/ 2012/ 02/ 28/ state-approves-four-new-charter-schools/ vJSYRGhkz9rgEBqwaPMyGI/ story. Pedagogyoftheoppressed. paulofreireinstitute. " "On the Origins of Social Justice: Darwin.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-12. edu/ kpking/ classes/ uege5102-pres-and-newmedia/ Giroux-John-Cortez-Presentation. . . Education.[19] • Honorary Degree from Claremont Graduate University. p. org/ thinkers/ et-freir. New York: Continuum. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. • Prize for Outstanding Christian Educators with his wife Elza • UNESCO 1986 Prize for Education for Peace • Honorary Doctorate.

Diana (1998).Paulo Freire 15 References • Mann. University of Montana Press. • Gibson. Peter (eds. Westport. The Mathematics Enthusiast: Monograph Series in Mathematics Education. Albany: SUNY Press. Freire and the Politics of Adult Education. Pia L. Literacy. Critical Pedagogy. Freire and Adult Education. Charolotte. • Rossatto. • Mayo. ISBN 3-926952-97-0 • Aronowitz. Connecticut: Praeger. • Mayo. On the origins of social justice: Darwin.) (1994). • McLaren. Social Justice Education For Teachers. Florida: Krieger. (1997). Gramsci. Carlos A. Peter and Lankshear. Paths from Freire. The Texts of Paulo Freire. Education and Democracy. Pedro (eds. Paulo Freire. New York: Peter Lang. New York and London: Teachers College Press. Bharath (2007). Marx and Vivekananda. Peter (2000). Moacir (1994). Paulo Freire and the Possible Dream. Wong.).1-6. Rotterdam and Taipei: Sense. Paulo Freire and the Pedagogy of Revolution. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.google. 2nd Ed. and Humanization Exploring the Work of Paulo Freire. Engaging Paulo Freire's Pedagogy Of Possibility: From Blind To Transformative Optimism. Information Age Publishing. (2008). The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast. Vol 60. Reading Paulo Freire. 1997. Connecticut: Bergin & Garvey. Carlos . Rotterdam and Taipei: Sense. and Torres. Peter (2004. Paulo (1997) "Mentoring the mentor: a critical dialogue with Paulo Freire". Carlos A and Noguera. (1993). Liberating Praxis. Paulo Freire: A Critical Encounter. • Torres. Raymond A. Reinventing Paulo Freire: A Pedagogy of Love. Antonia (2002). Joe L.Bharath(eds. Critical pedagogy and Transformative Social Change. • Sriraman." Unpublished dissertation online. pp. Social Movements and Educational Reform in São Paulo. Rich (2004). ISBN 0-8204-3798-0 • Gadotti. Maria del Pilar. Peter (2000) Che Guevara. • Morrow. • McLaren. Monograph 1. London and New York: Zed Books. • Elias. Bd. Paulo Freire: A critical encounter (pp. The Pedagogical and Political Concepts of Mahatma Gandhi and Paulo Freire. 8. ISBN 978-1-60752-039-9 • Freire. Possibilities for Transformative Action. Paul. Paulo Freire: Pedagogue of Liberation. Hamburg 1996. Brian. • O’Cadiz. • Roberts. Reading Freire and Habermas. Radical heroes.). and Torres.) International Studies in Political Socialization and ion. His Life and Work. New York: Garland Press. "The Promethean Literacy. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Boulder: Westview.A. (2002). 2008). Further reading • Coben. London and New York: Routledge. Paulo Freire's Legacy for Radical Education and Politics. .) (1993). Paulo Freire's radical democratic humanism (http://books. Stanley (1993). Peter (1999). "Critical Issues in Mathematics Education". Paul V. • McLaren. (2005). In: Claußen. Westport. Freire. Bernhard. Education. Buckingham: Open University Press. (Ed.it/ books?id=RwGmEa69ORYC). (Eds. Greer. London and New York: Routledge. • Ernest. Sriraman. In P.) (2008). Peter and Leonard. John (1994). • Darder. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. Boulder: Westview Press. Politics of Liberation. McLaren & P. NC. Cesar A. Colin (eds. 9-) • Kincheloe. B. Leonard. • Taylor. Gramsci.

institutpaulofreire.org/) • Interview with Maria Araújo Freire on her marriage to Paulo Freire (http://findarticles.org/node/1683) .poped.aspx) Instituto Paulo Freire of Spain (http://www.org/) Paulo Freire Institute.au/subject/education/freire/pedagogy/ index. Malta (http://www.pfi.com/p/articles/ mi_qa3965/is_200004/ai_n8881236/) • Interview excerpt with Paulo Freire on liberation theology and Marx (http://www.org/) The Paulo Freire Institute at UCLA (http://www.anu.mt/) Paulo Freire Research Center.paulofreireinstitute.com/ watch?v=1Wz5y2V1af0) • A dialogue with Paulo Freire and Ira Shor (1988) (http://brechtforum. Brasil (http://www.org/) The Paulo Freire Institute of South Africa (http://cae.ukzn.paulofreire.paulofreire.ufpb.youtube.htm) • PopEd Toolkit .org.org/) External links • Digital Library Paulo Freire (Pt-Br) (http://www.Paulo Freire 16 Paulo Freire Institutes around the world • • • • • • • The Paulo and Nita Freire International Project for Critical Pedagogy (http://freireproject.edu.za/PauloFreireProject.br/) • Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire (http://marxists. Finland (http://paulofreirefinland.Exercises/Links inspired by Freire's work (http://www.org/) Instituto Paulo Freire.ac.

He was a major representative of progressive education and liberalism. Journalism. Dewey considered two fundamental elements—schools and civil society—as being major topics needing attention and reconstruction to encourage experimental intelligence and plurality. 1952) was an American philosopher. and ethics. Dewey asserted that complete democracy was to be obtained not just by extending voting rights but also by ensuring that there exists a fully formed public opinion. art. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology. experts. 1859 – June 1. accomplished by effective communication among citizens. October 20. he also wrote about many other topics. . inquiry. democracy. Vermont June 1. Epistemology. with the latter being accountable for the policies they adopt. logic. Ethics Notable ideas [1] Reflective Thinking American Association of University Professors Inquiry into Moscow show trials about Trotsky Educational progressivism John Dewey (/ˈduːi/.[2][3] Although Dewey is known best for his publications concerning education. including experience. 1859 Burlington. nature.John Dewey 17 John Dewey John Dewey Dewey in 1902 Born October 20. psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. 1952 (aged 92) New York 20th-century philosophy Western Philosophy Pragmatism Died Era Region School Main interests Philosophy of education. In his advocacy of democracy. and politicians.

They had six children. Dewey received his Ph. A Common Faith (1934). Dewey's most significant writings were "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" (1896). which was published with collected works from his colleagues at Chicago under the collective title Studies in Logical Theory (1903). Pennsylvania and one teaching elementary school in the small town of Charlotte. Stanley Hall. Torrey. From 1904 until his retirement in 1930 he was professor of philosophy at both Columbia University and Columbia University's Teachers College. not a philosopher. and soon thereafter he relocated near the East Coast. wrote "Dewey has been to our age what Aristotle was to the later middle ages.[4] Like his older brother. Reflecting his immense influence on 20th-century thought. a book written in conjunction with Arthur F.[6][7] After two years as a high-school teacher in Oil City.[10] His second wife was Roberta Lowitz Grant.D. His time at the University of Chicago resulted in four essays collectively entitled Thought and its Subject-Matter. Bentley that systematically outlines the concept of trans-action. . Democracy and Education (1916). a defense of democracy written in response to Walter Lippmann's The Phantom Public (1925). The Public and its Problems (1927). in 1953. In 1884. While each of these works focuses on one particular philosophical theme. The School and Social Progress (1899). where he was able to actualize the pedagogical beliefs that provided material for his first major work on education.[11] The United States Postal Service honored Dewey with a Prominent Americans series 30¢ postage stamp. Along with the historians Charles A. a statement of Dewey's unusual conception of logic." In 1894 Dewey joined the newly founded University of Chicago (1894–1904) where he developed his belief in an empirically based theory of knowledge. Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (1938). Herbert Baxter Adams. he accepted a faculty position at the University of Michigan (1884–88 and 1889–94) with the help of George Sylvester Morris. Vermont. which is central to his other works. A significant professor of Dewey's at the University of Vermont was Henry A. Dewey's most "metaphysical" statement. a humanistic study of religion originally delivered as the Dwight H. In 1899. He published more than 700 articles in 140 journals. Human Nature and Conduct (1922). Dewey included his major themes in most of what he published. the son-in-law and nephew of former University of Vermont president Joseph Torrey. and the economist Thorstein Veblen.John Dewey 18 Life and works Dewey was born in Burlington. Dewey decided that he was unsuited for employment in primary or secondary education. He was a longtime member of the American Federation of Teachers.[8] In 1905 he became president of the American Philosophical Association. His unpublished and now lost dissertation was titled "The Psychology of Kant. he attended the University of Vermont. Terry Lectureship at Yale. and G. Vermont. but the philosopher. Hilda Neatby. Experience and Nature (1925). becoming associated with the newly emerging Pragmatic philosophy. and approximately 40 books. P. Beard and James Harvey Robinson. Dewey's major work on aesthetics. a critique of a standard psychological concept and the basis of all his further work. Disagreements with the administration ultimately caused his resignation from the University. Dewey studied privately with Torrey between his graduation from Vermont and his enrollment at Johns Hopkins University. his celebrated work on progressive education. Charles Sanders Peirce. During that time Dewey also initiated the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. to a family of modest means. Art as Experience (1934)."[9] Dewey was first married to Alice Chipman. Freedom and Culture (1939). After studying with George Sylvester Morris. Dewey was elected president of the American Psychological Association. from the School of Arts & Sciences at Johns Hopkins University. a political work examining the roots of fascism. Dewey is one of the founders of The New School. a study of the function of habit in human behavior. Davis Rich Dewey. from which he graduated (Phi Beta Kappa)[5] in 1879. and Knowing and the Known (1949).

edited by their daughter Evelyn. he reasons against the traditional stimulus-response understanding of the reflex arc in favor of a "circular" account in which what serves as "stimulus" and what as "response" depends on how one considers the situation. Confucius. and Tao Xingzhi. emphasizing the social environment on the activity of mind and behaviour rather than the physiological psychology of Wundt and his followers. Well aware of both Japanese expansionism into China and the attraction of Bolshevism to some Chinese. Perhaps Dewey's biggest impact. The response is modulated by sensorial experience. later dubbed functional psychology. juxtaposed events happening like links in a chain. while traveling in Japan on sabbatical leave. Dewey was elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1899. Science. Psychology (1887). Dewey and his junior colleagues. Alice. however. probably at the behest of his former students. While he does not deny the existence of stimulus. at the recently founded University of Chicago and invited Mead and Angell to follow him. arrived in Shanghai on May 1. [13] Their letters from China and Japan describing their experiences to their family were published in 1920. Democracy" and "Mr. By 1894. He developed the idea that there is a coordination by which the stimulation is enriched by the results of previous experiences. Dewey represented "Mr. Dewey and his wife." the representative of failed traditional culture. For these audiences. such as Hu Shi and Chiang Monlin. [12] In these two years Dewey gave nearly two hundred lectures to Chinese audiences and wrote nearly monthly articles for Americans in The New Republic and other magazines. Dewey advocated that Americans support China's transformation and that Chinese base this transformation in education and social reforms. and he ended up staying in China for two years. Dewey was invited by Peking University to visit China. In Dewey's article "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" which appeared in Psychological Review in 1896. he disagreed that they were separate. all influenced strongly by the recent publication of William James' Principles of Psychology (1890). Hu Shi and Chiang Monlin. Dewey had joined Tufts. and Leibniz's New Essays Concerning the Human Understanding (1888). Dewey attempted a synthesis between idealism and experimental science.[15] While still professor of philosophy at Michigan. who had studied at Columbia School of Education. which were interpreted by Hu Shih. had a practical emphasis on action and application. In Psychology. 1919. .John Dewey 19 Visits to China and Japan In 1919. Their demonstrations on May Fourth excited and energized Dewey. not revolution. [14] Functional psychology At University of Michigan. with whom he would later write Ethics (1908). together with his student James Rowland Angell. both of which expressed Dewey's early commitment to British neo-Hegelianism. leaving in July 1921. James Hayden Tufts and George Herbert Mead. Dewey published his first two books. the four men forming the basis of the so-called "Chicago group" of psychology. and defends the unitary nature of the sensory motor circuit. who had studied with him. was on the forces for progressive education in China. began to reformulate psychology. Hundreds and sometimes thousands of people attended the lectures. Their new style of psychology. just days before student demonstrators took to the streets of Peking to protest the decision of the Allies in Paris to cede the German held territories in Shandong province to Japan." the two personifications which they thought of representing modern values and replacing "Mr. and response. sensation.

Dewey said. Dewey felt that only scientific method could reliably increase human good. an empiricist.P. He had great trouble with listening. Richard J. who invented the term. in contrast. because it is known Dewey could not distinguish musical pitches . Dewey worked from strongly Hegelian influences. however. his theory is considered sometimes as a useful alternative to both modern and postmodern theory. However. an experimentalist. served as the A. Hogan later made the case that this distinction actually belonged to John Dewey. Recent exponents (like Rorty) have not always remained faithful to Dewey's original ideas. cultural.[19] Neither was Dewey so pluralist or relativist as James. much more a professional philosopher than an educator) have also reemerged with the reassessment of pragmatism. For example he felt that. after all. past doctrines always require reconstruction in order to remain useful for the present time. etc. "it denotes the unity of all ideal ends arousing us to desire and actions.P. Bernstein and Hans Joas. but a quality situated in events ("nature itself is wistful and pathetic. and that while no one religious belief could be demonstrated as the correct one. unlike James. we are all responsible for making a gamble on one or another theism. James also stated that experimentation (social. he was one of the three major figures in American pragmatism. technological. Jr. though this itself is completely consistent with Dewey's own usage of other writers and with his own philosophy— for Dewey. whose intellectual lineage was primarily British. who had been celebrated on an American stamp 17 years earlier. while honoring the important function that religious institutions and practices played in human life. atheism. a functionalist. turbulent and passionate" — Experience and Nature). psychologists Gary Brucato Jr. Dewey's non-foundational method pre-dates postmodernism by more than half a century.in other words was tone deaf. the American Psychological Association announced that Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878–1972) had become the first psychologist to be commemorated on a United States postage stamp. philosophical) could be used as an approximate arbiter of truth. While some psychology historians consider Dewey more of a philosopher than a bona fide psychologist. and a naturalist. and was the author of an 1896 article on the reflex arc which is now considered a basis of American functional psychology.[17] John Dewey's USA Stamp Dewey also expressed interest in work in the psychology of visual perception performed by Dartmouth research professor Adelbert Ames. for many people who lacked "over-belief" of religious concepts.[16] the authors noted that Dewey was a founding member of the A. Dewey's philosophy has had other names than "pragmatism". drawing particularly on empiricist and utilitarian ideas.'s eighth President in 1899. He has been called an instrumentalist. Because of his process-oriented and sociologically conscious opinion of the world and knowledge. The term "transactional" may better describe his . and William James. Of the idea of God."[20] As with the reemergence of progressive philosophy of education. Dewey's contributions to philosophy as such (he was. human life was superficial and rather uninteresting. along with Charles Sanders Peirce. Dewey. monism.. and John D.A. such as a personal god.A. He stated that value was a function not of whim nor purely of social construction. by philosophers like Richard Rorty. who popularized it.John Dewey 20 In 1984. rejected belief in any static ideal. beginning in the late 1970s.[18] Pragmatism and instrumentalism Although Dewey referred to his philosophy as "instrumentalism" rather than pragmatism.

since it is not customary to treat gestures and diagrams (maps. final." ("General Theory of Propositions". these are: • Self-Action: Prescientific concepts regarded humans. conductive to clearness – a consideration that has a good deal to do with existing dualism between traditional and the newer relational logics. where things. a term emphasized by Dewey in his later years to describe his theories of knowledge and experience. Concerning traditional logic.g. Religious historian Jerome A.John Dewey views. To retain logical principles based on this conception along with the acceptance of theories of existence and knowledge based on an opposite conception is not.. or realities. 21 Epistemology The terminology problem in the fields of epistemology and logic is partially due. and things as possessing powers of their own which initiated or caused their actions. The only grave on the University of logic based upon the idea that qualitative objects are existential Vermont campus in the fullest sense. he registers a small complaint against the use of "sentence" and "words" in that without careful interpretation the act or process of transposition "narrows unduly the scope of symbols and language. Stone credits Dewey with contributing to the early thinking in the development of Religious Naturalism[21]. "Aristotelian logic. • Transaction: where modern systems of descriptions and naming are employed to deal with multiple aspects and phases of action without any attribution to ultimate. blueprints. which still passes current nominally. do not disclose intent. substituting 'sentences' and 'words'."[25] Yet Dewey was not entirely opposed to modern logical trends. to say the least. essences." In other words. he challenges confident logicians to answer the question of the truth of logical operators. sentences and words. A series of characterizations of Transactions indicate the wide range of considerations involved.[22] to inefficient and imprecise use of words and concepts that reflect three historic levels of organization and presentation.[23] In the order of chronological appearance. which may be inferred or "adjudged only by means of context. while the ultimate subject matter of logic generates unremitting controversy. the third law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. is a Vermont. About the movement he wrote that it "eschews the use of 'propositions' and 'terms'. etc. In other words.) as words or sentences. Do they function merely as abstractions (e." However. according to Dewey and Bentley. for example. are balanced against something in a system of interaction. in Logic: The Theory of Inquiry) He welcomes this changing of referents "in as far as it fixes attention upon the symbolic structure and content of propositions.[24] Logic and method Dewey sees paradox in contemporary logical theory. he states: Grave of Dewey and his wife in an alcove on the north side of the Ira Allen Chapel in Burlington. and therefore alter or bring them to light?[25] Logical positivism also figured in Dewey's thought. . considered in isolation. Proximate subject matter garners general agreement and advance. animals. or independent entities. living and inorganic. pure mathematics) or do they connect in some essential way with their objects. • Interaction: as described by Newton.

it seems so natural & commonplace now. Dewey makes a strong case for the importance of education not only as a place to gain content knowledge. "Democracy and the one. I fear. he believed that students thrive in an environment where they are allowed to experience and interact with the curriculum. The Child and the Curriculum (1902).. ultimate. the real first antagonism always comes back to the assumption. In a later letter to his wife. The ideas of democracy and social reform are continually discussed in Dewey's writings on education. I don't know as I give the reality of this at all. according to his place in the Pragmatist tradition that emphasizes community. and thus translated the physical tension into a moral thing. The School and Society (1900). Dewey wrote. I guess I'll have to give it [all] up & start over again... On democracy The overriding theme of Dewey's works was his profound belief in democracy. while still at the University of Michigan...in fact. ethical ideal of humanity are to my mind synonymous. instead of the opposites as the unity in its growth. and thus the school itself is a social institution through which social reform can and should take place." He went on to add. but not really."[26] In a letter to Addams herself. and all students should have the opportunity to take part in their own learning. See his Experience and Nature for an extended discussion of 'Experience' in Dewey's philosophy.. In addition. It is. Barnes at the Barnes Foundation. but believes it in all her senses & muscles-. "I can see that I have always been interpreting dialectic wrong end up. When you think that Miss Addams does not think this as a philosophy. several recurrent themes ring true. clearly influenced by his conversation with her: "Not only is actual antagonizing bad. As Dewey himself stated in 1888.. who later went on to become one of the founding fathers of independent India. Dewey attempted to justify the idiosyncratic collection of modern art that was assembled by the wealthy Albert C. but also as a place to .John Dewey —(Qualitative Thought 1930) Louis Menand argues in The Metaphysical Club that Jane Addams had been critical of Dewey's emphasis on antagonism in the context of a discussion of the Pullman strike of 1894."[27] With respect to technological developments in a democracy: "Persons do not become a society by living in physical proximity any more than a man ceases to be socially influenced by being so many feet or miles removed from others" —John Dewey from Andrew Feenberg's "Community in the Digital Age" His work on democracy influenced one of his students. education or communication and journalism. a study of the individual art object as embedded in (and inextricable from) the experiences of a local culture. Democracy and Education (1916) and Experience and Education (1938)." 22 Aesthetics Art as Experience (1934) is Dewey's major writing on aesthetics. but I never had anything take hold of me so. Dewey confessed that Addams' argument was "the most magnificent exhibition of intellectual & moral faith I ever saw.. but the assumption that there is or may be antagonism is bad-. Dr Ambedkar. Throughout these writings. Dewey continually argues that education and learning are social and interactive processes. be it in politics..[28] On education Dewey's educational theories were presented in My Pedagogic Creed (1897).Great God. She converted me internally.. the unity as the reconciliation of opposites.

which is related to. 13-14). The first is centered on the curriculum and focuses almost solely on the subject matter to be taught. p. In this second school of thought. Dewey also had specific notions regarding how education should take place within the classroom. guiding students to independently discover meaning within the subject area. within this particular framework. He notes that "education is a regulation of the process of coming to share in the social consciousness. 1902. many of Dewey's ideas influenced the founding of Bennington College and Goddard College in Vermont. but rather the realization of one's full potential and the ability to use those skills for the greater good. In his eyes. Dewey discusses two major conflicting schools of thought regarding educational pedagogy. In addition to his ideas regarding what education is and what effect it should have on society. an experimental college focused on interdisciplinary study.[31] Dewey not only re-imagined the way that the learning process should take place. 1897). and that the adjustment of individual activity on the basis of this social consciousness is the only sure method of social reconstruction". but is there as a member of the community to select the influences which shall affect the child and to assist him in properly responding to these Thus the teacher becomes a partner in the learning process. Problem-Based Learning (PBL). so the present standpoint of the child and the facts and truths of studies define instruction" (Dewey. Dewey argues that the major flaw in this methodology is the inactivity of the student. He argued that "if knowledge comes from the impressions made upon us by natural objects. the purpose of education should not revolve around the acquisition of a pre-determined set of skills. It is through this reasoning that Dewey became one of the most famous proponents of hands-on learning or experiential education. Dewey advocated for an educational structure that strikes a balance between delivering knowledge while also taking into account the interests and experiences of the student. the potential flaw in this line of thinking is that it minimizes the importance of the content as well as the role of the teacher. It is he and not the subject-matter which determines both quality and quantity of learning" (Dewey. 217-218). he is the superficial being who is to be deepened" (1902. Dewey was alarmed by many of the "child-centered" excesses of educational-school pedagogues who claimed to be his followers. Dewey. the teacher should not be one to stand at the front of the room doling out bits of information to be absorbed by passive students. As well as his very active and direct involvement in setting up educational institutions such as the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools (1896) and The New School for Social Research (1919). content must be presented in a way that allows the student to relate the information to prior experiences. but not synonymous with experiential learning. "the child is simply the immature being who is to be matured. Dewey goes on to acknowledge that education and schooling are instrumental in creating social change and reform.[30] Dewey's ideas went on to influence many other influential experiential models and advocates. p. thus deepening the connection with this new knowledge. and whose faculty included 23 . it means so to train him that he will have the full and ready use of all his capacities" (My pedagogic creed. the teacher's role should be that of facilitator and guide. Just as two points define a straight line. 16). He notes that "to prepare him for the future life means to give him command of himself. 13). but also the role that the teacher should play within that process. and he argued that too much reliance on the child could be equally detrimental to the learning process. According to Dewey. He notes that "the child and the curriculum are simply two limits which define a single process.John Dewey learn how to live. In The Child and the Curriculum (1902). 1902. Dewey's works and philosophy also held great influence in the creation of the short-lived Black Mountain College in North Carolina. As Dewey (1897) explains it: The teacher is not in the school to impose certain ideas or to form certain habits in the child. 1916/2009. In addition to helping students realize their full potential. This philosophy has become an increasingly popular idea within present-day teacher preparatory programs. p. Instead. it is impossible to procure knowledge without the use of objects which impress the mind" (Dewey. At the same time. According to Dewey. for example. "we must take our stand with the child and our departure from him. a method used widely in education today. p.[29] He argues that in order for education to be most effective. incorporates Dewey's ideas pertaining to learning through active inquiry. where he served on the Board of Trustees. In order to rectify this dilemma.

" Dewey gives a concrete definition to the formation of a public. Lippmann supposed that the public was incapable of thought or action. 149). but the citizens. Robert Duncan. to be replaced by citizens and collaborators who would essentially be users. "The clear consciousness of a communal life. Dewey believed that communication creates a great community. experts. in this model. and disintegrate. Dewey refutes this model by assuming that politics is the work and duty of each individual in the course of his daily routine. in order to foster conversation and improve the generation of knowledge. In The Public and its Problems. choices. Journalism would not just produce a static product that told what had already happened. through the mediation and facilitation of journalism. but the news would be in a constant state of evolution as the public added value by generating knowledge. elites. in all its implications. i.John Dewey Buckminster Fuller. This Great Community can only occur with "free and full intercommunication. and that all thought and action should be left to the experts and elites. and Robert Creeley.. and citizens who participate actively with public life contribute to that community. Deweyan ideas have experienced revival as a major source of inspiration for the public journalism movement. p. and transmitted the information to the public. 142). The "audience" would end. Black Mountain College was the locus of the "Black Mountain Poets" a group of avant-garde poets closely linked with the Beat Generation and the San Francisco Renaissance. whose role was to react emotionally to the news. In his model. has profound implications for the significance of journalism in society. was to be generated by the interaction of citizens.e. Franz Kline. Also implicit in its name. 24 On journalism Since the mid-1980s. and conditions. Charles Olson. overlap. experts. Communication can alone create a great community" (Dewey.[32] Since every action generates unintended consequences. his concern was of the transactional relationship between publics and problems. doing more with the news than simply reading it. corporate hegemony toward a civic public sphere. Concerning his effort to change journalism. consequences. Lippmann's model was a basic transmission model in which journalists took information given to them by experts and elites. 211) Communication can be understood as journalism. The knowledge needed to be involved in politics. constitutes the idea of democracy. not just the government is accountable. he wrote in The Public and its Problems: "Till the Great Society is converted in to a Great Community. As suggested by the title of the book. "The 'public' of public journalists is Dewey's public. . Willem de Kooning. the Public will remain in eclipse." as described in The Public and its Problems." (The Public and its Problems. public journalism seeks to orient communication away from elite. Dewey's definition of "public. Dewey also said that journalism should conform to this ideal by changing its emphasis from actions or happenings (choosing a winner of a given situation) to alternatives. Publics are spontaneous groups of citizens who share the indirect effects of a particular action." (p. publics continuously emerge. In this model. and other actors as well. Dewey presents a rebuttal to Walter Lippmann's treatise on the role of journalism in democracy. repackaged that information in simple terms. among others. Anyone affected by the indirect consequences of a specific action will automatically share a common interest in controlling those consequences. solving a common problem. p.

Dewey was involved in the organization that eventually became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).[38] and marched for women's rights." [36] As honorary president of the Henry George School of Social Science. Dewey. George S. and Jacques Maritain agreed to act as honorary chairmen of the Congress for Cultural Freedom.[39] Other interests Dewey's interests and writings included many topics. together with Horace M Kallen. has a right to regard himself as an educated man in social thought unless he has some first-hand acquaintance with the theoretical contribution of this great American thinker. William M. edited a series of articles related to the infamous Bertrand Russell Case. Benedetto Croce. Dewey met F. Karl Jaspers. "a substantial part of his published output consisted of commentary on current domestic and international politics. Counts.[35] and in 1940. He was an avid supporter of Henry George's proposal for taxing land values. and public statements on behalf of many causes. Sidney Hook. became a member of the United States section of the International League for Academic Freedom. Bertrand Russell. and according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. which cleared Leon Trotsky of the charges made against him by Joseph Stalin. "No man. In 1950. (He is probably the only philosopher in this encyclopedia to have published both on the Treaty of Versailles and on the value of displaying art in post offices. Martin Buber. Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (1923) and The Use of the Self (1932). Brown. . and opposing a communist takeover of the New York Teachers' Union. he also maintained correspondence with Henri Bergson. no graduate of a higher educational institution. of human life. he wrote. he wrote a letter to Henry Ford urging him to support the school. As well as being active in defending the independence of teachers."[41] As well as his contacts with people mentioned elsewhere in the article.John Dewey 25 On humanism Dewey participated with a variety of humanist activities from the 1930s into the 1950s. published in the June 1930 edition of Thinker 2: "What Humanism means to me is an expansion. in 1935 Dewey." — John Dewey. and George Santayana.[37] He directed the famous Dewey Commission held in Mexico in 1937.[33] His opinion of humanism is best summarised in his own words from an article titled "What Humanism Means to Me". M.)"[40] In 1917. Of George. William Rainey Harper. together with Albert Einstein and Alvin Johnson. Alexander's influence is referenced in "Human Nature and Conduct" and "Experience and Nature. among many other causes. being one of the original 34 signatories of the first Humanist Manifesto (1933) and being elected an honorary member of the Humanist Press Association (1936). which included sitting on the advisory board of Charles Francis Potter's First Humanist Society of New York (1929). Alexander in New York City and later wrote introductions to Alexander's Man's Supreme Inheritance (1918). not a contraction. an expansion in which nature and the science of nature are made the willing servants of human good. "What Humanism Means to Me"[34] Social and political activism As a major advocate for academic freedom.

historian Edward A. New York is named after him. (1894) "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" [49] (1896) "My Pedagogic Creed" (1897) The School and Society (1900) The Child and the Curriculum [50] (1902) "The Postulate of Immediate Empiricism" [51] (1905) Moral Principles in Education (1909) The Riverside Press Cambridge Project Gutenberg [52] How We Think (1910) German Philosophy and Politics [53] (1915) Democracy and Education: an introduction to the philosophy of education (1916) Reconstruction in Philosophy [54] (1919) Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology • Experience and Nature [55] (1925) • The Public and its Problems (1927) • The Quest for Certainty (1929) . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • "The New Psychology [47]" Andover Review. • John Dewey Academy of Learning in Green Bay.[42][43] and sometimes was portrayed as "dangerously radical."[44] Meanwhile. 3. 1942) and Journal of Social Psychology (editorial board. Wisconsin is a charter school named after him. as well as having posts at other publications such as New Leader (contributing editor. Dewey was critiqued strongly by American communists because he argued against Stalinism and had philosophical differences with Marx. Biographer Steven C. with its strong proclamation of social ideals and the Social Gospel. traced Dewey's democratic convictions to his childhood attendance at the Congregational Church.337-341.[45] Historians have examined his religious beliefs. White suggested in Science and Religion in American Thought (1952) that Dewey's work had led to the 20th century rift between religion and science. A more complete list of his publications may be found at List of publications by John Dewey. Academic awards • • • • • Copernican Citation (1943) Doctor "honoris causa" – University of Oslo (1946) Doctor "honoris causa" – University of Pennsylvania (1946) Doctor "honoris causa" – Yale University (1951) Doctor "honoris causa" – University of Rome (1951) Honors • John Dewey High School in Brooklyn. 2. despite identifying himself as a democratic socialist. 1949). 278-289 (1884) Psychology (1887) Leibniz's New Essays Concerning the Human Understanding (1888) "The Ego as Cause [48]" Philosophical Review.[46] However. Dewey also sat on the boards of scientific publications such as Sociometry (advisory board. 1942). Publications Besides publishing prolifically himself.John Dewey 26 Criticism Dewey is considered the epitome of liberalism by many historians. The following publications by John Dewey are referenced or mentioned in this article. Rockefeller.

John Dewey and the Philosophy and Practice of Hope [63] (2007). William R. • Garrison. Lexington Books. Jay. [60] (1995) Open Court Publishing Company • Caspary. Cornell University Press. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing. McDermott (1981). H. • Hook. Democracy & Rhetoric: John Dewey on the Arts of Becoming [62] (2010) University of South Carolina Press. second edition (with James Hayden Tufts) (1932) Art as Experience (1934) A Common Faith (1934) Liberalism and Social Action (1935) Experience and Education (1938) Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (1938) Freedom and Culture (1939) Theory of Valuation (1939). John Dewey's Theory of Art. John Dewey: Rethinking Our Time. • Good. Dewey on Democracy [61] (2000). Original published 1997 by Teachers College Press. Nathan. John Dewey: An Intellectual Portrait (1939) • Kannegiesser.John Dewey • • • • • • • • • • • • The Sources of a Science of Education (1929) The Kappa Delta Pi Lecture Series Individualism Old and New (1930) Philosophy and Civilization (1931) Ethics. Continuum. Thomas. Larry A. The Education of John Dewey. Raymond. ISBN 0-226-57594-2 Knowing and the Known (1949) 27 See also • The Essential Dewey: Volumes 1 and 2. (The CD-ROM has been discontinued). and Nature (1987) [58] SUNY Press • Boisvert. (1997) [59] SUNY Press • Campbell. (2003) [64] Columbia University Press • Pring. Experience. . Understanding John Dewey: Nature and Cooperative Intelligence. University of Chicago Press Dewey's Complete Writings is available in 3 multi-volume sets (37 volumes in all) from Southern Illinois University Press: [56] • • • • The Early Works: 1892-1898 (5 volumes) The Middle Works: 1899-1924 (15 volumes) The Later Works: 1925-1953 (17 volumes) Posthumous Works: 1956-2009 [57] The Correspondence of John Dewey is available in 4 volumes via online subscription for university servers. • Hickman. "Knowledge and Science" (1977) The Macmillan Company of Australia PTY Ltd • Martin. (1992) Indiana University Press. Jim. S. University of Illinois Press. Edited by Larry Hickman and Thomas Alexander (1998). John Dewey's Pragmatic Technology. Indiana University Press • The Philosophy of John Dewey Edited by John J. • Crick. ISBN 0-8264-8403-4. ISBN 978-0-7391-1061-4. and Lucille McCarthy. James. John Dewey: Continuum Library of Educational Thought. • Fishman. Richard (2007). Stephen M. and also in TEI format Works about Dewey • Alexander. 2010. A Search for Unity in Diversity: The "Permanent Hegelian Deposit" in the Philosophy of John Dewey. Dewey and Eros: Wisdom and Desire in the Art of Teaching. James (2006). J.

"Dewey's Logic: Epistemology as Hypothesis". L. The Metaphysical Club: A History of Ideas in the United States (New York: Farrar. School and Society: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Staus and Giroux. (1962). Charlene Haddock. pp. Lynda (eds.T. Spring). Alan. accessed Oct 4. org/ ebooks/ 31043) [15] Field. 1994. A Search for Unity in Diversity: The "Permanent Hegelian Deposit" in the Philosophy of John Dewey.. (2001) [70] University of Illinois Press. ppt [2] Alan Ryan. and Stone. iep. online edition [72] . muskingum.[66] • Roth. James Conant. Northwest Missouri State University UTM. • Rockefeller. • Seigfried. • Rud. Ltd. Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality. Senese. 13. Stephen. [20] A Common Faith. ISBN 9780791472033 p. A. Suny Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture.). R. [16] Benjamin. edu/ d/ dewey. Paul C. aacu. Journal of applied psychoanalytic studies 5 (4): 443–454. Upper Saddle River. edu/ departments/ acs/ 1890s/ dewey/ dewey. Harriet Alice Chipman Dewey Letters from China and Japan. 8-10.W. Columbia University Press. pp. 2009 [6] bio of Dewey from Bowling Green State University (http:/ / www. 93 ISBN 90-6032-029-8 [19] Good (2006). 1953). bgsu. "Why Can't Psychology Get a Stamp?". p. utm. G. John Dewey and American Democracy. Lexington Books..The University of Tennessee at Martin (http:/ / www.. Inventing the Modern Self and John Dewey: Modernities and the Traveling of Pragmatism in Education. The Necessity of Pragmatism: John Dewey's Conception of Philosophy. Hilary. Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education: A Biographical Introduction. [14] John Dewey. Neatby.14. htm) [12] Jessica Ching-Sze Wang.John Dewey • Popkewitz. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press. edu/ ~psych/ psycweb/ history/ dewey. Steven. In The Consequences of Pragmatism: Essays 1972-1980. John Dewey's Aesthetic Philosophy.edu . • Putnam. Feminist Interpretations of John Dewey (2001) [68] Pennsylvania State University Press • Shook. gutenberg. [4] Gutek.) John Dewey at 150: Reflections for a New Century. The Undiscovered Dewey: Religion. Robert J. and the Ethos of Democracy (2008). Columbia University Press. "Psychologists on postage stamps" The General Psychologist. [17] Brucato. Guy B. p. rpr. Norton. Robert B. htm) Retrieved 29 August 2008. 42 (LW 9:29). Albany: State University of New York Press.: E. org/ infoview/ PBK_InfoView. John Dewey in The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2002) [8] New York Times edition of January 19. p. Philip N.W. Morality.22-23. Richard. (1999. Robert B. In Words and Life. "Dewey's Metaphysics". Phi Beta Kappa website. Cambridge. 338. com/ titles/ titldewc. So Little for the Mind (Toronto: Clarke Irwin & Co. & Hogan. Project Guttenberg (http:/ / www. Morton. New York. [10] Biography at Muskingum College (http:/ / www. html) [7] Louis Menand. (1995) p 32 [3] Violas. 34(1):65 [18] Zeltner. pp. John Dewey in China: To Teach and to Learn. . John Dewey: Religious Faith and Democratic Humanism. MA: Harvard University Press. Gerald L.. Jim. htm) [11] InteLex Past Masters series (http:/ / www. 2009. (ed. (ed). pbk. John Dewey and the High Tide of American Liberalism.. (2005) New York: Palgrave Macmillan. The Origin of Dewey's Instrumentalism. 121. aspx?t=& id=59). • Talisse.P Dutton. John Dewey and Self-Realization.. ISBN 0-13-113809-X. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Melvin. (2003). NJ: Pearson Education Inc. Richard. ed. Tozer. Introduction by Tom Burke. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. ISBN 0-07-298556-9. [13] Wang. org/ meetings/ ppts/ knefelkamppresentation. 3-5.D. Thomas S.. 1953. (1994) [65] Columbia University Press • Rogers. 2007. (1995) [67] W. 1920. A Pragmatist Philosophy of Democracy (2007) Routledge • Westbrook. [5] Who Belongs To Phi Beta Kappa (http:/ / www. page 27 [9] Hilda M. (1943). G. John Dewey and the High Tide of American Liberalism. • Ryan. 28 References [1] http:/ / www. nlx. the standard scholarly biography • White. 1982. John. (1991) [71] Cornell University Press. (2000) [69] The Vanderbilt Library of American Philosophy • Sleeper. J. Garrison. Prentice Hall • Rorty.

001 29 . Knowing and the Known. com/ books?id=ibE8AAAAYAAJ& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_ge_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q& f=false [54] http:/ / books. 13 [44] William R. p121-139. Dewey on Democracy. Arthur Bentley. google. seop.5. google.12. The child and the curriculum. (1949). org/ catalog/ world/ readfile?fk_files=768523 [53] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=YVeloS3G5oYC) [69] excerpt (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=lJEjAAAAMAAJ& pg=PA7& dq=The+ child+ and+ the+ curriculum [51] http:/ / spartan. 383 [28] Ambedkar. ca/ Dewey/ newpsych. (1927) An Appreciation of Henry George (http:/ / www.08. [33] "John Dewey Chronology" 1934. ac. wealthandwant. aip. Knowing and the Known.cc=acls. com/ books?id=6uNAAO4LLL8C) [71] excerpt (http:/ / books. No. ca/ Dewey/ ego. html [50] http:/ / books. 1940. com/ books?id=ZUg8AAAAIAAJ& pg=PA1& dq=reconstruction+ in+ philosophy [55] http:/ / books. Boston. nlx. pp 126. 1927.view=toc. Bhimrao. 313 [27] Early Works. in Logic: The Theory of Inquiry 1938 [26] Louis Menand. (1939) A Letter to Henry Ford (http:/ / www. [32] Dewey. Vol. google. as part of a series. Caspary. google. J. New York: WLC Books. Beacon Press. Arthur Bentley. Anderson. google. J. 1(1). page 44-52 [22] John Dewey. com/ HG/ PP/ Dewey_Appreciation_HG. [23] John Dewey.idno=heb00586. ISBN 0-8014-8111-2. com/ collections/ 132 [58] excerpt (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=gzMay_1Q9qoC) [65] excerpt (http:/ / books. ca/ ~lward/ Dewey/ Dewey_1910b/ Dewey_1910_09. Knowing and the Known. John Dewey and the high tide of American liberalism [43] William Paringer. edu/ books/ catalog/ 44mxp7kf9780252032004. com/ PM. 1949-1950" CIA official web site (https:/ / www. [24] John Dewey. yorku. org/ history/ einstein/ public3_text." first published in Thinker 2 (June 1930): 9-12. Dewey: Page lw. com/ Democracy-Rhetoric-Becoming-Studies-Communication/ dp/ 1570038767/ [63] http:/ / www. 1:128 (Southern Illinois University Press) op cited in Douglas R. com/ books [30] Dewey. uillinois. Beacon Press. google. Arthur Bentley. edu/ cgi/ t/ text/ text-idx?c=acls. google. com/ books?id=0I-9gJN9rbwC) [72] http:/ / quod. htm) [36] Dewey. com/ books?id=LOc6q5lmEj8C) [66] (http:/ / cup. (http:/ / www. brocku. html [52] http:/ / www. marxists. AAR. John Dewey and the paradox of liberal reform (1990) p. p. The Metaphysical Club p. ISBN 81-89524-21-6. google. 2 (1993). (1994) p 13 [47] http:/ / psychclassics. org/ dewey-john_a-letter-to-henry-ford-1939. 61. edu/ ~siupress [57] http:/ / www. R. edu/ ~deweyctr/ CHRONO. New York. gov/ library/ center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/ kent-csi/ docs/ v38i5a10p.266 [The Collected Works of John Dewey. ca/ MeadProject/ Dewey/ Dewey_1896. Cornell University Press. edu/ book/ 978-0-231-14486-5/ the-undiscovered-dewey) [67] excerpt (http:/ / books. Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. Beacon Press. J. htm) [39] "Origins of the Congress for Cultural Freedom. pdf) [34] Italics in the original. Dutton & Co. The Journal of the American Academy of Religion. Annihilation of castes. qst?a=o& d=98139647 [61] http:/ / www. J. Henry Holt & Co.03. pp. [25] "The Problem of Logical Subject Matter". questia. html) [37] Dewey. "What Humanism Means to Me. brocku. google. E. siu. org/ archive/ trotsky/ 1937/ dewey/ index. 0001. htm [48] http:/ / psychclassics. html [64] excerpt (http:/ / books. (1949). com/ PM. google. com/ books?id=Igm5mV_ngUgC) [68] excerpt (http:/ / books. Journal of Problem-based Learning. google. (2006).11. (2000) [45] Baird. questia. M. P. 1882-1953. gutenberg.09. (1949). umich. com/ books?id=E_oYhjRfHokC) [59] excerpt (http:/ / books. Overview of Problem-based Learning: Definitions and Distinctions. htm [49] http:/ / www. John Dewey: Religious Faith and Democratic Humanism. J. Critical Quest. com/ books?id=drjfgQLsvrgC) [60] http:/ / www. leeds. uk/ archives/ sum2005/ entries/ dewey-political/ ) [41] F. 64. htm) [40] "Dewey's Political Philosophy" Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / www. J.04. The Electronic Edition] [35] American Institute of Physics (http:/ / www. The Public and its Problems.John Dewey [21] Religious Naturalism Today. siu. amazon. (2009). columbia.. (1902). lib.09. Alexander Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual. google. google. yorku. cooperativeindividualism. and 1950. google. [29] Dewey. html) [38] "Dewey Commission Report" (http:/ / www. Retrieved from http:/ / books. [46] Stephen Rockefeller. Robert B Westbrook (1993). (Original work published 1916) [31] Savery. com/ books?id=e_CxRsMZ-6oC) [70] excerpt (http:/ / books. qst?a=o& d=108990927 [62] http:/ / www. 1936. com/ books?id=P6a_Jd2OxpsC& pg=PP1& dq=experience+ and+ nature& sig=N0PWh4mPRvPnedmyxkKWf9caCTw [56] http:/ / www. ac. p107-109. cia.. John Dewey and American Democracy. Boston. press. Boston. 1923 ISBN 0-913111-11-2 [42] Ryan.

edu/~deweyctr/) • John Dewey Papers.uni-hamburg.siuc.John Dewey 30 External links • Center for Dewey Studies (http://www.leeds.siu.pdf) John Dewey Society (http://www.com/VS/JD/ImpressionsOfSovietRussia.php?p=collections/controlcard& id=2125) at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.virginia.org/) Works by John Dewey (http://www.uk/ archives/sum2005/entries/dewey-moral/) • Article on Dewey's Political Philosophy in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http://www.pdf) .pragmatism.de/sonstiges/dewey/ DewExpNa.johndeweysociety.alexandertechnique.lib. 1858-1970 (http://archives.google.gutenberg.seop.area501.org/#deweybooks) • National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir (http://www.pdf) (pdf file) Dewey.edu/ ~HYPER2/dewey/cover. Excerpts from Dewey.ac. Experience and Nature (http://www.org/publications/ biographical-memoirs/memoir-pdfs/dewey-john.nasonline.siu. Mathias Alexander (http://www.seop.net/) • • • • • • • • • Article on Dewey's Moral Philosophy in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http://www.edu/~deweyctr/CHRONO.org/author/John+Dewey) at Project Gutenberg Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education (http://xroads. Mathias Alexander (http://dewey.leeds. Impressions of Soviet Russia (http://ariwatch.com/articles/ dewey) John Dewey: His Life and Work (http://video. uk/archives/sum2005/entries/dewey-political/) • Dewey page from Pragmatism Cybrary (http://dewey. More information about John Dewey and F.html) hypertext from American Studies at the University of Virginia.com/videoplay?docid=8009791051515751015) 4-minute clip from a documentary film used primarily in higher education.ac.erzwiss.htm) Information about John Dewey and F.edu/index. Special Collections Research Center • John Dewey Chronology at Southern Illinois University (http://www.

program at the CUNY Graduate Center in New York. Critical Ontology. O'Hara. Nelson Rodriguez. part philosophy professor. Steinberg. Giuliana Cucinelli. economic. and hundreds of journal articles on issues including critical pedagogy. Tricia Kress. He wrote more than 45 books. cognition.D. Regina Bernard. He was tenured at LSU-Shreveport (1982–1989). he worked closely for the last 19 years of his life with his partner. political. Australia. Francisco Varela. kecia hayes. Clemson University (1989–1992). Kincheloe's research provided for a compelling understanding of the forces shaping contemporary education. and was the Belle Zeller Chair of Public Policy and Administration from 1998-2000 at Brooklyn College. Kincheloe received three graduate degrees from the University of Tennessee. Understanding these dynamics. Florida International University. and Asia. Tom Robbins. and cultural studies Institutions McGill University. numerous book-chapters. Dr. Myunghee Kim. urban education. Theory of Critical Post-Formal Educational Psychology. Connie Titone. Kincheloe 31 Joe L. Theodor Adorno. A passionate public speaker. Florida International University (1992–1994). Theory of Critical Multiculturalism. Walter Benjamin.[1] Academic Joe Kincheloe's first academic position was on the Rosebud Indian Reservation as the department chair of education at Sinte Gleska College (1980–1982). and served as Deputy Executive Program Officer there from 2000-2005. Sinte Gleska College Alma mater Known for University of Tennessee Concept of an evolving Critical Theory/Critical Pedagogy. Priya Parmar. He moved to McGill University in January 2006. Quebec. Clemson University. Kincheloe laid out these positions in a unique oratorical style that has been described as part Southern evangelist. 2008 Died Nationality American Fields Education.A. Critical Complex Epistemology Paulo Freire. Kincheloe Joe L. Kincheloe co-authored the Urban Education Ph. 1950 Kingsport. He and Steinberg spoke about critical pedagogy and cultural/media politics in North America. and Sandra Harding Leila Villaverde. and cultural studies. educational research. educational research. educators are better equipped to formulate policies and develop actions that rigorously cultivate the intellect while operating in a more socially just and inclusive manner. Pennsylvania State University (1994–1998). Pennsylvania State University. CUNY Graduate Center. and received a Canada Research Chair in October 2006. urban studies. and cognitive dynamics that contextualize teaching and learning. John Dewey. Canada. Brooklyn College. Rochelle Brock. The father of four children. Greg Allman. and his analyses focused on the social. . Tennessee December 19. Pam Joyce. Joanne Carris. curriculum. Kincheloe Born December 14. Louisiana State University in Shreveport. Max Horkheimer. Ray Horn. Terence McKenna. cognition. Shirley R. Critical Bricolage.Joe L. Europe. Jean Baudrillard. Critical pedagogy. 2008) was a professor and Canada Research Chair at the Faculty of Education. cultural. Kate E. McGill University in Montreal. L. Gabay Influences Influenced Joe Lyons Kincheloe (December 14. Gia Delaveaux. Major Influences Kincheloe's work drew from a number of theoretical traditions. curriculum. South America. and part rock music critic. 1950 – December 19.

feminist theory. In this spirit Kincheloe offers a compelling vision of reconceptualized academic institutions grounded on both a hard nosed understanding of power and scholarship and a commitment to new conceptions of social justice and pedagogy. and patriarchy. Postformalism focuses on exposing the unexamined power relations that shape cognitive theory and educational psychology in a larger liberatory effort to develop a psychology of possibility. and other global discourses to help end dominant power-constructed human suffering. privatization of public schools. Such a critical psychology focuses on typically underestimated human cognitive capacities. and ecologically sustainable world. the middle and upper socio-economic classes. having developed the notion of a critical postformal educational psychology. dominant colonizing cultures. and the unexplored dimensions of human cognition. critical constructivism.. critical multicultural education. he is viewed not simply as a key public intellectual of our era but a mentor and role model for young scholars. it is hard to refuse Kincheloe’s invitation into the ideas of critical pedagogy. equitable. Peter Smagorinsky (2007) argues in a review of Kincheloe's and Kenneth Tobin's Doing Educational Research: A Handbook that Kincheloe uses positivism as a inappropriate bogeyman in a misguided effort to ." See Raymond Horn (1999) for a comprehensive overview of Kincheloe's scholarship in the 1980s and 1990s. critical pedagogy. For those who follow Kincheloe's work. Kincheloe 32 Project for Critical Pedagogy Professor Kincheloe founded The Paulo and Nita Freire International Project for Critical Pedagogy at the Faculty of Education. He was dedicated to creating a critical pedagogy that helps individuals reshape their lives. Under Kincheloe's leadership the Freire Project is creating a global community of researchers and cultural workers in critical pedagogy.Joe L. scripted curricula for deprofessionalized teachers. In this context critical postformalism becomes a socially transformative psychology. Criticism Kincheloe's work is criticized for its use of a variety of methods and theories that serve to make issues more complicated than necessary. and corporate ownership of the news media—he tells the reader not to despair but to hope. Joe Kincheloe [outlines] the deepening crises of this nation’s actions at home and abroad—including preemptive wars against imagined enemies. He and Shirley R. post/anti-colonialism. the socio-cultural construction of mind. the research bricolage. For example. As educational scholar. McGill University. Steinberg have helped scholars/activists from around the world develop and publish over 500 books. His work on the failures of positivism and mainstream Western research methods have been characterized by conservatives as an attack on viable modes of inquiry and accepted forms of reason. become better scholars and social activists. complexity theory. re-create democratic spaces in a electronically mediated global world. and contemporary curriculum discourses. Postformalism posits that mainstream psychology has historically dismissed the cognitive abilities of those who fall outside of whiteness. collective intelligence. educational researcher.For any reader who aspires to do meaningful and transformative knowledge work. Some reviewers have labelled his multiperspectival bricolage as a form of anti-rationality. In his work over the last few years Kincheloe has focused much attention on the politics of knowledge and epistemology and the diverse ways they operate to shape human consciousness and socio-political and educational activities. Kincheloe is considered one of the leading scholars in critical pedagogy. In recent years Kincheloe has come to be known internationally as the conscience of critical pedagogy. realize their cognitive potential. Rucheeta Kulkarni (2008) writes: "With an authorial voice that blends conversational simplicity with visionary philosophy. and build and become members of communities of solidarity that work to create better modes of education and a more peaceful.. indigenous knowledges. He is the architect of a critical cognitive theory. Impact Central to Kincheloe's work in all of these areas is the construction of a rigorous form of multidimensional scholarship that draws upon critical theory.

Steinberg. R. 125-26. Sociation Today. 1. • Oakes. (1999). social.27. it is maintained. (2008). 33 Resources • Appelbaum. (2008). Detractors also critique Kincheloe's frequent attacks on U. N. http://edrev. Qualitative Inquiry. His analysis of "whiteness" and Caucasian racism have often drawn fire from more moderate and conservative analysts. are often unfair and reflect a one-dimensional biased point of view. Educational Review: A Journal of Book Reviews. 2nd edition. (2004). Review of Joe L. Kincheloe. 199-203. (2001). Educational Researcher. E. Such attacks. Steinberg's The Miseducation of the West: How Schools and the Media Distort Our Understanding of the Islamic World. Anthropology of Work Review. 27.Joe L. Kincheloe’s Critical Constructivism. http://edrev. Kirylo. 4. http://edrev. Steinberg & Joe L. 3. Review of Shirley Steinberg and Joe Kincheloe's 19 Urban Questions: Teaching in the City. • Lincoln. Review of Shirley R. and Aaron D. 25. Shirley R. Review of Joe Kincheloe. Steinberg's Students as Researchers: Creating Classrooms that Matter. (2000). An Emerging New Bricoleur: Promises and Possibilities (A Reaction to Joe Kincheloe’s “Describing the Bricoleur”). educational.net/doi/abs/10. Review of Joe L. R.htm • Leech. (2006). 42.edu/reviews/rev721. B. 3. • Bigger.asu. D. New York: Peter Lang.24 • Nesbit. P. Kincheloe's Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of Childhood. Labor Studies Journal.2. (1998). M. 2nd Edition.worc. (2006).edu/reviews/rev46. 28. Kincheloe and Shirley R. 1. Shirley Steinberg. Review of Joe L. Kincheloe: Teacher as Researcher. 50." Educational Researcher. 372-374 • • • • Horn. 693-705. • Nayar.htm • Aumeerally. (2011). (2006). A Cultural Studies Approach to Teaching the Sociology of Childhood. Review of Joe L. 7. http://edrev. Educational Review: A Journal of Book Reviews. Gresson III's Measured Lies: The Bell Curve Examined Comparative Education Review. Y. Review of Joe L. • Blake. http://www. Paulo Freire: The Man from Recife. (2007). Comparative Education Review. J. 4.edu/reviews/rev660. • Broadfoot.anthrosource. N. (2006). Educational Review: A Journal of Book Reviews. T.ac.S.2006. Steinberg's Changing Multiculturalism. Kincheloe and Shirley R. Kincheloe's Sign of the Burger: McDonalds and the Culture of Power. In Smagorinsky's opinion Kincheloe's work is misleading and dangerous for those legitimate scholars who would seek to engage in scholarship that produces assured answers to specific questions. 6.pdf. King. (1998). Review of Joe L. Nelson Rodriguez. . 4.uk/242/1/Kincheloe&Steinberg.htm • Blake. 2. Research and the "Inner Circle": The Need to Set Aside Counterproductive Language. J. 55-62. and Ronald Chennault’s White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America. P. "Joe L.htm • Kulkarni. S.asu.asu. Educational Review: A Journal of Book Reviews. N.asu. 36. Teaching Theology & Religion. Westminster Studies in Education. Kincheloe and Shirley R. and foreign policy. Kincheloe's How Do We Tell the Workers? The Socioeconomic Foundations of Work and Vocational Education. Review of Joe L. 4. Kincheloe resurrect this long-discredited way of knowing to justify radical perspectives on knowledge production. Knobel.1525/awr. Review of Joe L. http://eprints. (2004). Kincheloe's Critical Pedagogy.edu/reviews/rev264. D. (1999).

• Sew. (1999). • Critical Pedagogy. (Chinese Edition 2005). Boulder. 36. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8204-7616-2. Knowledge and Critical Pedagogy: An Introduction. London: Open University Press. Review of Joe Kincheloe's The Sign of the Burger: McDonald’s and the Culture of Power. (with Kathleen Berry) (Portuguese Edition. (2004). OCLC 47140812. (2003). • Rigour and Complexity in Educational Research: Conceptualizing the Bricolage. (with Shirley Steinberg) Edited: • Classroom Teaching: An Introduction. Joe L (2005). New York: RoutledgeFalmer. • Kincheloe. CO: Westview Press. 34 Bibliography Authored: • Kincheloe. Joe L (2008). (2001).edu/reviews/rev364. • Getting Beyond the Facts: Teaching Social Studies/Social Sciences in the Twenty-First Century. ISBN 978-1-56639-931-9. Rejoinder to Joe Kincheloe. & Education: Artful Teaching in a Fractured Landscape. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 2005) • Art. (2004). New York: Allan & Bacon. Nature. (with Shirley Steinberg) • 'The Stigma of Genius: Einstein. (1992). Educational Review: A Journal of Book Reviews. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Examining Relationships between Consumption. OCLC 57344185. Thomas). London: Springer. • Teachers as Researchers: Qualitative Paths to Empowerment. • Pigza. 17. New York:Peter Lang Publishing. 4.asu. Consciousness and Education. ISBN 978-1-4020-8223-8. (with P. New York: Peter Lang. (2006) Review of Joe L. 2nd Edition. • Multiple Intelligences Reconsidered. New York: Peter Lang. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. (2000). New York: Peter Lang Publishing. (1999). Curriculum Inquiry. Kincheloe College Literature. W. (2005). Joe L (2002). http://edrev. Dordrecht. • Hacia una Revision Critica del Pensamiento Docente. Culture. • Rumbo. Review of Joe L. (2006). 3. (2005). London: Open University Press. (with Karel Rose) • Contextualizing Teaching: Introduction to the Foundations of Education. A Thick Description of Thick Description.L. 199-203. 4. (2004). • Urban. 554-557 • Smagorinsky. (with Deborah Tippins and Shirley Steinberg) • Changing Multiculturalism: New Times. (2nd edition. 212-216. 33. (2007). (2002). Critical constructivism primer. New Curriculum. J.htm. Barcelona: Ocaedro. (2004). (1997). 22. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography. 2.W. Educational Researcher. P. 33. Co-edited: . Kincheloe's Multiple Intelligences Reconsidered.Joe L. 447-448. Kincheloe’s Critical Pedagogy. • Kincheloe. and Thinking: The Postformal Basics. The sign of the burger: McDonald's and the culture of power [2]. 218-230. Discourse in Society. and Culture. 2008). J. (2001). Writing. Longman. 4. OCLC 192027689. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. • 'How Do We Tell the Workers? The Socio-Economic Foundations of Work and Vocational Education. J. Co-authored: • Reading.

(2006). Lanham. (with Kecia Hayes) • Urban Education: An Encyclopedia. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. Colorado: Westview Press. (2006). (with Shirley Steinberg) • Cutting Class: Socio-economic Class and Education. • What You Don’t Know about Schools. (2006). (2001). Westport. Boulder. • Metropedagogy: Power. Retrieved 2010-09-22. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. (with Raymond Horn). 4 vols. Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Rotterdam. ca/ reporter/ 2009/ 01/ joe-l-kincheloe-1950-2008/ ). mcgill. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. (with Philip Anderson. and Teachers. 2005) (with Shirley Steinberg). (2006). (Arabic Edition. . Westport. (with Shirley Steinberg) • The Miseducation of the West: How the Schools and Media Distort Our Understanding of Islam. [2] http:/ / books. Parents. 2 vols. (with Peter McLaren) • Doing Educational Research. (2004). Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield. Kincheloe • Christotainment: Selling Jesus Through Popular Culture. (with Kenneth Tobin) • Teaching City Kids: Understanding Them and Appreciating Them. (2006). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. com/ books?id=jo88ePT5m0UC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_atb#v=onepage& q& f=false External links • : The Friere Project Website (http://freireproject. Rights bought by Rowman and Littlefield for 2nd edition: (2007) Urban Education: A Comprehensive Guide for Educators. (with Shirley Steinberg) • Critical Pedagogy: Where Are We Now? (2007).Joe L. Kecia Hayes and Karel Rose). Justice and the Urban Classroom. • Educational Psychology: An Encyclopedia. google. (with Raymond Horn). (2009). (2007). (2006). Westport. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield. Lanham. Kincheloe: 1950-2008" (http:/ / publications. Connecticut: Praeger Press. 35 References [1] "McGill Reporter: Joe L. Connecticut: Greenwood Press. The Netherlands: Sense Publishers. New York: Palgrave Press. • American Standards: Quality Education in a Complex World—The Texas Case.org/) .

Her most recent books include: Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of Childhood [3] (2011). she is committed to a global community of transformative educators and community workers engaged in radical love. Steinberg Dr. identity and knowledge (p. The pedagogy comes out of the concern with the intersection of power. a problematic term. Changing Multiculturalism and further refined in her book. she is an internationally known speaker and teacher. The International Journal of Youth Studies. but originally discussed in Kincheloe's and Steinberg's book. (2009). Diversity and Multiculturalism: A Reader [6] (2009). Steinberg Born Nationality Fields Institutions Baltimore. Gresson. John Fiske. and cultural studies. and Professor of Youth Studies at the University of Calgary. In Dr.Shirley R. Critical multiculturalism Critical Multiculturalism is an idea that draws upon the evolving theoretical position emerging in the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory in the 1920s. 29). Steinberg 36 Shirley R.[14] . The Toronto Globe and Mail. CTV. A regular contributor to CBC Radio One. Paulo Freire. is clarified into a position called ‘critical multiculturalism’. Media Studies. and the situating of power within social and cultural contexts. and Canadian Press. Originally a social/improvisational theatre creator. social justice. She is also the founding editor of Taboo: The Journal of Culture and Education [10]. [1] Notion of Kinderculture. and The Miseducation of the West: How Schools and Media Distort Our Understanding of the Islamic World [9] (2004).[13] The framework for Critical Multiculturalism was laid out in Steinberg's 2001 book. he writes. Media Literacy: A Reader [7] (2007). 25) and has an “emancipatory commitment to social justice and the egalitarian democracy that accompanies it” (p. urban and youth culture. Critical Pedagogy University of Calgary Alma mater Pennsylvania State University[1] Known for Influences Theory of Critical Multiculturalism. 26) in contrast to “a moral emptiness to pedagogies that attempt to understand the world without concurrently attempting to change it”. Teachers need to have experienced transformation if they are to teach transformatively. Stephen Bigger's 1998 review of Changing Multiculturalism. Diversity: A Reader. The co-founder of The Paulo and Nita Freire International Project for Critical Pedagogy [12]. Shirley R. 19 Urban Questions: Teaching in the City [4] (2010). Dorothy Heathcote Shirley R. "Multiculturalism. the award winning Contemporary Youth Culture: An International Encyclopedia [8]. Steinberg is the Director and Chair of The Werklund Foundation Centre for Youth Leadership in Education [2]. Christotainment: Selling Jesus Through Popular Culture [5] (2009). Aaron D. she is the organizer of The Critical Pedagogical Congress. she has facilitated happenings and flashmobs globally. Popular Culture. [1] [1] and Notion of Christotainment Antonio Gramsci. She is the author and editor of many books in critical pedagogy. Multi/Intercultural Conversations: A Reader. Maryland American Education. Cultural Studies. described with approval inasfar as it explores “the way power shapes consciousness” (p. The Montreal Gazette. and the Managing Editor of The International Journal of Critical Pedagogy [11].

Shirley R. This book won a Library Choice award. Kinderculture Steinberg is also known for her notion of kinderculture. human dignity. Curriculum and instruction based on postformalism involves detecting problems. seeing relationships. Kincheloe (Boulder.[15] Urban Youth Culture For the past decade. The third edition of the book is edited solely by Steinberg. This theory argues that while twentieth century educational psychology has made important advances. as defined in a recent book co-edited with Donaldo Macedo: Media Literacy: A Reader (New York: Peter Lang.' commodifies cultural objects and turns them into things to purchase rather than objects to contemplate (11). Steinberg and Kincheloe expand upon these theories to develop the specific connections between the social and the psychological dimensions of learning theory and Educational Psychology. multiple perspectives. deconstructing. beliefs. first introduced with Joe L. one's conception of media literacy analyzes the ways everyday decisions are encoded and inscribed by emotional and bodily commitments relating to the production of desire and mood. Christotainment: Selling Jesus through Popular Culture. and attending to context. Kincheloe. explores her idea of Christotainment by examining the ways in which principles. CO: Westview Press. The book was published in a second edition in 2004.[19] Christotainment Steinberg's book. 1997). deem important. and religious practices supported or constructed by Christian fundamentalist groups are promoted or bought and sold through the use of popular or mainstream media productions. which we label 'kinderculture.[22] Postformal thinking. The book included her chapter. Steinberg (and Kincheloe) outline the premise of the concept of kinderculture as using pleasure as its ultimate weapon." Steinberg and authors discuss new youth culture in regard to topics which youth. cultural. and social responsibility. 2009). freedom.[18] As senior editor of "Contemporary Youth Culture. and the distinct classification created when considering young men and women in North American city centers. uncovering hidden assumptions. 2007)." an examination into the cultural studies of Barbie." a candid look at the unique features of teens in different countries. and political forces that affect agency. according to Steinberg and Kincheloe write.[17] She also edited "Teen Life in Europe. concerns questions of meaning and purpose. The book is based on the notion that while many strongly believe that humans exercise agency. connecting logic and emotion. Co: Westview Press. themselves. According to Steinberg.[20][21] Post-Formalism Steinberg was the co-author of the theory of Post-Formalism with Joe L.[16] Her work with hip hop resulted in an instructional DVD with Priya Parmar from Brooklyn College.[23] . Steinberg contends that recent years have seen the rise of neo-Vygotskian analysis and situated cognition within the discipline of cognitive psychology. "The Bitch Who has Everything. Steinberg 37 Media literacy Steinberg's courses revolve around the critical pedagogical approach to media. that there are social. a time for reassessment has arrived. The book claims that it provides a critical understanding of media culture designed to develop the ability to interpret media as well as understand how it emotionally affects individuals. Steinberg has written about urban youth. Kincheloe in Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of Childhood (Boulder. co-edited with Joe L. the corporate children's consumer culture.

– Boulder. Review of Shirley R. 2nd Edition. N. Steinberg's The Miseducation of the West: How Schools and the Media Distort Our Understanding of the Islamic World. B. Kincheloe and Shirley R. Kincheloe's Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of Childhood. (2006). Primary Works Steinberg is the author and editor of many books.[26] Leech. Bigger. P. Steinberg's Changing Multiculturalism. 2010 (Co-edited with Michael Kehler and Lindsay Cornish) "19 Urban Questions: Teaching in the City" .ABC Clio. (1998). CT: Praeger Press. "Boyhood Culture: An Encyclopedia" . Sociation Today. (2nd edition. Gresson III's Measured Lies: The Bell Curve Examined Comparative Education Review. (2004). CT: Greenwood Press. Kowch. "Critical Pedagogy Primer. 2007 (Co-edited with Donaldo Macedo) Teen Life in Europe – Greenwich. Educational Review: A Journal of Book Reviews.[24] Aumeerally. 2004 (Co-edited with Joe L. Review of Joe L. N. Steinberg 38 Resources Appelbaum. Review of Joe L. Review of Joe Kincheloe. In conversation. Kincheloe. 36. CT: Praeger Press. Shirley Steinberg. Kincheloe) • The Miseducation of the West: How Schools and the Media Distort Our Understanding of the Islamic World Westport. 2005 Encyclopedia of Contemporary Youth Culture – Greenwich. (1998). 2004 (Co-edited with Joe L. Teaching Theology & Religion. Co: Westview Press. Kincheloe) 19 Urban Questions: Teaching in the City – New York: Peter Lang Publishing. 3. M.Shirley R. Kincheloe and Shirley R. 50.Boulder.NY: Peter Lang." New York: Peter Lang. CO: Westview Press. Shirley R. 1. 2nd Ed. Joe L. 2001 . 3. 2009 (Co-edited with Joe L. (2006). Kincheloe) Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of Childhood. Steinberg. (2012). Nelson Rodriguez. (2007). Educational Researcher. (unpublished) Knobel. Kincheloe) • Multi/Intercultural Conversations: A Reader – New York: New York: Peter Lang Publishing. Kincheloe) Media Literacy: A Reader – New York: Peter Lang Publishing. Review of Joe L.Boulder. Kincheloe and Shirley R. (1999). Oakes. Educational Review: A Journal of Book Reviews. 3. S. 4. Comparative Education Review. Review of Joe L. Broadfoot. Review of Shirley Steinberg and Joe Kincheloe's 19 Urban Questions: Teaching in the City. 2005 (Co-edited with Priya Parmar and Birgit Richard) Things You Don’t Know About Schools – New York: Palgrave Press. 2007 (Co-edited with Joe L. 2004 (Co-edited with Joe L. 212-216. D. 2005 (Co-edited with Joe L. Christotainment: Selling Jesus Through Popular Culture . CO: Rowman and Littlefield. Steinberg & Joe L. 55-62. including: • • • • • • • • • • • "Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of Childhood" . College Literature. E. 2008). 42. Sources Kincheloe. 372-374 King. (2006).[25] Blake. E. 2011 (edited). 199-203. N. Kincheloe) Cutting Class: Socioeconomic Class and Education – Boulder. and Aaron D. Co: Westview Press. (2004). 4. Westminster Studies in Education. Steinberg's Students as Researchers: Creating Classrooms that Matter. and Ronald Chennault’s White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America. 1. 33. (2004). Research and the "Inner Circle": The Need to Set Aside Counterproductive Language. A Cultural Studies Approach to Teaching the Sociology of Childhood. 2010. 4.

ac. Kincheloe) *NOTE: Translated into Portuguese and Spanish • Measured Lies: The Bell Curve Examined .New York: Garland Press. (2001). and Consciousness . Kincheloe) *NOTE: Translated into Chinese 2001 • Unauthorized Methods: Strategies for Critical Teaching . Multi/Intercultural Conversations. Kincheloe and Aaron D. R. • The Post-Formal Reader . edu/ ojs/ index. freireproject. Kincheloe) • Contextualizing Teaching . com/ search?q=cache:1J8gnqOaAGMJ:www. 1997 (Co-edited with Joe L. Kincheloe and Patricia Hinchey) • White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America . com/ Christotainment-Selling-through-Popular-Culture/ dp/ 0813344050 [6] http:/ / www. com/ search?q=cache:OFZf2KPOxksJ:freireproject. com/ book. com/ book/ show/ 5219712-christotainment+ christotainment+ reviews& cd=3& hl=en& ct=clnk& gl=us& client=safari) [22] See http:/ / www. amazon. + steinberg& source=bl& ots=_m0g12J52p& sig=L47cG9qBpbO7W4e9Wd9N7Ledj_8& hl=en& ei=Bq0HTZWEKoyssAO2oMSYDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CCwQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage& q& f=false) [17] (http:/ / webcache.New York: Longman Publishing. com/ books?id=hkfxAti_ExAC& pg=PA2& lpg=PA2& dq="teens+ in+ europe"+ steinberg& source=bl& ots=hjPefdDeyB& sig=gAxEhelatvX8sbEi8xNDRhesxfU& hl=en& ei=qK8HTdvcO4KosQP0ufyPDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false) [19] (http:/ / www. [2] http:/ / www. Education.New York: St. com/ prod/ post-formal-thinking-cognition-and-education/ q/ loc/ 106/ 30514871. 1998 (Co-edited with Joe L. com/ biblio/ 73-9780313327162-0) [20] (http:/ / webcache. (2001). New York: Peter Lang. powells. Ronald Chennault) • Students as Researchers: Creating Classrooms that Matter . com/ 2009/ 05/ christotainment-selling-jesus-through. amazon. Martin’s Press. educ. amazon. goodreads. org/ [13] Steinberg.New York: Routledge. Kincheloe) *NOTE: Translated into Spanish • Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of Childhood . 1998 (Co-edited with Joe L. CO: Westview Press. Martin’s Press. php/ ijcp [12] http:/ / www. ucalgary.London: Open University Press. googleusercontent. googleusercontent. com/ Urban-Questions-Counterpoints-Joe-Kincheloe/ dp/ 0820457728 [5] http:/ / www. New Curriculum . google. R. 1996 (Co-edited with Joe L.New York: St. L.New York: Peter Lang Publishing. amazon. westviewpress.London: Falmer Press. buy. Culture and Education . html+ christotainment+ reviews& cd=2& hl=en& ct=clnk& gl=us& client=safari) [21] (http:/ / webcache. googleusercontent. 2000 (Co-edited with Susan Talburt) *NOTE: Translated into Spanish • The Stigma of Genius: Einstein. com/ Contemporary-Youth-Culture-Volumes-International/ dp/ 0313337292 [9] http:/ / www. 1998 (Co-edited with Joe L.New York: Peter Lang Publishing.) Multi/Intercultural Conversations: A Reader. Kincheloe. (Ed. com/ books?id=p1pMbFQYBQgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=shirley+ r. uk/ 242/ 1/ Kincheloe& Steinberg. Kincheloe) • Changing Multiculturalism: New Times. New York: Peter Lang.Shirley R. 2000 (Co-edited with Joe L. com/ search?q=cache:LINayn6HET0J:feministreview. amazon. [14] See http:/ / eprints. white supremacy. com/ Kinderculture-Corporate-Construction-Childhood-Educational/ dp/ 081332310X [4] http:/ / www. In S.Boulder. uncg. pdf [15] (http:/ / www. Steinberg • Thinking Queer: Sexuality. freireproject. 1996 (Co-edited with Joe L. 1999 (Co-edited with Joe L. Kincheloe). com/ Miseducation-West-Understanding-Reverberations-Education/ dp/ 0275981606 [10] http:/ / www. html . com/ Media-Literacy-Reader-Donaldo-Macedo/ dp/ 082048668X [8] http:/ / www. and Kincheloe. blogspot. org/ category/ topic-tags/ taboo [11] http:/ / libjournal. worc. Nelson Rodriguez. 1997 (Co-edited with Joe L. amazon. php?isbn=9780813344898) [16] (http:/ / books. and patriarchy. Setting the context for Critical Multi/Interculturalism: The power blogs of class elitism. S. S. R. google. com/ Diversity-Multiculturalism-Shirley-R-Steinberg/ dp/ 1433103451 [7] http:/ / www. org/ content/ lyrical-minded-video+ lyrically+ minded+ priya& cd=4& hl=en& ct=clnk& gl=us& client=safari) [18] (http:/ / books. amazon. ca/ werklund/ [3] http:/ / www.New York: Peter Lang Publishing. 1999 (Co-edited with Joe L. Steinberg (Ed. Gresson III) • Thirteen Questions: Reframing Education’s Conversation: 2nd Edition . J. Kincheloe) 39 References [1] Steinberg.).

edu/ reviews/ rev264. 1993. 1993. edu/ reviews/ rev46. Steinberg [23] See http:/ / eric. filling and storing the deposits(Freire. and even controversial. As a result. p. perpetuating oppression in our educational systems. uk/ 242/ 1/ Kincheloe& Steinberg. 1993.ca/) Anti-oppressive education Anti-oppressive education encompasses multiple approaches to learning that actively challenge different forms of what proponents describe as oppression.Shirley R. Steinberg’s People Page at McGill University (http://people. htm) [25] (http:/ / eprints.52).ca/shirley.culturologist.[6] .com/) • The Paulo and Nita Freire International Project for Critical Pedagogy (http://freire.steinberg/) • Shirley R. p. Exploring perspectives on education that do not conform to what has become "commonsense" must be partaken as well. Thus.52).53). Anti-oppressive education expects to be different. asu.[5] In Paulo Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" (1993). classroom management and school culture. gov:80/ ERICWebPortal/ custom/ portlets/ recordDetails/ detailmini.[4] There is also an implication that institutional structure and policies must be transformed.[1][2] About Anti-oppressive education is premised on the notion that many traditional and commonsense ways of engaging in "education" actually contribute to oppression in schools and society.mcgill. This is the "banking concept" of education.mcgill. he stated that education is suffering from "narration sickness" (Freire. perhaps uncomfortable. oppressive social controls are never questioned and remain as an integral part of our culture thus.education. pdf) [26] (http:/ / edrev. It also relies on the notion that many "commonsense" approaches to education reform mask or exacerbate oppressive educational methods. As a result.54). p. projecting an absolute ignorance onto others. htm) 40 External links • Shirley R. asu. 1993. the more students work at storing these deposits entrusted to them. ac. worc. p.[3] The consequences of anti-oppressive education include a deep commitment to changing how educators conceptualize and engage in curriculum. in which the scope of action allowed by the students extends only as far as receiving. ed. jsp?_nfpb=true& _& ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ466427& ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no& accno=EJ466427 [24] (http:/ / edrev. That students simply memorize mechanically the narrated content transmitted by the educator. pedagogy. the less they develop the critical consciousness which would result from their intervention in the world as transformers of that world (Freire. negates education and knowledge as a process of inquiry (Freire. Steinberg’s personal blog (http://www. a characteristic of the ideology of oppression.

• The "hidden curriculum" encompasses all the values passed on by teachers and educators. ableism/disablism. the anti-bias curriculum presents all possible sides. (2007) Five Lenses for Anti-Oppressive Education: Partial Stories. Students will be able to analyze the topic from the different perspectives and see why and how different groups have different views of the subject.[1] Designing a curriculum Advocates claim there are two parts to an educational curriculum: • The "formal curriculum" consists of the educational content. history. and from the school or educational milieu (i. (2004) "Against Common Sense: Teaching and Learning Toward Social Justice. [2] "Center for Anti-Oppressive Education" (http:/ / antioppressiveeducation.. and instruction. textbooks). rather than being systematically infused into the entire curriculum. . Multicultural curriculum taught basic facts about different cultures. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Ualberta. (2000) "Toward a Theory of Anti-Oppressive Education. Anti-bias curriculum The anti-bias curriculum is an activist approach which its proponents claim challenges prejudices such as racism. 25-53. Anti-bias curriculum has a strong relationship to multiculturalism curriculum and its implementation. sexism. The anti-bias curriculum is seen by its proponents as a catalyst in the critical analysis of various social conditions. expectations. Paulo (1993). Improbable Conversations. It claims to allow the student to see the whole view of the subject. New York City. chosen holiday celebration. the hidden curriculum teaches children and students to value punctuality and transmits dominant culture (e. Instead of presenting the culturally dominant view of a subject. Anti-bias curriculum transgresses the boundaries by actively providing children with a solid understanding of social problems and issues while equipping them with strategies to combat bias and improve social conditions for all.Anti-oppressive education 41 References [1] "Dalene Swanson" (http:/ / www. homophobia. It is implemented as an active means of reducing social oppression with the ultimate goal of social justice in mind. Retrieved 2012-10-13. ualberta. For instance. manners). K. . The most notable difference between these two theories and practices is the age of the intended audience. . monetary norms. html). 70(1)." Review of Educational Research. Retrieved 2012-10-13. often on specially designated culture days or holidays. html). some people within the movement wanted students to know why they didn’t know about other cultures and why certain people of certain ethnicities and classes are less likely to be economically successful. [4] Kumshiro. evaluation. and other -isms. ageism.org. or person. idea. the culture of the educational setting). USA: The Continuum Publishing Company. course materials (e.g. Purpose The objectives of the anti-bias curriculum are to raise awareness of bias and to reduce bias. Antioppressiveeducation." Routledge: New York. Some of the people involved in the multiculturalism movement felt that it did not do enough to address social problems in the education system. Origin The anti-bias movement was born out of the multiculturalism movement. While this did increase students' superficial knowledge of other cultures. [5] Lang.e. [6] Freire. ca/ ~dalene/ Index.ca. org/ definition.g. [3] Kumashiro. Pete. K.

gender. interferes with interpersonal relationships.Anti-bias curriculum Anti-bias curriculum advocates claim that varying degrees and layers of oppression exist in educational institutions. and that a biased curriculum perpetuates oppression. greenwood. and social class. [3] J.uiuc. L. Retrieved November 6. This has produced "anti-bias" curricula that are overtly biased against people of European descent or in favor of people of African descent. and power. Activities that Promote Racial and Cultural Awareness.org/tools_teachers/tip_antibias_ed. Amos Hatch. tolerance and respect.nncc.analyz. The anti-bias approach is intended to teach children about acceptance.edu/vista/pdf_pubs/CHLDCARE." [2] Countering Prejudice against American Indians and Alaska Natives through Antibias Curriculum and Instruction. NY: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Inuit and Alaskan Natives. 42 Criticism Much of the anti-bias curriculum has been criticized for being Afrocentric rather than anti-bias. aspx) • Anti-Defamation League. Qualitative Research in Early Childhood Settings (http:/ / www. & Hohensee.[2] Other critics. asp) Anti-Defamation League Quotation: "Anti-bias education takes an active.nncc. (1999). have noted that some anti-bias curricula can be construed as actively or passively adopting an anti-European racist bias. such as Native Americans.asp (http://www. 2004. 2004. such as J.adl. in Anti-Bias Curriculum: Tools for Empowering Young Children. (1989). from http:// www.adl. org/ tools_teachers/ tip_antibias_ed. P.org/Diversity/sac26_anti-bias.ericdigests. Retrieved November 6. The anti-bias approach urges educators to be aware of these social limitations and to eliminate them. B.PDF) • Derman-Sparks. have said that typical anti-bias materials omit the contributions of non-African ethnic groups. Retrieved November 6. L.analyz. and impedes the acquisition of skills and knowledge. and to recognize the connections between ethnicity.html) . prestige. from Family Child Care Connections. seeking to minimize contributions of Europeans in favor of other ethnic groups. and opportunity.org/tools_teachers/tip_antibias_ed. (1994).(1993).ericdigests. from ERIC/EECE Digest: http://www.org/1992-1/early.uiuc. com/ catalog/ C4921.html (http://www. Educational experts such as Deirdre Almeida. problem solving approach that is integrated into all aspects of an existing curriculum and a school’s environment.edu/vista/pdf_pubs/CHLDCARE. htm) ERIC Digest. ericdigests.PDF (http:// web. htm (http://www. "Creating an Anti-Bias Environment" Chapter 2. Retrieved on November 6. (1992). obsolete or erroneous ideas about Native American culture.asp) • Biles. (http:/ / www. J. from the National Network for Child Care (NNCC): http://www. Implementing an Anti-Bias Curriculum in Early Childhood Classrooms. New York. What is Anti-Bias Education?. religion.htm) • Riehl. privilege. Five ways to analyze classrooms for an anti-bias approach.aces.org/1992-1/early. • Derman-Sparks.aces. adl. to critically analyze what they are taught. org/ 1997-2/ antibias. Amos Hatch. Portrayals of Native Americans in typical anti-bias materials conflate actual aboriginal practices with invented. 4(3) : http://web. 2004.B. 2004.[3] References [1] What is Anti-Bias Education? (http:/ / www.org/Diversity/sac26_anti-bias.

Purpose Anti-racist mathematics education is primarily concerned with the way in which mathematics is taught. • Van Ausdale. “What and How Children Learn About Racial and Ethnic Matters. “Bad Boys: Public Schools in the Making of Black Masculinity.Anti-bias curriculum 43 Further reading • Bartlett. Academic Imperalism Indian mathematician and polymath C.2 (1996): 186-203. An anti-racist approach to mathematics education could include any or all of the following: • Discussion of the mathematical knowledge of ancient civilizations outside of Europe. • Osborne. and non-European contributions to mathematical knowledge and discovery. • The avoidance of racial stereotypes or cultural bias in classroom materials. Lesley and Marla Frederick. although it also examines the contents of the curriculum in as much as this might reasonably differ from universally acceptable mathematical education. • The avoidance of racial stereotyping when forming and communicating expectations of pupils' attainments in mathematics.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 27.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 27. coursework topics and examination questions. (2001): 175-196.[6] . like Mary or Emily. while Western mathematicians often claim Western mathematics is universal.[3] Scholars such as C.[2] 'Anti-racist mathematics' and 'ethnomathematics' scholars share the assumption that any given mathematical understanding or practice is a product of a particular culture. For example. textbooks. could be used in story problems. in which different cultures can develop different forms of mathematics.3 (1996): 285-314. A. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. K. such as Chaim (Jewish). common non-European names. Jamal (Arabic). Raju has coined the term "academic imperialism" to describe western academic system's suppression of non-western mathematical ideas. Debra and Joe Feagin. “The Marketization of Education: Public Schools for Private Ends. These works claim that there is a sociocultural context to mathematical education and suggest that the study of mathematics in Western societies has traditionally exhibited racial or cultural bias.[4] He pointed out the contradiction in western mathematicians' claim that modern mathematics is a universal language. and would not work under a different logical system like the quasi-truth functional logic of Buddhism. K. rather than common European names. Raju have advocated multicultural mathematics.” The First R: How Children Learn Race and Racism. Enrique Murillo. who promote an anti-bias curriculum to counter a perceived bias in mathematical education.” (2000): 592-600. • Ferguson.[1]. Ann Arnett. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Barry. yet of Greek origin[5] He argued that modern western mathematics is built on two valued logic. or Muhammed (Islamic). Thaddeus Gulbrandsen. Anti-racism in mathematics teaching The issue of anti-racism in mathematics teaching has been the topic of some research works. “Practice into Theory into Practice: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy for Students We Have Marginalized and Normalized.

Liza Porteus of Fox News reported that an "anti-racist education" program in the Newton Public Schools district of the wealthy Newton. In D. D. M. Biology teaching in a racist society. Racist society."[11] In 2005. Racism in scientific innovation. In J. 43–58). 67–74 • Harding. 22-26. pp. 107–123). Gill and L. (pp. Multicultural and anti-racist mathematics teaching. 16–42). Anti-racist science teaching. C. • Young. Ernest (Ed. Gill and L. Levidow (Eds. Jones and K. Anti-racist science teaching (pp. Levidow (Eds. Anti-racist mathematics teaching and the national curriculum. K. (pp. R.[10] In her address to the Conservative Party Conference in October 1987. M. Mathematics teaching: The state of the art (pp. Sandra. (1987). London: Free Association.[7] Calculus was developed in India 250 years before Newton and Leibniz claimed independent rediscovery[8]. Mathematics Teaching. In D. • Cotton. • Levidow.[9] Opposition Former UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher made reference to anti-racist mathematics in expressing opposition to "multicultural" and "anti-racist" educational approaches. Raju has argued that the Catholic Church has systematically stolen mathematical knowledge from Muslim. she said how inner city children's opportunities for decent education were being "snatched away from them by hard-left education authorities" and that "children who need to be able to count and multiply are learning anti-racist mathematics. Institute of Education Publications. Massachusetts community angered some parents. London: Falmer. diversity and education (pp. Hindu.). K. • The Politics of Anti-Racist Mathematics. who perceived the program to focus more on political correctness than mathematics itself. 1986. In P. (1990). London: Hodder and Stoughton. Racism. European Education Journal. racist science. University of London. R.Anti-racism in mathematics teaching 44 European theft of non-European Ideas C. L. (1989). 229–235).). (1987).). whatever that is. London: Free Association. A. Persian and Arab sources. Guadara. July 1994. then gave these ideas a theologically correct Greek origin. Multicultural and anti-racist approaches to the teaching of science in schools. Kimberley (Eds. (1987).). . 132. • Mears. (Ed. Noss). 154–166). In D. (1986). Anti-racist science teaching. Gill and L. C. Levidow (Eds. 1990. Raju argued that Calculus was imported to Europe from India by Jesuit missionaries in order to calculate trigonometric values which were in great demand for the Mercator chart which was indispensable for European navigation. • Vance. T. • The Politics of Anti-Racist Mathematics in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Political Dimensions of Mathematics Education. The Science Question in Feminism.[12] Further reading • Woodrow.). London: Free Association.

C.searcharticlesresults. The Multicultural Dimension of the National Curriculum (http:/ / books. html).1.1. Rouse Ball [6] Zeroism and Calculus without Limits.html) . doi:10. K. Carl Sagan [4] http:/ / multiworldindia. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher declared: "Children who need to count and multiply are being taught antiracist mathematics. Reiss. C. pdf [8] http:/ / www. org/ wp-content/ uploads/ 2010/ 05/ ckr-Tehran-talk-on-academic-imperialism. net/ papers/ MathEducation1Euclid. U. 26. com/ books?id=5Q3MFCr7ht0C& printsec=frontcover& dq="Children+ who+ need+ to+ be+ able+ to+ count+ and+ multiply+ are+ learning+ anti-racist+ mathematics. Raju.Anti-racism in mathematics teaching 45 Notes [1] Ending Academic Imperialism: a Beginning.+ whatever+ that+ is.ac. K. The University of Manchester. ca/ news/ technology/ story/ 2007/ 08/ 14/ calculus070814. metapress. foxnews.).st-andrews.Ed. asp?referrer=linking& target=contribution& id=W46757K371456577& backto=contribution. . "At the Annual Conservative Party Conference in 1987. 2008 [7] http:/ / ckraju.) 26 (1): 67 .00. Peter Gates • Eurocentrism in Mathematics (http://www-history.uk/reviews/books/ issuesinmathsteaching. Abingdon. C. K. pdf [5] History of Mathematics.uk/pa/ cm200102/cmselect/cmsctech/508/508ap30.74. p. Liza (2005-02-08). com/ story/ 0.2..mcs. [12] Porteus.uk/history/Projects/Pearce/Chapters/ Ch10. Michael J. (1993). Math Class" (http:/ / www.1.htm) . C. html [9] Zeroism and Calculus without limits. com/ app/ home/ linking. google.publications. European Education (The Department of Econometrics and Social Statistics. England. Raju [3] Contact.org. Anna S. "#PPA26. Raju [10] George Gheverghese Joseph (Spring 1994). Fox News. ISBN 978-0-7507-0069-6. K.2933.parliament.M1).2753/EUE1056-4934260167.K. . whatever that may be"" [11] Quoted from King. .html) • Extract from memorandum submitted by the African-Caribbean Network for Science & Technology to the House of Commons Select Committee on Science and Technology (http://www.146684. Retrieved 2008-07-26. Raju [2] Is Science Western in Origin?. cbc.atm. "The Politics of Anti-Racist Mathematics" (http:/ / mesharpe. External links • Book Review: Issues in Mathematics Teaching (http://www. "'Anti-Racist' Message in Mass. Oxfordshire.

S. Teachers find large numbers of English as a Second Language (ESL) students in their classes in both urban and rural areas such as Iowa and Utah. with the help of this education method. Furthermore.[2] Under this circumstance. and diversity while teaching. multiculturalism is a tool for instilling students with pride and confidence in their unique and special backgrounds. society is pluralistic. when teachers pay attention to cultivate a multicultural atmosphere. It helps students develop a positive self-concept by providing knowledge about the histories. Additionally. clash. Antonia Darder. (4) an equity pedagogy. and grapple with one and other as if in the contact zone. multicultural education is a dialectical issue with two sides.[1] one of the leaders in the field of multicultural education. people started to improve the teaching methods. If done correctly. and in contributing to building healthy communities. Consequently. This theory concentrates on the need of including notions of race. Nelson Rodriguez. Multicultural education assumes that the future of U. Multicultural educators seek to substantially reform schools to give diverse students an equal chance in school. Cherry A. Moreover. Globalization is a social trend which integrates people with different cultural backgrounds. it may confuse international students and it cannot guarantee a fair education environment. James A. if teachers try to deliberately concentrate on providing multicultural examples. Steinberg. students will develop a positive perception of themselves by demonstrating knowledge about the culture. multicultural education may cause abandonment of original cultural for international students. Rochelle Brock. Multicultural education provides a relatively fair learning environment for international students. Christine Sleeter. describes five dimensions of multicultural education: (1) content integration. Banks. teachers in most urban areas face students from a variety of social classes and cultural and language groups. Peter McLaren. Henry Giroux. Cultures meet. Multicultural classrooms promote decision-making and critical thinking while moving away from inequality of opportunity and toward cultural pluralism.Multicultural education 46 Multicultural education Multicultural education is a set of strategies and materials in U. in the job market. This way. education that were developed to assist teachers to promote democracy while responding to the many issues created by rapidly changing demographics of their students. cultures. European American culture common to most college-educated teachers. McGee Banks. and contributions of diverse groups. Ernest Morrell. class. and (5) an empowering school culture and social structure. Many students do not share the middle-class. international students may feel being left out when teachers want to emphasize on multiculturalism. Kincheloe and Shirley R. Multiculturalism supports the idea that students and their backgrounds and experiences should be the center of their education and that learning should occur in a familiar context that attends to multiple ways of thinking. Multicultural education means to ensure the highest levels of academic achievement for all students. but there is no standard benchmark for multicultural education and teachers usually add their own values to their education. Leila Villaverde and many other scholars of critical pedagogy have offered an emancipatory perspective on multicultural education. history. (2) the knowledge construction process. Joe L. which can help them to more easily get involved in a new community. (3) prejudice reduction. The influence of multicultural education for international students shows on both positive and negative sides. it helps international students to gradually obtain global view. However. Sonia Nieto. which means the phenomenon of multicultural education is coming along with the development of globalization. Teachers sometimes use multiple examples to satisfy diverse students. and contributions of diverse groups. . international students can receive more opportunities to better access to knowledge.S. Today. Overall.

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Kincheloe and Steinberg's taxonomy of multicultural education
Kincheloe and Steinberg in Changing Multiculturalism (1997) described confusion in the use of the terms "multiculturalism" and "multicultural education". In an effort to clarify the conversation about the topic, they developed a taxonomy of the diverse ways the term was used. The authors warn their readers that they overtly advocate a critical multicultural position and that readers should take this into account as they consider their taxonomy.[3] Kincheloe and Steinberg's taxonomy of multiculturalism and multicultural education can be summarised as follows:

Conservative multiculturalism
Assumptions: 1. Unsuccessful minorities from culturally deprived backgrounds—undermined by a lack of family values. 2. Common culture—WASP norms as invisible barometer for quality form the basis of the curriculum. These norms should be transferred to the next generation. 3. Content of curriculum is decided by dominant cultural norms. I.Q. and achievement tests used uncritically to measure student acquisition of content and student cognitive ability. 4. Non-white ethnic groups are studied in conservative multiculturalism as add-ons to the dominant culture, outsiders expected to melt into the Great Pot. 5. The existing social order is just. 6. Whiteness is not included as an ethnicity—it becomes an invisible barometer of normality. 7. Education is a form of ethnicity striping for economic success.

Liberal multiculturalism
Assumptions: 1. Multicultural education should be based on a notion of “sameness”—we are all the same. 2. Racial inequality exists because of a lack of opportunity for minority groups. 3. Abstract individualism is central to Western social organization. In this context it is believed that all humans can succeed if given a chance. 4. In abstract individualism we are free agents responsible for our own success or failure. Such a position, Kincheloe and Steinberg maintain, often fails to account for hidden forms of racism and norms devised around dominant cultural traits. 5. Everyone enters the competitive race of life from the same starting-line. 6. Celebrations of Black or Latino history month are positive ways of honoring ethnic groups. Critics believe that liberal multiculturalism in this context often tokenizes ethnicity with such add-ons. 7. Whiteness still viewed as “non-ethnic” norm. 8. Studies of racism, sexism, class-bias, homophobia, and colonial oppression viewed as “divisive.” 9. Subjugated knowledge might be studied as a quaint manifestation of diversity—not profound alternative insights that provide everyone new and consciousness changing perspectives on the world.

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Pluralist multiculturalism
Assumptions are the following: 1. This discourse often has served as the mainstream articulation of multicultural education over the last 20 years. 2. Pluralist multicultural education shares numerous features with liberal multicultural—it focuses more on difference than liberal multiculturalism. 3. Like liberal multiculturalism, often serves as a form of regulation and decontextualisation that fails to problematise whiteness and the Eurocentric norm. 4. Diversity is intrinsically valuable to the dominant culture in a globalizing world with its free market economy. 5. Curriculum involves learning about Others, their knowledge, values, beliefs, and patterns of behavior. 6. Social unfairness does exist and education should address prejudices and stereotypes. 7. Education should build pride in minority groups’ heritage. It often studies members of such groups who have attained success (implies that anyone can make it). 8. Psychological affirmation is the equivalent of socio-political empowerment. 9. Like liberal multiculturalism often ignores issues of social class. 10. Non-whites are gaining upward mobility and empowerment in ways not matched in reality. 11. Race and ethnicity are viewed as private matters that hold little connection to the complex structures of patriarchy, class elitism and economic colonialism, and white supremacy. 12. The coverage of harsh realities of race, class, gender, and sexual oppression does not have to be “upsetting.” Thus, the horrors of such realities often become a form of cultural tourism instead of a rigorous analysis of human suffering. 13. As prejudice does exist between different cultures, children from multicultural families could play a role in building bridges within diverse cultures and help to improve this situation. 14. In order to provide a comfortable education environment to multicultural students, colleges should pay more attention to caring about various cultures. 15. In this multicultural society, people always get into the social groups with same cultures as them. 16. In a pluralistic multicultural educational society, laws exist to prohibit discrimination based on race, color, gender, age, and creed. Even though there are laws, the society of the United States still contain behaviors that are derogatory to some ethnic, cultural, and social groups, and are preferential to others. 17. Pluralist multicultural education segregates people. It also tends to isolate people in small individual groups that share the same cultural background. 18. More social unfairness is induced by the pluralistic approach to multicultural education. 19. In pluralistic multicultural education, the differences between cultures are usually being focused upon instead of the places where the cultures share commonalities. 20. The main flaw in United States is the fact that pluralism usually separates and isolates people racially, socially, and culturally different. People with similar cultures usually come together and form bigger cultures. For example, China Town, Little Italy, and The Hood are all formed from a blend of cultures. These cultures usually are defined by economic differences, not by ethnic differences.

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Left-essentialist multiculturalism
Assumptions: 1. A caveat: racism, class oppression, sexism, and homophobia are all forms of right-wing essentialism and have a far more pervasive impact on society than left-essentialist multiculturalism 2. Cultural differences are central to multiculturalism. 3. Races, ethnic groups, genders, and sexual orientations possess a specific set of characteristics that make them what they are. 4. These essential traits are romanticized, even exoticized in a process that positions difference in a distant past of social/cultural authenticity. This removes various groups from history, culture, and power relations and returns them to a primeval past. 5. One’s ethnicity or gender, their politics of identity guarantees that their pronouncements will be “politically correct.” Such a position undermines our attempt to analyze the ambiguous ways that historical forces shape our lives and our education. 6. That the “good guys” are now the “bad guys” and vice-versa. The curricula that come from this assumption simply invert traditional stereotypes and truth claims. Thus, a multicultural education is created that constructs a seamless history that in its moralistic reductionism fails to understand the subtlety of racism and other forms of oppression. 7. Subjugated knowledge is important in this context, but it is often romanticized as a pure manifestation of natural truth. In this way it can be passed along as a new authoritarian canon. 8. Second caveat: Kincheloe and Steinberg in their critique of left-essentialist multiculturalism in no way imply a rejection of the dire need for African American/Latino/indigenous studies or African American/Latino/indigenous based curricula. Because of the erasure of such knowledge in mainstream curriculum, such scholarship and such curriculum development is necessary. Such ethnic knowledges as well as gender, class, and sexual knowledges need to be studied as both separate and integrated phenomena—separate from white, male, middle/upper class, and heterosexual experience and inseparable from them at the same time.

Critical multiculturalism
1. Representations of race, class, gender, and sexuality are grounded on larger complex social struggles. 2. A multicultural curriculum is part of a larger effort to transform the social, cultural, and institutional structures that generate these representations and perpetuate oppression. 3. Race, class, gender, sexual differences exist in the context of power and privilege. 4. Unlike liberal, pluralist, and conservative positions, justice in Western societies already exists and only needs to be distributed more equitably. 5. Community is not built simply on consensus but on, as Paulo Freire put it, unity in diversity. In a multiethnic society that respects but does not essentialize differences, great gains can be realized in the cultivation of critical thinking and ethical reasoning. 6. A homogeneous community grounded on consensus may be unable to criticize the injustice and exclusionary practices that undermine it. 7. Reform of cultural pathology often comes from the recognition of difference, from the interaction with individuals who do not suffer from the same injustices. 8. Multicultural education is based on solidarity in difference: grants social groups enough respect to listen to their perspectives and use them to consider existing social values; realizes lives of individuals in different groups are interconnected to the point that everyone is accountable to everyone else. 9. It is essential to make commitment to the legitimation of multiple traditions of knowledge. 10. Students come to see their own points-of-view as one of many socially and historically constructed ways of seeing. 11. Difference in solidarity expands their social imagination, their vision of what could be.

S. it is based on an individual’s ability and openness to learn”. by the 1960s.[6] Talbot states. Multiculturalism is a developmental journey through which an individual enhances knowledge and skills about different cultures so that he/she can feel comfortable in any situation and can communicate effectively with other individuals from any culture. campuses implement their efforts in many ways. (5) theory and translation. (4) ethical and legal experience.[4] According to Talbot. Multicultural Affairs in some campus environments is a division of Student Affairs. Multicultural Affairs serves under different names such as. Each center encourages student participation in campus life. first published in 1984 and re published in 2003. 50 Departments of multicultural affairs Universities in the United States frequently have a Department of Multicultural Affairs.[5] diversity is an environment that consists of the tangible presence of individuals all of which represent unique and different attitudes. Barber in Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. many share the same goals and purposes. The Multicultural Affairs Centers provide a wide range of support programs for students. Hence. sexual orientation. if not all. Universal voting. characteristics. 13. Also. to provide safe inclusive environment where such development can occur. “Multiculturalism is not an inherent characteristic of any individual. and encourage all students to develop socio and cultural awareness of diverse cultural backgrounds and lifestyles. or gender. no matter his or her race. but in others it functions under the Admission Department. In this move the curriculum is dramatically changed. with the aim of creating an environment that promotes diversity and multiculturalism. Bill) would complete our transition to a deliberative or participatory democracy. It is not simply passed along as the new canon. Castellanos and Gloria proposed that in order for campuses to create a meaningful multicultural environment they must follow seven core competencies. Student Support Services. Multicultural education in k-12 schools in the U. attributes. and community service by providing advising. (7) multicultural awareness. Ethnic Resource Center. and beliefs. (6) administrative and management skills. and skills. mentoring. argued that public education was needed to educate all children. In some form or another. diversity and multiculturalism are integrated or embedded in the framework of many. Multicultural Affairs is a college or university’s efforts to incorporate these two concepts within their campuses. Although they are different in name. This position is well developed by political philosopher Benjamin R. as well as. along with universal education would make our society more democratic. Later. but is viewed in relation to the old canon. Multicultural Education should reflect the student body. or Diversity Office. it investigates both self and other. as well as promote understanding of diversity to the . public education advocates argued that educating working people to a higher level (such as the G. college campuses. An educated electorate would understand politics and the economy and make wise decisions . White male experience must be problematised as the norm. Notions of whiteness and the effects of “being white” should be critically examined—multicultural curriculum in this context explores the social construction of whiteness as an ethnicity. ethnicity.I. academic excellence. the purpose of Multicultural Affairs is to create an inclusive environment that can support. rather. advocacy. 14. While Multicultural Affairs centers their efforts on placing a value of diversity and building a sense of community.Multicultural education 12. Advocates of democracy in schooling. Multicultural education in public schools would promote acceptance of diversity. and leadership training to individual students as they pertain to overall student development issues.[8] Multicultural Affairs Centers address and implement cultural awareness and diversity differently. Subjugated knowledge becomes a living body of knowledge open to different interpretations. student organizations. knowledge.[7] Therefore. empower. (2) assessment and evaluation. (3) teaching and training. lead by John Dewey (1859–1952). the invisible standard by which other cultures are measured. including (1) helping and interpersonal skills.

In S. deliberative strategies and teaching decision making provide core procedures for multicultural education. Steinberg. Nelson and Leila Villaverde. Rodriguez. • Gresson. multicultural education should include preparation for an active. 2000. Rather than neutrality. A pro democracy position is not neutral. • Talbot. Dismantling White Privilege. NY: St. Multicultural education is appropriate for everyone. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. and be deliberative about decision making. Unity without diversity results in cultural repression and hegemony. 4th. An Introduction to Multicultural Education. • Campbell. NY: Peter Lang. White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America. Duane. Allyn/Bacon. America’s Atonement: Racial Pain. Shirley. From: Choosing Democracy. visible. pp. James Banks. ed. ISBN 978-0-13-503481-1. Multicultural Education should be inclusive.). a p[11] ractical guide to multicultural education. language and religious diversity in nation-states around the world. Schools. • Rodriguez. studentaffairs. NY: Peter Lang. [10] (Banks.Multicultural education dominant culture. 2004. Further.Pearson. particularly integrated schools. mutual respect. Allyn /Bacon • Kincheloe. 1997. Schools are not neutral. • Steinberg. Ronald. Sefa. Changing Multiculturalism (1997) [4] "Office of Multicultural Affairs" (http:/ / www. participatory citizenship. (4th Edition). describes the balancing forces in [9]( 4th. celebrated and tangible. schools should plan and teach cooperation. Changing Multiculturalism. Choosing Democracy: a Practical Guide to Multicultural Education. 1998. cultural. Used with permission. pp. Joe. edition. 2010. 340–341. • Kincheloe. Nelson. edition. the dignity of individuals and related democratic values. learn to work together. [3] Kincheloe and Steinberg. Woodward. and the Pedagogy of Healing. Citizens in a diverse democratic society should be able to maintain attachments to their cultural communities as well as participate effectively in the shared national culture. Choosing Democracy: a practical guide to Multicultural Education. The myth of school neutrality comes from a poor understanding of the philosophy of positivism. (2003). Pearson.century because of the deepening racial. Recovery Rhetoric. [7] p. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. and Chennault. provide a rich site where students can meet one another. Komives & D. Citizens need multicultural education in order to enter into the dialogue with your fellow citizens and future citizens . 2010. . Duane (2010). Edition. 2008) [11] Campbell. NY: Peter Lang. 2008) “Citizenship education must be transformed in the 21st. 2001. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. 340–341. James. 2003 [6] Komives & Woodard. Diversity without unity leads to Balkanization and the fracturing of the nation-state. R.” [10] Planning curriculum for schools in a multicultural democracy involves making some value choices. [8] Castellanos and Gloria (2007) [9] An Introduction to Multicultural Education. 51 References [1] Banks (2008) [2] Pratt. Student services: A handbook for the profession. [5] Talbot. • Banks. 2008. In addition to democratic values. 2008. Shirley. Aaron. Diversity and unity should coexist in a delicate balance in democratic multicultural nation-states. George J. columbia. teachers should help schools promote diversity. Multi/Intercultural Conversations. • Dei. Jr. (Eds. 2003. 426. . Martin's. a lifetime leader in multicultural education and a former president of both the National Council for the Social Studies and the American Educational Research Association. Racists Beware: Uncovering Racial Politics in the Post Modern Society. 4th. 4th. London: Open University Press. The schools were established and funded to promote democracy and citizenship. Joe and Shirley Steinberg. edu/ multicultural/ ). ethnic.

Mayorga.or.org/ Curriculum studies Curriculum studies (CS) is a concentration within curriculum and instruction concerned with understanding curricula as an active force of human educational experience. and Understanding Curriculum by William Pinar. There are programs in the field of curriculum studies in several Colleges of Education around the world.kr • Multicultural Education Review. Émile Durkheim. 44(4).pdf) • Alliance for Equity in Higher Education. from http:// learning. http://www.org/programs/the-alliance.kame. Paradigm. In Moral Education Durkheim wrote: "In fact.org • Korean Association for Multicultural Education (KAME). and have done so reasonably . 1995). Important CS books include The Curriculum: Perspective.ihep. http://www. Gloria. 2.org/multicultural • A Critical Examination of Anti-Racist Education (http://www. done his homework. Retrieved 8 November 2010. New York: (1991) 33-40. M. (2007). http://www. J. http://www. he must arrive at a specified time and with an appropriate bearing and attitude. He must not disrupt things in class. 1986. observed that that more is taught and learned in schools than specified in the established curriculum of textbooks and teacher manuals. Curriculum Studies was also the first subdivision of the American Educational Research Association. Retrieved September 9. He must come to class regularly.naspa. et al.writing101. one of the 19th Century founders of the discipline of Sociology. The shift from developing and evaluating curriculum to understanding curriculum is known as the "Reconceptualization" of the curriculum field. org/sc/scma/ • International Journal of Multicultural Education. A branch of curriculum studies that investigates how society transmits culture from generation to generation has been tagged with the term “Hidden curriculum” even though much of what is studied is hiding in plain sight.edchange. there is a whole system of rules in the school that predetermine the child’s conduct. (New York: Peter Lang Publishing. He must have learned his lessons. A.or. and Possibility by William Schubert (New York: Macmillan. http://www.cfm • American College Personnel Association Standing Committee for Multicultural Affairs.csse. known as Division B.org/naspajournal/vol44/iss4/art2 • Pratt.pdf 52 External links • Multicultural Education Pavilion. NASPA Journal.. 2008.Multicultural education • Castellanos. Specific questions related to curriculum studies include the following: • What should be taught in schools? • Why should it be taught? To whom should it be taught? • What does it mean to be an educated person? Proponents of CS also investigate the relationship between curriculum theory and educational practice and the relationship between school programs and the contours of the society and culture in which schools are located. M. M.ca/CJE/Articles/FullText/CJE19-4/ CJE19-4-08Mansfield.net/wp-content/readings/pratt_arts_of_the_contact_zone. Mary Louise. C. Student Affairs Professionals’ Self-report of Multicultural Competence: Understanding Awareness. Knowledge.myacpa. Salas.nameorg.ijme-journal. Art.kr/eng/journal. and Skills. http://www. Curriculum Studies emerged as a distinctive field in the late 1960s and early 1970s from educationists focused on curriculum development... For instance. http://kame. Arts of the Contact Zone.html • National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME). from http://publications.

exercising restraint.ualberta. completing work. or change curricula. Critical theorists like Henry Giroux (1983 "Theories of Reproduction and Resistance in the New Sociology of Education: A critical analysis. Philip (1968).). and Annette Laureau (1989.and arts-based researchers — have examined formal curricula. [3] • Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. It is through the practice of school discipline that we can inculcate the spirit of discipline in the child. For instance the Anthropologist John Ogbu examined curricula established by African American students (Signithia Fordham and John Ogbu 1986 "Black Students’ School Success: Coping with the Burden of ’Acting White. West Long Branch. essential for their later membership in society. Jean Anyon (1980. etc. He argued that primary school emphasized specific skills: learning to wait quietly. Jackson (1968) may have coined the term “hidden curriculum” in his book Life in Classrooms.uofaweb.’ The Urban Review18. and Teacher Education. therefore. trying.html • University of British Columbia in Vancouver: www. (Durkheim.[1] So-called “resistance theorists” conceptualized students and teachers as active agents working to subvert. cooperating. The Free Press.edu • Arcadia University. experienced curricula. Arizona. showing allegiance to both teachers and peers.Home Advantage: Social Class. They noted that “curriculum” was not a unified structure but incoherent conflicting and contradictory messages. Touching Eternity: The Enduring Outcomes of Teaching) have inquired about the long-term effects of curricula on student lives.uic. being neat and punctual. Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs). Philadelphia. "Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work. and hidden curricula. Images and Words that Wound: Critical Race Theory and Racial Stereotyping. The structural functional Structural functionalism sociologist Robert Dreeben (1968 On What is Learned in School) similarly concluded that the curriculum of schooling taught students to "form transient social relationships.ca/ctl/ Prospective_Students/CTL_Graduate_Programs/ Curriculum_Studies_and_Teacher_Development_%28CSTD%29/index.ubc. Together they constitute the discipline of the school. Statesboro. Since then. PA. Progressive researchers like Paul Willis (1977. a host of obligations that the child is required to shoulder. New York. and accept the legitimacy of categorical treatment". University of Toronto http://www. keeping busy. Other researchers have examined the interactions between racial and ethnic cultures and the dominant curricula of the school. and so on (Jackson. Émile (1961 [1925]). submerge much of their personal identity. GA.ca/secondaryed/ . to neo-Marxists to narrative.p. Dreeben argued that formal schooling indirectly conveyed to students values such as independence and achievement.edu/gcat/EDCIE.[2] Critical Race Theorists Critical race theory like Daniel Solórzano examined how racial attitudes constitute another “hidden” curriculum in teacher education programs (1997. Moral Education. USA [4] • Georgia Southern University. Life in Classrooms.Curriculum studies well. reject. USA [5] • University of Alberta in Edmonton: http://www.oise. USA. 148)" Phillip W." Journal of Education 162). and Parental Intervention in Elementary Education) have examined the ways that hidden and overt curricula reproduce social class position." Harvard Educational Review 53) began to examine the roles of students and teachers in resisting curricula both official and hidden. Curriculum Studies researchers ranging across the spectrum of paradigms — from conservative structural-functionalists. New Jersey: www. There are. Teacher Education Quarterly.shtml#e • Monmouth University.monmouth. 53 University programs in curriculum studies • Arizona State University in Tempe. 24). The interest in Curriculum Studies is thus cross disciplinary and of increasing importance to educational research and to the philosophy of education.utoronto.ca • University of Illinois at Chicago: http://www. Narrative and arts-based researchers like Thomas Barone (2001.

and secondly.edu/curriculum_studies/ 54 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Critical pedagogy Acting white http:/ / coe.[4] The main goal of engaging in social justice through education is to fight oppression by giving all groups the opportunity to receive resources more equally. have a sense of agency. while Charles A. deliberative practice of engaging society in fostering justice for all. class. edu/ foundations/ edd/ http:/ / www. IN: www. Educators may employ social justice instruction to promote unity on campus. and the instillation of such values in students. E. By promoting social justice pedagogy. appearance. socialistic educational model.edci. students can increase a sociopolitical consciousness. ability. ac.purdue. Following him were George Counts. Esposito and Swain studied urban teachers that promote social justice in their teaching by using culturally relevant pedagogy. While enjoying some popularity in teacher training programs. sexuality. arcadia. but also socially. pdf http:/ / www. asu. nwu. aspx?id=11808 http:/ / coe. teaching for social justice has also provoked criticism. Starting as early as the work of W. who may have been the first advocate for teaching for social justice when he developed the first theories about technical education and student engagement in the classroom in Democracy and Education. who focused on a democratically-inclusive. language. limit their methodology. B.edu • Purdue University: http://www. Freire expounded the belief that teaching is a political act that is never neutral. Critics' arguments are twofold: there is a lack of evidence supporting the philosophy's effectiveness as either a behavioral or instructional strategy. which can create a burden on educators ([5]). and help students develop a positive social and cultural identity . North West. Over the course of dozens of books. Beard and Myles Horton both provided more individualistic lenses which emphasized teaching for social justice. as well as mitigate boundaries to the general curriculum. Esposito and Swain found that these teachers that engage in social justice through their teaching have to ensure that their students not only thrive academically. After the publication of Pedagogy of the Oppressed in 1971. These boundaries often include race. Du Bois in the early 1900s.Curriculum studies • North West University. za Teaching for social justice Teaching for social justice is a philosophy of education centered on the promotion of social justice.iub. nor should they. A variety of social and political theories and backgrounds inform the practice of teaching for social justice. South Africa [6] • Indiana University. social activists and educators have called for the realignment of educative practices towards a conscious. Brazilian educator Paulo Freire became closely associated with teaching for social justice. and focus heavily on being good teachers without placing similar emphasis on being good citizens.[1][2] About Herbert Kohl argues that teachers may be inclined to teach against their conscience.[3] Other popular educators who have explored the practice of teaching for social justice include John Dewey. Freire proposed that educators focus on creating equity and changing systems of oppression within public schools and society. and gender. georgiasouthern. values cannot be explicitly taught. edu/ candi/ brochures/ curr_studies_E. edu/ academic/ default. Overcoming these inclinations is the crux of what he and many other educators call "teaching for social justice". Bloomington.

Peter McLaren.[9][10] and diverse group interactions.[15] The role of the teacher is to promote learning through facilitation. To that effect. disability. Jonathan Kozol. who pioneered a culturally-relevant.[11] In the modern educational realm of teaching and learning. anti-racist pedagogy. Joe L. including attention to fairness and equity with regard to gender. Teacher relationships The relationships teachers have with students also affect teaching for social justice. Recently teaching for social justice has been built on ethnographic and discourse research on the complex work of educators. Based on Vygotsky’s (1978) theory. Kincheloe. The physical environment of the classroom also plays a role in peer relationships. Teaching for social justice has a common goal of preparing teachers to recognize.[14] It is also important for students to understand equity issues in their classrooms. class. sexual orientation. Through this metacognitive approach to learning.[12] understanding the role of youth/adult partnerships in the classroom. Therefore. clustered desks would enable peer collaboration as well as small group instruction. Henry Giroux. etc.[7][8] Methods including cooperative group work.[12] as are access to information and resources for all students. and education more generally. students are now seen as active participants in the learning process. Khen Lampert. and intercultural teaching among others ([6]). For example the 2007 special issue no. Alfie Kohn. Michael Apple is remarkable for his democracy-focused project which reinforces the tenets of teaching for social justice. 20 of Philosophy of Mathematics Education Journal is devoted to social justice issues in mathematics education. including science education and mathematics education have sub-communities of teachers and scholars working on social justice issues. Ira Shor. Lev Vygotsky's (1978) social development theory requires students to play untraditional roles as they collaborate with one another. parent/teacher relationships are central. including works by bell hooks. 55 Peer relationships Peer relationships among learners are largely determinant of the outcomes of schools. the instructional design of material being learned would encourage peer-to-peer interaction.Teaching for social justice ([5]). and Lisa Delpit are among the growing body of modern educational theorists who have also contributed greatly to this practice. Michelle Rosser. students can also develop new ways to use their strengths in order to improve their weaknesses. Attention to social justice issues incorporates a broad range of sociological dimensions in teaching. .[13] and teachers actually learning about students. Helping students understand how they learn helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses as learners. name. and combat inequality in schools and society through culturally relevant pedagogy. Susan Searls Giroux. In this sense. race. critical classroom theory strongly informing teaching for social justice. A number of subject specific fields of practice and enquiry in education. the classroom serves as a community of learning. which can aid in the production of knowledge. and Stanley Aronowitz have each built upon the contributions of Freire to develop uniquely American critical examinations of culture and society.

To this effect. Not only will learning occur. it is imperative that teachers incorporate the culture of a student and relate it to the class work. there is also cultural and linguistic bias factors in the education of minority students. or unexpected. monocultural education creates a context in which schools do not embrace minority students’ cultural knowledge. Geneva Gay draws on the importance that “literature in the classroom would reflect multiple ethnic perspectives and literary genres. There are various multicultural trade books on the market that not only educate .). For example. Therefore. Many school districts call for teachers to become critically conscious of diversity in education by offering students well-planned units and lessons that develop knowledge of a wide range of groups. If culture is not incorporated. There are a variety of learning materials that would aid in the assistance of educating other students to appreciate various ethnic perspectives (i. it is important for teachers encourage the use of multicultural materials that will not only enhance the learning capacity of minority learners but also mainstream learners. teachers should dedicate a day out of each month to celebrate the culture of a particular minority student’s heritage. the importance of the nature and role of culture and cultural groups in students’ language and literacy development will help increase student self-esteem. It is also hopeful for teachers’ to understand that culture is a significant driving force in the lives of their student’s learning the English language. then minority students will ultimately feel apprehensive and subjugated to a dull educational atmosphere. social. Oftentimes. Also. The ethnic background of culturally diverse students should not be dishonored in the classroom. “Students who speak a language other than English at home and whose proficiency in English is limited are the fastest growing group of k-12 students in the United States.[12] and a teacher cannot teach under the assumption that “equal means the same. teachers need to be critically conscious[19] and offer students well-planned units and lessons that develop knowledge of a wide range of groups. and consumer habits of various ethnic groups. In actuality. diverse learning styles and techniques of other cultures.” With this in mind.[12] Educators can also match students’ cultures to the curriculum and instructional practices[22] In essence. the teacher is unable to help minority students solve daily learning tasks. This is a fascinating method to educate others in the class about their peer’s native background.[20][21] Curriculum building on acknowledgment rather than neglect the experiences of students. Math instruction would incorporate everyday-life concepts. To allude. The misconceptions stem from two basic assumptions that guide much current teacher preparation for diversity. rude. activities would reflect a variety of sensory opportunities-visual. Unfortunately. a teacher may be unaware of the background knowledge of minority students. Instead. the use of multicultural literature books can be used as an essential component to each student’s heritage.e.” As a result. it should be embraced and recognized as an important aspect of ones ethnic identity. which is a key element to the process of teaching and learning.” Students come from numerous cultures. whenever a mainstream teacher thinks minority student’s behavior is bizarre. this celebration and storytelling will encourage communication. which can also be implemented into the curriculum. According to Harper de Jong. tactile. which includes historical.[16] Understanding the effects of teachers on student learning is vital. Culturally responsive teaching is a very important element in regards to embracing a diverse students background[23] . etc. and cultural background experiences. employment. Educators can also match students’ cultures to the curriculum and instructional practices. multicultural literature. auditory. but also a time where heritage speakers can explore communicative activities such as experience sharing from his or her own native country. it can be a sign of cultural misunderstanding. which can cause any lesson to become meaningless. insufficient teacher awareness of culturally diverse students can create a few misunderstandings in the area of teaching minority students. In order to teach to the different learning styles of students.[12][17] [18] Additionally.Teaching for social justice 56 Classrooms The number of specific classroom issues that affect teaching for social justice are almost countless. lifestyles and values and a monocultural framework will not suit all student needs. such as economics. well-intentioned efforts to include diverse learners in general education reforms are often based on misconceptions about effective instruction for ELLs. For example. languages. In essence.

61. 38-48. Klecka. (1971) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Reading and Second Language Learners. Sonia (2004). Pennsylvania State University. Pathways to social justice: Urban teachers' uses of culturally relevant pedagogy as a conduit for teaching for social justice. 1. Odell. P. a bell. The University of South Carolina. [8] Boykin. shtml). Retrieved 5/20/07. pictures depicting an event.. (2001). (1994) What does it mean to teach for social justice? (http:/ / www. the University of Regina. (2005). Olympia. (1990). No. story reenactment. the Institute for Community Leadership and the Freechild Project. Lin. Privilege. edu/ ~prusso1/ Russos_what_does_it_mean_to_teach_for_s. E. [10] Costantino. Tyler. Affirming Diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education. Inc. Rutgers University Press.. [5] Esposito. O. and cultural values that will foster a lasting educational foundation on all learners 57 Relevant organizations Many universities and colleges have programs focused on teaching for social justice. Any of these interactive approaches to learning about one’s culture will make the lesson more interesting for minority learners. and religious boundaries. Some children’s literature. Douglas Brown.[30] In addition. must be learned through experience[25][26][27][28] as Aristotle said: "For the things we have to learn before we can do them. [14] Nieto.m. Los Angeles and the University of Washington. Perspectives on Urban Education. 4th ed. it is noted that educators should not teach based on mistaken belief systems in the teaching of minority learners. Inc.W.[31] References [1] Russo. political. State University of New York at Oswego. L. “Your own language classroom is an excellent place to begin the quest for a more humane world. Inc. [2] Sol Stern "Pedagogy of the Oppressor" City Journal. [6] Spalding. Our classroom can themselves become models of mutual respect across cultural. (2009). including Mosaic. [13] Lewis. S. Social justice and teacher education: A hammer. poster boards. In search of cultural themes and their expressions in the dynamics of classroom life. but on student ability. htm) SUNY Oswego. org/ archive/ 15_02/ Just152. or re-write an ending to a story. Criticism Sudbury model of democratic education schools maintain that values.Teaching for social justice students. & Miller. rethinkingschools. Volume 15. and Wang. New York: Teachers College Press. critics contest that the political and ideological priorities of the Teaching for Social Justice movement have little or nothing to do with the actual problems that struggling students face and in spirit harms the quality of the teachers of these students. such as historical fiction or stories related to social issues can also be used effectively with older or advanced proficient learners. N. 1994. In order to achieve these goals schools must allow students the three great freedoms—freedom of choice. According to H. Pearson Education. 521-547. New York: Oxford University Press. E. [4] Freire. teachers could design lesson plans for students to understand a traditional custom or event through the use of the following strategies: timelines. [9] Cohen. J. Rethinking Schools. dioramas.. Apprenticeship in thinking. including the University of Massachusetts. New York: McGraw-Hill. With a greater appreciation. A. P. Amherst [24]. creative costumes. and Swain.Winter 2000/01. Teaching for Social Justice (http:/ / www. . [7] Rogoff. WA: The Evergreen Center for Education Improvement. B. Designing groupwork. needs.. social justice included. S. oswego. and a song. freedom of action and freedom to bear the results of action—that constitute personal responsibility. Retrieved 5/20/07. 191-196. C. the University of California. 2 . Spring 2009 [3] Kohl. K."[29] They adduce that for this purpose schools must encourage ethical behavior and personal responsibility. A. (1999). 40(5). [11] Johnson. (2010).G. Urban Education. Journal of Teacher Education. power and difference.. J..(2004) Race in the school yard.A. but also strengthen their ability to read and comprehend each student’s heritage background. we learn by doing them. Swarthmore College. M. J.” Therefore. The Evergreen State College. [12] Nieto. A number of nonprofit organizations also support the practice in schools. H. E. A.

172: Lambert. Pearson Education. J. (eds) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations. Indianapolis: Kappa Delta Pi. 21:9.D. Retrieved October 21. Englewood Cliffs. html) City Journal. B. google. Research. & Peterson. & Schumm. R. Milwaukee: Rethinking Schools Ltd. "'Ethics' is a Course Taught By Life Experience. sudval. An Imprint of Wiley. and Disability (4th ed.+ DANIEL+ GREENBERG.(2007) Teaching Students. T. html#09) Retrieved October 27. 2009.. D. com/ 05_underlyingideas. Retrieved February 27. Pearson Education. and at risk. Nashville: Cumberland House. html#02) Free at Last — The Sudbury Valley School.). [23] Rosser& Massey (2013). [30] Greenberg. & Sleeter. evergreen. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory. M. [27] Greenberg. B. Oxford University Press. pp. 2009. [18] Rosser & Massey (2013). [24] http:/ / www. 2009. (1995). (Eds. L. [19] The Evergreen State College Student Teaching Assessment Rubric (http:/ / www. Milwaukee: Rethinking Schools Ltd. who are exceptional diverse. D." (http:/ / www. Indianapolis: Jossey-Bass.).E. Turning on Learning: Five Approaches for Multicultural Teaching Plans for Race. and Porter. S. New York: Teachers College Press.). Miner.F.A View from Sudbury Valley.S. NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.. com/ books?id=YQn_BA76TF4C& pg=PA60& lpg=PA60& dq=”Ethics”+ is+ a+ Course+ Taught+ By+ Life+ Experience.Teaching for social justice [15] Lewis.. and Quinn. Class. & Practice. Educational Leadership. Peter Lang. google. & Peterson. The Sudbury Valley School Experience. Karp. [26] Greenberg. (2007). in the general education classroom. city-journal. Bos.S.. D. Michelle (2011).. CULTURAL RESPONSIVENESS AND MOTIVATION IN PREPARING TEACHERS: PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS: DOES CULTURAL RESPONSIVENESS AFFECT ANTICIPATED SELF-DETERMINATION TO TEACH IN SPECIFIC SETTINGS?. google. H. com/ 05_onepersononevote. (1987).A. Christensen. [29] Bynum. [31] Sol Stern "Pedagogy of the Oppressor. Gender." (http:/ / books. umass. (1992). W. (Vol. Michelle (2011). C. W.. G. Education in America . who are exceptional diverse. ISBN 3844384693. • Garry. "Teaching Justice Through Experience.S. Rethinking Our Classrooms: Teaching for Equity and Justice. edu [25] Greenberg. com/ books?id=-UMqvLEcH0wC& pg=PA182& lpg=PA182& dq=Greenberg+ The+ Sudbury+ Valley+ School+ Experience. 172. sudval. "With Liberty and Justice for All. 10/27/08. (2006). P. 2009. New Press.A. J.. Rethinking Columbus: The Next 500 Years." (http:/ / www.A.S. 1). (Eds.." (http:/ / books. D. STAR Teachers of Children in Poverty. edu/ mit/ publications/ st_tch_handbook_05/ St_tch_hb_05_pt2_a. . C.. C.. B.+ A+ View+ From+ Sudbury+ Valley& source=bl& ots=Mg-gISVCwd& sig=k0nRX2sR8yRek3fp3ymUI_JRGTo& hl=en& ei=XVbKSf_uNNKrjAee57TPAw& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#v=onepage& q=& f=false) Retrieved October 21. Education in America . pdf). (1992).+ "Teaching+ Justice+ Through+ Experience"& source=bl& ots=V0kSui-GxZ& sig=mUlXhloDKABCzPYzmguJOWqVHCA& hl=en& ei=LhjfSsPtFIr-mQOjocimAg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CBIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=& f=false) Retrieved October 21. Spring 2009. 2007 [20] Vaughn. CULTURAL RESPONSIVENESS AND MOTIVATION IN PREPARING TEACHERS: PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS: DOES CULTURAL RESPONSIVENESS AFFECT ANTICIPATED SELF-DETERMINATION TO TEACH IN SPECIFIC SETTINGS?. D. (1998)Teaching for Social Justice: A Democracy and Education Reader. ISBN 3844384693. [16] Ayers.. • Gay. and at risk. • Bigelow. Bos. org/ 2009/ 19_2_freirian-pedagogy. (1987) Chapter 35. "Democracy Must be Experienced to be Learned. (1987) The Sudbury Valley School Experience "Back to Basics. Teaching by Principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (3rd Ed. The Power of Oneself. [17] Rosser-Cox. & Schumm." (http:/ / www. in the general education classroom. 2009." (http:/ / books. • Haberman. (2000).A View from Sudbury Valley. 2008. (1994). 58 Bibliography • Bigelow. Retrieved October 21. com/ books?id=YQn_BA76TF4C& pg=PA103& lpg=PA103& dq=Greenberg+ Education+ in+ America+ -+ A+ View+ from+ Sudbury+ Valley+ "Democracy+ Must+ be+ Experienced+ to+ be+ Learned"& source=bl& ots=Mg1fAMTBzg& sig=RU2ySV7AFFwxFNMqkAZQ6xHHP1I& hl=en& ei=qxnfSuCkB4_4mwOx4vWmAg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CA0Q6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=& f=false) Retrieved October 21.S. B. [28] Greenberg.). [22] Vaughn.S. • Grant. [21] Rosser-Cox. Hunt. Lambert. Peter Lang. B. J. Educational Leadership: The Power of Oneself.+ + EDUCATION+ IN+ AMERICA. • Brown. (2006) Cultural whiplash: The Unforeseen Consequences of America's Crusade against Racial Discrimmination... (1998). C.(2007) Teaching Students.

• Schutz. The Dreamkeepers. no longer distinguish between "general education" and "special education" programs.[1] Inclusive education differs from previously held notions of integration and mainstreaming.[5] This approach can be very similar to many mainstreaming practices. most specialized services are provided outside a regular classroom. 59 Inclusion (education) Inclusion in education is an approach to educating students with special educational needs. E. k. as the first and desired option while maintaining appropriate supports and services. full inclusion is the integration of all students. or to receive other related services. civil. 76(4). more intensive instructional sessions in a resource room. However. students with special needs spend most or all of their time with non-disabled students. even those that require the most substantial educational and behavioral supports and services to be successful in regular classes and the elimination of special. Some educators say this might be more effective for the students with special needs.[3] Classification Inclusion has two sub-types:[4] the first is sometimes called regular inclusion or partial inclusion. (2006) "More Than Words? Delving Into the Substantive Meaning(s) of 'Social Justice' in Education. G. de Jong. In this case. segregated special education classes. the students receive any additional help or special instruction in the general classroom. Compassionate Education: Erolegomena for Radical Schooling MD USA.[6] At the extreme. and may differ in little more than the educational ideals behind it. Under the inclusion model.[6] Special education .S. or at least for more than half of the day. and the student is treated like a full member of the class. Misconceptions about teaching English-language learners.[5] In the "full inclusion" setting. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Inclusion gives students with disabilities skill they can use in and out of the classroom.[5] Whenever possible. inclusion is about the child’s right to participate and the school’s duty to accept the child." Review of Educational Research. and students are pulled out of the regular classroom for these services. and the other is full inclusion. L. (1978). By contrast. the student occasionally leaves the regular classroom to attend smaller.[2] Fully inclusive schools. such as speech and language therapy. (2003).Teaching for social justice • Harper. students with special needs are educated in regular classes for nearly all of the day. Cambridge. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. Romman&Littlefield. which tended to be concerned principally with disability and ‘special educational needs’ and implied learners changing or becoming ‘ready for’ or deserving of accommodation by the mainstream. MA: Harvard University Press. For example. which are rare. Social Class. (1997). A premium is placed upon full participation by students with disabilities and upon respect for their social. the students with special needs are always educated alongside students without special needs. and educational rights. C. Implementation of these practices varies. the school is restructured so that all students learn together. Aaron. Mind and society: The development of higher psychological processes. (2004). and social work. Connie. 507-535. and Education: The Failure of Progressive Democracy introduction (http://educationaction.org) • Vygotsky. particularly if these services require special equipment or might be disruptive to the rest of the class (such as speech therapy). Social Action.[5] "Inclusive practice" is not always inclusive but is a form of integration.. occupational and/or physical therapy. instead. • Lampert. • North. Schools most frequently use them for selected students with mild to severe special needs. • Ladson-Billings. Inclusion rejects the use of special schools or classrooms to separate students with disabilities from students without disabilities.

not a place and those services are integrated into the daily routines and classroom structure. A mainstreamed student attends some general education classes. environment. exclusion or segregation in education. For example. Students with mild or moderate disabilities. local educational agencies provide a variety of settings. 60 Alternatives Students with disabilities who are not included are typically either mainstreamed or segregated. typically for less than half the day. self-contained classroom in a school that also enrolls general education students. Legal issues The new anti-discriminatory climate has provided the basis for much change in policy and statute. or might be placed in a dedicated. However. Some students may be confined to a hospital due to a medical condition and are thus eligible for tutoring services provided by a school district. but spend reading and mathematics classes with other students that have similar disabilities. • The Convention against Discrimination in Education of UNESCO prohibits any dicrimination. However. as well as disabilities that do not affect academic achievement. in policy and in law include: • The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) which sets out children’s rights in respect of freedom from discrimination and in respect of the representation of their wishes and views. art classes and storybook time. from special classrooms to mainstreaming to inclusion. Articulations of the new developments in ways of thinking.[10] Less common alternatives include homeschooling[11] and. A segregated student attends no classes with non-disabled students. Inclusion has been enshrined at the same time that segregation and discrimination have been rejected. . and it is not widely understood or applied to date. and assign students to the system that seems most likely to help the student achieve his or her individual educational goals. students with all types of disabilities from all the different disability categories have been successfully included in general education classes.Inclusion (education) is considered a service. instead of removing the student to meet his or her individual needs. such as using wheelchair. and often for less academically rigorous classes.[6][7][8][9] Much more commonly. working and achieving their individual educational goals in regular school environments and activities (reference needed). a young student with significant intellectual disabilities might be mainstreamed for physical education classes. the federal requirement that students be educated in the least restrictive environment that is reasonable encourages the implementation of inclusion for some students. • The UNESCO[12] Salamanca Statement (1994) which calls on all governments to give the highest priority to inclusive education. curriculum and strategies and brought to the student. are most likely to be fully included.[14] For schools in the United States. He or she might attend a special school that only enrolls other students with disabilities. nationally and internationally. They may have access to a resource room for remediation of course content. exclusion from education. this approach to full inclusion is somewhat controversial.[13] • The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) which calls on all States Parties to ensure an inclusive education system at all levels. particularly in developing countries.

to encourage a sense of belonging." Such practices reduce the chance for elitism among students in later grades and encourage cooperation among groups. meet. it merely moves the special education professionals out of their own classrooms and into a corner of the general classroom. on the playground. To avoid harm to the academic education of students with disabilities. create. Teachers often nurture a relationship between a student with special needs and a same-age student without a special educational need. a full panoply of services and resources is required. but it is relatively common for students with milder disabilities and less common with certain kinds of severe disabilities.[15] In the United States. on the bus and so on). peer tutoring. full inclusion does not save money. Another common practice is the assignment of a buddy to accompany a student with special needs at all times (for example in the cafeteria. adaptive curriculum Collaboration between parents. Also. several factors can determine the success of inclusive classrooms: • • • • • • Family-school partnerships Collaboration between general and special educators Well-constructed plans that identify specific accommodations. including:[17] • • • • • • • • Adequate supports and services for the student Well-designed individualized education programs Professional development for all teachers involved. teachers and administrators Sufficient funding so that schools will be able to develop programs for students based on student need instead of the availability of funding.[18] Teachers use a number of techniques to help build classroom communities: • Using games designed to build community • Involving students in solving problems • Sharing songs and books that teach community • Openly dealing with individual differences by discussion • Assigning classroom jobs that build community .[16] Necessary resources Although once hailed as a way to increase achievement while decreasing costs. emphasis is placed on the value of friendships. that no one type of student is better than another. modifications. reduce students' needs. 99% of students with learning disabilities like dyslexia are placed in general education classrooms.Inclusion (education) 61 Frequency of use The proportion of students with disabilities who are included varies by place and by type of disability. in most cases. general and special educators alike Time for teachers to plan. three out of five students with learning disabilities spend the majority of their time in the general education classroom. This is used to show students that a diverse group of people make up a community. or improve academic outcomes. and to remove any barriers to a friendship that may occur if a student is viewed as "helpless. In Denmark. In principle. and evaluate the students together Reduced class size based on the severity of the student needs Professional skill development in the areas of cooperative learning. regardless of whether the students are working above or below the typical academic level for their age. and goals for each student Coordinated planning and communication between "general" and "special needs" staff Integrated service delivery Ongoing training and staff development Common practices Students in an inclusive classroom are generally placed with their chronological age-mates.

For example. Students that are entirely excluded from school (for example. some students with special needs are poor candidates for inclusion because of their effect on other students.[19] Many schools expect a fully included student to be working at or near grade level. a student with severe attention difficulties or extreme sensory processing disorders might be highly distracted or distressed by the presence of other students working at their desks. epilepsy. children typically work in isolated settings one on one with a therapist.g. such that they represent a serious physical danger to others. being included requires that the student is able to attend school. greater emphasis has been placed on delivery of related services within inclusive. Case-Smith and Holland(2009) argue that children working on skills once or twice a week are “less likely to produce learning that leads to new behaviors and increased competence. general education environments. 2009. so students who typically use wheelchairs can stand when the other students are standing and more actively participate in activities • Encouraging students to take the role of teacher and deliver instruction (e. students with all types of mild disabilities.419]. students with severe behavioral problems. are poor candidates for inclusion. even when they are receiving therapeutic services. . and students whose disabilities require relatively few specialized services. While occupational therapists are often called to assess and implement strategies outside of school. The students that are most commonly included are those with physical disabilities that have no or little effect on their academic work (diabetes mellitus. as most students do attend school. etc. or who are educated outside of schools (for example. 2004] The importance of inclusive. Selection of students for inclusion Educators generally say that some students with special needs are not good candidates for inclusion. 2009] In traditional “pull out” service delivery models. Additionally. his ability to fully participate in common classroom activities. occupational therapy has shifted from the conventional model of “pull out” therapy to an integrated model where the therapy takes place within a school or classroom. it is frequently left up to classroom teachers to implement strategies in school. integrated models of service delivery for children with disabilities has been widely researched indicating positive benefits. As a result of the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Act. due to long-term hospitalization). are not violent. When a child displays fine motor difficulty. [Nolan.In recent years. Finally. Most students with special needs do not fall into these extreme categories. paralysis). do not have severe sensory processing disorders. but more fundamental requirements exist: First. due to enrollment in a distance education program) cannot attempt inclusion. Collaborating with occupational therapists will help classroom teachers use intervention strategies and increase teacher’s awareness about student’s needs within school settings and enhance teacher’s independence in implementation of occupational therapy strategies.Inclusion (education) • Teaching students to look for ways to help each other • Utilizing physical therapy equipment such as standing frames. some students are not good candidates for inclusion because the normal activities in a general education classroom will prevent them from learning. because the school has a duty to provide a safe environment to all students and staff. and zipping a jacket may be hindered.[5] For example. coloring. pg. such as cutting.” [Case Smith &Holland. food allergies. read a portion of a book to a student with severe disabilities) • Focusing on the strength of a student with special needs 62 Collaboration Inclusion settings allow children with and without disabilities to play and interact every day. [Case-Smith& Holland. Inclusion needs to be appropriate to the child's unique needs.

peer-mediated interventions. that the non-inclusion of these students would still be morally unacceptable. Advocates say that even if typical students are harmed academically by the full inclusion of certain special needs students. even regular inclusion may not offer an appropriate education. Arguments for full inclusion Advocates say that even partial non-inclusion is morally unacceptable.[25] .[5] Teachers of students with autism spectrum disorders sometimes use antecedent procedures. Proponents say that society accords disabled people less human dignity when they are less visible in general education classrooms. applied curriculum. and preferential for the special education teachers delivering the services. Inclusive education practices frequently rely on active learning. or what he or she wishes to do and learns whatever comes from that experience. Inclusion requires some changes in how teachers teach.[23] A combination of inclusion and pull-out (partial inclusion) services has been shown to be beneficial to students with learning disabilities in the area of reading comprehension. multi-level instructional approaches.[22] Advocates for inclusion say that the long-term effects of typical students who are included with special needs students at a very young age have a heightened sensitivity to the challenges that others face.[5] He also says that for some students. is a reasonable approach for a significant majority of students with special needs.[21] A second key argument is that everybody benefits from inclusion. self-management strategies. Maria Montessori's schools sometimes named as an example of inclusive education. as well as many who are deaf or have multiple disabilities. which benefits all of society. and that a school that fully includes all disabled students feels welcoming to all. and increased attention to diverse student needs and individualization. not just students with special needs.[24] Inclusive education can be beneficial to all students in a class. pivotal response training and naturalistic teaching strategies.[21] Proponents believe that non-inclusion reduces the disabled students' social importance and that maintaining their social visibility is more important than their academic achievement. everyone is exposed to a "rich set of activities. Advocates say that there are many children and young people who don't fit in (or feel as though they don't). notably those with severe autism spectrum disorders or mental retardation. authentic assessment practices. as advocates believe that the harm to typical students' education is always less important than the social harm caused by making people with disabilities less visible in society. Moreover.[20] 63 Relationship to progressive education Some advocates of inclusion promote the adoption of progressive education practices." and each student does what he or she can do. Some research show that inclusion helps students understand the importance of working together. as well as changes in how students with and without special needs interact with and relate to one another. but not full inclusion.Inclusion (education) Bowe says that regular inclusion. and improved leadership skills. In the progressive education or inclusive classroom. at least one author has studied the impact a diversified student body has on the general education population and has concluded that students with mental retardation who spend time among their peers show an increase in social skills and academic proficiency. and fosters a sense of tolerance and empathy among the student body. increased empathy and compassion. delayed contingencies.

The study determined that children in the integrated sites progressed in social skills development while the segregated children actually regressed. Positive effects on children without disabilities include the development of positive attitudes and perceptions of persons with disabilities and the enhancement of social status with nondisabled peers. from which many show considerable benefit in both learning and emotional development. A study on inclusion compared integrated and segregated (special education only) preschool students.[31] Some researchers have maintained school districts neglect to prepare general education staff for students with special needs. Studies have not corroborated the proposed advantages of full or partial inclusion. school districts often expound an inclusive philosophy for political reasons.[30] At least one study examined the lack of individualized services provided for students with IEPs when placed in an inclusive rather than mainstreamed environment.[26] Several studies have been done on the effects of inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms.[27] Another study shows the effect on inclusion in grades 2 to 5.[34] Some argue that inclusive schools are not a cost-effective response when compared to cheaper or more effective interventions. Proponents counter that students with special needs are not fully into the mainstream of student life because they are secluded to special education. all on behalf of the students who have no so say in the matter. . Specific learning disabilities students also showed an improvement in self-esteem and in some cases improved motivation. such as special education. using the word as a phrase to garner attention for what are in fact illusive efforts to education students with special needs in the general education environment.[32] Inclusion is viewed by some as a practice philosophically attractive yet impractical.[28] Criticism Critics of full and partial inclusion include both educators.[29] Full inclusion may in fact be a way for schools to placate parents and the general public. and post school adjustments. general education classroom teachers often are teaching a curriculum while the special education teacher is remediating instruction at the same time. Although with the increase of incidence of disabilities in the student population.Inclusion (education) 64 Positive effects There are many positive effects of inclusions where both the students with special needs along with the other students in the classroom both benefit. "push in" servicing does not allow students with moderate to severe disabilities individualized instruction in a resource room. administrators and parents. Moreover. Full and partial inclusion approaches neglect to acknowledge the fact most students with significant special needs require individualized instruction or highly controlled environments. many educational outcomes. and do away with any valuable pull-out services. this is a circumstance all teachers must contend with. Research has shown positive effects for children with disabilities in areas such as reaching individualized education program (IEP) goal. thus preventing any achievement. They argue that special education helps "fix" the special needs students by providing individualized and personalized instruction to meet their unique needs. This is to help students with special needs adjust as quickly as possible to the mainstream of the school and community. increasing positive peer interactions. Moreover. improving communication and social skills. and is not a direct result of inclusion as a concept.[33] Parents of disabled students may be cautious about placing their children in an inclusion program because of fears that the children will be ridiculed by other students. Thus. a child with serious inattention problems may be unable to focus in a classroom that contains twenty or more active children. Similarly. or be unable to develop regular life skills in an academic classroom. The study determined that students with specific learning disabilities made some academic and affective gains at a pace comparable to that of normal achieving students.

immigrants. racial. Schwartz. steps should also be taken to eliminate discrimination and provide accommodations for all students who are at a disadvantage because of some reason other than disability. html) Definition of inclusion. References [1] Allen. Inc. According to UNESCO. Gloria Ladson-Billings[40] points out that teachers who are culturally responsive know how to base learning experiences on the cultural realities of the child (e. com/ dictionary_/ inclusion. [5] Bowe. Delmar Cengage Learning. The Inclusive Classroom (http:/ / lib. and Education. NV). Educational Psychology. 65 Broader approach: social and cultural inclusion As used by UNESCO [36]. [3] Scheyer et al. page 309. K. JPG) [4] (http:/ / encarta. Renee and Christine Walther-Thomas.g. (2002). International Journal of Disability. 87-95 [8] Mainstreaming to full inclusion: From orthogenesis to pathogenesis of an idea. It is centered on the inclusion of marginalized groups. HIV/AIDS patients. belief systems). staff). 201-214. However.[42] They say that all students can learn and benefit from education.S. language background. org/ 5kwrE8sgg) 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2010-06-10. (2008). Although inclusion is generally associated with elementary and secondary education. msn. com/ hw7. community members. Department of Education. such as religious. by the Equity Alliance at ASU [39].[37] In the U. girls. Making Inclusion Work.).[35] where the benefit of inclusion has not yet been proved. social. (1996). for example in Region IX (AZ. 2007. and linguistic minorities. (2000). (2003).. page 49. The challenge of rethinking and restructuring schools to become more culturally responsive calls for a complex systems view of the educational system (e. In some places. and that schools should adapt to the physical. I. teachers. the poor.P. where one can extend the idea of strength through diversity to all participants in the educational system (e. and cultural needs of students. students with disabilities.. [6] ”Understanding Psychology Eighth Edition”. The Inclusive Classroom Teacher Created Materials. rather than students adapting to the needs of the school.” Remedial and Special Education 20 (1999): 216-225. Proponents believe that individual differences between students are a source of richness and diversity. CA. Tapasak. inclusion refers to far more than students with special educational needs. Merrill Education/Prentice Hall. cultures and practices in schools and learning environments so that diverse learning needs can be met.A. Development. (2005). parents. Robert S. this broader definition is also known as "culturally responsive" education. which should be supported through a wide and flexible range of responses.”[37] Under this broader definition of inclusion. R. ISBN 0-7668-0249-3. Frank. ethnic. K. Archived (http:/ / www. . remote populations.see Michael Patton[43]). it is also applicable in postsecondary education. Proponents want to maximize the participation of all learners in the community schools of their choice and to rethink and restructure policies. page 23. [2] “Students learn the importance of individual and group contributions and develop valuable life skills that are often unexplored in less inclusive settings” (Tapasak 216).g. The Exceptional Child: Inclusion in Early Childhood Education (4 ed. whatever the origin or nature of those needs. [7] Student teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion of children with special needs. E. Proponents argue that culturally responsive pedagogy [41] is good for all students because it builds a caring community where everyone's experiences and abilities are valued. Hastings. home life. “Evaluation of a First-Year Inclusion Program: Student Perceptions and Classroom Performance. S. Print. webcitation. and is promoted among the ten equity assistance centers [38] of the U. Kavale. curricula.Inclusion (education) Some argue that isolating students with special needs may lower their self-esteem and may reduce their ability to deal with other people. inclusion “is increasingly understood more broadly as a reform that supports and welcomes diversity amongst all learners.S. syndetics. community experiences. at least one study indicated mainstreaming in education has long-term benefits for students as indicated by increased test scores. pl?isbn=1557348804/ LC. accessed October 11. these people are not actively included in education and learning processes. & Oakford. Feldman. In keeping these students in separate classrooms they aren't going to see the struggles and achievements that they can make together.g. and more.

MD" Woodbine house. The Guilford Press. NY: National Center for Learning Disabilities. html [39] http:/ / www. 1988. (2003) The Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning & Participation in Schools.(1998). 32. Exceptional Children. 62. (1995). R. Friendships as an educational goal: What we have learned and where we are headed. bps. UNESCO: Paris. [33] An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Resource Rooms for Children with Specific Learning Disabilities Lawrence H. Baltimore: Paul H Brookes Plublishing Co [24] Marston. The Sociometric status of students with disabilities in a full-inclusion school. R.. "Transformation Ahead for Special Education" The Arizona Republic.). 28(8). C. M. and life. page 69. The State of Learning Disabilities. Rockville.F.A. Down Syndrome.. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 2: pp. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed. Bristol: Center for Studies in Inclusive Education . T.. TX 78757-6897 [31] Espin. (1996). J. http:/ / unesdoc. L. NY. [10] Jorgensen. un. D. Successful inclusion for students with autism: creating a complete. Sonja R. Cloninger. 135-145. cfm?file_uuid=CE1DCB9D-1143-DFD0-7EA9-5C1B82EA4596& ext=doc British Psychological Society position statement on inclusive education [43] Patton. 223 . W. 51(11). [29] Barkley. [23] Giangreco. B. Vol. Choosing outcomes and accommodations for Children (COACH): A guide to educational planning for students with disabilities (2nd ed. Brookes Publishing Co. asp?TablePath=TablesHTML/ table_4. Learning and Instruction. [41] http:/ / ea. (1995). 38–42. equityallianceatasu. (2007).The Journal of Special Education. Putting inclusion into practice: perspectives of teachers and parents. uk/ downloadfile. (2005). [28] Banerji. C.J. Preserving Special Education. [36] http:/ / www. Stainback & S. M. Reading between the lines and beyond the pages: A culturally relevant approach to literacy teaching. Allyn & Bacon.P. Exceptional Children. Adults with mild intellectual disabilities: Can their reading comprehension ability be improved? Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. E. P. Douglas. ncld. unesco. [11] Homeschooling in the United States: 2003 (http:/ / nces. Vol. Richard L. C. C. & Nisbet.197-213.. (1998). P.229. In W. M. Developmental evaluation: Applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use. (http:/ / www. (2009). (1992). Apr 1969. & Carey. "Vouchers Help the Learning Disabled: Lesson from 22 countries: Special-education students thrive in private schools". [22] Trainer. pdf [38] http:/ / www2. K.. Theory Into Practice. (1995). & Bruns. No. pp. M. [19] Carroll. V. Doug.S. 312-320. vol. A Study of the effects of an inclusion model on students with specific learning disabilities. & Dailey. org. shtml). 830-845.. 66 • Ainscow M.. org/ lc/ Record/ 137?search_query=Culturally%20Responsive [42] http:/ / www. DP Hallahan. Nakken. Stainback (Eds.). & Stainback. effective ASD inclusion program. Article 24 – Education.. [16] Cortiella. Baltimore: Paul H. org/ stateofld) New York.. Booth T. scribd. [15] Robert Holland (06/01/2002).G. Journal of Learning Disabilities.The Illusion of Full Inclusion: A Comprehensive Critique of a Current Special Education Bandwagon. Inc. Praisner. Deluca. [26] Bennett. [35] van den Bos. The effects of cooperative learning on junior high school students during small group learning. Laurence M. [34] This information provided by SEDL. 21 September 2006 [20] Simpson. 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd. Differences in common: Straight talk on mental retardation. 3.. D. unesco. C. Weiner Journal of Learning Disabilities.. The Heartland Institute.. Inclusion: A guide for educators. [21] Stainback. New York. org/ [40] Ladson-Billings.. 30. niusileadscape. (2004).& Iverson. 511-522. 31(4). H. 14(2). R. The Journal of Special Education. com/ doc/ 37626440/ UNESCO-Education-Inclusion-Policy-Guidelines [37] UNESCO (2009) Policy Guidelines on Inclusion in Education. Nicolay. The inclusion facilitator's guide.Inclusion (education) [9] Attitudes of elementary school principals toward the inclusion of students with disabilities. Schuh. (1997). & Strully.). unesco. org/ en/ inclusive-education/ [13] Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs. [17] This list from the Utah Education Association. org/ images/ 0017/ 001778/ 177849e.J. ed. gov/ programs/ equitycenters/ index. J. PDF) (PDF-File. ISBN 0-470-23080-0. 2. Weston: Nobb Hill Press Inc. (2003).. C. ed. Controversial Issues Confronting Special Education...Individualized Education Programs in Resource and Inclusive Settings. M. [30] JM Kauffman. de Boer (2009). Exceptional Children. 198 KB) [14] Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (http:/ / www.M. Balitmore: Paul H. [27] Sale. New York: Guilford.& van Houten. gov/ pubs2006/ homeschool/ TableDisplay. org/ education/ pdf/ SALAMA_E. No. Brookes Publishing Co.A. 164-174 (1998) [32] Lieberman.. Austin. D. (1991). S. 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Brookes Publishing Co. support strategic leadership and management and improve educational and social inclusion.alumni.com/) .Inclusion (education) • Thomas.org) -.msu.html) • An autistic person objects to inclusive education (http://iautistic. Thomas E. 67 External links • IDEAdata.uk) • noexclusion.uk) . The Paraprofessional's Guide to the Inclusive Classroom • Conrad M. (1997).kidstogether..com/autistic-school-life-problems. Schuh. & Whitaker T. (2007) Deconstructing Special Education and Constructing Inclusion (2nd Edition).parrotpublishing. (http://www. • Inclusion and Social Justice Articles (http://www. J.com/Inclusion_Chapter_7.edu/caitlah/ inclusiveteachingresourcenetwork.inclusiveschoolsupport. (2005). Maidenhead: Open University Press. htm) • Social development: Promoting Social Development in the Inclusive Classroom (http://www.current statistics about IDEA..php) • Working in partnership with schools. org/english/guidelines/modulefour/social/socialskills.org.circleofinclusion. M.co.ideadata. G. • Elementary programming for inclusive classrooms (http://www. The Clearing House • Jorgensen. Inc. Inclusion and the law: A principal’s proactive approach.com: Inclusion means NO Exclusion (http://www. (http://www.. A.A directory of articles on the internet with a specific section on inclusion in education.html) • M.noexclusion. C. including the number of American children and youth who are educated all or most of the time in general classrooms. The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Instruction • Mary Beth Doyle. & Loxley. Baltimore: Paul H. Mastropieri.isja. children's services and agencies to raise the academic. • Inclusive Teaching Resource Network by The Center for Applied Inclusive Teaching and Learning in Arts and Humanities at Michigan State University (http://knowledgenetwork. Scruggs.org) Information and resources for inclusion.org (http://www. social and personal achievement of all learners. & Nisbet.. The inclusion facilitator's guide. • Kids Together.

but distinct from. save lives and maintain human dignity is central to understanding humanitarian education. nationality. It is based on the assumption that people have an innate desire to help others. often referred to as the laws of war. knowledge and attitudes needed for individuals and communities to help themselves. issue or event must be within the framework of the principles of humanity and impartiality. It develops their understanding of humanitarian issues. Humanitarian education is linked to. economic.[1] Definition and context Humanitarian education is an area of learning that concentrates on the desire or impulse to save lives. Aspects of IHL are often topics within humanitarian education. Curriculum content By exploring crisis situations humanitarian education enables students to recognise that people can overcome adversity. . or simply teaching about the work of aid or development NGOs. religious. The way in which educators explore with students any topic. Goals and outcomes The goal of humanitarian education is that communities increase their resilience and that individuals and groups are more confident. protect human dignity and reduce suffering. since the humanitarian impulse is founded on needs rather than rights or entitlement. the skills that build resilience and encourages them to intervene to support others in crisis. A desire to reduce suffering. able and willing to help themselves and others when faced with a crisis. social class. education about international humanitarian law. It began to be developed and encouraged in the UK by the British Red Cross during 2005. so is centrally concerned with our shared humanity. Difference from other forms of education Its origins in the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement mean that humanitarian education is sometimes confused with development education or global education. It does not directly address causes and explicitly avoids exploring political. environmental or other factors that might contribute to or create a crisis. In the UK it may appear within curriculum subjects such as citizenship and Personal.Humanitarian education 68 Humanitarian education Humanitarian education teaches various social topics from a humanitarian perspective. It particularly relates to offering assistance to others in an emergency or crisis and is also used to refer to the skills. Social and Health Education. Adherents also stress that humanitarian education is philosophically and practically distinct from human rights education.

Theorists like John Dewey. is primarily responsible for the move to student-centred learning. interests. With the advent of progressive education in the 19th century. Unique. students are capable of achieving lifelong learning goals. and provide students with varied tools. whose collective work focused on how students learn.org. some educators have largely replaced traditional curriculum approaches with "hands-on" activities and "group work". Sobhi. placing the teacher as a facilitator of learning. teachers direct the learning process and students assume a receptive role in their education. receptive role. is in contrast to teacher-centred learning. learning becomes an incentive. and Lev Vygotsky. that is. In being active agents in their learning. Key amongst these changes is the premise that students actively construct their own learning. responsible participants in their own learning. and the influence of psychologists. Jean Piaget. Student-centred learning means inverting the traditional teacher-centred understanding of the learning process and putting students at the centre of the learning process.uk/education) International Committee of the Red Cross (http://www.org. This classroom teaching method acknowledges student voice as central to the learning experience for every learner. Background In traditional education methodologies. Student-centred learning is focused on each student's needs. such as teachers and administrators. yet distinctive learning styles are encouraged in a student-centred classroom. Student-centred learning. course content and interactivity of courses. Self-determination theory focuses on the degree to which an individual’s behaviour is self-motivated and 'self-determined'. A variety of hands-on activities are administered in order to promote successful learning.ifrc.org/eng) International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (http://www. This approach has many implications for the design of the curriculum. Student-centred learning allows students to actively participate in discovery learning processes from an autonomous viewpoint. Carl Rogers' ideas about the formation of the individual also contributed to student-centred learning. Humanitarian Education and the British Red Cross programme for Schools. rather than those of others involved in the educational process. also called child-centred learning) is an approach to education focusing on the needs of the students. which can further enhance student motivation in the classroom. abilities. when students are given the opportunity to gauge their learning. in which a child determines on their own what they wants to do in class. students corroborate Carl Rogers' theory that "the only learning which significantly influences behaviour [and education] is self discovered".[2] . Armstrong (2012) claimed that "traditional education ignores or suppresses learner responsibility".redcross.icrc. where preschool children learn through play.org) Exploring Humanitarian Law Virtual Campus (http://www.uk) Resources for teachers (http://www. putting students needs first. Maria Montessori was also an influence in centre-based learning. such as task. 2002 External links • • • • • Brtitsh Red Cross Official site (http://www.Humanitarian education 69 References [1] Tawil.and learning-conscious methodologies.ehl. Students spend the entire class time constructing a new understanding of the material being learned in a proactive way. Teacher-centred learning has the teacher at its centre in an active role and students in a passive. Student-centred learning requires students to be active. and learning styles.icrc. Therefore.redcross.[1] With the use of valuable learning skills. and differs from many other learning methodologies. creating a better environment for students to learn.org) Student-centred learning Student-centred learning (or student-centered learning.

Student-centred learning Because learning can be seen as a form of personal growth, students are encouraged to utilize self-regulation practices in order to reflect on his or her work. For that reason, learning can also be constructive in the sense that the student is in full control of his or her learning. Over the past few decades, a paradigm shift in curriculum has occurred where the teacher acts as a facilitator in a student-centred classroom. Such emphasis on learning has enabled students to take a self-directed alternative to learning. In the teacher-centred classroom, teachers are the primary source for knowledge. Therefore, the focus of learning is to gain information as it is proctored to the student, providing rationale as to why rote learning or memorization of teacher notes or lectures was the norm a few decades ago. On the other hand, student-centred classrooms are now the norm where active learning is strongly encouraged. Students are now researching material pertinent to the success of their academia and knowledge production is seen as a standard. In order for a teacher facilitate a student-centred classroom, he or she must become aware of the diverse backgrounds of his or her learners. To that end, the incorporation of a few educational practices such as Bloom's Taxonomy and Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple intelligences can be beneficial to a student-centred classroom because it promotes various modes of diverse learning styles, thereby accommodating the varied learning styles of students. The following provides a few examples of why student-centred learning should be integrated into the curriculum: • Strengthens student motivation • Promotes peer communication • • • • Reduces disruptive behaviour Builds student-teacher relationships Promotes discovery/active learning Responsibility for one’s own learning

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These changes have impacted educator's methods of teaching and the way students learn. In essence, one might say that we teach and learn in a constructivist-learning paradigm. It is important for teachers to acknowledge the increasing role and function of his or her educational practices to work within their own biases, and create a student-centred environment. As educational practices evolve, so does the approach to teaching and learning. The mindset about teaching and learning is constantly evolving into new and innovative ways to reach diverse learners, and is impacted by new research and inquiry such as Gardner and Denig's dialogue on multiple intelligences. When a teacher allows their students to make inquiries or even set the stage for his or her academic success, learning becomes more productive. With the openness of a student-centred learning environment, knowledge production is vital when providing students the opportunity to explore their own learning styles. In that respect, successful learning also occurs when learners are fully engaged in the active learning process and teachers cater content to specific learning needs. A further distinction from a teacher-centred classroom to that of a student-centred classroom is when the teacher acts as a facilitator, as opposed to instructor. In essence, the teacher’s goal in the learning process is to guide students into making new interpretations of the learning material, thereby 'experiencing' content, reaffirming Rogers' notion that "significant learning is acquired through doing".[3] In terms of curriculum practice, the student has the choice in what they want to study and how they are going to apply their newfound knowledge. According to Ernie Stringer, “Student learning processes are greatly enhanced when they participate in deciding how they may demonstrate their competence in a body of knowledge or the performance of skills.” This pedagogical implication enables the student to establish his or her unique learning objectives, and mate them to their specific learning biases and needs. This aspect of learning holds the learner accountable for production of knowledge that he or she is capable of producing. In this stage of learning, the teacher evaluates the learner by providing honest and timely feedback on individual progress. Building a rapport with students is an essential strategy that educators could utilize in order to gauge student growth in a student-centred classroom. Through effective communication skills, the teacher is able to address student needs, interests, and overall engagement in the learning material, creating a feedback loop that encourages self-discovery and education.

Student-centred learning According to James Henderson, there are three basic principles of democratic living, which he says are not yet established in our society in terms of education. The three basic tenets, which he calls the 3S’s of teaching for democratic living, are: • (Subject Learning)- Students learn best from subject matter thoughtfully presented. • (Self-Learning)- One must engage oneself in the generative process. • (Social Learning)- Empathy is wealth in this regard, social interaction with diverse others the target for generosity. Through peer-to-peer interaction, collaborative thinking can lead to an abundance of knowledge. In placing a teacher closer to a peer level, knowledge and learning is enhanced, benefitting the student and classroom overall. According to Lev Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), students typically learn vicariously through one another. Through a socio-cultural perspective on learning, scaffolding is important when fostering independent thinking skills. Vygotsky proclaims, "Learning which is oriented toward developmental levels that have already been reached is ineffective from the view point of the child's overall development. It does not aim for a new stage of the developmental process but rather lags behind this process." In essence, instruction is designed to access a developmental level that is measurable to the student’s current stage in development.

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Teacher-directed instructions
In teacher-directed instruction: • • • • Students work to achieve curricular objectives in order to become critical thinkers Students complete activities designed by the teacher to achieve academic success Students respond to positive expectations set by the teacher as they progress through activities Students are given extrinsic motivators like grades and rewards in which motivates children to internalize information and objectively demonstrates their understanding of concepts • Student work is evaluated by the teacher A teacher-directed approach to learning recognizes that children require achievable expectations and that students must have a solid foundation before learning a new concept. For example, in order to learn multiplication properly, a student must understand repeated addition and grouping. This process cannot be discovered by most students without the direction of a teacher.

Implementation considerations
To implement a student-centred learning environment, attention must be given to the following aspects of learning: • • • • What the child is curious about learning Teaching strategies to accommodate individual needs: intellectual,emotional Student's social needs: collaboration, communication, peer approval Curriculum goals overall

Because the focus is on individual students rather than whole class structures, teachers often offer choices and adaptations within lessons, which empowers student growth. This is a role teachers must be comfortable with if they are to implement a student-centred learning environment. To be considered a student-centred learning environment it has to be open, dynamic, trusting, respectful, and promote children's subjective as well as objective learning styles. Students may collaborate in hands-on problems and draw their own conclusions, or develop their own learning based on self-direction. This experiential learning involves the whole child—their emotions, thoughts, social skills, and intuition. The result of student-centred learning is a person who arguably develops self-confident and critical thinking..

Student-centred learning

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Assessment of student-centred learning
One of the most critical differences between student-centred learning and teacher-centred learning is in assessment. In student-centred learning, students participate in the evaluation of their learning. This means that students are involved in deciding how to demonstrate their learning. Developing assessment that support learning and motivation is essential to the success of student-centred approaches. One of the main reasons teachers resist student-centred learning is the view of assessment as problematic in practice. Since teacher-assigned grades are so tightly woven into the fabric of schools, expected by students, parents and administrators alike, allowing students to participate in assessment is somewhat contentious.

Application to Higher-Education
The student-centred learning environment has been shown to be effective in higher education. A certain university sought to promote student-centred learning across the entire university by employing the following methods: • Analysis of good practice by award-winning teachers, in all faculties, to show that, they made use of active forms of student learning. • Subsequent use the analysis to promote wider use of good practice. • A compulsory teacher training course for new junior teachers, which encouraged student-centred learning. • Projects funded through teaching development grants, of which 16 were concerned with the introduction of active learning experiences. • A programme-level quality enhancement initiative which utilised a student survey to identify strengths and potential areas for improvement. • Development of a model of a broadly based teaching and learning environment influencing the development of generic capabilities, to provide evidence of the need for an interactive learning environment. • The introduction of programme reviews as a quality assurance measure (Kember, 2009). The success of this initiative was evaluated by surveying the students. After two years the mean ratings indicating the students' perception of the quality of the teaching and learning environment at the university all rose significantly (Kember, 2009). The success of the initiative at the university in this study indicates that by adapting a more student-oriented approach to education, the students will enjoy a more positive learning experience which will likely help them develop greater passion for learning and lead to more success in their learning endeavours. As well, this approach involves students in their overall education, creating a proactive involvement in learning.

Criticisms of Student-centred learning
Student-centered does not mean student-directed choosing or catering to whatever the students wish to learn or do. Too often student-centered learning is interpreted to mean that students should choose the topics, methods, and activities. Student-centered learning is merely supposed to put the student at the center of the learning (such as inquiry-based pedogogies) as opposed to putting the teacher at the center of the activity (such as lecture-based pedagogies), and allowing the student to be aware of his or her learning. John Dewey expects the teacher to actively design and facilitate activities that lead to meaningful experience, but experiences that put the student at the center of the activity and learning. As he writes about aims in learning, “[a]n aim implies an orderly and ordered activity.”[4] The teacher is not expected to abdicate responsibility for instructional design nor the imposition of certain expertise.

sclthailand.. J. J.at/ Publications/2002/Motschnig_IEEE20002_Student_Centered_Teaching. Susan Fauer Company. (2009). Promoting student-centred forms of learning across an entire university. ca/ academic/ cut/ options/ Feb_99/ ActiveLearning_en. 41 [3] Kraft. 281–296. B.).pri. Educational Media International. htm [2] Kraft. html [6] http:/ / www.upenn. 141–161. Available online at http://www. pp.cbe. • Estes. & A. New York. (2004). & Ryan. edu. G. pp. H. "Higher Education. Susan & Williams. L.pdf • Pedersen. Bike riding and the art of learning. R. Student-Centred Teaching Meets New Media: Concept and Case Study. E.wharton.Functions and Applications. uow. Multiple intelligences and learning styles: Two complementary dimensions. • Denig.). Hansen (Eds. Pg. M.S. • Iyoshi. Cognitive Tools and Student-centred Learning: Rethinking Tools. [5] http:/ / lsn. In L. (1985). K. D. Available at http://projects. . S. Cheryl. Bike riding and the art of learning. pp. & Holzinger. Educational Technology & Society. org/ biblio/ b-learn. Learning theory. Promoting Student-Centred Learning in Experiential Education. (1992). (2005). • Motschnig-Pitrik. 41 [4] Dewey. edutopia. New York: The Free Press. John. • Henderson. (2004). Roland Christensen. R. 1916: 102. New York: Basic Books. J. Teachers College Record. Journal of Experiential Education. 160–172. Upper Saddle River. B.ac. The encyclopedia of informal education. Teachers College Press. C. org/ blog/ student-centered-learning-activities-paul-bogdan [10] http:/ / www. Barnes. • Kember. 1–13. Pg. 27(2). 42(4).Articles on the topic from an Asian perspective" [10] References [1] Smith. org/ blog/ student-centered-learning-environments-paul-bogdan [9] http:/ / www. Benjamin. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. au/ 2005_v02_i02/ barraket004. edutopia. (2004). (1994). pp. NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. au/ tlf/ tlf2000/ sparrow. & A. uottawa. htm [7] http:/ / jutlp. (1994). 58"(1). Democracy and Education. C.ca/central/altudl/FILES/ Multiple_Intellegences_Learning_Styles. Micaheal & Wang. Teaching and the case method. (1956). Barnes. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. 13(3). M. Hansen (Eds. J. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.ab. R. David. In L. Frames of Mind: The Theory of multiple intelligences. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. (2003). infed. Doug. Available at http:/ / www. 5(4). Natural Learning in Higher Education (http://marketing.Student-centred learning 73 External resources • • • • • • A paper from the Teaching and Learning Forum 2000 titled: "Student-centred learning: Is it possible?" [5] Active Learning [6] "Teaching Research Method Using a Student Centred Approach? Critical Reflections on Practice" [7] "Student-Centered Learning Environments: How and Why" [8] "Student-Centered Learning Strategies for Math and Other Subjects" [9] "Student-Centered Learning Thailand . html [8] http:/ / www.G. Heidelberg: Springer • Bloom.univie. curtin. 96-111. Hannafin. (1983). Toru. G. A Comparison of Assessment Practices and Their Effects on Learning and Motivation in a Student-Centred Learning Environment. A.pdf • Douglas. • Deci. (2002). pp. (2012). 106(1). K. (2009). edu. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Engaging learners through artmaking: Choice-based art education in the classroom. Intrinsic motivation and self-determinaton in human behaviour. R. J. Inc. Feng. Roland Christensen. Teaching and the case method.edu/files/ ?whdmsaction=public:main. • Gardner.file&fileID=3459). Reflective teaching: Professional artistry through inquiry. New York: Pienum. org • Armstrong. 283–307. & Jaquith.

pp.Student-centred learning • Pedersen. Susan & Liu. It proceeds from this philosophical basis to examine. movies. This perspective is reflected in the works of Peter McLaren. Research and Development. 74 Critical literacy Critical Literacy is an instructional approach. but usually involves a search for discourses and reasons why certain discourses are included or left out of a text. Teachers' Beliefs About Issues in the implementation of a Student-Centred Learning Environment. Australia. (2003). (2nd Ed. The important thing is being able to have a discussion with others about the different meanings a text might have and teaching the potentially critically literate learner how to think flexibly about it. web pages. (2008). and the UK. For post-structuralist practitioners of critical literacy. Action research in education. the ability to read words on paper is not necessarily required in order to engage in a critical discussion of "texts. while sharing many of the ideas of Neo-Marxist/Freirean critical literacy.springerlink. stemming from Marxist Critical pedagogy." which can include television. These approaches overlap in many ways and they do not necessarily represent competing views. (1978). and Jean Anyon. frequently seen as enacted by corporate and/or government entities. as first described in Education as the Practice of Freedom published in 1967 and his most famous book Pedagogy of the Oppressed.com/content/m282r52l18576651/fulltext. art and other means of expression. Min. published in 1968. E.[3] New Zealand. Upper Saddle River. Freirean critical literacy is conceived as a means of empowering unempowered populations against oppression and coercion. There are several different theoretical perspectives on critical literacy that have produced different pedagogical approaches to teaching and learning. Critical Literacy. In fact. Cambridge. but they do approach the subject matter differently. Henry Giroux.S. The Freirean perspective on critical literacy is strongly represented in critical pedagogy. 51(2). NJ: Pearson Education Inc. etc.). According to proponents of critical literacy. analyze. the definition of this literacy practice can be quite malleable. Critical literacy encourages readers to actively analyze texts and offers strategies for what proponents describe as uncovering underlying messages. . Educational Technology. Other philosophical approaches to critical literacy. among many others. music. • Vygotsky. the practice is not simply a means of attaining literacy in the sense of improving the ability to decode words.[2] including Canada.pdf • Stringer. Available online at http://www. 57–74. L. may be viewed as a less overtly politicized expansion on these ideas. Two major theoretical perspectives within the field of critical literacy are the Neo-Marxist/Freirean and the Australian. Freirean critical literacy starts with the desire to balance social inequities and address societal problems caused by abuse of power. Mind and society: The development of higher psychological processes. Neo-Marxist/Freirean Critical Literacy practices grew out of the social justice pedagogy of Brazilian educator and theorist Paulo Freire. syntax.[1] has become a popular approach to teaching English to students in some English speaking-countries. Critical literacy helps teachers as well as students to explore the relationship between theoretical framework and its practical implications. MA: Harvard University Press. that advocates the adoption of "critical" perspectives toward text. and deconstruct texts. All of these approaches share the basic premise that literacy requires the literate consumers of text to adopt a critical and questioning approach.

The different readings will be determined by factors such as the context and the reader's discursive background. The philosophical underpinnings do not necessarily originate in Australia. The use and relevance of critical literacy has been disputed. It is necessary to understand that language is a social construct and that it is never neutral. • Alternative readings: These refer to readings made of a text that differ from the dominant reading but nevertheless are not markedly different and could still be supported by a number of readers. . • Resistant reading: This is reading 'against the grain'.Critical literacy 75 Australian Australian researchers and educators (including Allan Luke. Many feminist readings of traditional texts. It may be read in different ways by different people. Some believe it to be innapropriate. but its enactment does not proceed from an assumption of exploitation and abuse of power. Geoff Bull. "Australian" critical literacy is researched and practiced in many countries. This of course is usually applicable to advertising texts. and feel that texts are constantly deconstructed and over analysed to destruction. of themselves. This school of thought is not necessarily opposed to the use of critical literacy to address issues of social justice. Again. Elkins. critical literacy is the belief that interpreting literature is more than simply decoding the words of a text. entertain. While Neo-Marxist/Freirean critical literacy proceeds from a desire to remedy social inequities. and the New London Group. could fit into this category. among others) have made major contributions in recent years to the field of critical literacy. A slight variation on this dominant reading is the preferred meaning which refers to the meaning that the composer of the text had in mind for the readers. Peter Freebody. From this philosophical perspective. Michele Anstey. J. might read Looking for Alibrandi in a different way to its intended teenage audience. A reading of Jane Austen's Emma. this body of work begins with an analysis of text and proceeds from there. for example. for example. Portions of the following sections are from a document distributed to secondary school students in Australia detailing the basic tenets of critical literacy. Parents. do not have any central integrity. a minority reading that is not in accord with the majority of readers or the intentions of the composer. but many researchers currently associated with the work are based in that country and Australia has incorporated many of the practices into its national curriculum. could be quite different from that of a servant at that time. a reading made in 1820 could be quite different from one made in 2000. persuade and manipulate. Readings may be broken down into categories: • Dominant reading: The readings of texts are not totally chaotic and usually most people construct more or less the same meaning of a given text. It is used to inform. The philosophy behind critical literacy is that it is necessary to learn how language works in order to be a more skilled user of language in terms of both comprehending and composing. from the point of view of a member of the upper class English. Definitions • Multiple Readings: Texts. There is no one indisputable way a text can be read.

. a reading can become richer. etc. social class. parade. time.. the way words are expressed. In this way. one's school.1992). reader factors.timetable. the exclusive jargon. cultural. Intertextuality As a result of one's discursive background. This is set in the USA in the early 1960s. but is also powerfully shaped by competing beliefs and practices in the present.i. Discourse This refers to all the language associated with a particular life experience or identity construct (e. education. for example. In turn this was all influenced by class. But not all American teenagers were in this category and not all parents exerted power. The language features can include the words (lexicons I of the discourse ego for school . sexuality. experiences one has had. a time when teenagers had little individual freedom and the will of the parents was very strong.). and the time that it is read. "Context refers to the multitude of factors which shape the meaning of a text within the social framework of its reading. their view of the world and how they read texts are shaped by a multiplicity of previous experiences and readings. the operating power structures in the language etc. gestures etc.e. Hence one can have the discourse of school or the family or childhood that are closely related to the related sociocultural identities. clothes. composer. they may have limited intertextual experiences to draw on. one is watching a movie which includes a villain one of the ways that they assume that he or she is a villain is through the knowledge that they bring to this current text from previous texts -. race. social class. gender. One can belong to a wide and ever changing number of discourses and they all can affect the way one makes meaning of texts. hobbies and interests and so on. This combination of texts is referred to as intertextuality.Critical literacy 76 Context This is not merely its setting in time and place. This is shaped by the discourses that one has been involved in and have operated on us. the particular understanding of the viewer might 'vary' the context. . One combines texts to create a complete picture. one's friends.). And again. are significant. facial expression. This means that the context is constantly shifting and that the nature of the reader. An example of context may be considered in terms of the movie Dead Poet's Society. politics. It can also explain why some people sometimes have difficulty making meaning of some texts. (Moon. Discursive background Each person has a unique personal and discursive background. Discourses overlap and constantly change. Furthermore this was the view as presented by the film's director and this needs to be examined. Thus it could include one's upbringing (family.g. This suggests that the 'meaning' or reading of a text is determined by a huge range of social. traditions. ones gender. religion etc. If.). etc. religion etc. Whenever one looks at something they shift through all of their knowledge to make meanings. age. This framework may include particular ideas about the text's history.

Gaps and Silences These occur frequently in texts. The gap has been specifically placed to develop reader positioning further. This view might be political. Positioning When constructing a text. chooses to include some pieces of information and omit others. This can be called agency. A text's view of the world is also influenced by the author's discursive background. Deconstruction is a critical practice which focuses on contradictions and" slippages" of meanings in order to remind one that meanings one makes when one reads are neither obvious or neutral. intentionally or unintentionally. Sometimes this is known as ideology.it contradicts it.lack of agency. When one reads a text one generally does this without thinking. but. for example. fail to release to the public that animal testing has been used in the creation of this product. Deconstruction Texts are considered social/cultural constructions. For example a member of a marginalised group may be very well aware of his or her deprivation but is unable to do anything about it . Sometimes it emerges through one (or more) characters and sometimes the views of characters differ and therefore create conflict. A difference is generally seen between gaps and silences. one still reads the text and understands the author's message or viewpoint. A movie. Positioning of course need not be static and it could change as the text develops. as a reader. the view of a minority group is silenced in a text. For example. Agency A character in a text may be granted (or denied) empowerment. economic or social or a combination of these. Ergo if an author likes a place. The view of the world often emerges from a reading of the text as a whole. they write about it in a positive way. This is called positioning. Often the view of the world in a text does not agree with ones own view . when in fact one may resist such positioning. An example of this could be an ad for shampoo would tell you the many benefits of the product however. • A silence is when the viewpoints/voices of a certain person or group is left out or never heard. usually has enormous gaps to be filled or meaning will be restricted. if they hate it they say negative things. an author inherently frames the content or character of the text using a certain attitude or point of view. a woman may read a text on a rape differently than a man. A view of the world can sometimes be called a Version of Reality. One may read the text in the way it is intended (which would be a preferred reading) or one may interpret it differently. Deconstruction does not point out contradictions in order to 'destroy' texts but to improve ones reading of them (Moon. • A gap is a place in a text where something is left out and it is up to the reader to fill in (or maybe not fill in) the blank. and may attempt to construct one as a certain archetype who desires a certain product. 1992) . They try to sway ones opinion. On occasions they may be present but they are not given a role to enable their voice to be heard. This filling in process is helped by ones discursive background. Frequently. for example. One might also reject the reading or skew. They are created when the author. This means that they are assembled from a wide range of varied and possibly contradictory elements.Critical literacy 77 View of the World Refers to the way the author chooses to show/paint the world.

Ivor. black/white. Luke (Eds.This is when an author of a text (frequently a speech) introduces a personal note to increase empathy between speaker and audience..This is when the responsibility is shifted away from the actual cause. belief or subject is accorded enhanced status greater than that which would be normally accorded to it. man/woman. usually with a purpose. Media and cultural studies. • Binary Opposition . Hawkins.e. however.". a particular aspect stands out in relation to all other aspects. • Representation . Luke. In P.Reading Research and Instruction. (2002) Literacy ideologies: Critically engaging the language arts curriculum. "Critical literacy for whom?". For example "the oil tanker disaster has killed millions of birds" is more direct than "millions of birds were killed after the oil spill".. S. The marginalisation of some racial groups is an example of this. • Collectivisation . The assumed power of this rank is the connotation. Freebody. A connotation is an understanding of the significance of the meaning ego a uniform denotes the rank of say. because it is repeated over and over again and is not challenged. This refers to the process where a perceived problem/issue may be 'explained away' or minimalised by a subject. M. Constructing critical literacies. It becomes less threatening or anonymous (or almost natural or expected). we.i. captain. e. Orbit 36: 27. over time. References [1] Hagood. not through its essential truth but. through the use of personal pronouns such as I. Further reading Lankshear.Denotation is the practice that allows a meaning to be made. NJ: Hampton Press. through language practices (including positioning and gaps and silences) a person or group is denied mainstream status and is literally pushed to the margins". some boys' football teams are valorised in schools.This is an organising principle suggesting that things are opposite or do not have much in common . It supports the tendency to look at things in terms of simple contradictions and also has implications of power and conflict. 41. may not always be convincing to the audience.Sometimes in a text a particular character. is given greater moral standing or worth over another. an attitude or belief develops. C.Texts do not mirror or reflect transparently the real world.Frequently.). (2002). (Eds. & McLaren. Muspratt. or ideology. • Denotation/connotation . ego the romance between the boy and girl in Titanic. C. . 79. 247-264. Rather they represent or construct versions of reality mediated by the ideologies or values or worldview of the composer (and indeed the reader/viewer/listener. The explanation.There is where.This refers to the language practice of broadening the base from the singular to the plural It increases the power of the position. This feature (person or thing) has been foregrounded. P. • Nominalisation . ". ego 'we' or 'us' instead of 'I 'or' 'me'. • Privilege . Language Arts. • Valorisation . & A. • Personalisation . you. Rationalisation. • Marginalisation . Representations are textual constructions. . For example.Critical literacy 78 Other language practices • Naturalisation . Albany: State University of New York Press.g. Lise (2006).This refers to the situation where a person.This refers to a process by which. Crosskill. " CRITICAL LITERACY: Policy and Practice. • Foregrounding . K. This position or person or ideology is privileged. [2] Cadeiro-Kaplan. best/worst. Critical literacy: Radical and postmodernist perspectives. 372-381 [3] Sinfield. (1995). in a text. and me.) (1993).

The term was popularized by Brazilian educator.org/lessons/lesson_view.org/resources/issues/focus_critical. or conscientização (Portuguese). Conscientization means breaking through prevailing mythologies to reach new levels of awareness—in particular. activist. conscienciser.au/curriculum/standards/english/english/teachers/ critlit) for teachers in the Australian state of Tasmania. Critical consciousness also includes taking action against the oppressive elements in one's life that are illuminated by that understanding." In this way.org. Critical consciousness is a fundamental aspect of Freire's concept of popular education. conscientization. in line with Australia. • Critical Literacy NZ (http://www. From the glossary of Goldbard's 2006 book New Creative Community. grounded in Marxist critical theory.gov. Black Skins. is a popular education and social concept developed by Brazilian pedagogue and educational theorist Paulo Freire. Overview Critical consciousness proceeds through the identification of "generative themes". and the fratricidal violence that results therefrom is a major goal of critical consciousness. Critical consciousness focuses on achieving an in-depth understanding of the world.readwritethink.asp?id=23) Critical consciousness Critical consciousness. in his 1952 book. It differs from "consciousness raising" in that the latter may involve transmission of preselected knowledge. awareness of oppression.criticalliteracy. which. individual consciousness helps end the "culture of silence" in which the socially dispossessed internalize the negative images of themselves created and propagated by the oppressor in situations of extreme poverty. 1. Arlene Goldbard. 66."[2] . The term originally derives from Frantz Fanon's coinage of a French term. This process is the heart of liberatory education.education. Freire was teaching the poor and illiterate members of Brazilian society to read at a time when literacy was a requirement for suffrage and dictators ruled many South American countries. • Read-Write-Think Lesson Plan (http://www.reading. being an "object" of others’ will rather than a self-determining "subject. White Masks.html) . and theorist Paulo Freire in his 1970 work Pedagogy of the Oppressed.The International Reading Association index page for critical literacy resources. an author on the subject of community cultural development finds the concept of conscientization to be a foundation of community cultural development. 79 External links • IRA Critical Literacy Resources (http://www. Harvard Educational Review. is beginning to adopt this practice • Critical Literacy Guide (http://www." The process of conscientization involves identifying contradictions in experience through dialogue and becoming part of the process of changing the world. Liberating learners from this mimicry of the powerful.[1] Coinage The English term "conscientization" is a translation of the Portuguese term conscientização. which Freire identifies as "iconic representations that have a powerful emotional impact in the daily lives of learners. which is also translated as "consciousness raising" and "critical consciousness".nz/) describes critical literacy in New Zealand. allowing for the perception and exposure of social and political contradictions. (1996).: "Conscientization is an ongoing process by which a learner moves toward critical consciousness. A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures.Critical literacy New London Group.tas.

Critical consciousness 80 History of application The ancient Greeks first identified the essence of critical consciousness when philosophers encouraged their students to develop an "impulse and willingness to stand back from humanity and nature. 2006). Seabury.[17] the role of critical consciousness in adult education. Relevant reading Paulo Freire • "Educacao como pratica da liberdade. Seabury.. political. freedom. more effective forms of social. Brazil) (1967) translation by Myra Bergman Ramos published as "Education and the Practice of Freedom" in Education for Critical Consciousness. must be learned through experience. learn at their own pace rather than following a previously imposed chronologically-based curriculum. and pedagogical action. intergenerational equity. authority. and social responsibility. Kincheloe. issues of human dignity. Institute for Agricultural Reform (Santiago) (1969) translation by Louise Bigwood and Margaret Marshall published as "Extension or Communication. by enjoying personal freedom thus encouraged to exercise personal responsibility for their actions. • "Education for Critical Consciousness" (includes "Education as the Practice of Freedom" and "Extension or Communication"). and describing current instructional methods as homogenization and lockstep standardization. Kincheloe employs this "multilogical conversation" to shape new modes of self-awareness. social justice. psychological. Joe L. should be acting as subjects in the creation of democratic society. an alternative approach in which children. . published in England as Education." in Education for Critical Consciousness.[9][10] Sudbury model of democratic education schools maintain that values. cultural. [and] to make them objects of thought and criticism. emancipation vis-a-vis ideological inscription. In this context Kincheloe constructs a critical theory of cognition that explores questions of meaning. Using this idea. In education. 1999."[15] Picking up on Freire's definition of critical consciousness. reconceptualized notions of reason. The goal of critical consciousness. In Kincheloe's formulation postformalism connects cognition to critical theoretical questions of power and social justice. intellectual quality. • "Extension o comunicacion?".[5] Freire explains critical consciousness as a sociopolitical educative tool that engages learners in questioning the nature of their historical and social situation.[6][7][8] In a similar form students learn all the subjects. the "teacher" is an adviser and helps just when asked. Freire implies intergenerational equity between students and teachers in which both learn. and political consciousness included. alternative approaches are proposed. 1976. The staff are minor actors. a type of political consciousness. which Freire addressed as "reading the world".. and philosophical concerns. 1973.[11][12][13][14] as Aristotle said: "For the things we have to learn before we can do them. critical consciousness. both question. according to Freire. and to search for their meaning and significance. both reflect and both participate in meaning-making. such as the Sudbury model of democratic education schools. techniques and skills in these schools. With these concerns in mind Kincheloe's postformal critical consciousness engages questions of purpose. Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative.[3] In his books Pedagogy of the Oppressed[4] and Education for Critical Consciousness. political economic. we learn by doing them. Thomas and Kincheloe. Seabury. Freire's development of critical consciousness has been expanded upon in several academic disciplines and common applications[16] Public health community collaborations focused on HIV prevention for women. Kincheloe has expanded the definition of the concept in his work on postformalism. Paz e Terra" (Rio de Janeiro.[18] and the effect of peer pressure on cigarette smokers[19] Freire's notion of critical consciousness is. 1973. the Practice of Freedom. Postformal critical consciousness stimulates a conversation between critical pedagogy and a wide range of social. 1973. 1993. in part. and an elastic model of an evolving critical consciousness (Kincheloe and Steinberg. and a particular focus on the socio-political construction of the self.

sudval. (1987). and J." Rotterdam. C. J." (http:/ / onecountry. Paper presented at the 2000 Adult Education Research Conference in Vancouver. Learning. Education in America -. Oskar Negt/Alexander Kluge. Aspiazu. & Boyd.The Sudbury Valley School. The Art of Doing Nothing. htm) One Country. [5] Freire. [17] Champeau. and S. 10(1). Free at Last -.. Summer. "Trouble Ahead.. The Sudbury Valley School Experience. 63 2.A View from Sudbury Valley. [7] Greenberg. [11] Greenberg. British Columbia. (1992). D. D. James D. org/ e152/ e15216as_Review_Consciousness_story. 296–320. html#02). (1992). (1987). Education in America .. E. Paulo Freire: The Man from Recife. Democracy Must be Experienced to be Learned. B. (2006) Civic Education And Culture. A. (1987). Tisdell. & Fall.A View from Sudbury Valley. And 'Rithmetic. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. [8] Greenberg. Oxford University Press. "Special Education" -. 2011. 261-272. Hinchey. Accessed November 29.A noble Cause Sacrificed to Standardization. S. (1992).The Sudbury Valley School. 2006. (1998). S. M (2003) "Is there a roadmap to critical consciousness? Critical Consciousness: A Study of Morality in Global. Steinberg. and the 'New Subjectivity'. D.. A.F. B. Chapter 35. Kincheloe "Reading. Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations. P. [6] Greenberg. Teaching Justice Through Experience. W. Free at Last -. (1992). and Thinking: The Postformal Basics. com/ 05_onepersononevote. 21:9.html . 2008. 81 References [1] Mustakova-Possardt. Education in America -. (1987).Critical consciousness • Thomas. edu/ v22234/abstract. Gary G. pp.The Sudbury Valley School. P. Historical Context. (2002) "Power. net/ pub_newCreativeComm. Chapter 1. [13] Greenberg. Chapter 19. Stewart. [12] Greenberg. asu. (http:/ / www. sudval. 2008." Harvard Educational Review. [16] Adelson." NY: Falmer. 1999. com/ 05_underlyingideas. (2005) "Resisting Gendered Smoking Pressures: Critical Consciousness as a Correlate of Women's Smoking Status. Pomerleau. [9] Greenberg. • Kincheloe. [3] Thorton. L (1987) "Contemporary Critical Consciousness: Peter Sloterdijk. • Kirylo. D. H. [4] Freire. and critical consciousness in community collaboration: Lessons from an advisory panel for an HIV awareness media campaign for women. (2005) Education for Critical Consciousness. "Critical Consciousness and Liberal Education" in Watson. D. & Shaw. 22:2. Writing. Education in America . (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed.A View from Sudbury Valley. (2000) The Role of Positionality in Teaching for Critical Consciousness: Implications for Adult Education. Spring. and Porter. "Special Education" -." Behavioral Science. & 4. New York: Peter Lang. Steinberg "A Tentative Description of Post-formal Thinking: The Critical Confrontation with Cognitive Theory. (1987). [10] Greenberg. R." in J. [15] Bynum. 3. empowerment. 36(3):31-50. E.A View from Sudbury Valley. 53(3-4). Sense Publishers. M." Women Health. • Kincheloe. newvillagepress. [19] Zucker. C. html) New Village Press. D. [14] Greenberg.A Noble Cause Run Amok. D. Kincheloe. Accessed November 29. "Improving the academic performance of Hispanic youth: A community education model. [2] Creative Communication (http:/ / www. P. (eds) (2005). Free at Last -. 57-68. New York: Continuum. and P. & Stone Hanley. 1998. 'Ethics' is a Course Taught By Life Experience. 1. (Fall 1993). 15(2). html#03) The Sudbury Valley School Experience. Trouble Behind: Grounding the Post-formal Critique of Educational Psychology. pp." Bilingual Research Journal. "The Postformal Reader: Cognition and Education. D. [18] Taylor. With Liberty and Justice for All (http:/ / www." German Studies Review. D. J. Available at: http:/ / brj.

Aristotle. the point is to change it. realizing." Simply put. "Praxis" may also refer to the act of engaging. poiesis and praxis.[4][5] Arendt calls “praxis” the highest and most important level of the active life. Immanuel Kant. This has led humanity to frequently miss much of the everyday relevance of philosophical ideas to real life. practiced.[6] Thus. economics and politics. There corresponded to these kinds of activity three types of knowledge: theoretical. misfortune").. embodied.Praxis (process) 82 Praxis (process) So. consciously designing the form of mediation best suited to clear interactions between theory and practice. Schrag Praxis is the process by which a theory. This has been a recurrent topic in the field of philosophy. Marx alluded to this concept in his Theses on Feuerbach when he stated that "philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways. by viewing action as a mode of human togetherness. He also distinguished between eupraxia (εὐπραξία. to which the end goal was action. I tried to do a kind of semantic clarification in which praxis—if not on the thither side of this divide—was perhaps somehow between the theoretical and the practical as they are generally understood. Hannah Arendt. to which the end goal was production. Hannah Arendt argues that Western philosophy too often has focused on the contemplative life (vita contemplativa) and has neglected the active life (vita activa). St. "good praxis")[2] and dyspraxia (δυσπραξία. poietical. Paulo Freire. Georg Lukács held that the task of political organization is to establish professional discipline over everyday political praxis. "Arendt's theory of action and her revival of the ancient notion of praxis represent one of the most original contributions to twentieth century political thought.Of course. Martin Heidegger. or practicing ideas. discussed in the writings of Plato. "bad praxis. it must be understood that praxis."[8] "Moreover. wrestle with them. Karl Marx. Origins In Ancient Greek the word praxis (πρᾶξις) referred to activity engaged in by free men. educational. and many others.. Aristotle held that there were three basic activities of man: theoria. Praxis as the manner in which we are engaged in the world and with others has its own insight or understanding prior to any explicit formulation of that understanding. is always entwined with communication. applying. Hannah Arendt In her The Human Condition. which she sees as the true realization of human freedom. [1]  —Calvin O. It has meaning in the political.[3] Marxism The 19th century socialist Antonio Labriola called Marxism the Philosophy of praxis. or realised.[7] According to Arendt. and practical. and particularly as they are understood in modern philosophy. Arendt is able to develop a conception of participatory democracy which stands in direct contrast to the bureaucratized and elitist forms of politics so characteristic of the modern epoch. or skill is enacted. she argues that more philosophers need to engage in everyday political action or praxis. and engage in active praxis is what makes us uniquely human. and spiritual realms. Aristotle further divided practical knowledge into ethics. Søren Kierkegaard. Marx felt that philosophy's validity was in how it informed action."[9] . our capacity to analyze ideas. exercising. lesson. Augustine. to which the end goal was truth. as I understand it.

(http:/ / www. 56. google. that is. (http:/ / www. Kolb. edu/ entries/ arendt/ #AreTheAct). Arendt. It describes a cyclical process of social work interactions developing new theories and refining old ones. A Soviet Postmortem: Philosophical Roots of the "Grand Failure" (http:/ / books. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [3] Krancberg. and. [5] Fry. ISBN 978-0-7914-5875-4. Social work In social work theory. .[10] Paulo Freire defines praxis in Pedagogy of the Oppressed as "reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it. iep. Retrieved 1 August 2010. the Hebrew word. ta‛am. NE. In an interview for YES! Magazine. [7] Yar. Maurizio Passerin (2006). women-philosophers. discretion. p. SUNY Press. (http:/ / plato. 5. oppressed people can acquire a critical awareness of their own condition.[11] In the BBC television documentary "New Order: Play At Home". by implication intelligence. Majid. Praxis is also used in schools of community education. Majid. Organizations While praxis usually refers to the process of putting theoretical knowledge into practice. Spirituality Praxis is also key in meditation and spirituality. iep. before institution or dogma. utm. women-philosophers. the word for wisdom comes from the word for taste—so it's something to taste. Maurizio Passerin (2006). which can only be explored through praxis due to the inability of the finite mind (and its tool. com/ Arendt. as well as theories directing the delivery of social work interactions. [8] d'Entreves. utm. Hannah in Women-philosophers. p. [2] Aristotle. It is about tasting and trusting experience. Rowman & Littlefield. praxis is the reflexive relationship between theories and action. Arendt. 1140b7. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. .com. understanding. edu/ entries/ arendt/ #AreTheAct). the strategic and organizational usage of the word emphasizes the need for a constant cycle of conceptualizing the meanings of what can be learned from experience in order to reframe strategic and operational models. com/ books?id=Id7NornoMI8C). practice and reflection. is. basically. Hannah in Women-philosophers. Factory Records owner Tony Wilson describes praxis as "doing something. properly a taste. and that's wisdom: tasting life. gr/ books?id=cmspK8ine2QC& pg=PA56& dq=). Notes [1] Ramsey.[12] According to Strong's Hebrew dictionary. where emphasis is placed on gaining first-hand experience of concepts and certain areas." the psalm says. such as the cycle described and popularised by David A. com/ Arendt. taste. stanford. stanford. html).com. Schrag (http:/ / books. 21. Karin. google. language) to comprehend or express the infinite. edu/ arendt/ ). The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. VI. with their allies. finding out why you did it". No one can do it for us. (http:/ / plato. [4] Yar." Through praxis. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. struggle for liberation. David James (2003). Miller. (http:/ / www. The mystical tradition is very much a Sophia tradition. (figuratively) perception. [9] d'Entreves. edu/ arendt/ ).Praxis (process) 83 Education Praxis is used by educators to describe a recurring passage through a cyclical process of experiential learning. reason. [6] Fry. judgment. Sigmund (1994). decree. and then only afterwards. behaviour. transitively a mandate: advice. html). not something to theorize about. Matthew Fox explained it this way: Wisdom is always taste—in both Latin and Hebrew. such as union with the Divine. Karin. Ramsey Eric. Experiences between philosophy and communication: engaging the philosophical contributions of Calvin O. (http:/ / www. "Taste and see that God is good.

Although the first two theories have contributed to the analysis of the hidden curriculum. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. are a structural-functional view of schooling.Praxis (process) [10] Kolb. 84 Further reading • Paulo Freire (1970). the radical critical view of schooling provides the most insight. The phenomenological view suggests that meaning is created through situational encounters and interactions. as cited by Henry Giroux and Anthony Penna. Three of these theories. External links • Entry for "praxis" at the Encyclopaedia of Informal Education (http://www.[5] Educational history Early workers in the field of education were influenced by the notion that the preservation of the social privileges. . The radical critical view recognizes the relationship between economic and cultural reproduction and stresses the relationships among the theory. P.infed. (1986). The unequal distribution of cultural capital in a society mirrors a corresponding distribution of knowledge among its students. Informal Education Encyclopedia. a phenomenological view related to the “new” sociology of education. "[lessons] which are learned but not openly intended”[1] such as the transmission of norms. YES! Magazine. yesmagazine. and a radical critical view corresponding to the neo-Marxist analysis of the theory and practice of education. org/ biblio/ b-explrn. and it implies that knowledge is somewhat objective.[8] Most importantly it acknowledges the perpetuated economic and social aspects of education that are clearly illustrated by the hidden curriculum. and social practice of learning.. a hidden curriculum reinforces existing social inequalities by educating students according to their class and social status. Several educational theories have been developed to help give meaning and structure to the hidden curriculum and to illustrate the role that schools play in socialization. D. org/ article.[3] Hidden curriculum often refers to knowledge gained in primary and secondary school settings. "David A. usually with a negative connotation where the school strives for equal intellectual development. asp?ID=1323). and beliefs conveyed in the classroom and the social environment.org/biblio/b-praxis.de/mat/matphil/der-begriff-praxis/) Hidden curriculum A hidden curriculum is a side effect of an education. htm). ideology.[2] Any learning experience may teach unintended lessons. [12] Holy Impatience: an interview with Matthew Fox (http:/ / www. Kolb on experiential learning" (http:/ / www.[4] In this sense. and knowledge of one group within the population was worth the exploitation of less powerful groups. [11] Freire. interests.[7] The structural-functional view focuses on how norms and values are conveyed within schools and how their necessities for the functioning of society become indisputably accepted. Continuum International Publishing Group. 36. infed.htm) • Der Begriff Praxis (http://kaltric. New York: Continuum. p. yet its underlying tones remain a contributing factor to the issue of the hidden curriculum.[6] Over time this theory has become less blatant. values.

political socialization. gender biases become present in specific fields of study. standard learning activities. Like interactions with authority figures. higher education also feels the effects of this latent knowledge. and class. Children tend to be placed on tracks guiding them towards socioeconomic occupations similar to that of their parents. without real considerations for their strengths and weaknesses.[11] Yet these unintended learning experiences can result from interactions with not only instructors. the quality of and experiences associated with prior education become more significant. they follow along their tracks by completing the predetermined courses. give rise to important elements of the hidden curriculum. as evidenced by the development of different relationships to capital based on the types of work and work-related activities assigned to students varying by social class. and race become more evident at higher levels of education. for the moral characteristics and ideologies of teachers and other authority figures are translated into their lessons. the personnel who convey it elicit special investigation.[16] One additional aspect of hidden curriculum that plays a major part in the development of students and their fates is tracking. tracking systems. rules.[13] According to Elizabeth Vallance. rules governing the relationship between teachers and students.[10] Variations among these sources promote the disparities found when comparing the hidden curricula corresponding to various class and social statuses. the perpetuation of traditional class structure-functions that may be characterized generally as social control. The effectiveness of schools becomes limited when these forms of capital are unequally distributed. . the social structures of the classroom. and curricular priorities. interactions amongst peers can promote moral and social ideals but also foster the exchange of information and are thus important sources of knowledge contributing to the success of the hidden curriculum. architecture. textbooks. it promotes this ineffectiveness of schools as a result of its unequal distribution.[12] Since the hidden curriculum is considered to be a form of education-related capital. some of which may be included in these aspects of learning. the inequality promoted through its disparities among classes and social statuses often invokes a negative connotation.[9] Many school-specific sources. procedures. but are not limited to. audio-visual aids. relationships. disciplinary measures.[17] This is one of the main factors limiting social mobility in America today. including practices. This particularly applies to the social and moral lessons conveyed by the hidden curriculum. and structures. timetables. Pierre Bourdieu asserts that education-related capital must be accessible to promote academic achievement. the functions of hidden curriculum include “the inculcation of values. Function Although the hidden curriculum conveys a great deal of knowledge to its students.”[14] Hidden curriculum can also be associated with the reinforcement of social inequality. This method of imposing educational and career paths upon students at young ages relies on various factors such as class and status to reinforce socioeconomic differences. albeit not necessarily with intention. For example. As students advance through the educational system. the teacher’s use of language. the hidden curriculum promotes the acceptance of a social destiny without promoting rational and reflective consideration. For example. These sources may include. While the actual material that students absorb through the hidden curriculum is of utmost importance. but also with peers. the teacher’s exercise of authority.Hidden curriculum 85 Sources Various aspects of learning contribute to the success of the hidden curriculum. furnishings. As a means of social control.[15] Higher education and tracking While studies on the hidden curriculum mostly focus on fundamental primary and secondary education. training in obedience and docility. gender.

Hidden curriculum 86 Literary references John Dewey explored the hidden curriculum of education in his early 20th century works. and others. Berkeley. MIT's Benson Snyder published The Hidden Curriculum. “What Do Schools Teach?” The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. Ed. Henry and Anthony Penna. Counts recognized the reactive. Starting with Pedagogy of the Oppressed. and Michael Haralambos ("Sociology: Themes and Perspectives". Erik Erikson and Maria Montessori) hypothesized a singular path through which all young people travelled in order to become adults. “Beyond Hidden Curriculum?” Journal of Curriculum Studies. 217-252 [8] Giroux. Giroux. 100–121. through the late 1990s. Henry and David Purpel. and later. which addresses the question of why students—even or especially the most gifted—turn away from education. adaptive. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. The hidden curriculum has been further explored by a number of educators. Ed. Giroux. 1983. 122–139. “What Do Schools Teach?” The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. and society as a whole.something is coming across to the pupils which may never be spoken in the English lesson or prayed about in assembly. 1981): The hidden curriculum is taught by the school. Henry and Anthony Penna. Berkeley. not by any teacher. including Neil Postman. Ed. bell hooks. Michael and Nancy King. Snyder advocates the thesis that much of campus conflict and students' personal anxiety is caused by a mass of unstated academic and social norms. [2] Giroux. Dare the School Build a New Social Order challenged the presumptive nature of Dewey's works. schools. Recently a variety of authors. Berkeley. Ed. He argued that we need to understand "education" as a socialization process. Michael and Nancy King. Jonathan Kozol. “What Should We Do with a Hidden Curriculum When We Find One?” The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. Giroux. Jane. Henry and David Purpel. and assessments of student performance in particular directions which affected their students drastically. practices. Berkeley. [3] Martin. Henry and David Purpel.D. 1983. 100–121. Beard. Giroux. “Social Education in the Classroom: The Dynamics of the Hidden Curriculum. published in 1972. References [1] Martin. Berkeley. and John Taylor Gatto have examined the effects of hidden curriculum. whose 1929 book. “What Should We Do with a Hidden Curriculum When We Find One?” The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. . each of whom were quickly identified as radical educators. Other theorists who have identified the insidious nature of hidden curricula and hidden agendas include Neil Postman. pp. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. 82–99. [4] Cornbleth. Shortly after Jackson's coinage. Giroux. John Taylor Gatto. Brazilian educator Paulo Freire explored various effects of presumptive teaching on students. More recent definitions were given by Roland Meighan ("A Sociology of Education". Henry and David Purpel. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. Joel Spring.” The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. Counts' examinations were expanded on by Charles A. Henry and David Purpel. [7] Sokal. Giroux. His work was quickly rebutted by educational theorist George Counts. Freire's explorations were in sync with those of John Holt and Ivan Illich. particularly his classic. 1968). 1983. 122–139. Myles Horton as he created what became the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee. A. The phrase "hidden curriculum" was reportedly coined by Philip W. [6] Apple. 1983. and multifaceted nature of learning. 1991): The hidden curriculum consists of those things pupils learn through the experience of attending school rather than the stated educational objectives of such institutions. Dewey saw patterns evolving and trends developing in public schools which lent themselves to his pro-democratic perspectives. Henry and David Purpel.. 1983. They are picking-up an approach to living and an attitude to learning. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. Jackson (Life In Classrooms. Henry Giroux. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. 82–99. Ed. 16. Berkeley. This nature caused many educators to slant their perspectives. [5] Apple. Democracy and Education. which thwart the students' ability to develop independently or think creatively. Catherine. Paul Goodman. “Social Education in the Classroom: The Dynamics of the Hidden Curriculum. Jane. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation.” The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education.. Where Dewey (and other child development theorists including Jean Piaget. Ed. 1983. "Transgressing the Boundaries: Towards a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity" Social Text #46/47.1(1984): 29–36.

122–139. “The Moral Atmosphere of the School. PETA.[1] Consciousness raising was subsequently popularized by United States feminists in the late 1960s. New York: John Wiley & Sons. and Carol Hanisch began meeting in Koedt's apartment. Jane.. Ed. [17] Rosenbaum. Michael Soldatenko. Bridglall. Ed. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Berkeley. 2005. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. [16] Margolis. and Aundra Saa Meroe. as well as the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to combat stereotypes. 1983. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. [12] Gordon. and harmful practices toward people with disabilities. Sandra Acker. raising awareness is often the first activity in which any advocacy group engages Etymology The term awareness raising is used in the Yogyakarta Principles against discriminatory attitudes[2] and LGBT stereotypes.Hidden curriculum [9] Martin. One night at a meeting I said. named and first used by Mao Zedong in the 1940s to popularize Marxist-Leninist ideas and encourage class consciousness amongst rural peasants during the Chinese Civil War. 1983.[3] Issues Feminism "Consciousness raising" groups were formed by New York Radical Women. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. [14] Vallance. Meetings often involved "going around the room and talking" about issues in their own lives. so we have to raise their consciousness. Henry and David Purpel. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. 1983. Common issues include diseases (e.. Earth Hour). “Peekaboo: Hiding and Outing the Curriculum. Inc. 1983. Since informing the populace of a public concern is often regarded as the first step to changing how the institutions handle it. “Hiding the Hidden Curriculum: An Interpretation of the Language of Justification in Nineteenth-Century Educational Reform. 122–139. conflicts (e. 'Would everybody please give me an example from their own life . Margolis. By Gordon.g. “What Should We Do with a Hidden Curriculum When We Find One?” The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education.” The Hidden Curriculum in Higher Education. Henry and David Purpel. an early Women's Liberation group in New York City. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. [10] Martin. Ed. 1976. 1–5. Henry and David Purpel. [13] Greene. Giroux. Jane. social or political movements (e. Giroux. Henry and David Purpel.” The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. Greenpeace. and quickly spread throughout the United States. 87 Consciousness raising Consciousness raising (also called awareness raising) is a form of political activism. Lawrence. Berkeley. Berkeley. and Marina Gair. Giroux. Berkeley. AIDS). Lanham. Elizabeth. the Darfur genocide. Giroux. Edmumd W. global warming). 61–81. “Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work. 1983. Bridglall. Eric.” The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. The phrase "consciousness raising" was coined to describe the process when Kathie Sarachild took up the phrase from Anne Forer: "In the Old Left. Berkeley.. Kathie Sarachild (originally Kathie Amatniek). Berkeley. Maxine. Introduction. Consciousness raising often takes the form of a group of people attempting to focus the attention of a wider group of people on some cause or condition believed to require redress or remedy. Eric. Anne Koedt. Henry and David Purpel. ix–x. Supplemental Education: The Hidden Curriculum of High Academic Achievement. New York: Routledge. The Hidden Curriculum of High School Tracking. Beatrice L.g. Ed. Giroux. Ed.” The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. “What Should We Do with a Hidden Curriculum When We Find One?” The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. 1983. 9–27. and Aundra Saa Meroe. In November 1967. [15] Anyon. The Hidden Curriculum and Moral Education. [11] Kohlberg.g. a group including Shulamith Firestone. they used to say that the workers don't know they're oppressed. Ed. James E. 143–167. and political parties or politicians. breast cancer. Edmumd W. Beatrice L. By Giroux. California: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. 2001. Henry and David Purpel. prejudices. Preface. Jean.

Consciousness raising on how they experienced oppression as a woman? I need to hear it to raise my own consciousness.' Kathie was sitting behind me and the words rang in her mind. From then on she sort of made it an institution and called it consciousness-raising." — Anne Forer, quoted by Susan Brownmiller in In Our Time: Memoir of a Revolution, p. 21 On Thanksgiving 1968, Kathie Sarachild presented "A Program for Feminist Consciousness Raising," at the First National Women's Liberation Conference near Chicago, Illinois, in which she explained the principles behind consciousness-raising and outlined a program for the process that the New York groups had developed over the past year. Groups founded by former members of New York Radical Women — in particular Redstockings and New York Radical Feminists, Redstockings founded out of the breakup of the NYRW in 1969 — promoted consciousness raising and distributed mimeographed sheets of suggesting topics for c.r. group meetings. New York Radical Feminists organized neighborhood-based c.r. groups in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens, involving as many as four hundred women in c.r. groups at its peak.[4] Over the next few years, small-group consciousness raising spread rapidly in cities and suburbs throughout the United States. By 1971, the Chicago Women's Liberation Union, which had already organized several c.r. groups in Chicago, described small consciousness raising groups as "the backbone of the Women's Liberation Movement" [5]. Susan Brownmiller (a member of the West Village-One c.r. group organized by New York Radical Feminists) would later write that small-group consciousness raising "was the movement's most successful form of female bonding, and the source of most of its creative thinking. Some of the small groups stayed together for more than a decade". [6] "In 1973, probably the height of CR, 100,000 women in the United States belonged to CR groups."[7] Early feminists argued that women were isolated from each other, and as a result many problems in women's lives were misunderstood as "personal," or as the results of conflicts between the personalities of individual men and women, rather than systematic forms of oppression. Raising consciousness meant helping oneself and helping others to become politically conscious. Consciousness raising groups aimed to get a better understanding of women's oppression by bringing women together to discuss and analyze their lives, without interference from the presence of men. While explaining the theory behind consciousness raising in a 1973 talk, Kathie Sarachild remarked that "From the beginning of consciousness-raising ... there has been no one method of raising consciousness. What really counts in consciousness-raising are not methods, but results. The only 'methods' of consciousness raising are essentially principles. They are the basic radical political principles of going to the original sources, both historic and personal, going to people—women themselves, and going to experience for theory and strategy".[8] However, most c.r. groups did follow a similar pattern for meeting and discussion. Meetings would usually be held about once a week, with a small group of women, often in the living room of one of the members. Meetings were women-only, and usually involved going around the room for each woman to talk about a predetermined subject — for example, "When you think about having a child, would you rather have a boy or a girl?" — speaking from her own experience, with no formal leader for the discussion and few rules for directing or limiting discussion. (Some c.r. groups did implement rules designed to give every woman a chance to speak, to prevent interruptions, etc.) Speaking from personal experience was used as a basis for further discussion and analysis based on the first-hand knowledge that was shared. Some feminist advocates of c.r. argued that the process allowed women to analyze the conditions of their own lives, and to discover ways in which what had seemed like isolated, individual problems (such as needing an abortion, surviving rape, conflicts between husbands and wives over housework, etc.) actually reflected common conditions faced by all women. As Sarachild wrote in 1969, "We assume that our feelings are telling us something from which we can learn... that our feelings mean something worth analyzing... that our feelings are saying something political, something reflecting fear that something bad will happen to us or hope, desire, knowledge that something good will happen to us. [...] In our groups, let's share our feelings and pool them. Let's let ourselves go and see where our feelings lead us. Our feelings will lead us to ideas and then to actions". [9]

88

Consciousness raising Ellen Willis wrote in 1984 that c.r. has often been "misunderstood and disparaged as a form of therapy", but that it was, in fact, in its time and context, "the primary method of understanding women's condition" and constituted "the movement's most successful organizing tool." At the same time, she saw the lack of theory and emphasis on personal experience as concealing "prior political and philosophical assumptions."[10] In criticism, "[s]ome feminists ... ["insisted that"] CR meetings ... were 'trivial' and 'non-political.'"[11]

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Atheism
In The God Delusion, anti-religion activist Richard Dawkins uses the term "consciousness raising" for several other things, explicitly describing these as analogous to the feminist case. These include replacing references to children as Catholic, Muslim, etc. with references to children of the adults who are members of these religions (which he compares to our using non-sexist terminology) and Darwin as "raising our consciousness" in biology to the possibility of explaining complexity naturalistically and, in principle, raising our consciousness to the possibility of doing such things elsewhere (especially in physics). Earlier in the book, he uses the term (without explicitly referring to feminism) to refer to making people aware that leaving their parents' faith is an option. In a video entitled "The Four Horsemen" starring Dawkins, Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens and Daniel Dennett, Dennett refers to consciousness-raising amongst philosophers regarding the distinction between puzzles and problems as a better way of referring to "mysteries". Dawkins has since discussed consciousness-raising with regards to religion by making comparisons to hypothetical seemingly absurd scenarios, such as geographical distributions of scientists' beliefs about the extinction of the dinosaurs, scientists defending their hypotheses in terms of revelation and dogma, and young children having strong political views.

LGBT rights
In the 1960s, consciousness-raising caught on with gay liberation activists, who formed the first "coming-out groups" which helped participants come out of the closet among welcoming, tolerant individuals and share personal stories about coming out. The idea of coming out as a tool of consciousness-raising had been preceded by even earlier opinions from German theorists such as Magnus Hirschfeld, Iwan Bloch and Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, all of whom saw self-disclosure as a means of self-emancipation, the raising of consciousness among fellow un-closeted individuals and a means of raising awareness in the wider society.

Notes
[1] Ryan, Barbara. " Consciousness Raising (http:/ / www. blackwellreference. com/ public/ tocnode?id=g9781405124331_yr2012_chunk_g97814051243319_ss1-95)." In Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology (2007), ed. George Ritzer, eISBN 9781405124331 [2] The Yogyakarta Principles, Article 2, 9, 15 [3] Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Article 8 "Awareness raising" [4] Brownmiller, p. 78 [5] http:/ / www. cwluherstory. com/ CWLUArchive/ crcwlu. html [6] Brownmiller, p. 79 [7] Eller, Cynthia, Living in the Lap of the Goddess, op. cit., p. 43 & n. 8 (p. 43 n. 8 citing Shreve, Anita, Women Together, Women Alone, op. cit., pp. 5–6 & 9–14). [8] Feminist Revolution, p. 147–148 [9] Feminist Revolution, Appendix, p. 202. [10] Willis, p. 121. [11] Eller, Cynthia, Living in the Lap of the Goddess: The Feminist Spirituality Movement in America (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 1995 (ISBN 0-8070-6507-2)), p. 188 & n. 3 (author, with doctorate in religion from Univ. of Southern Calif., taught at Yale Divinity School & Fairleigh Dickinson Univ.) (p. 188 n. 3 citing Shreve, Anita, Women Together, Women Alone: The Legacy of the Consciousness-Raising Movement (N.Y.: Fawcett Columbine, 1989), pp. 10–11).

Consciousness raising

90

References
• Brownmiller, Susan (1999). In Our Time: Memoir of a Revolution (ISBN 0-385-31486-8). • Chicago Women's Liberation Union (1971), How to start your own consciousness-raising group (http://www. cwluherstory.com/CWLUArchive/crcwlu.html) • Freeman, Jo. The Tyranny of Structurelessness. • Redstockings (1975/1978). Feminist Revolution: an abridged edition with additional writings (http://www.afn. org/~redstock/feministrevo.html) (ISBN 0-394-73240-5). • Sarachild, Kathie (1973): Consciousness-Raising: A Radical Weapon (http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/wlm/ fem/sarachild.html). Also reprinted in Feminist Revolution, pp. 144–150. • Willis, Ellen, "Radical Feminism and Feminist Radicalism", 1984, collected in No More Nice Girls: Countercultural Essays, Wesleyan University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-8195-5250-X, p. 117–150.

Poisonous pedagogy
Poisonous pedagogy, also called black pedagogy, from the original German name Schwarze Pädagogik, is a term used by some present-day psychologists and sociologists to describe a subset of traditional child-raising methods which they regard as repressive and harmful. It is a concept that describes behaviors and communication that theorists consider to be manipulative or violent, such as corporal punishment.[1]

Origin
The concept was first introduced by Katharina Rutschky in her 1977 work Schwarze Pädagogik. Quellen zur Naturgeschichte der bürgerlichen Erziehung. The psychologist Alice Miller used the concept to describe child-raising approaches that, she believes, damage a child's emotional development. Miller claims that this alleged emotional damage promotes adult behavior harmful to individuals. "Poisonous pedagogy", is described by these theorists as what happens when a parent (or teacher, nurse, or other caregiver) believes that a young child's behavior demonstrates that the child is infected with the "seeds of evil", and therefore attempts to weed out the evil, either by emotional manipulation or by brute force. Simple examples include the beating of children as punishment for lying, or mothers who refuse to feed their newborn until a set time, in order to "teach him patience, which will be useful for him in later life". Poisonous pedagogy, in Katharina Rutschky's definition, aims to inculcate a social superego in the child, to construct a basic defense against drives in the child's psyche, to toughen the child for later life, and to instrumentalize the body parts and senses in favor of socially defined functions. Although not explicitly, "poisonous pedagogy" serves, these theorists allege, as a rationalization of sadism and a defense against the feelings of the parent himself or of the person involved.[2] For methods, Rutschky claims, "poisonous pedagogy" makes use of initiation rites (for example, internalizing a threat of death), the application of pain (including psychological), the totalitarian supervision of the child (body control, behavior, obedience, prohibition of lying, etc.), taboos against touching, the denial of basic needs, and an extreme desire for order.

Spoil the Child" was a saying that was recorded in Greece. manipulation. with its age-based limitations. Furedi suggests that many advocates of a total ban on physical punishment are actually against all forms of punishing children. and abuse. Miller has written: "I understand 'black pedagogy' to be a parenting approach that is directed toward breaking the will of the child. cruelty. feminist criticism.[8] Moritz Schreber. emotions against which the juvenile or infant psyche. The Federal Minister for Family Affairs from 1994 to 1998 Claudia Nolte had wanted to maintain parents' right to use mild spanking. they will not remember afterward that they had had a will.Poisonous pedagogy 91 Historical background Germany In the 18th century common notions of the evil nature of children or of taming bear witness to superstitions and the wish to be able to train human beings like animals. Other themes of the controversial author Katharina Rutschky are parenting. that she needed to "work on" her own childhood in order to understand her clients better. in order to make it an obedient subject. and argues that some research on the effects of spanking is far less clear-cut than the claims made on its behalf by what he calls "anti-smacking zealots"."[4] In Germany the parental right to discipline was abolished by a change in the law in 2000. the advantage that one can use force and compulsion. Corporal punishment was widespread in all of these civilizations.[5] contrary to the views of Alice Miller in her 1980 book For Your Own Good. With age children forget everything they encountered in their early childhood. deceit. Discussion and criticism Alice Miller describes as poisonous pedagogy all types of behavior that she believes is intended to manipulate children's characters through force or deception. or a tendency toward violence. hypocrisy. in her view. He sees the underlying agenda as an anti-parent crusade. and coercion. cannot defend itself. commonly practiced.[10] . with the aid of open or concealed use of force. and is adapted in the Bible. as a result of her therapeutic work. Proverbs 13:24.[3] One German child-raising book in the 18th century said: "These first years have. by Juvenal. Personalities Influential advocates of various forms of corporal punishment include John Harvey Kellogg. was also recorded with variations in Sumeria and China prior to the emergence of western European civilisation. She takes the view that "poisonous pedagogy" is a behavior that is passed on from generation to generation by being euphemized and sanitized. Sociology professor Frank Furedi regards such declarations as too sweeping and disconnected from reality.[9] and others. Her focus is not merely on smacking (although she has said that "Every smack is a humiliation" and is clearly opposed to corporal punishment) but also on various other forms of what she sees as manipulation. Thus if one can take away children's will."[6] Ancient cultures "Spare the Rod.[7] Psychological background A relevant criterion in defining poisonous pedagogy is if a manipulative approach reveals behavioural issues in the parent such as a blindness to feelings. or if strong negative emotions such as anger or hate are being discharged.[3] Miller also came to the conclusion. and repression. by parents and teachers against children. among other things.

carried out research into primate child-mother bonding and noted a link between disruption to the child-mother bonding process and the emergence of violence and fear based behaviour in the young primates.. . Versuch von der Erziehung und Unterweisung der Kinder. rigid gender roles. Recent research into living Aboriginal Societies and a review of the historical record of first contact data.[11] He concluded that the disrupted child-mother bonding process was an absolute predictor of the emergence of violence. and in the long term.[12] Indeed the data shows that children are treated with much more respect.). [7] Robert McCole Wilson. Farrar.[13] Support for the view that corporal punishment is harmful. . . trust and empathy than was previously believed. disruptive practices become the 'norm' and as generations grow and pass on these practices. Developmental psychologist James W. com/ wilson02. birth psychology and more anthropology.]. Intervening upon and disrupting natural adolescent sexuality also formed part of the overall picture. The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists: 10–20. de/ ausgaben/ 23/ parteienvergleich) (in German). ISBN 3-548-35670-2. a dominatory psychology and violent territorial acquisition. For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of Violence (http:/ / www. php/ site/ article/ 94/ ). 1331–1343. M. [11] "Body Pleasure and the Origins of Violence" (http:/ / www.. in the 1970s. psychology. ISBN 0-374-52269-3. [3] Miller. It is upon these that current transmitted practice is found. Prescott outlined a link between violence and disruption of the child-mother bonding process in human societies. Burlington. psychology. Bull N Y Acad Med 51 (11): pp..H. the society in question begins to demonstrate a clear lack of empathy. "International Conference on Women and Literacy" (http:/ / education. ineffective. nospank. and the incidence of extremely violent societies was low. The research showed that over time. Alice (1990). Retrieved 2008-03-25. as the brief pain attending the operation will have a salutary effect upon the mind. [4] Sulzer. is emerging from neuroscience. PMC 1749743 [10] Frank Furedi (7 July 2004). html). He suggests that the same dynamic functions for human beings. "BOOK REVIEW of William G.[14] 92 Footnotes [1] Helfield. "Treatment for Self-Abuse and Its Effects". and violence is codified. Plain Facts for Old and Young. The Center for the Study of Adult Literacy: Poisonous Pedagogy. and an examination of historical attitudes towards children from Euramerican literature and the historical record. htm). . neurobiochemistry. November 1975. Quellen zur Naturgeschichte der bürgerlichen Erziehung. George Eaton (1975 December). 1748. J. This discovery was not expected. [6] Miller. zona-pellucida. Iowa: F. Straus & Giroux. The history of Poisonous Pedagogy is the history of this codification of these non-nurturant practices. Ullstein Buchverlage.Poisonous pedagogy Social psychologist David Smail contends that society bears a large part of the responsibility for individuals' dysfunctional behavior. biochemistry and longtitudinal studies. and other recorded observations. over the past 400 years have shown that the majority of Aboriginal Cultures do not chastise children. html). net/ fyog. [2] Rutschky. and as yet has not addressed this in any meaningful way. kraetzae. through the breakdown of empathy.D. (1888). "Punishing Parents" (http:/ / www. . Evas Erwachen. [8] Kellogg.: The Schreber Case: Psychoanalytic Profile of a Paranoid Personality". especially if it be connected with the idea of punishment [. . Prescott's work and insights have been confirmed by neuroscience. In 1975. "A remedy which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision [. A. Katharina (1997) (in German). gsu.]. hierarchy. frankfuredi. peri-natal science. htm) (3rd ed. Segner & Co. The operation should be performed by a surgeon without administering an anesthetic. drawing on a cross-cultural study of Aboriginal Societies and a statistical analysis of those cultures' practices towards the nurturing of the natural child-mother bonding process.. "A Study of Attitudes Towards Corporal Punishment as an Educational Procedure From the Earliest Times to the Present" (http:/ / www. Most societies were peaceful. J." • Plain Facts for Old and Young (1881 edition) at Project Gutenberg [9] Daniels. com/ index. [5] "Zur Bundestagswahl: Parteien im Vergleich" (http:/ / regenbogen. violence. analysis of the views of German political parties. Isa (January 2001). edu/ csal/ icwl/ abs01/ ihelfield1. Schwarze Pädagogik. Niederland. Prescott. de/ prescott/ bulletin/ article.

. in which an existing system or medium is broken into its smallest meaningful elements and in which these elements are used to build a new system or medium free from the strictures of the original. "Trustful Parenting: Its Downfall and Potential Renaissance" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 14 July 2012. psychologytoday. Psychology Today. Olivier (2005). Reconstructivism. Retrieved 14 July 2012. Peter (9 July 2009). In an essay by Chris Sunami. com/ blog/ freedom-learn/ 200907/ trustful-parenting-its-downfall-and-potential-renaissance). . "Play Makes Us Human VI: Hunter-Gatherers’ Playful Parenting" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-679-75255-2 Reconstructivism Reconstructivism is a philosophical theory holding that societies should continually reform themselves in order to establish more perfect governments or social networks. 93 References • Foucault. Some thinkers have attempted to ascribe the term Reconstructivism to the post-postmodern art movement. com/ blog/ freedom-learn/ 200907/ play-makes-us-human-vi-hunter-gatherers-playful-parenting).Poisonous pedagogy [12] Gray. with the goal of creating works of genuine emotion and significance. net/ qadv1-3. LCCN HQ770. [2] http:/ / kitoba. [13] Gray. (Art Essays: Reconstructivist Art [2]) "reconstructivist art" is described as follows: A reconstructivist art work builds upon prior. reconstructivism (when it works) combines the vitality and originality of deconstructionism with the comforts. Pantheon Books. nospank. .[1] This ideology involves recombining or recontextualizing the ideas arrived at by the philosophy of deconstruction. pleasures and rewards of classicism. . "Why we must stop using corporal punishment" (http:/ / www. deconstructionist artworks and techniques. Peter (16 July 2009). htm). Retrieved 2008-04-26. articleworld. Retrieved 14 July 2012.org" (http:/ / www. Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Psychology Today. html . Michel (1977). org/ index. The overall purpose of reconstructivism is to reawaken a sense of the Real in a world where everything has been demonstrated to be an illusion. [14] Maurel.4 M34 2009. References [1] "Articleworld. In this way. php/ Reconstructivism) (php). psychologytoday. Project NoSpank. One of the examples Sunami provides of this technique is the way some modern music incorporates deconstructed samples of older music and combines and arranges the samples in a new way as part of a new composition. but adapts them to classic themes and structures. com/ pedia/ Reconstructivist+ Art.

the theorist Max Horkheimer described a theory as critical in so far as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them.e.[3] Whilst critical theorists usually are broadly defined as Marxist intellectuals[4] their tendency to denounce some Marxist concepts.[5] Definitions The two meanings of critical theory — from different intellectual traditions associated with the meaning of criticism and critique—derive ultimately from the Greek word kritikos meaning judgment or discernment. From this perspective." or through criticizing it in terms of its own espoused values. critical theory transcended its theoretic roots in German idealism. by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. In Habermas's work. in contrast. and progressed closer to American pragmatism. the term critical theory describes the neo-Marxist philosophy of the Frankfurt School. but as "a gadfly of other systems". Critical theory in literature and the humanities in general does not necessarily involve a normative dimension. . As a term. Theodor Adorno. knowledge via interpretation to understand the meaning of human texts and symbolic expressions—including the interpretation of texts which are themselves implicitly or explicitly the interpretation of other texts. much literary critical theory. critical theory in literary studies is ultimately a form of hermeneutics. Walter Benjamin. The concern for a social "base and superstructure" is one of the remaining Marxist philosophic concepts in much contemporary critical theory." [1] In philosophy. obeying the emancipatory interest in expanding the scope of autonomy and reducing the scope of domination. and Analytical Marxists. Orthodox. either through criticizing society from some general theory of values. Critical social theory is. To use an epistemological distinction introduced by Jürgen Habermas in Erkenntnis und Interesse [1968] (Knowledge and Human Interests).Critical theory 94 Critical theory Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture. Max Horkheimer. which was developed in Germany in the 1930s. norms. a form of self-reflective knowledge involving both understanding and theoretical explanation to reduce entrapment in systems of domination or dependence. Frankfurt theorists drew on the critical methods of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud and has at its heart a criticism of ideology and the principal obstacle to human liberation. or "oughts. would be regarded as positivistic or traditional rather than critical theory in the Kantian or Marxian sense. and in their present forms go back to the 18th century. and Erich Fromm. increasingly scholars are interested in the areas of critique where the two overlap. and to synthesise Marxian analysis with other sociologic and philosophic traditions has been attacked as revisionism. Martin Jay said that the first generation of critical theory is best understood as not promoting a specific philosophical agenda or a specific ideology. i.[2] Critical theory was established as a school of thought primarily by five Frankfurt School theoreticians: Herbert Marcuse. thus. Modern critical theory has been inluenced by second generation Frankfurt School scholar Jürgen Habermas as well by György Lukács and Antonio Gramsci. whereas critical social theory does. and by Marxist-Leninist philosophers. While they can be considered completely independent intellectual pursuits. critical theory has two meanings with different origins and histories: the first originated in sociology and the second originated in literary criticism. whereby it is used and applied as an umbrella term that can describe a theory founded upon critique. since it is focused on interpretation and explanation rather than on social transformation. by Classical.

sociology. This version of "critical" theory derives from Kant's (18th-century) and Marx's (19th Century) use of the term "critique". As such. and psychology. as in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Marx's concept that his work Das Kapital (Capital) forms a "critique of political economy. is a certain ambivalence concerning the ultimate source or foundation of social domination. as Adorno and Horkheimer elaborated in their Dialectic of Enlightenment (1947). in attacking metaphysics. constituted the primary contradiction within capitalism. in contrast to traditional theory oriented only to understanding or explaining it. or dogmatic philosophical. unprovable. there is no longer any dynamism upon which critique could base its hope. irreducible concepts in use in that knowledge system. and (2) That critical theory should improve understanding of society by integrating all the major social sciences. critical theory was left. according to traditional critical theory. and political beliefs. history. "Philosophers have only interpreted the world in certain ways. as in the famous 11th of his Theses on Feuerbach. how it came to be configured at a specific point in time). state capitalism. employed reason and logic to argue against the knowability of the world and common notions of causation." For Kant's transcendental idealism. it would have to be established upon abstractions distinct from perceivable phenomena. however. and mass culture as entirely new forms of social domination that could not be adequately explained within the terms of traditional Marxist sociology. or body of knowledge. without "anything in reserve to which it might appeal. critiquing both the model of science put forward by logical positivism and what he and his colleagues saw as the covert positivism and authoritarianism of orthodox Marxism and Communism. the rise of National Socialism. this shift did not lead to "an era of social revolution." a tension which. the point is to change it. Horkheimer wanted to distinguish critical theory as a radical. for if anything is to be said to be knowable. type."[10] For Adorno and Horkheimer. including geography. emancipatory form of Marxian theory. . by contrast.e. anthropology. in the historical circumstances in which the work was originally produced. The market (as an "unconscious" mechanism for the distribution of goods) and private property had been replaced by centralized planning and socialized ownership of the means of production. social. Kant's notion of critique has been associated with the disestablishment of false.[8] For Adorno and Horkheimer state intervention in the economy had effectively abolished the tension in capitalism between the "relations of production" and "material productive forces of society. political science. Core concepts are: (1) That critical social theory should be directed at the totality of society in its historical specificity (i.[9] Yet.[7] This ambivalence was rooted. "critique" means examining and establishing the limits of the validity of a faculty. Ignored by many in "critical realist" circles. of course. pushed the employment of a priori metaphysical claims as requisite." but rather to fascism and totalitarianism. an ambivalence which gave rise to the “pessimism” of the new critical theory over the possibility of human emancipation and freedom. in particular. in Jürgen Habermas’ words. Marx explicitly developed the notion of critique into the critique of ideology and linked it with the practice of social revolution. especially through accounting for the limitations imposed by the fundamental. is that Kant's immediate impetus for writing his "Critique of Pure Reason" was to address problems raised by David Hume's skeptical empiricism which. contrary to Marx’s famous prediction in the Preface to a Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. because Kant's critique of reason involved the critique of dogmatic theological and metaphysical ideas and was intertwined with the enhancement of ethical autonomy and the Enlightenment critique of superstition and irrational authority.Critical theory 95 In social theory Critical theory was first defined by Max Horkheimer of the Frankfurt School of sociology in his 1937 essay Traditional and Critical Theory: Critical theory is a social theory oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole."[6] One of the distinguishing characteristics of critical theory. and when the forces of production enter into a baneful symbiosis with the relations of production that they were supposed to blow wide open. Kant. economics.

hermeneutics. the era of modernity marks a move away from the liberation of enlightenment and toward a new form of enslavement. language. Perhaps his two most influential ideas are the concepts of the public sphere and communicative action. which rejects the idea that a researcher’s work is considered an “objective depiction of a stable other” (Lindlof & Taylor. symbolism. 2002. in their research and writing. George Herbert Mead. through its orientation to self-reflection and emancipation. In the 1960s. 52). 2002. p. many postmodern scholars have adopted “alternatives that encourage reflection about the ‘politics and poetics’ of their work. and meaning came to be seen as the theoretical foundation for the humanities. 53). Language and communication From the 1960s and 1970s onward. Alfred Lorenzer). in the form of instrumental rationality. and to relativize their findings” (Lindlof & Taylor. through the influence of Ludwig Wittgenstein. Habermas dissolved further the elements of critical theory derived from Hegelian German Idealism.[11] His ideas regarding the relationship between modernity and rationalization are in this sense strongly influenced by Max Weber. Roland Barthes. Habermas shares the view that. Ferdinand de Saussure. . and improvisational aspects of qualitative research are clarified” (Lindlof & Taylor. Jürgen Habermas redefined critical social theory as a theory of communication. i. 2002. symbolism. Hans-Georg Gadamer. Language and construction The two points at which there is the greatest overlap or mutual impingement of the two versions of critical theory are in their interrelated foci on language. symbolic interactionism. the term "critical theory" is appropriated when an author (perhaps most notably Michel Foucault) works within sociological terms yet attacks the social or human sciences (thus attempting to remain "outside" those frames of enquiry). Jürgen Habermas raised the epistemological discussion to a new level in his Knowledge and Human Interests. Though unsatisfied with Adorno and Horkeimer's thought presented in Dialectic of Enlightenment. distorted communication on the other. structural linguistics. and deconstruction. Instead. In these accounts. to implicate themselves in the process of collecting and analyzing data. holding little or no relation to the Frankfurt School. dialogic. p. Often. though his thought remains broadly Marxist in its epistemological approach. this appropriation is similarly casual. was the source of domination itself. Meaning itself is seen as unstable due to the rapid transformation in social structures and as a result the focus of research is centered on local manifestations rather than broad generalizations. Jean Baudrillard has also been described as a critical theorist to the extent that he was an unconventional and critical sociologist. semiology. Habermas engaged in regular correspondence with Richard Rorty and a strong sense of philosophical pragmatism may be felt in his theory. Postmodern critical research is also characterized by what is called.Critical theory this posed the problem of how to account for the apparent persistence of domination in the absence of the very contradiction that. according to traditional critical theory.” postmodern critical theory politicizes social problems “by situating them in historical and cultural contexts. p. Noam Chomsky. When. collaborative. linguistically oriented psychoanalysis (Jacques Lacan. communicative competence and communicative rationality on the one hand.e. 53). the latter arriving partly as a reaction to new post-structural or so-called "post-modern" challenges to the discourse of modernity. thought which frequently traverses the boundaries between sociology and philosophy. by identifying critical knowledge as based on principles that differentiated it either from the natural sciences or the humanities. 96 Postmodern critical theory While modernist critical theory (as described above) concerns itself with “forms of authority and injustice that accompanied the evolution of industrial and corporate capitalism as a political-economic system. the embodied. and communication and in their focus on social construction. Jacques Derrida and other thinkers in linguistic and analytic philosophy. in the 1970s and 1980s. text. the crisis of representation.

with Max Horkheimer. e. Stanford: Stanford UP. 38. Norton & Company. trans. [11] Outhwaite. 1988.g. • The semiotic rules by which objects obtain symbolic meanings (Barthes). 118. htm). and the victory of fascism in Germany. ISBN 0393329437 Jay. Challenging the Status Quo Meaning of Educational Quality: Introducing Transformational Quality (TQ) Theory©. 1-29. trans. Habermas: Key Contemporary Thinkers 2nd Edition (2009). R. 1988. ISBN 978-0-7456-4328-1 References • Barry. William. The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures. p. W. Edmund Jephcott.net/node/191 • An accessible primer for the literary aspect of critical theory is Jonathan Culler's Literary Theory: A Very Short Introduction ISBN 0-19-285383-X • Another short introductory volume with illustrations: "Introducing Critical Theory" Stuart Sim & Borin Van Loon. Trans. ISBN 978-0-520-20423-2. Retrieved 22 August 2008." in Habermas. T.Cambridge University Press] Outhwaite. vol.. W. Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] (Horkheimer 1982.Critical theory the two versions of critical theory began to overlap or intertwine to a much greater degree than before. 2006) ISSN 0263-2764 . com/ books?id=nwkzVdaaB2sC& lpg=PA41& ots=38WIpH7P8O& dq="gadfly of other systems"& pg=PA41#v=onepage& q="gadfly of other systems"& f=false) [6] "Theses on Feuerbach" (http:/ / www." "The Entwinement of Myth and Enlightenment: Horkheimer and Adorno. Ultimately this emphasis on production and construction goes back to the revolution wrought by Kant in philosophy. Theory and Politics: Studies in the Development of Critical Theory. Also. and the Challenge of Difference (Blackwell. 2002. [10] "The Entwinement of Myth and Enlightenment. 4. There is a common interest in the processes (often of a linguistic or symbolic kind) that give rise to observable phenomena and here there is some mutual influence among the different versions of critical theory. but without breaking Marxist intentions. W. 116. and political consciousness are created. marxists. http://ejolts. and London. [7] Adorno. 1985). Mass.Cambridge. Benjamin Gregg (Cambridge. org/ archive/ marx/ works/ 1845/ theses/ theses. This includes: • Whether it is through universal pragmatic principles through which mutual understanding is achieved (Habermas). 1987. google. • The psychological processes by which the phenomena of everyday consciousness are generated (psychoanalytic thinkers).. Dialectic of Enlightenment. Habermas: Key Contemporary Thinkers 2nd Edition (2009). ISBN 1-84046-264-7 • A survey of and introduction to the current state of critical social theory is Craig Calhoun's Critical Social Theory: Culture. [8] "Critical Theory was initially developed in Horkheimer’s circle to think through political disappointments at the absence of revolution in the West. 41 (http:/ / books. 97 Construction Both versions of critical theory have focused on the processes by which human communication. Theory. [9] "[G]one are the objective laws of the market which ruled in the actions of the entrepreneurs and tended toward catastrophe. • The episteme that underlies our cognitive formations (Foucault). Culture & Society. It was supposed to explain mistaken Marxist prognoses. Instead the conscious decision of the managing directors executes as results (which are more obligatory than the blindest price-mechanisms) the old law of value and hence the destiny of capitalism. 2001. Jürgen. MA: MIT Press. p6. 3 chapter X. The Idea of a Critical Theory. culture. (Sage. (2012). Leszek Kolakowski's Main Currents of Marxism (1979). Cambridge. William. namely his focus in the Critique of Pure Reason on synthesis according to rules as the fundamental activity of the mind that creates the order of our experience. . W. History. 244) [Geuss. Vol. 1995) ISBN 1-55786-288-5 • Problematizing Global Knowledge. 242." p. University of California Press." Dialectic of Enlightenment. Martin (1996) The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research. Educational Journal of Living Theories. Frederick Lawrence.5-8 (ISBN 978-0-7456-4328-1) See.J. p. see Helmut Dubiel. p. 23 (2–3). the development of Stalinism in Soviet Russia. 1923–1950. Marxists Internet Archive.

doi:10.com/theory.&hl=it&ei=kZZBTO-5NuWJ4gasv4ypDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1& ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false). & Taylor.stanford.Critical theory • Raymond GeussThe Idea of a Critical Theory. London. Between positivism and postmodernism: Implications for methods. • Gandler. Studies in Symbolic Interaction. S. Stefan (2009) (in German). Qualitative Communication Research Methods. A Theory of Argumentation. Secular blasphemy: Utter(ed) transgressions against names and fathers in the postmodern era.1080/03637759109376222.nplusonemag. Pisa. Volume 25 of Current Perspectives in Social Theory (Emerald/JAI. (1995).) No Social Science Without Critical Theory. • Charles Arthur Willard. Thousand Oaks. • L.. D. 1982. Becoming a character for commerce: Emotion labor. CA: Sage. Jr. Doing Critical Ethnography. Jürgen Habermas tra filosofia e sociologia (http://books. Edizioni Il Campano – Arnus University Books. Fragmentos de Frankfurt.1981) ISBN 0-521-28422-8 • Charles Arthur Willard Liberalism and the Problem of Knowledge: A New Rhetoric for Modern Democracy.google. B. (2002). 926–948. pp. Argumentation and the Social Grounds of Knowledge. 2010. J.+A+Bibliography:+works+and+studies+ (1952-2010).it/ books?id=jw3klIgEVZoC&pg=PA238&dq=Jürgen+Habermas. (2000). Qualitative Inquiry. • Critical Legal Thinking (http://www. 1–5 & 17–25 • An example of critical qualitative research is Tracy. R.com/ watch?v=S7HVfxq4l-8) • Critical Theory (http://plato. T. Communication Monographs 58 (2): 179–194. Corchia. Jim (1993). New York (NY): Sage 1993. • Thomas..google. México: Siglo XXI Editores/Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro. • Conquergood. (2008). 2nd Edition. "Rethinking ethnography: Towards a critical cultural politics". • Charmaz. Genova. University of Chicago Press. 17.edu/entries/critical-theory/). 43–72. • Harry Dahms (ed.html) N+1 magazine's short history of academic critical theory. La logica dei processi culturali. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • "Death is Not the End" (http://www. (1991). • An example of critical postmodern work is Rolling. 90–128. • Luca Corchia. Habermas and the Frankfurt School. self subordination and discursive construction of identity in a total institution. C. Jürgen Habermas. University of Alabama Press.youtube.com/) A Critical Legal Studies website which uses critical theory in an analysis of law and politics. 344 pp. 14. • Charles Arthur Willard. K. J. (Cambridge University Press. Management Communication Quarterly.criticallegalthinking. H. ISBN 978-88-7544-195-1. 1989. ISBN 978-607-03-0070-7 • Lindlof. A Bibliography: works and studies (1952-2010) (http://books. University of Alabama Press. 2008). 2010. 98 External links • Using Critical Theory to Understand the Meaning of Educational Quality (http://www. 1996. it/books?id=U56Sag72eSoC&pg=PP1&dq=habermas+corchia#v=onepage&q=&f=false). Ensayos sobre la Teoría crítica. 14. Edizioni ECIG. .

From a Marxian point of view all cultural artifacts--religious systems. conditions of inequality create ideologies which confuse people about their true aspirations. That is. philosophical positions. all who can prosper: instead of literally thinking for themselves. naturally enough. False consciousness In Marx's view. ethical values--are. It is a distinction often reserved for human beings. This belief in one's own subordination. or how social being determines consciousness. beguiled by nationalism. That is.Political consciousness 99 Political consciousness Following the work of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. the working class has often been. and so forth. is.. for Marx. power. for example. consciousness is a reflection of the political economy." Perhaps Marx's greatest contribution to modern thought. [4] . consciousness was always political. ideologies appear to explain and justify the current distribution of wealth and power in a society. but. many social movements and intellectuals have developed this use of consciousness. on the contrary. the factory workers to accept the rule of the owners. consciousness describes a person's political sense of self. their social being that determines their consciousness. false consciousness. for it was always the outcome of politic-economic circumstances. Marx saw the political economy as the engine of mind. The subordinate people come to believe in their subordination: the peasants to accept the rule of the aristocracy. ideologies present these inequalities as acceptable.[3] Consciousness and the political-economy For Marx. an authentic consciousness was linked to understanding one's true position in History.. consciousness describes a person's awareness of politics. Ideologies thus tend to lead people to accept the status quo. While Hegel placed God behind the workings of consciousness in people. A person's thoughts tend to be shaped by his or her political and economic circumstances. virtuous. He famously wrote. Karl Marx outlined the workings of a political consciousness. loyalties. and self. consumers the rule of corporations. for Marx. What one thinks of life. For Marx. and purposes. they who deserve the fruits of the land. But a line of political and philosophical inquiry opened up which explores consciousness in terms of one's political state of mind. organized religion. The politics of consciousness Consciousness typically refers to the idea of a being who is self-aware. "It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being.[1] In the 20th century. they think the thoughts given to them by the ruling class. is always a product of ideological forces. which comes about through ideology.[2] Thus. for Marx. is his comprehensive investigation into the role of Ideology. In societies with unequal allocations of wealth and power. For Marx. and other distractions. For Marx. products of consciousness and as such are subject to these ideological pressures. which results in certain (for the most part unconscious) belief and value systems depending on the particular economic infrastructure pertaining at the time. inevitable. This remains the original and most common usage of the term. These ideological devices help to keep people from realizing that it is they who produce wealth.

history. External resources • Outline for Hegel's ideas on consciousness at Marxists.html) • Frederic Jameson. Retrieved 2012-09-09. marxists. ch. htm References • Sullivan. have ceased to argue that there is one true form of consciousness. for example. marxists. Marxists. Attaining consciousness. the feminist movement spoke of consciousness raising and many South African activists have subscribe to a Black Consciousness Movement. consciousness meant rejecting racist ideas about Blacks. These uses of political consciousness are often politically charged. for many South African Blacks. this meant that the working classes would become conscious of themselves as the agents of history--they would unite and share in the wealth of labor. The Victorian Web (http://www. marxists. 2 (http:/ / www.Political consciousness 100 Consciousness and social movements Many social movements have loosely followed Marx's thinking on consciousness. org/ archive/ marx/ works/ 1845/ german-ideology/ ch01a. htm). In a politically charged sense. org/ archive/ marx/ works/ 1848/ communist-manifesto/ ch02. Sullivan http:/ / www. while preserving a sense that the ruling class perpetuates a dominant ideology and often behaves in ways which harm people. Part 1 (http:/ / www. The Political Unconscious ISBN 0-8014-9222-X . as opposed to the propaganda dispensed by the ruling elites. their actual identity. The German ideology. feminists. many believe. rejecting White rule of the nation. which calls upon Blacks to pursue their "true" political trajectory (as opposed to the ideas set out by.org/philosophy/phil2. marxists. For Marx. org/ reference/ archive/ hegel/ works/ ol/ ol_phen. In these uses of the term "consciousness" is truth or destiny. org/ glossary/ terms/ c/ o.victorianweb. Karl Marx. means finding one's true historical path. "consciousness" has meant identifying and discrediting forms of White supremacy. . the apartheid regime). African Americans (and other groups). This. a Black woman lack consciousness because she generally supports a system run mostly by White male capitalists? If she became politically conscious would she think differently? What is her "true" consciousness supposed to look like? Many marxists. and so forth). The complexities of political consciousness are described by the theories of cultural hegemony. The Communist Manifesto. and power. fighting wars on behalf of capitalists. many dissenters now hold a more liberal position which tolerates a variety of political positions. htm). htm) Karl Marx. Instead. for Marx. For many African Americans. Thus. In the latter example. and restoring Black identity. becoming "politically conscious" is often meant to connote that people have awakened to their true political role. was their historical role and their right (as opposed to working for wages. for example.org [5] Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] "Glossary of Terms: Co" (http:/ / www. including those internalized by Blacks. Robert. Does.org.

[1] 1975) was a Russian philosopher. inspired scholars working in a number of different traditions (Marxism. history. 1895 Oryol. pronounced [mʲɪxʌˈil mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪtɕ bʌxˈtʲin]. Russian SFSR 20th century philosophy Russian Philosophy Russian Formalism Semiotics. structuralism. Russian Empire March 7. literary critic. November 17.Mikhail Bakhtin 101 Mikhail Bakhtin Mikhail Bakhtin Mikhail Bakhtin (1920) Born November 17. sociology. . and the philosophy of language. literary criticism Died Era Region School Main interests Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (Russian: Михаи́л Миха́йлович Бахти́н. ethics. on a variety of subjects. Although Bakhtin was active in the debates on aesthetics and literature that took place in the Soviet Union in the 1920s. religious criticism) and in disciplines as diverse as literary criticism. anthropology and psychology. his distinctive position did not become well known until he was rediscovered by Russian scholars in the 1960s. 1895 – March 7. 1975 (aged 79) Moscow. philosophy. His writings. semiotician[2] and scholar who worked on literary theory. semiotics.

Russia. Bakhtin spent these six years working as a book-keeper in the town of Kustanai. in his weakened state. to an old family of the nobility. P. "Problems of Dostoevsky’s Art". who joined the group later in Vitebsk. religious. However. in 1921. Medvedev. This piece constitutes Bakhtin’s first published work. whose works contain the beginnings of concepts elaborated by Bakhtin. Later. An obscure figure in a provincial college. he dropped out of view and taught only occasionally. left its mark on Bakhtin. it would kill him. In 1929. Bakhtin was sentenced to exile in Siberia but appealed on the grounds that. Zelinsky. Bakhtin was accused of participating in the Russian Orthodox Church's underground movement. and then Odessa. Consequently.. that Bakhtin married Elena Aleksandrovna Okolovich. where he worked as a schoolteacher for two years. Bender. The group consisted of intellectuals with varying interests. Bakhtin moved to Leningrad. Bakhtin moved to Kimry. in 1923.. also. For this reason Bakhtin spent his early childhood years in Orel. during which time he wrote several important essays. where he assumed a position at the Historical Institute and provided consulting services for the State Publishing House. Included in this group were Valentin Voloshinov and. Nevel (Pskov Oblast). including "Discourse in the Novel". Instead. and political topics. It is here that Bakhtin introduces the concept of dialogism. His father was the manager of a bank and worked in several cities. where in 1913 he joined the historical and philological faculty at the local university.."[3] He later transferred to Petersburg University to join his brother Nikolai. The truthfulness of this charge is not known. German philosophy was the topic talked about most frequently and. In 1924. F. However. like Vilnius. Bakhtin considered himself more a philosopher than a literary scholar. It was here. Here. The same sense of fun and irreverence that gave birth to Babel's Rabelaisian A commemorative plaque marking a building in which Mikhail gangster or to the tricks and deceptions of Ostap Bakhtin worked. the journal in which it was to appear stopped publication. It is at this time that Bakhtin decided to share his work with the public.Mikhail Bakhtin 102 Early life Bakhtin was born in Oryol. This illness hampered his productivity and rendered him an invalid. in 1919. Bakhtin’s first major work. a bone disease that ultimately led to the amputation of his leg in 1938. Vilnius. It is here that Bakhtin was greatly influenced by the classicist F. Bakhtin relocated to Vitebsk in 1920. In 1936 he taught courses at the Mordovian Pedagogical Institute in Saransk. It was at this time that the first "Bakhtin Circle" formed. Career Bakhtin completed his studies in 1918 and moved to a small city in western Russia. Bakhtin was diagnosed with osteomyelitis. even today. a short section of this work was published and given the title "Art and Responsibility". This work was eventually published 51 years later. the picaro created by Ilf and Petrov. a town located a couple of hundred kilometers from Moscow. was an appropriate setting for a chapter in the life of a man who was to become the philosopher of heteroglossia and carnival. It was in Nevel. The repression and misplacement of his manuscripts was something that would plague Bakhtin throughout his career. from this point forward. during one of the many purges of artists and intellectuals that Joseph Stalin conducted during the early years of his rule. he was sentenced to six years of internal exile in Kazakhstan. was published. but all shared a love for the discussion of literary. just as this book was introduced. Bakhtin . but just before "On the Question of the Methodology of Aesthetics in Written Works" was to be published. N. Katerina Clark and Michael Holquist write: "Odessa. that Bakhtin worked tirelessly on a large work concerning moral philosophy that was never published in its entirety. In 1937. eventually.

However. 2. The book's earthy. When. Bakhtin’s intentions for the work were not altogether lost."[9] Bakhtin deals with the concept of morality whereby he attributes the predominating legalistic notion of morality to human moral action. the Institute changed from a teachers' college to a university. Bakhtin was denied a doctorate and granted a lesser degree by the State Accrediting Bureau. Later." For the three subsequent and unfinished parts of Toward a Philosophy of the Act Bakhtin states the topics he intends to discuss. After the amputation of his leg in 1938. the details provided now are often of uncertain accuracy. and those other professors who were against the manuscript’s acceptance. Toward a Philosophy of the Act comprises only an introduction. My uniqueness is given but it simultaneously exists only to the degree to which I actualize this uniqueness (in other words. He outlines that the second part will deal with aesthetic activity and the ethics of artistic creation. and in 1969. who accepted the original and unorthodox manuscript. "the world actually experienced. Bakhtin became head of the Department of Russian and World Literature.[4] a dissertation that could not be defended until the war ended. and until the end of World War II. As a result. the third with the ethics of politics. it is in the performed act and deed that has yet to be achieved). Also contributing to the imprecision of these details is the limited access to Russian archival information during Bakhtin’s life. However. In 1961.[7] The first part of the essay deals with the analysis of the performed acts or deeds that comprise the actual world. In 1940. 3. In 1946 and 1949. in search of medical attention.[5] Bakhtin’s works and ideas gained popularity after his death. the only copy of the manuscript disappeared during the upheaval caused by the German invasion. where he submitted a dissertation on François Rabelais to the Gorky Institute of World Literature to obtain a postgraduate title. According to Bakhtin. The manuscript. and the fourth with religion. and part one of the full text. was found in bad condition with pages missing and sections of text that were illegible. It is only after the archives became public that scholars realized that much of what they thought they knew about the details of Bakhtin’s life was false or skewed largely by Bakhtin himself.[6] 103 Works and ideas Toward a Philosophy of the Act Toward a Philosophy of the Act was first published in the USSR in 1986 with the title K filosofii postupka. and not the merely thinkable world. of which the first few pages are missing. the I cannot maintain neutrality toward moral and ethical . a time in which information was often seen as dangerous and therefore often hidden. Bakhtin’s deteriorating health forced him to retire. Because I am actual and irreplaceable I must actualize my uniqueness. This text is one of Bakhtin’s early works concerning ethics and aesthetics and it is here that Bakhtin lays out three claims regarding the acknowledgment of the uniqueness of one’s participation in Being: 1.Mikhail Bakhtin completed work on a book concerning the 18th-century German novel which was subsequently accepted by the Sovetskii Pisatel' Publishing House. this philosophical essay appears today as a fragment of an unfinished work. I both actively and passively participate in Being. where he took on the position of chair of the General Literature Department at the Mordovian Pedagogical Institute. in 1957. where he lived until his death in 1975. Consequently.[8] Toward a Philosophy of the Act reveals a young Bakhtin who is in the process of developing his moral philosophy by decentralizing the work of Kant. anarchic topic was the cause of many arguments that ceased only when the government intervened. written between 1919–1921. the defense of this dissertation divided the scholars of Moscow into two groups: those official opponents guiding the defense. Bakhtin’s health improved and he became more prolific. Ultimately. Bakhtin was invited back to Saransk. for he provided an outline in the introduction in which he stated that the essay was to contain four parts. Bakhtin further states: "It is in relation to the whole actual unity that my unique thought arises from my unique place in Being. and he endured difficult conditions for much of his professional life. Bakhtin lived in Moscow. Bakhtin moved back to Moscow.

or labeled. It is at this time that he began his engagement with the work of Fyodor Dostoevsky. The I-for-myself is an unreliable source of identity. not merely in terms of how a person comes to be. "I-for-the-other". First. a sentence or a phrase. It is the fact of mutual addressivity. that is. Conversely. For one cannot even really see one's own exterior and comprehend it as a whole. Third. it also cannot be expressed by "a single mouth". Bakhtin shifted his focus away from the philosophy characteristic of his early works and towards the notion of dialogue. is the idea of the relationship between the self and others.Mikhail Bakhtin demands which manifest themselves as one’s voice of consciousness. He challenged philosophers for whom plurality of minds is accidental and superfluous. and the hidden soul. June 10. our real exterior can be seen and understood only by other people. worth. Readers may find that this conception reflects the idea of the "soul". and no mirrors or photographs can help. Bakhtin's philosophy greatly respected the influences of others on the self. According to Bakhtin. both of which emphasized the importance of an individual's potentially infinite capability. According to Bakhtin. In an interview. in space. Bakhtin once explained that. Bakhtin does not mean to say that many voices carry partial truths that complement each other.or herself truthfully. It cannot be held within a single mind.[10] It is here also that Bakhtin introduces an "architectonic" or schematic model of the human psyche which consists of three components: "I-for-myself". distinct from others. Problems of Dostoyevsky’s Art was translated into English and published in the West. This idea of polyphony is related to the concepts of unfinalizability and self-and-others. statements. or other groups. In order to understand. For Bakhtin.[11] 104 Problems of Dostoyevsky's Poetics: polyphony and unfinalizability During his time in Leningrad. Instead. 1993. of engagement. other-for-me describes the way in which others incorporate my perceptions of them into their own identities. Bakhtin’s conception of unfinalizability respects the possibility that a person can change. ~New York Review of Books. Problems of Dostoyevsky’s Poetics. many voices. Second. Bakhtin added a chapter on the concept of "carnival" and the book was published with the slightly different title. truth is not a statement. and Bakhtin argues that it is the I-for-the-other through which human beings develop a sense of identity because it serves as an amalgamation of the way in which others view me. because they are located outside us in space. and because they are others. does not belong merely to the individual. and of commitment to the context of a real-life event. Each character in Dostoevsky's work represents a voice that speaks for an individual self. truth is a number of mutually addressed. every person is influenced by others in an inescapably intertwined way. albeit contradictory and logically inconsistent. Though it is possible to understand people and to treat them as if they are completely known. Problems of Dostoyevsky’s Art is considered to be Bakhtin’s seminal work. at least one of them must be in error. that distinguishes truth from untruth. As such. as Bakhtin describes it here. Bakhtin had strong roots in Christianity and in the Neo-Kantian school led by Hermann Cohen. A number of different voices do not make the truth if simply "averaged" or "synthesized". Bakhtin found in Dostoevsky's work a true representation of "polyphony". and it is here that Bakhtin introduces three important concepts. if two people disagree. The polyphonic truth requires many simultaneous voices. is the concept of the unfinalizable self: individual people cannot be finalized. and that a person is never fully revealed or fully known in the world. completely understood. Identity. known. carnival is the context in which distinct individual voices . Truth needs a multitude of carrying voices. and "other-for-me". He criticized the assumption that. but also in how a person thinks and how a person sees him. Bakhtin briefly outlined the polyphonic concept of truth. in culture. since it is the unfinalizability of individuals that creates true polyphony. it is immensely important for the person who understands to be located outside the object of his or her creative understanding—in time. When. rather it is shared by all. and consequently no voice can be said to be isolated. in subsequent years.

"[18][20] Bakhtin's deep insights on dialogicality represent a substantive shift from views on the nature of language and knowledge by major thinkers as Ferdinand de Saussure and Immanuel Kant.[13] Bakhtin declares that. due to its content.[16] Bakhtin explains the generation of meaning through the "primacy of context over text" (heteroglossia). were either ignored or suppressed. dialogism and chronotope. however.. It is this same diversity that the epic attempts to eliminate from the world. the voices of others are heard by each individual. By doing so. however. Bakhtin demonstrates the novel’s distinct nature by contrasting it with the epic. in Rabelais and His World Bakhtin studies the interaction between the social and the literary. in Rabelais and His World Bakhtin explores Rabelais’ Gargantua and Pantagruel. and "Discourse in the Novel" (1934–1935). Heteroglossia The Dialogic Imagination (first published as a whole in 1975) is a compilation of four essays concerning language and the novel: "Epic and Novel" (1941). and claimed that Rabelais and His World clarified Rabelais’s intentions. "Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel" (1937–1938).[23] "From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse" is a less traditional essay in which Bakhtin reveals how various different texts from the past have ultimately come together to form the modern novel. and conducts an analysis of the Renaissance social system in order to discover the balance between language that was permitted and language that was not.[12] A classic of Renaissance studies.Mikhail Bakhtin are heard. Thus. and at the same time the reader witnesses the critical influence of each character upon the other. According to Bakhtin. Thus. Bakhtin advances the notion of its therapeutic and liberating force. Throughout the text. and devour other genres while still maintaining its status as a novel. the hybrid nature of language (polyglossia) and the relation between utterances (intertextuality). and it was consequently decided that Bakhtin be denied his doctorate. "From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse" (1940). making a significant contribution to the realm of literary scholarship. the novel as a genre is unique in that it is able to embrace. The controversial ideas discussed within the work caused much disagreement. 105 Rabelais and His World: carnival and grotesque During World War II Bakhtin submitted a dissertation on the French Renaissance writer François Rabelais which was not defended until some years later. Rabelais and Folk Culture of the Middle Ages and Renaissance was not published until 1965.[24] "Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel" introduces Bakhtin’s concept of chronotope..[24] The word chronotope literally . Bakhtin attempts two things: he seeks to recover sections of Gargantua and Pantagruel that. Bakhtin shows that the novel is well-suited to the post-industrial civilization in which we live because it flourishes on diversity. Bakhtin concerns himself with the openness of Gargantua and Pantagruel.[14] In his chapter on the history of laughter. and each inescapably shapes the character of the other. as well as the meaning of the body and the material bodily lower stratum. Other genres. This essay applies the concept in order to further demonstrate the distinctive quality of the novel. ingest. In Rabelais and His World.[21][22] In "Epic and Novel".[15] The Dialogic Imagination: Chronotope. degraded power". That is to say. It is by means of this analysis that Bakhtin pinpoints two important subtexts: the first is carnival (carnivalesque) which Bakhtin describes as a social institution. and the second is grotesque realism which is defined as a literary mode. flourish and interact together. The notion of a carnival was Bakhtin's way of describing Dostoevsky's polyphonic style: each individual character is strongly defined. cannot emulate the novel without damaging their own distinct identity. Rabelais’s book had been misunderstood. Rabelais and His World. for centuries. at which time it was given the title. The carnival creates the "threshold" situations where regular conventions are broken or reversed and genuine dialogue becomes possible. arguing that in resisting hypocrisy "laughing truth. the book itself also serves as an example of such openness."[18][19] To make an utterance means to "appropriate the words of others and populate them with one's own intention. in the past.[17][18] Heteroglossia is "the base condition governing the operation of meaning in any utterance. It is through the essays contained within The Dialogic Imagination that Bakhtin introduces the concepts of heteroglossia.

this essay takes up a topic about which Bakhtin had planned to write a book. and the Human Sciences: An Experiment in Philosophical Analysis". but various other sections of the paper discuss topics he has taken up elsewhere. Bakhtin makes the distinction between primary genres and secondary genres. and secondary genres are characterized by various types of text such as legal. Philology. The publishing house to which Bakhtin had submitted the full manuscript was blown up during the German invasion and Bakhtin was in possession of only the prospectus. In this way most languages are incapable of neutrality. However. is forced to make use of the organizing categories of the real world in which he lives.[31] "From Notes Made in 1970-71" appears also as a collection of fragments extracted from notebooks Bakhtin kept during the years of 1970 and 1971. Bakhtin began using this remaining section to roll cigarettes. It is here that Bakhtin discusses interpretation and its endless possibilities. In a relatively short space. but common to all languages. Speakers. evaluation.[30] "The Problem of the Text in Linguistics. an author must create entire worlds and. These notes focus mostly on the problems of the text.[24] The term heteroglossia refers to the qualities of a language that are extralinguistic.[29] "The Problem of Speech Genres" deals with the difference between Saussurean linguistics and language as a living dialogue (translinguistics). "From Notes Made in 1970-71. whereby primary genres legislate those words. So only a portion of the opening section remains. These extraliterary genres have remained largely unexplored. Bakhtin claims. It is here that Bakhtin provides a model for a history of discourse and introduces the concept of heteroglossia. and the Human Sciences: An Experiment in Philosophical Analysis" is a compilation of the thoughts Bakhtin recorded in his notebooks.[28] "The Bildungsroman and Its Significance in the History of Realism" is a fragment from one of Bakhtin’s lost books. making the essay a rather dense and complex read. "The Problem of the Text" deals primarily with dialogue and the way in which a text relates to its context. and ideological positioning. "Discourse in the Novel". the status of the author. and the distinct nature of the human sciences.[32] . Philology. shape an utterance according to three variables: the object of discourse. scientific.Mikhail Bakhtin means "time space" and is defined by Bakhtin as "the intrinsic connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships that are artistically expressed in literature. etc. There are six essays that comprise this compilation: "Response to a Question from the Novy Mir Editorial Staff".[26] The final essay. for every word is inextricably bound to the context in which it exists. and a superaddressee. "The Problem of Speech Genres". According to Bakhtin." "Response to a Question from the Novy Mir Editorial Staff" is a transcript of comments made by Bakhtin to a reporter from a monthly journal called Novy Mir that was widely read by Soviet intellectuals. phrases.[27] 106 Speech Genres and Other Late Essays In Speech Genres and Other Late Essays Bakhtin moves away from the novel and concerns himself with the problems of method and the nature of culture. due to a shortage of paper. This remaining section deals primarily with Goethe. "The Problem of the Text in Linguistics. the immediate addressee. but such limited interpretations only serve to weaken the richness of the past. such as speech genres. This is what Bakhtin describes as the tertiary nature of dialogue. but rather in communication. is one of Bakhtin’s most complete statements concerning his philosophy of language. Bakhtin indicates that they have been studied only within the realm of rhetoric and literature. genres exist not merely in language. For this reason chronotope is a concept that engages reality. but each discipline draws largely on genres that exist outside both rhetoric and literature. and expressions that are acceptable in everyday life. However. The transcript expresses Bakhtin’s opinion of literary scholarship whereby he highlights some of its shortcomings and makes suggestions for improvement. "The Bildungsroman and Its Significance in the History of Realism". It is here that Bakhtin distinguishes between literary and everyday language." and "Toward a Methodology for the Human Sciences."[25] For the purpose of his writing. humans have a habit of making narrow interpretations. These include qualities such as perspective. According to Bakhtin. In dealing with genres. in doing so.

[35] As a result. it now seems clear that if it was necessary to attribute authorship of these works to one person. most scholars have come to agree that Vološinov and Medvedev ought to be considered the true authors of these works. and the Structuralists. Early pieces such as Towards a Philosophy of the Act and Author and Hero in Aesthetic Activity are indebted to the philosophical trends of the time—particularly the Marburg School Neo-Kantianism of Hermann Cohen. Vološinov and P. whereby the four essays that comprise the work introduce the concepts of dialogism. to which Bakhtin later added a chapter on the concept of carnival and published with the title Problems of Dostoyevsky’s Poetics. Vološinov and Medvedev respectively should receive credit. In this essay he makes a distinction between dialectic and dialogics and comments on the difference between the text and the aesthetic object. and his work is compared with that of Yuri Lotman. and even which texts he wrote (see below). the chronotope. and many other countries continued to grow.Mikhail Bakhtin The final essay. N. Although Bakhtin undoubtedly influenced these scholars and may even have had a hand in composing the works attributed to them. Legacy As a literary theorist.[36] During the 1920s. and few of his works were published in an authoritative form during his lifetime. originates from notes Bakhtin wrote during the mid-seventies and is the last piece of writing Bakhtin produced before he died. including Ernst Cassirer. to a lesser extent. an unfinished portion of a philosophical essay. however. in line with the discourse analysis of Ferdinand de Saussure and Roman Jakobson. which explores the openness of the Rabelaisian novel. Rabelais and His World. Max Scheler and. he felt.[36] but it was only after his death in 1975 that authors such as Julia Kristeva and Tzvetan Todorov brought Bakhtin to the attention of the Francophone world. who.[37] . and chronotope. in 1963 Roman Jakobson mentioned him as one of the few intelligent critics of Formalism. the carnivalesque. The Dialogic Imagination. In the years since then. that Bakhtin differentiates himself from the Formalists. Bakhtin’s primary works include Toward a Philosophy of the Act. heteroglossia and "outsidedness" (the English translation of a Russian term vnenakhodimost. who too rigidly adhered to the concept of "code. Bakhtin's work tended to focus on ethics and aesthetics in general. Bakhtin began to be discovered by scholars in 1963. there is substantial disagreement over matters that are normally taken for granted: in which discipline he worked (was he a philosopher or literary critic?). In the 1920s there was a "Bakhtin school" in Russia."[33] 107 Disputed texts Some of the works which bear the names of Bakhtin's close friends V. and Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. He is known for a series of concepts that have been used and adapted in a number of disciplines: dialogism. These claims originated in the early 1970s and received their earliest full articulation in English in Clark and Holquist's 1984 biography of Bakhtin. In the late 1980s. heteroglossia.[34] Bakhtin had a difficult life and career. and from there his popularity in the United States. Bakhtin is associated with the Russian Formalists. Together these concepts outline a distinctive philosophy of language and culture that has at its center the claims that all discourse is in essence a dialogical exchange and that this endows all language with a particular ethical or ethico-political force. Problems of Dostoyevsky’s Art. underestimated the importance of content while oversimplifying change. a collection of essays in which Bakhtin concerns himself with method and culture. the United Kingdom. "Toward a Methodology for the Human Sciences". Bakhtin's work experienced a surge of popularity in the West. Medvedev have been attributed to Bakhtin – particularly The Formal Method in Literary Scholarship and Marxism and Philosophy of Language. It is here also. N. Nicolai Hartmann. how to periodize his work. sometimes rendered into English—from French rather than from Russian—as "exotopy").

428 [20] Bakhtin [21] Holquist. Structuralism. David G (1989). com/ books?id=RCO8AAAAIAAJ& lpg=PA8& dq=Bakhtin Saussure Kant& pg=PA8#v=onepage& q& f=false). [31] Holquist xvii-xviii. 1990 [22] Hirschkop. Shepherd. there can be no denying his impact on the realm of rhetorical theory.Mikhail Bakhtin 108 Influence He is known today for his interest in a wide variety of subjects. ISBN 978-0-7190-2615-7. Bakhtin has enriched the experience of verbal and written expression which ultimately aids the formal teaching of writing. Bakhtin and cultural theory (http:/ / books. p. p. [32] Holquist xix. According to Clark and Holquist. However. xiv. [29] Holquist xiii. Bakhtin has influenced such Western schools of theory as Neo-Marxism. 1984: ISBN 0-674-57417-6). Bakhtin also clashes with Saussure's view of "langue is a 'social fact'". 1990. Bakhtin positions aesthetic activity and experience over abstraction. p. By means of his writing. p. and periods. somewhat paradoxically.10 [5] Holquist xxi-xxvi [6] Hirschkop 2 [7] Liapunov xvii [8] Bakhtin 54 [9] Bakhtin 41 [10] Hirschkop 12-14 [11] Emerson and Morson [12] Holquist xxv [13] Clark and Holquist 295 [14] Clark and Holquist 297-299 [15] Iswolsky 1965. resulted in narrowing the scope of Bakhtin’s work. Wertsch (1998) Mind As Action (http:/ / books. . [30] Holquist xv. his influence on such groups has. . it/ books?id=73Vv7Y3vf14C) [19] Holquist and Emerson 1981.[39] Some even suggest that Bakhtin introduces a new meaning to rhetoric because of his tendency to reject the separation of language and ideology. as well as his use of authorial disguises. google. Mikhail Bakhtin: Creation of a Prosaics (http:/ / books. and Semiotics.[40] Notes [1] Gary Saul Morson and Caryl Emerson.[38] While Bakhtin is traditionally seen as a literary critic. vocabularies. and for his influence (alongside György Lukács) on the growth of Western scholarship on the novel as a premiere literary genre. rarely do those who incorporate Bakhtin’s ideas into theories of their own appreciate his work in its entirety.197 [3] Katerina Clark and Michael Holquist. 92f. Mikhail Bakhtin (Harvard University Press. [2] Maranhão 1990. occurring both within the user of language and language itself. p. 27. 8. [16] Holquist xxvi [17] Maranhão 1990. p. Manchester University Press ND. xxxiii [25] Bakhtin 84 [26] Clark and Holquist 278 [27] Farmer xviii [28] Holquist xi. since Bakhtin views Saussure's society as a "disturbing homogenous collective" [23] Holquist xxxii [24] Holquist 1981.4 [18] James V. Ken. gr/ books?id=BViC_wkbd4oC& dq=). p. retrieved 2011-04-26 Unlike Kant. His work instills in the reader an awareness of tone and expression that arises from the careful formation of verbal phrasing. [33] Holquist xx-xxi. p. ideas. [4] Holquist Dialogism: Bakhtin and His World p. google. Among his many theories and ideas Bakhtin indicates that style is a developmental process. As a result of the breadth of topics with which he dealt. Stanford University Press. google.

Paris: Droz.Duvakin.M. M. (Russian) Progress Moscow. Austin: University of Texas Press [written 1919–1924.google.proxy. Soglasie. Michael Holquist. "Introduction.0. 1-26 Holquist Dialogism. 2000. • Bota. Eds. M. (1990) Art and Answerability.ca/cgibin/view. M. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1998. Hélène Iswolsky. Frank. Second Edition 2005. Michael Groden. The Bakhtin Circle: Philosophy. Craig. M. • Bakhtin. M.jstor.2-9&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage) . M. Schuster 1-2. • Clark. Atlanta/Leiden. Frank Farmer.org/ sici?sici=0029-5132(198324)16:2<101:TAMOMB>2. [written during the 1930s] • Bakhtin. Caryl. Mikhail Bakhtin and Biblical Scholarship: An Introduction. Klancher 24. Austin. Mikhail Bakhtin. by Vern W. Vadim Liapunov. Trans. 2002.86 Clark and Holquist 3. 101–120 doi:10. 1965] Rabelais and His World.uwaterloo. Ed. McGee. Vadim Liapunov and Michael Holquist. and Jean-Paul Bronckart. Austin and London: University of Texas Press. Cristian. Katerina. S. M. Martin Kreiswirth and Imre Szeman.2-Q&size=LARGE) NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. (1993) Toward a Philosophy of the Act. MM Bakhtin: besedy s VD Duvakinym (Russian).lib. 2002 Works on Bakhtin • Boer. 2011.G. [1930s] (1981) The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays (http://books. Trans. p. d'une escroquerie et d'un délire collectif.CO." Landmark Essays on Bakhtin. Ed. published 1974-1979] • Bakhtin.183 Peter Ludwig Berger Redeeming Laughter: The Comic Dimension of Human Experience (1997) p. 1984. Sterling.Bakhtin. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. M. pp. Society of Biblical Literature/Brill. The Johns Hopkins University Press.Bocharov. Culture and Politics London. cgi?eid=22&query=Bakhtin). (1986) Speech Genres and Other Late Essays.M. Atlanta: SBL. M. • Bakhtin. Hill The Refiguration of the Anthropology of Language (http://links.2307/1345079 • Jane H.D. M. • Bakhtin. M. Vadim Liapunov and Kenneth Brostrom. No. Austin: University of Texas Press. • M.jstor. SBL Semeia Studies 38. Mahwah: Hermagoras Press. Rhetoric. 1983). Ed. Edited and translated by Caryl Emerson. 1993. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [1941.CO. 2 (Winter. Brandist The Bakhtin Circle. (1973) Questions of Literature and Aesthetics. Bakhtin and Genre Theory in Biblical Studies. Barbara. Tx: University of Texas Press. Ed. Trans. • David Hayman Toward a Mechanics of Mode: Beyond Bakhtin (http://links. 2006 (http://litguide.com/ books?id=JKZztxqdIpgC). 2007. 16. • Green. M.jhu. • Brandist. 25 Jan. Roland (еd). 109 References Bakhtin works • Bakhtin. • Emerson. "Mikhail Bakhtin.0. Michael Holquist and Vadim Liapunov. (1984) Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics." The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism. xi-xxiii.edu. and Writing.Mikhail Bakhtin [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] Bota and Bronckart.org/ sici?sici=0886-7356(198602)1:1<89:TROTAO>2. Bakhtine démasqué: Histoire d'un menteur. and Gary Saul Morson. and Michael Holquist. V. • Farmer. Trans. Vol. M. Virginia: Pluto Press. 1979 • Bakhtin.press.

Mikhail Bakhtin: Creation of a Prosaics. Jon. Mikhail Bakhtin: The Word in the World (http://books. Wien. 2007." University of Arizona Press. Rhetoric. V. 1986).htm). The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by MM Bakhtin.org/web/20071017042212/http://www.Mikhail Bakhtin (review of Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics) Cultural Anthropology. 3. pp. 747–763 doi:10. Routledge. Glossary. Charles I. 1992). Eds. "Bakhtin in the sober light of day. • Michael Gardiner Mikhail Bakhtin (http://www. Alex.jurisprudence. New York & London: Seminar Press.sagepub.com. Vadim. 1998. Judith. 1986. Robert J.jstor. Autonomous Voices: An Exploration of Polyphony in the Novels of Samuel Richardson. • Thorn.html) Manchester: Manchester University Press.org/ sici?sici=0028-6087(199222)23:3<747:DITNAB>2. 1-14. Politics. Frankfurt/M. Tullio (1990) The Interpretation of Dialogue (http://books. 1999. Monologism and Dialogism in Private Law (http://www.dschjournal. Holquist. pp. Vol. Oxford.C. Bakhtin and the Human Sciences. Mahwah: Hermagoras Press. and Caryl Emerson. 23.. "Mikhail Bakhtin as Rhetorical Theorist." Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. 2002. and Writing. • Vice. • O'Callaghan. ISBN 0-7546-0226-5. "Bakhtin’s Rhetoric. Toward a Philosophy of the Act. Introduction (http://www. 378. [1990] Dialogism: Bakhtin and His World (http://books.com/ books?id=2IHurBoarNsC). Michael.edu/utpress/excerpts/exbakdia. ix-xxiii. M. 1998. Liapunov. Ken Hirschkop and David Shepherd.uk/refbooksProdDesc.google. Holquist. 1997 • Voloshinov. Stanford University Press.2-R) New Literary History. New York.N. Second Edition.com/ books?id=UOBiAAAAMAAJ&q=9780415424196).google. Bern. Michael.. Mm Bakhtin and Victor Montejo. Manchester University Press.2307/469228 ." Bakhtin and Cultural Theory. Patrick. 89–102 Hirschkop. Austin: University of Texas Press.google. Eleazar Moiseevich. xv-xxxiv Holquist.com/books?id=E5oa-sE8FzYC) (Translated by Guy Lanoue and Alexandre Sadetsky) 2000 Routledge ISBN 0-415-92898-2 • Morson. Frank Farmer. and Writing. 1 (Feb. 23-32. New York. Michael. Austin and London: University of Texas Press. 1-25. Sue. Vol." Landmark Essays on Bakhtin. No. Ken.google.. ISBN 978-3-906769-80-6 / US-ISBN 978-0-8204-5917-2 • Sheinberg. 7. Ed. Austin: University of Texas Press. Marxism and the Philosophy of Language. No last words. 2003. 2003.au/juris7/ ocallaghan. Gary Saul. Bruxelles. London: Routledge. In MM Bakhtin. Emerson (1981). Hirschkop. • Maria Shevtsova. Introducing Bakhtin. By Mikhail Bakhtin. 1996.com/journal15/books15. Holquist. Vol. London-Thousand Oaks-New Delhi: SAGE Publications.0. SAGE Publications 2002 ISBN 978-0-7619-7447-5. • Townsend. Ken. Irony. 1." Landmark Essays on Bakhtin. 1973 • Young. 2001.nav?prodId=Book224857& currTree=Subjects&level1=400). & C. in Torn Halves: Political Conflict in Literary and Cultural Theory (http:// robertjcyoung.co. pp. 1993. • Pechey.com/books?id=T2b3Tgxc5bEC) University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-50433-6 110 • • • • • • • • • • Meletinsky. Mikhail Bakhtin: An Aesthetic for Democracy.html#ex1) to Mikhail Bakhtin's The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Graham. "Introduction. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Esti (2000-12-29).utexas.pdf) The Journal Jurisprudence. 1990. Frank Farmer.CO. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-415-42419-6 • Schuster. Dialogism in the Novel and Bakhtin's Theory of Culture (http://links. Michael. The Poetics of Myth (http://books. By Mikhail Bakhtin. parody and the grotesque in the music of Shostakovich (http://web. 1998. Michael and Gardiner.com/torn_halves. "The Lived Horizon of My Being: The Substantiation of the Self & the Discourse of Resistance in Rigoberta Menchu. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press. 'Back to Bakhtin'. and Culture (Summer. St Martin’s Press. Berlin. Eds. 1996 ISBN 0-7190-4777-3 • Mayerfeld Bell. History. satire. 2010. 405-440. Maranhão. archive. Klancher. Rhetoric. No. 1981. Ed. Mahwah: Hermagoras Press. UK: Ashgate..

Bakhtin. 1996).jstor.htm&date=2009-10-26+00:24:51) • Bakhtin and Religion: A Feeling for Faith (http://www.utm.htm) The Bakhtin Centre (http://www.obook.shef. Temporality. and Modern Narrative: Writing "the Whole Triumphant Murderous Unstoppable Chute" (http://links.edu/~zappenj/Bibliographies/bakhtin.edu/tas3/wtc/i08. Carnivalesque and the Grotesque Body (http://www. A special search through the M.html) from Rabelais and his world • Page (http://pubpages. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http://www.edu/research/iep/b/bakhtin.gatech. • Philology in Runet.Mikhail Bakhtin • Stacy Burton Bakhtin.The Writers Magazine of The New Absurdist Movement (http://amr. 1 (Winter. Bakhtin's works. php) .lcc.edu/dept/english/courses/60a/handouts/bak1. in Lingua Franca.mirror.html) • Languagehat blog on the veracity of the "smoking incident" (http://www.ru/tiutcheviana/ search/en/bakhtin.org/query?url=http://www.uk/uni/academic/A-C/bakh/bakhtin.uk/ russian_thinkers/mikhail_bakhtin.co.rpi. (http://ruthenia.nau.languagehat. Hildesheim 2009. Cristian Bota: Bakhtine démasqué : Histoire d'un menteur. com/yazdanpour/y-ch2. Von der existentiellen Ontologie zur dialogischen Vernunft.org/sici?sici=0010-4124(199624)48:1<39:BTAMNW>2.edu/~jds/Bakhtinquotes.The Battle over Mikhail Bakhtin" (http://linguafranca. Georg Olms Verlag. • (French) Jean-Paul Bronckart.com/archives/002327.unh.html) "INTERNATIONAL MAN OF MYSTERY .austincollege. ISBN 2-600-00545-5 111 External links • • • • • The Bakhtin Circle. M. Editeur : Droz. d'une escroquerie et d'un délire collectif.CO.htm) on Bakhtin with a photo • Absurdist Monthly Review .html) By Matt Steinglass.webcitation.edu/acad/english/bbarrie/shakespeare/bakhtin_rab.edu/~cklestinec/Teaching/ LCC3218.isfp.ac.html) • Carnival. No.com/p/articles/mi_qa3763/is_200409/ ai_n11849977) • excerpts (http://artemis.findarticles. Zappen) Bakhtin Timeline (http://www.html) • A SURVEY OF THE IDEAS OF BAKHTIN (http://www. (April 1998).org) • Polyphony of Brothers Karamazov likened to Bach fugue (http://www2. 48.html) (University of Sheffield) A Bakhtin profile (http://www. 39–64 doi:10. pp.lawrence.org/9804/steinglass.htm) (James P.html#movie) [Shockwave Player required] • Description of Bakhtin's work and how it was "discovered" by Western scholars (http://www. theinfo.2-D) Comparative Literature.2307/1771629 • Vladislav Krasnov Solzhenitsyn and Dostoevsky A study in the Polyphonic Novel by Vladislav Krasnov University of Georgia Press ISBN 0-8203-0472-7 • Maja Soboleva: Die Philosophie Michail Bachtins.0.geocities. Vol.

• Riley. 22 No. Vol. Genre Studies in English for Academic Purposes.dk/jni/Articles/Abstract_Colis4. Sixth Edition. (1970). E. The scholarliness of published peer reviews: A bibliometric study of book reviews in selected social science fields. Vol. P. www. 627–634. The American Sociologist. ”Quantitative analysis of a visible tip of the peer review iceberg: book reviews in chemistry”. Such a review may evaluate the book on the basis of personal taste. (1979). “Reviewing printed and electronic dictionaries: A theoretical and practical framework”. 30 No.dk/ jni/Articles/Nicolaisen(2002c). (1988). (Ed). 3. Available: http://www. 191–202. 10–18. pp26-28. R. Scientometrics. pp. 129–140. 5 (November). • Schubert. “On book reviewing”. (2002b). Connecticut: Greenwood Press. 11 No.sparknotes. pp. The "objectivity question" and the American Historical Profession. 2. “Discourse analysis and academic book reviews: a study of text and disciplinary cultures”. P. & Fuhrman. Literature • Chen. O. 14 (May). “Notes on the reviewing of learned books”. Metuchen. 358–363. PS: Political science and Politics. (1998). E. pp.com and Kirkus Reviews but many more book reviews can be found in newspaper databases and in scholarly databases such as Arts and Humanities Citation Index. • Katz. 1182–1187. et al. • Snizek. There are many special journals devoted to book reviews and they are indexed in special databases such as Book Review Index. “Structure-based interpretation of scholarly book reviews: a new research technique”. ”Scholarly reviewing and the role of Choice in the postpublication review process”. W. • Novick. Vol. (1976). Social Sciences Citation Index and discipline-specific databases. (1996). E. summary review or scholarly review. 3(1/2). 3. Technical Services Quarterly.[2] Books can be reviewed for printed periodicals. and merit. magazines and newspapers. Vol. Vol.Book review 112 Book review A book review is a form of literary criticism in which a book is analyzed based on content. pp. “Reviewing the book reviews”. • Nicolaisen. Westport. E. Science. in Fortanet. J. Y. 23-41. • Motta-Roth. pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University • Rampola. pp. I. E. & Spreitzer. (1989). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins 2009. A. E. A.). ”Some factors affecting the evaluative content of book reviews in sociology“. G. Peter (1988). B. as school work. D.): Lexicography in the 21st Century. Scholarly book reviewing in the social sciences and humanities. • Miranda. & Mills. Journal of Educational Thought. “Book reviewing in the social sciences“. Reviewers may use the occasion of a book review for a display of learning or to promulgate their own ideas on the topic of a fiction or non-fiction work. Tarp (eds. (1984). H.htm • Nicolaisen. The flow of ideas within and among disciplines. Vol. (2002a). Available: http://www.db. "Critiques and book reviews". Biomedical. • Sabosik. Nielsen/S. pp. pp. Research Evaluation. S. 123–135. Bill (1985–1986). style. A book review's length may vary from a single paragraph to a substantial essay. C. Summer. Scarecrow Press. pp. Mary Lynn (2010). . • Ingram. in S.db. J. NJ. 108–114. C. (2009). (1998). 6 No. A Pocket Guide to Writing in History. Scientific and Technical Book Reviewing. or for book web sites on the internet. 17-25 • Lindholm-Romantschuk. (1960). 131 (April 22. 433–443.[1] A book review can be a primary source opinion piece. That noble dream. • Sarton. Vol. 29–58. L. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science. Universitat Jaume. Book Research Quarterly. The American Sociologist. The sunny book review. Castelló de la Plana. 6. pp.htm • Nielsen.

edu/~wts/pamphlets/ book_reviews. 2011.. "Book reviews" (http:/ / www. 2011. princeton. "Book reviews" (http:/ / wordnetweb.queensu. Writing Book Reviews (http://www. Robins. & Schamber.thedailybeast. 113 References [1] Princeton (2011). April. 2011. Retrieved September 22.shtml). • Queen's University. L. A. lib.). .edu/library/bookreview. • Dalhousie University.Book review • Spink. . Journal of the American Society for Information Science. How to write a book review (http://www. edu/ find/ byformat/ bookreviews. September. 62 No. [2] Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (2011). External links • Jane Ciabattari.indiana. The Daily Beast.com/ blogs-and-stories/2011-05-12/the-future-of-book-reviews-critics-versus-amazon-reviewers/). 4. Vol. Scholarly definition document. Amazon Reviewers" (http://www. Scholarly definition document. (2011). 364–374.edu/owl/resource/704/01/). 2012. D.ca/How/Guides/BookReview/) • Indiana University. . Retrieved September 22. Vol. T. 2009.htm). html). Bloomington. Writing a book review (http://owl. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 2011. & van Leeuwen. May 12.english.lavc. 10. How to write a book review (http://www. pp. “Book reviews in humanities research evaluations”. February. 1979-1991. pp. Stauffer Library.purdue. 2004 • Los Angeles Valley College. (1998). vt. Princeton. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. • Zuccala. "The Future of Book Reviews: Critics vs. January.ca/research/guide/ book-reviews/how-write. • Purdue Online Writing Lab. A.dal. 49 No. How to write book reviews (http://library. edu/ perl/ webwn?s=book review). “Use of scholarly book reviews: implications for electronic publishing and scholarly communication”.library.

a thief and a trickster. As Socrates notes. and is of uncertain origin. received with implicit uncertainty regarding its truth or falsehood.Hermeneutics 114 Hermeneutics Hermeneutics (/hɜrməˈnjuːtɪks/). and formal way. ἑρμηνεύω (hermeneuō. he leads souls to the underworld upon death. and sometimes to the theories of Paul Ricoeur. Modern hermeneutics encompasses everything in the interpretative process including verbal and nonverbal forms of communication as well as prior aspects that affect communication.[5] The traditional etymology of hermeneutics is derived from the Greek word Hermes. more commonly referred by its Latin title De Interpretatione). words have the power to reveal or conceal. "translate". Exegesis. thus promoting the message in an ambiguous way. and nonverbal communication. such as presuppositions. Etymology The folk etymology places the origin (Greek: hermeneutike) with Hermes. hermeneutics is a more widely defined discipline of interpretation theory. hermeneutics is the study of the theory and practice of interpretation.[3] These multiple roles make Hermes an ideal representative figure for hermeneutics. 'On Interpretation'. because it includes the entire framework of the interpretive process. 360 BC) extant philosophical works in the Western tradition to deal with the relationship between language and logic in a comprehensive. See also double hermeneutic. and between the gods and humanity. This ambiguity of message is an irrationality.[3] The Greek view of language as consisting of signs that could lead to truth or falsehood is the very essence of Hermes. . the meaning and philosophy of language. a liar. messenger of the gods. A type of traditional hermeneutic is biblical hermeneutics which concerns the study of the interpretation of the Bible.[6] It was introduced into philosophy mainly through the title of Aristotle's work Περὶ Ἑρμηνείας (Peri Hermeneias. especially texts in the areas of literature. is the art and science of text interpretation. the inspiration of the name Hermeneutics. the mythological Greek deity whose role is that of messenger of the Gods.[2] Hermeneutic consistency refers to analysis of texts for coherent explanation. Early use of "hermeneutics" places it within the boundaries of the sacred. encompassing written. A hermeneutic (singular) refers to one particular method or strand of interpretation. preunderstandings. and semiotics. who is said to relish the uneasiness of the recipients. explicit. a sort of madness inflicted upon the receiver. He is also considered the inventor of language and speech. broadly.[4] The divine message can only be understood on its own terms. an interpreter. It is one of the earliest (c. on the other hand. Only one who possesses a rational method of interpretation—an early hermeneutic—could define the truth or falsehood (thus the sanity) of a statement.[1] The terms exegesis and hermeneutics have been used interchangeably. focuses primarily on written text. Philosophical hermeneutics refers primarily to the theory of knowledge initiated by Martin Heidegger and developed by Hans-Georg Gadamer in Truth and Method. However. verbal. Traditional hermeneutics is the study of the interpretation of written texts. or "interpret"). In religious studies and social philosophy.[3] Besides being mediator between the gods themselves. religion and law.

particularly Plato. Aristotle differed with his predecessor. 533e–534a The meaning of the poem thus becomes open to ridicule — whatever hints of the truth it may have."[7] Some ancient Greek philosophers. lyric poets.Hermeneutics 115 History Ancient In Περὶ Ἑρμηνείας. But the mental affections themselves. do we encounter something like a methodological awareness of the problems of textual understanding. Plato. "for Aristotle. Both saw art as an act of mimesis. artists must disregard incidental facts to search for deeper universal truths"—instead of being essentially false. The same goes for lyric poets if they're good: just as the Corybantes are not in their right minds when they dance. too. the truth is covered by madness. these texts deal more with the presentation and refutation of arguments. such as Cratylus. Aristotle called both the tragedy and the epic noble. However. as are also the objects (pragmata) of which those affections are representations or likenesses. Aristotle offers an early understanding that lays the groundwork for many contemporary theories of interpretation and semiotics: Words spoken are symbols or signs (symbola) of affections or impressions (pathemata) of the soul (psyche). 57.16a4 Equally important to later developments are texts on poetry. essentially false imitation in art of reality. along with Aristotle's Poetics. if they're good. but where Plato saw a pale. (Richter. Gorgias. are not in their right minds when they make those beautiful lyrics. what was expressed in poems were allegories of nature. are masters of their subject. As Ramberg and Gjesdal note. Lesser Hippias. tended to vilify poets and poetry as harmful nonsense—Plato denies entry to poets in his ideal state in The Republic until they can prove their value. none of the epic poets. speeches and poems rather than the understanding of texts as texts. including many of Plato's dialogues. Ion. Rhetoric.) In the Poetics. and their reflections on the interpretation of myth. Stoic philosophers further developed this idea. written words are the signs of words spoken. copies (homoiomata). of which these words are primarily signs (semeia). . images. "Only with the Stoics. they are inspired. and On Sophistical Refutations. Aristotle saw the possibility of truth in imitation. The Critical Tradition. Plato famously portrays poets as possessed: You know. As writing. However. and Republic. Ion. In the Ion. possessed. another line of thinking arose with Theagenes of Rhegium. poetry may be universally true. 1. and that is how they utter all those beautiful poems. —Aristotle. but allegories of ethical behavior. and sophistry. On Interpretation. —Plato. As critic David Richter points out. are the same for the whole of mankind. reading into the poets not only allegories of natural phenomena. but as soon as they sail into harmony and rhythm they are possessed by Bacchic frenzy. who suggested that instead of taking poetry literally. so also is speech not the same for all races of men. in the worth of poetry. rhetoric. with tragedy serving the essential function of purging strong emotions from the audience through katharsis.

they have distinctly separate interpretative traditions. make extensive use of the Old Testament for the purposes of demonstrating that Jesus was the Messiah.g. 22:37. Summaries of the principles by which Torah can be interpreted date back at least to Hillel the Elder. there is some overlap between the apostolic age and the first Apostolic Fathers. The Gospels. 4:12. While Jewish and Christian Biblical hermeneutics have some overlap and dialogue. Biblical hermeneutics Biblical hermeneutics is the study of the principles of interpretation concerning the books of the Bible. The rabbis did not ascribe equal persuasive power to the various principles.Hermeneutics 116 Classical antiquity Talmudical hermeneutics Rabbinical Eras • Chazal • Zugot • Tannaim • Amoraim • Savoraim Geonim Rishonim Acharonim • • • A common use of the word hermeneutics refers to a process of scriptural interpretation. John 2:17. The Pauline epistles employ the same principle. 21:42. some that expounded the law given in the text. Mark 1:2–3. 2:15–18. There were different levels of interpretation. Luke 3:4–6. a fortiori argument (known in Hebrew as ‫( קל וחומר‬kal v'chomer))). These principles ranged from standard rules of logic (e. 12:15. The operative hermeneutical principle in the New Testament was prophecy fulfillment. as evidenced by 1 Corinthians 1:19 and Ephesians 4:8–10. The early Patristic traditions of biblical exegesis have few unifying characteristics in the beginning but tend toward unification in schools of hermeneutical theory. 3:3. to more expansive ones. Examples include Matthew 1:23. although the thirteen principles set forth in the Baraita of Rabbi Ishmael are perhaps the best known. dating from the Great Commission until the death of John the Apostle (about 100 AD Since it is believed that John lived so long and was the last of the twelve to die. Apostolic Age The earliest Christian period of biblical interpretation is the Apostolic Age. as does Hebrews (see 8:7–13). Traditionally it is the period of the Twelve Apostles. but in the Jewish Oral Tradition dated to the Second Temple era (515 BCE – 70 CE) that later became the Talmud. Any apparent inconsistencies needed to be understood by careful examination of a given text in the context of other texts. and others that found secret or mystical levels of understanding. . some used to arrive at the plain meaning of the text.[8] Traditional Jewish hermeneutics differ from the Greek method in that the rabbis considered the Tanakh (the Jewish bibilical canon) to be without error. like the rule that a passage could be interpreted by reference to another passage in which the same word appears (Gezerah Shavah). and notably in Luke 4:18–21 and parallels where Jesus read extensively from Isaiah and makes the claim that the prophecy is fulfilled in the crowds hearing it. Its earliest example is however found not in the written texts. particularly the Gospel of Matthew..

Nevertheless. having received the authority which had been allotted to him. The principle of prophecy fulfillment is carried over from the apostolic age and through the 2nd century. with the end marked by the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD.D. He uses scripture similarly in Dialogue with Trypho. of the history of early Christianity spanned the late 1st century to the early 4th century. The Alexandrian Biblical interpretations stressed allegorical readings. And when Herod succeeded Archelaus. He ignores the christological issues that arise from equating Jesus to the calf idol of Bethel which is the "him" being brought to the king in Hosea  10:6. . having a significant impact on the development of Christianity. though. The Antiochene school stressed instead the more literal and historical meaning of the text. and God foreknowing that this would happen. Primary figures in this school included Origen and Clement of Alexandria. 117 Late Antiquity Two divergent schools of thought emerged during this period which spans from 200 A. This period is sometimes called the Sub-apostolic period. who made extensive use of scripture to this end. this portion of Christianity history is important. Irenaeus dedicates an entire chapter in Against Heresies to the defense of Isaiah 7:14. For example. the second century apologists tended to interpret and utilize most scripture as being primarily for the purpose of showing prophecy fulfillment. a present to the king.[11] By using the Old Testament (a term linked with Supersessionism) to validate Jesus. Theodore of Mopsuestia and Diodore of Tarsus were the primary figures in the Antiochene school. Ante-Nicene Period The Ante-Nicene Period (literally meaning "before Nicaea"). To this end. Early Christians sought to tap into both the oracles of the prophets and the antiquity of the Jewish scriptures. Examples of this usage may be seen in his Apology in which chapters 31–53 are specifically dedicated to proving Christ through prophecy. Martin Jan Mulder suggests that prophecy fulfillment was the primary hermeneutical method because Roman society had a high view of both antiquity and oracles. Pilate sent to him by way of compliment Jesus bound. Schools of Alexandria and Antioch Beginning as early as the third century. Important among these was Justin Martyr. More so than even he. or Post-Apostolic Period. with many developments difficult to trace and follow. to the medieval period. Historians however divide this period into the Ante-Nicene Period and First seven Ecumenical Councils).Hermeneutics Apostolic Fathers The Apostolic Fathers were students of the Apostles. There is also a relative paucity of available material and this period is less studied than the preceding Apostolic Age and historical ages following it. Christian hermeneutics began to split into two primary schools: Alexandria and Antioch. It is likely that the high view of prophecy fulfillment is a product of the circumstance of the early church. one of the chief prophecies used to validate Jesus as the Messiah. had thus spoken: "And they brought Him to the Assyrian. frequently at the expense of the texts' literal meaning. Christianity during this time was extremely diverse.[9] This is consistent with Irenaeus' general usage."[10] Here Justin demonstrates that prophecy fulfillment supersedes logical context in hermeneutics. The primary goal of early authors was a defense of Christianity against attacks from paganism and Judaism as well as suppressing what were considered schismatic or heretical groups.

first published after his death in 1901. which enunciated the Nicene Creed that in its original form and as modified by the First Council of Constantinople of 381 AD was seen as the touchstone of orthodoxy on the doctrine of the Trinity. so that each literal element has a symbolic meaning. The hermeneutical terminology used here is in part arbitrary. often on a separate page. as symbolic lessons about Church institutions and current teachings. It is uncertain whether or not the Rabbinic division of interpretation pre-dates the Patristic version. the distinction between the sensus literalis and the sensus spiritualis or mysticus. from the First Council of Nicaea (325) to the Second Council of Nicaea (787). see also Typology (theology). In each case. and Sod (secret/mystical). while a fourth level of meaning. . draws out of the text the implicit allusions it contains to secret metaphysical and eschatological knowledge. We can easily notice that the basic structure is in fact a twofold sense of the Scriptures. the sensus anagogicus. The allegorical sense (sensus allegoricus) explains the text with regard to the doctrinal content of church dogma. Christian commentators could read Old Testament narratives simultaneously as prefigurations of analogous New Testament episodes.. and as personally applicable allegories of the Spirit. A similar fourfold categorization is also found in Rabbinic writings. The first scholar to consider this time period as a whole was Philip Schaff. The first seven Ecumenical Councils. —[13] Hermeneutics in the Middle Ages witnessed the proliferation of non-literal interpretations of the Bible. the fourfold sense of the Scriptures was used only partially. The topic is of particular interest to proponents of Paleo-orthodoxy who seek to recover the church before the schisms. dependent upon the content of the text and the idea of the exegete. The literal sense (sensus historicus) of Scripture denotes what the text states or reports directly. The moral application of the text to the individual reader or hearer is the third sense. The text might be further commented on in scholia which are long. The practical application of these three aspects of spiritual interpretation varied considerably.Hermeneutics First seven Ecumenical Councils This era begins with the First Council of Nicaea. The customary medieval exegetical technique commented on the text in glossae ("glosses" or annotations) written between the lines and at the side of the text which was left with wide margins for this very purpose. Derash (interpretive). exegetical passages. such as teaching morality. the sensus tropologicus or sensus moralis. or gnosis. 118 Medieval Medieval Christian interpretations of text incorporated exegesis into a fourfold mode that emphasized the distinction between the letter and the spirit of the text. Remez (allusion). Most of the time. The medieval period saw the growth of many new categories of Rabbinic interpretation and explanation of the Torah.. represent an attempt to reach an orthodox consensus and to establish a unified Christendom. including the emergence of Kabbalah and the writings of Maimonides. and that the number four was derived from a restrictive systematization of the numerous possibilities which existed for the sensus spiritualis into three interpretive dimensions. but these interpretive bases were posited by the religious tradition rather than suggested by a preliminary reading of the text.. The fourfold categorizations are: Peshat (simple interpretation). that is. This schema was based on the various ways of interpreting the text utilized by the Patristic writers. who wrote The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church [12]. For almost all three interpretations which go beyond the literal explanations are in a general sense "allegorical". the meaning of the signs was constrained by imputing a particular intention to the Bible.

The last structural level of spiritual sciences according to Dilthey is comprehension. so that apparent contradictions and difficult passages in the New Testament. might be clarified by comparing their possible meanings with contemporaneous Christian practices. Understanding is not a process of reconstructing the state of mind of the author. The rationalist Enlightenment led hermeneuts. There arose in his time a fundamental shift from understanding not only the exact words and their objective meaning to the individuality of the speaker or author. Expression converts experience into meaning because the discourse has an appeal to somebody outside of oneself. Schleiermacher Friedrich Schleiermacher (November 21. Martin Luther and John Calvin emphasized scriptura sui ipsius interpres. Empathy involves a direct identification with the other. the Italian humanist Lorenzo Valla proved in 1440 that the "Donation of Constantine" was a forgery. and comprehension. from expression to what is expressed. Dilthey makes it clear that this move from outer to inner. is not based on empathy. to view Scriptural texts as secular Classical texts. Moreover. In his last important essay "The Understanding of Other Persons and Their Manifestations of Life" (1910). Dilthey suggests that one can always return to an expression. Scripture thus was interpreted as responses to historical or social forces. the latter considers the peculiar combinations that characterize the work as a whole. Interpretation involves an indirect or mediated understanding that can only be attained by placing human expressions in their historical context. Experience means to feel the situation or thing personally. which in Dilthey's context is a dimension which contains both comprehension and incomprehension. He provides a solution to avoidance of misunderstanding: knowledge of grammatical and psychological laws in trying to understand the text and the writer. through intrinsic evidence of the text itself. In a triumph of early modern hermeneutics. For example. but to all human texts and modes of communication. Thus hermeneutics expanded from its medieval role explaining the correct analysis of the Bible. for example. Every saying is an expression. especially Protestant exegetes. He even defined hermeneutics as the art of avoiding misunderstanding. Dilthey suggests that we can always grasp the meaning of unknown thinking when we try to experience it. The interpretation of a text must proceed by framing the content asserted in terms of the overall organization of the work. Dilthey's understanding of experience is very similar to that of phenomenologist Edmund Husserl. Dilthey presumes that comprehension . Understanding moves from the outer manifestations of human action and productivity to explore their inner meaning. The former studies how a work is composed from general ideas. but one of articulating what is expressed in the work. which took a step away from the interpretive tradition developed during the Middle Ages back to the texts themselves. 1768 – February 12. Especially Calvin used brevitas et facilitas as an aspect of theological hermeneutics. 1834) explored the nature of understanding in relation not just to the problem of deciphering sacred texts. the Protestant Reformation brought about a renewed interest in the interpretation of the Bible. He distinguishes between grammatical interpretation and psychological interpretation. Dilthey divides the spiritual sciences into three structural levels: experience.[14][7] Dilthey Wilhelm Dilthey broadened hermeneutics even more by relating interpretation to all historical objectifications. expression. Schleiermacher said that every problem of interpretation is a problem of understanding. Dilthey assumes that expression may be “saying” more than the speaker intended because the expression brings forward meanings that the individual consciousness may not fully understand. especially its written form. and this practice has the same objective value as an experiment in sciences.Hermeneutics 119 Modern The discipline of hermeneutics emerged with the new humanist education of the 15th century as a historical and critical methodology for analyzing texts. However. Incomprehension means more or less wrong understanding. Biblical hermeneutics did not die off. The possibility of returning makes scientific analysis possible and therefore humanities may be labeled as science.

Gadamer asserts that methodical contemplation is opposite to experience and reflection. According to Gadamer.[15] In the 20th century. and applies his model to discourse ethics with political motivations akin to critical theory. to refer to a particular kind of hermeneutics based on interpretation that takes into account the plurality of aspects of meaning. According to Gadamer. Gadamer points out in this context that prejudice is a (nonfixed) reflection of that unfolding comprehension. the interpretation of such texts will reveal something about the social context in which they were formed. Mauricio Beuchot coined the term and discipline of "analogic hermeneutics". We can reach the truth only by understanding or even mastering our experience. as well as from the history of thought. Bernard Lonergan's hermeneutics is less well-known. Heidegger. Moreover.[18] Karl-Otto Apel elaborated a hermeneutics based on American semiotics. Andrés Ortíz-Osés has developed his Symbolic Hermeneutics as the Mediterranean response to north European Hermeneutics. 120 20th Century Heidegger Since Dilthey. Gadamer points out that we can never step outside of our tradition. The most important thing is to unfold what constitutes individual comprehension. experience isn't fixed but rather changing and always indicating new perspectives. but in a series of masterly articles. and the people who produce them. Fred Lawrence has outlined a case for considering his work as the culmination and achievement of the postmodern hermeneutical revolution that began with Heidegger. and is not per se without value. His main statement regarding the symbolic understanding of the world is that the meaning is the symbolic healing of the real injury. but. thus. cannot be studied using the same scientific methods as the natural sciences. the discipline of hermeneutics has detached itself from this central task and broadened its spectrum to all texts. understand others. non-mediated. all we can do is try to understand it.[16] For example. provide the reader with a means to share the experiences of the author.[17] Advocates of this approach claim that such texts. although his own work differs in many ways from that of Gadamer. This further elaborates the idea of the hermeneutic circle. Martin Heidegger's philosophical hermeneutics shifted the focus from interpretation to existential understanding. Heidegger called for a "special hermeneutic of empathy" to dissolve the classic philosophic issue of "other minds" by putting the issue in the context of the being-with of human relatedness. Contemporary Hans-Georg Gadamer's hermeneutics is a development of the hermeneutics of his teacher. Among the key thinkers who elaborated this approach is the sociologist Max Weber. thus in a sense more authentic way of being in the world than simply as a way of knowing.Hermeneutics produces coexistence: He who understands. Being alien to a particular tradition is a condition of understanding. including multimedia. thus use arguments similar to that of antipositivism. Important hermeneutic scholars include Jean Grondin and Maurizio Ferraris . but then did not complete the inquiry. more significantly. but he did not think about personal history. He draws categories both from analytic and continental philosophy. they claim that such texts are conventionalized expressions of the experience of the author. Dilthey thought that one should decode our historical past. The reciprocity between text and context is part of what Heidegger called the hermeneutic circle. he who does not understand stays alone. Paul Ricoeur developed a hermeneutics based on Heidegger's concepts. which was treated more as a direct.

They are in fact useful wherever the loss in precision and objectivity necessitated by the requirement of research economy can be condoned and tolerated in the light of prior hermeneutically elucidated research experiences. Habermas incorporated the notion of the lifeworld and emphasized the importance of both interaction and communication as well as labor and production for social theory.Hermeneutics Critical theory Jürgen Habermas criticized the conservatism of previous hermeneutics. For the time being we shall refer to it as objective hermeneutics in order to distinguish it clearly from traditional hermeneutic techniques and orientations. especially Gadamer. 121 21st Century Objective Hermeneutics In one of the rare translated texts of this German grown school of hermeneutics its founders declared: "Our approach has grown out of the empirical study of family interactions as well as reflection upon the procedures of interpretation employed in our research. to be succeeded by standardized approaches and techniques as the actual scientific procedures (assuring precision. the standard. Proponents argue that interpretation of artifacts is unavoidably hermeneutic as we cannot know for certain the meaning behind them. Whereas the conventional methodological attitude in the social sciences justifies qualitative approaches as exploratory or preparatory activities. Applications Archaeology In archaeology. This is most common in stone tools. "AGOH") was founded in Frankfurt am Main (Germany) by scholars of various disciplines. The general significance for sociological analysis of objective hermeneutics issues from the fact that. and objectivity). Opponents claim that a hermeneutic approach is too relativist and that their own interpretations are based on common-sense evaluation. nonhermeneutic methods of quantitative social research can only be justified because they permit a shortcut in generating data (and research "economy" comes about under specific conditions). we regard hermeneutic procedures as the basic method for gaining precise and valid knowledge in the social sciences. we do not simply reject alternative approaches dogmatically. hermeneutics means the interpretation and understanding of material by analyzing possible meanings or social use. because the focus on tradition seemed to undermine possibilities for social criticism and transformation. for example. where using descriptions such as "scraper" can be highly subjective and unproven. Its goal is to provide all scholars using the methodology of objective hermeneutics with a means for steady and continual exchange and a platform spanning those disciplines in which the methodology is now being used."[19] In 1992 the "Association for Objective Hermeneutics" [20] ("Arbeitsgemeinschaft objektive Hermeneutik" [21]. hermeneutics is one dimension of critical social theory. For Habermas. . However. instead we can only apply modern value in the interpretation. Habermas also criticized Marxism and previous members of the Frankfurt School for missing the hermeneutical dimension of critical theory. validity. interpretive methods constitute the fundamental procedures of measurement and of the generation of research data relevant to theory. From our perspective. in the humanities and in the social sciences. in the social sciences.

both of which have made important inroads into the postpositivist branch of international relations theory and political science. psychologists have recently become interested in hermeneutics. might be seen as a branch of philosophical hermeneutics. the schools of glossatores. Political philosophy Italian philosopher Gianni Vattimo and Spanish philosopher Santiago Zabala in their book Hermeneutic Communism when talking about contemporary capitalist regimes say that "A politics of descriptions does not impose power in order to dominate as a philosophy. hermeneutics has been applied to international relations. It was an interpretative Renaissance. the problem of interpretation is central to legal theory at least since the 11th century. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance. After that. users. it is functional for the continued existence of a society of dominion. when the Corpus Iuris Civilis was rediscovered and started to be systematically studied by people like Irnerius and Gratianus. conservation (realism). made significant contributions also to general hermeneutics.[23] This tradition fits within a critique of the Enlightenment."[29] Vattimo and Zabala also manifest there that they see "Interpretation as Anarchy" and affirm that "existence is interpretation" and "hermeneutics is weak thought". Of note is the work of Lindsay Jones[22] on the way architecture is received and how that reception changes over time and according to context. Justinian's Corpus Iuris Civilis). which pursues truth in the form of imposition (violence).Hermeneutics 122 Architecture Though the interpretation of buildings is clearly of abiding interest. Psychology Similarly to computer scientists. commentatores and usus modernus distinguished themselves by their approach to the interpretation of "laws" (mainly. Moreover. Steve Smith refers to hermeneutics as the principal way of grounding a foundationalist yet postpositivist IR theory such as critical theory.[26] With Richard Coyne he extends the argument to a consideration of the nature of architectural education and design as a way of thinking. and triumph (history). there are several traditions of architectural scholarship that draw explicitly on the hermeneutics of Heidegger and Gadamer. The University of Bologna gave birth to a "legal Renaissance" in the 11th century.[25] He also deploys arguments from hermeneutics to explain design as a process of interpretation.[28] International relations Insofar as hermeneutics is a cornerstone of both critical theory and constitutive theory. and historians. Hubert Dreyfus' critique of conventional artificial intelligence has been influential not only in AI but in psychology. rather. among others.[30] .e. Hermeneutics is also influential in Humanistic Psychology. and psychologists are increasingly interested in hermeneutic approaches to meaning and interpretation as discussed by philosophers such as Heidegger (cf Embodied cognition) and the later Wittgenstein (cf discursive psychology). most famously Ronald Dworkin's.[27] The latter also expands to a consideration of the use of computers in design.. Law Some scholars argue that law and theology constitute particular forms of hermeneutics because of their need to interpret legal tradition or scriptural texts. Radical postmodernism is an example of a postpositivist yet anti-foundationalist paradigm of international relations. i.[24] but it has also informed design studio teaching. Snodgrass values historical study and the study of Asian cultures by architects as hermeneutical encounters with otherness. especially as alternatives to cognitivism. interpretation has always been at the center of legal thought. Dalibor Vesely situates hermeneutics within a critique of the application of overly scientific thinking to architecture. Legal interpretivism. how a building is interpreted by critics. Friedrich Karl von Savigny and Emilio Betti.

and differs from other interpretative schools of sociology in that it emphasizes the importance of the context[33] as well as the form of any given social behaviour.34 and IV. Being and Time. org/ ccel/ schaff/ anf01. p. References [1] Ferguson. iv. Theorists like Paul Ricoeur have applied modern philosophical hermeneutics to theological texts (in Ricoeur's case. Introduction to Philosophical Hermeneutics. iv. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 1. html?scrBook=Isa& scrCh=53& scrV=7#viii. J. David F Wright. iv. Hermeneutics in sociology was most heavily influenced by German philosopher Hans-Georg Gadamer. H125 . especially the study of Human Error. hermeneutics means the interpretation and understanding of social events by analysing their meanings to the human participants and their culture. Yale University Press. 1990). I. ISBN 0-300-05969-8. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. org/ ccel/ schaff/ anf01. the Bible). Dr. It enjoyed prominence during the sixties and seventies. ISBN 0-8308-1400-0. ISBN 0-300-05969-8. 2 [3] Couzen-Hoy. Introduction to Philosophical Hermeneutics. For instance. xxii. see also 111. It has been proposed by the ergonomist Donald Taylor that mechanist models of human behaviour will only take us so far in terms of accident reduction. The Critical Circle. ccel.. ed. scientists have become increasingly interested in hermeneutic approaches. . http:/ / www. ciii. page 38 [14] Forster. and interpreted. Mikra: Text Translation.[34] The field of marketing has adopted this term from sociology. 2000. edu/ entries/ schleiermacher/ ). Reading and Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 743. Elsevier. edu/ entries/ hermeneutics/ ). The central principle of hermeneutics is that it is only possible to grasp the meaning of an action or statement within the context of the discourse or world-view from which it originates. ciii–p4. . Pg. New Dictionary of Theology. Ernest. stanford. viii. Sinclair B. Dialogue with Trypho. iv. relating the whole to the part and the part to the whole.. The New Hermeneutics and the Early Luther. analyzed. Oxford. Jean (1994)..Hermeneutics 123 Religion and theology The process by which theological texts are understood relies on a particular hermeneutical viewpoint. Jean (1994). CSLI Publications and Cambridge University Press. University of California Press. putting a piece of paper in a box might be considered a meaningless action unless put in the context of democratic elections. using the term to refer to qualitative studies in which interviews with (or other forms of text from) one or a small number of people are closely read. http:/ / www. One can frequently find reference to the "hermeneutic circle": that is. 301 [16] Heidegger. html [13] Ebeling. Ill. Pg. p. ISBN 0-300-05969-8. p. org/ ccel/ schaff/ anf01. cxi. Harper and Row.[32] Sociology In sociology. viii. Michael. III. iv. The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers. xxii–p34. and the action of putting a ballot paper in a box. Downers Grove. and that safety science must look at the meaning of accidents for conscious human beings. e. and New Media Like Real People and Places. [15] Reeves. ccel. iv. org/ ccel/ schaff/ npnf214. 1 [11] Martin Jan Mulder. html?scrBook=Hos& scrCh=10& scrV=6#viii. in terms of their categorisation of qualitative data. Television. stanford. Martin (1927/1962).: InterVarsity Press. cxi–p2. 103. [8] see. 21–22 [6] Klein. Safety science In the field of Safety Science. Yale University Press. [2] Grondin. p.[31] Other scholars in the field have attempted to create safety taxonomies that make use of hermeneutic concepts. Introduction to Philosophical Hermeneutics. html?scrBook=Jer& scrCh=22& scrV=24#ix. "Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher" (http:/ / plato. ISBN 0-520-04639 [4] Grondin. (James Innell) Packer (1988). ccel.21. http:/ / www. [12] http:/ / www. see also as examples II. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Yale University Press. A complete etymological dictionary of the English language: dealing with the origin of words and their sense development thus illustrating the history of civilization and culture. ccel.9 [10] Justin Martyr. "Hermeneutics" (http:/ / plato. Rambam Hilkhot Talmud Torah 4:8 [9] Irenaeus. ix. Jean (1994). 21 [5] Grondin. Byron & Clifford Nass (1996). Gerhard. 1. Against Heresies. David (1981).344 [7] Bjorn Ramberg Kristin Gjesdal.g.

Cambridge. 7–8. Arthur W. abstract=page). ed. Paul Woodruff (trans. Empathy in the Context of Philosophy.1080/00140138108924870.D. Hermeneutik nach Dilthey". . pp. Architecture in the Age of Divided Representation: The Question of Creativity in the Shadow of Production. • Plato. p. com/ content/ 56/ 5/ 587. 1997.S. 937–949. sagepub. 55–86. 1996 Further reading • De La Torre. Divyadaan: Journal of Philosophy and Education 19/1–2 (2008) 7–30. Hans. 87–118. Edghill • Aristotle. Comparison.S. 1995. CP 4. Burks (ed. Tilman Allert. "Reading the Bible from the Margins. 29–55 [27] Snodgrass. [29] Gianni Vattimo and Santiago Zabala.htm). informaworld. agoh. 9(1): 56 74. & Jost. [31] Donald Taylor (1981). A.adelaide. Cambridge. New York. agoh. Gerhard.) in Plato. The complete Hebrew–English dictionary Vol. A. C. 111–179.. Miguel A. J. L. Pg.edu. Dieter Misgeld. (2007). London: William Heinemann. Architecture and the Crisis of Modern Science. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company. Metaphors and the Hermeneutics of Designing. Cambridge Mass. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Library. "Philosophical Foundations of Civilizational Dialogue. in Aristotle. 2". and Coyne. doi:10. Cooper. 2006. "The hermeneutics of accidents and safety" (http:/ / www. 9 (1983).. Ion. vol. 1987. London: Routledge. 2004. Complete Works." International Seminar on Civilizational Dialogue (3rd: 15–17 September 1997: Kuala Lumpur).html). Interpretation.. Designing Information Technology in the Postmodern Age: From Method to Metaphor. 1–6. 436–447 in Modern German sociology. On Interpretation. Truth and Method. 1903). [26] Snodgrass.). existentialgraphs. Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss (eds. Mass. "The Hermeneutic Revolution and Bernard Lonergan: Gadamer and Lonergan on Augustine's Verbum Cordis .1177/0018726703056005004. pp 165–180.). New York: Columbia University Press. 2002. "The Unknown 20th-Century Hermeneutic Revolution: Jerusalem and Athens in Lonergan's Integral Hermeneutics". W. [25] Snodgrass. The Hermeneutics of Sacred Architecture: Experience. "Models. 1958. edited by Volker Meja. Ulrich. Cited as CP vol. Mass. . (2003).5 ISCD. Foundations of qualitative research. "The New Hermeneutics and the Early Luther".library. Palgrave Macmillan. A. & Davies. Mass.B. Lou (2010). [24] Perez-Gomez. 34–46. Rennie (2007). • Peirce. de/ en/ [21] http:/ / www. Cambridge. Lawrence. The Hermeneutics of Cultural Self-comprehension versus the Paradigm of Civilizational Conflict. Hans-Georg. rowohlts enzyklopädie. Ferdinand. apa. in Perspektiven der Philosophie. R." Design Issues. pp. 1991.1. D. Kertas kerja persidangan / conference papers. (c. vols. [32] Wallace. [20] http:/ / www.B. 12 [30] David L. . [19] Oevermann. Hans. 1960 124 • Text of On Interpretation (http://etext. 1931–1935. Page 106 [34] see Gadamer. ." Orbis Books. BP171. Interpretation in Architecture: Design as a Way of Thinking. M. Ergonomics 24 (6): 487–495. vol.1.para. doi:10.” Pp. Harold P. 20 [18] Frederick G. Interpretive and critical approaches. as translated by E. and Nico Stehr. de/ de/ [22] Jones. 2000. No. Eprint (http://www..: MIT Press.htm). Elisabeth Konau. 1992. "Applied Hermeneutics and Qualitative Safety Data" (http:/ / hum.: MIT Press. "Zum Gegenstandsbereich der Hermeneutik". com/ smpp/ 678312573-78650925/ content~content=a775985337~db=all~order=page). org/ divisions/ div32/ pdfs/ hermeneutics. April 1964. 21. 1997.. Reuben. 1985. vol. • Ebeling. p. European Perspectives: a Series in Social Thought and Cultural Criticism. in Collected Papers.ptsem. 2011. • Köchler. • Peirce. pdf). "Logical Tracts.. Hermeneutic Communism: From Heidegger to Marx Columbia University Press. Ross. John M.Hermeneutics [17] Agosta.418–509. 2006. 331–341. 1 (Loeb Classical Library). J. and Jürgen Krambeck. 31–54.: Harvard University Press [23] Vesely.).Volume Two: Hermeneutical Calisthenics: A Morphology of Ritual-Architectural Priorities.418-529. MA: Harvard University Press. • Alcalay. Interpretation in Architecture: Design as a Way of Thinking. "Symbolischer Pragmatismus. pp. [33] Willis. Retrieved 2009-10-09. M.edu/apr1964/v21-1-article3. Cooke (trans.. R. A. "Martin Heidegger and the Hermeneutic Revolution". London: Routledge. Theology Today.B. 1938. and Coyne. The Humanistic Psychologist 35 (1). R. [28] Coyne.au/a/a8/intrpret. R.com/peirceoneg/existentialgraphs4. A. Chemed Books. • Köchler. pp. Eprint (http://theologytoday..: MIT Press. “Structures of meaning and objective Hermeneutics. Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. London: Sage.the Heart of Postmodern Hermeneutics". and Coyne. Cambridge. "Hermeneutics and Humanistic Psychology" (http:/ / www. pp.263. vols. Retrieved 2009-07-10. Human Relations 56 (5): 587–607. Retrieved 2009-07-07. "Hans-Georg Gadamer and the Hermeneutic Revolution". • Fellmann. C.

derushah.agoh.html#law) by Jose Faur.html) provided by the Association for Objective Hermeneutics (http://www. "The Relevance of Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics to Thirty-Six Topics or Fields of Human Activity". fee.digitalpeirce. "The Hermeneutic Circle" ISBN 978-0-7546-3503-1 125 External links • Meta: Research in Hermeneutics. C. "On Hermeneutical Ethics and Education" (http://www. describing the legal theory and hermeneutical process in rabbinic jurisprudence • Abductive Inference and Literary Theory – Pragmatism. "The Liminality of Hermes and the Meaning of Hermeneutics". Phenomenology.metajournal.br/p-infwir. IL.fee.es/dpto_fil/revista/ polemos/articulos/MA_Quintana_On Hermeneutical Ethics &Education (Internet)2.ssrn. Richard E.htm) written by Uwe Wirth (http://www. Southern Illinois University.php?title=home) International peer-reviewed journal • Palmer. Ethics and our Education in both.edu/faculty/richardpalmer/relevance.mac. Eprint (http://www.edu/faculty/richardpalmer/liminality.de/en/bibliography/ bibliographic-database.unicamp. Miguel Ángel.wordpress. • Mantzavinos.agoh. Richard E.digitalpeirce.com/ articlesbyhakhamjosefaur.unicamp.doc). Eprint (http://www.mac.htm) • Objective Hermeneutics Bibliographic Database (http://www.. 1 April 1999. "The Hermeneutics of Sexual Order".org/ display_page. Ali. Lecture Delivered at the Department of Philosophy. "Naturalistic Hermeneutics". Webpage (http://biblicalhermeneutics.html) • Palmer.com/sol3/papers. Cambridge University Press ISBN 978-0-521-84812-1 • Masson.edu/faculty/richardpalmer/). Eprint (http://papers. Hermeneutics and Semiotics (http://www. Scott. "Philosophical Hermeneutics".de/ en/) . (http://www. and Practical Philosophy (http://www.Hermeneutics • Khan. Carbondale.mac. a paper on the relevance of Gadamer's Hermeneutics for our understanding of Music.br/wirth.uned. Holger.com/ hermeneutics-links/philosophical-hermeneutics/) • Law and Hermeneutics in Rabbinic Jurisprudence: A Maimonidean Perspective (http://faur.html) • Quintana Paz. cfm?abstract_id=979394). • Szesnat.

which has since become an English-language staple. at the suggestion of university president James Conant. Thus.[1] At Berkeley. in both the philosophy department and the history department. and Minette Stroock Kuhn. degrees in physics in 1946 and 1949. Ohio. He later taught a course in the history of science at Harvard from 1948 until 1956. He obtained his B. Berkeley. remaining there until 1991. that is. Taylor Pyne Professor of Philosophy and History of Science. Kuhn taught at the University of California. 1996 (aged 73) Cambridge. July 18. As he states in the first few pages of the preface to the second edition of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. to Samuel L.Thomas Kuhn 126 Thomas Kuhn Thomas Samuel Kuhn Born July 18. historian. where he also obtained M. his three years of total academic freedom as a Harvard Junior Fellow were crucial in allowing him to switch from physics to the history (and philosophy) of science. in 1940. he joined Princeton University as the M. In 1979 he joined the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) as the Laurance S. we must account for subjective perspectives as well. In 1964. 1922 – June 17. Ohio June 17. He passed away in 1996. In 1994 Kuhn was diagnosed with lung cancer.S. Kuhn. After leaving Harvard. introducing the term "paradigm shift". Kuhn made several notable claims concerning the progress of scientific knowledge: that scientific fields undergo periodic "paradigm shifts" rather than solely progressing in a linear and continuous way. 1996) was an American physicist. they are competing accounts of reality which cannot be coherently reconciled. 1922 Cincinnati. Kuhn interviewed and tape recorded Danish physicist Niels Bohr the day before Bohr's death. that these paradigm shifts open up new approaches to understanding that scientists would never have considered valid before. being named Professor of the History of Science in 1961. Competing paradigms are frequently incommensurable. and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was deeply influential in both academic and popular circles.S. he wrote and published (in 1962) his best known and most influential work:[2] The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. an industrial engineer. and that the notion of scientific truth. at any given moment. He graduated from The Taft School in Watertown.: /ˈkuːn/. Life Kuhn was born in Cincinnati. where he became aware of his serious interest in mathematics and physics. our comprehension of science can never rely on full "objectivity".D. and Ph. Massachusetts 20th-century philosophy Western Philosophy Analytic Died Era Region School Main interests Philosophy of science Notable ideas Paradigm shift Incommensurability "Normal" science Thomas Samuel Kuhn (pron. CT. respectively. cannot be established solely by objective criteria but is defined by a consensus of a scientific community. Rockefeller Professor of Philosophy. . degree in physics from Harvard University in 1943.

the profession will have solved problems that its members could scarcely have imagined and would never have undertaken without commitment to the paradigm". . Kuhn's work has been extensively used in social science. This is followed by "normal science". but undergoes periodic revolutions. the failure of a result to conform to the paradigm is seen not as refuting the paradigm. for instance. normal science is extremely productive: "when the paradigm is successful. Prescience. The enormous impact of Kuhn's work can be measured in the changes it brought about in the vocabulary of the philosophy of science: besides "paradigm shift". for example David Stove (Popper and After. . and later to Jehane Barton Burns (Jehane R.the simplest explanation.[4] During the period of normal science. also called "paradigm shifts" (although he did not coin the phrase).Broad Scope . Kuhn popularized the word "paradigm" itself from a term used in certain forms of linguistics and the work of Georg Lichtenberg to its current broader meaning. . coined the term "normal science" to refer to the relatively routine. and sought to clarify his views to avoid further misinterpretation. Freeman Dyson has quoted Kuhn as saying "I am not a Kuhnian!". day-to-day work of scientists working within a paradigm. Value Judgment. science is broken up into three distinct stages. so that Kuhn's analysis of the evolution of scientific views has by itself influenced that evolution. as opposed to a single "Scientific Revolution" in the late Renaissance. but also externally consistent with other theories 3. contra Popper's falsifiability criterion. comes first. when scientists attempt to enlarge the central paradigm by "puzzle-solving". first to Kathryn Muhs (with whom he had three children). this thesis seemed to entail that theory choice is fundamentally irrational: if rival theories cannot be directly compared. 1982). but as the mistake of the researcher.Fruitful . published by the logical positivists of the Vienna Circle. A defense Kuhn gives against the objection that his account of science from The Structure of Scientific Revolutions results in relativism can be found in an essay by Kuhn called "Objectivity. he reiterates five criteria from the penultimate chapter of SSR that determine (or help determine. more properly) theory choice: 1. principally similar to Occam's razor 5.empirically adequate with experimentation and observation 2. which subsumes the old results along with the anomalous results into one framework.internally consistent.a theory should disclose new phenomena or new relationships among phenomena . The frequent use of the phrase "paradigm shift" has made scientists more aware of and in many cases more receptive to paradigm changes.Thomas Kuhn Thomas Kuhn was married twice. Kuhn argued that science does not progress via a linear accumulation of new knowledge. In this book. at which point a new paradigm. In SSR. and was largely responsible for the use of the term "scientific revolutions" in the plural.[5] referring to the relativism that some philosophers have developed based on his work. is accepted.a theory's consequences should extend beyond that which it was initially designed to explain 4. This is termed revolutionary science. it is not possible to understand one paradigm through the conceptual framework and terminology of another rival paradigm. taking place at widely different periods of time and in different disciplines. Kuhn himself denied the accusation of relativism in the third edition of SSR. Kuhn also argues that rival paradigms are incommensurable—that is. . and Theory Choice. Whether Kuhn's views had such relativistic consequences is the subject of much debate. As anomalous results build up. science reaches a crisis. . For many critics. Guided by the paradigm. which lacks a central paradigm. Kuhn). in the post-positivist/positivist debate within International Relations. then one cannot make a rational choice as to which one is better.Consistent .Accurate ."[6] In this essay. 127 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (SSR) was originally printed as an article in the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science.[3] in which the nature of scientific inquiry within a particular field is abruptly transformed. Kuhn is credited as a foundational force behind the post-Mertonian Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. In general.Simple .

Thomas Kuhn He then goes on to show how. In response to these critics. much to Polanyi's (and Kuhn's) dismay. Thomas Kuhn: A Philosophical History for Our Times. The Copernican Revolution: planetary astronomy in the development of Western thought. Bibliography • Bird.S. Polanyi lectured on this topic for decades before Kuhn published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions."[6] For this reason. the "Thomas Kuhn Paradigm Shift Award" is awarded by the American Chemical Society to speakers who present original views that are at odds with mainstream scientific understanding. The Myth of the Kuhnian Revolution. as it was known that Kuhn attended several of Polanyi's lectures. but as values. Sociological Theory. • Hoyningen-Huene. T. values) of theory choice for the scientific community rather than prescriptive normative rules in the usual sense of the word "criteria". Alexander. He has also received numerous honorary doctorates.S. Thomas Kuhn. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.[7] and the two scientists agreed to set aside their differences. Kuhn then goes on to say. and in 1982 was awarded the George Sarton Medal by the History of Science Society. 128 Polanyi–Kuhn debate Although they used different terminologies. although these criteria admittedly determine theory choice. Paul (1993): Reconstructing Scientific Revolutions: Thomas S. • Kuhn. 1957. Steve. 2000. they are imprecise in practice and relative to individual scientists. 293-305. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. T.[9][10] Honors Kuhn was named a Guggenheim Fellow in 1954. ISBN 0-674-17100-4 • Kuhn. 52(1961): 161-193. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Kuhn cited Polanyi in the second edition of "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions". T. Vol. both Kuhn and Michael Polanyi believed that scientists' subjective experiences made science a relativized discipline. 2000. which determine choice. The Function of Measurement in Modern Physical Science. Polanyi's work was constantly interpreted by others within the framework of Kuhn's paradigm shifts. of course. his criteria or values for theory choice are often understood as descriptive normative rules (or more properly.S. although there are many varied interpretations of Kuhn's account of science. the criteria still are not "objective" in the usual sense of the word because individual scientists reach different conclusions with the same criteria due to valuing one criterion over another or even adding additional criteria for selfish or other subjective reasons. which influence it.[8] Thomas Kuhn Paradigm Shift Award In honor of his legacy. 1962. Isis. "When scientists must choose between competing theories."[6] Because Kuhn utilizes the history of science in his account of science. ISBN 1-902683-10-2 • Fuller. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. The winner is selected based in the novelty of the viewpoint and its potential impact if it were to be widely accepted. "I am suggesting. Princeton and London: Princeton University Press and Acumen Press. • Kuhn. and that the two men had debated endlessly over the epistemology of science before either had achieved fame. According to Kuhn. that the criteria of choice with which I began function not as rules. Supporters of Polanyi charged Kuhn with plagiarism. Despite this intellectual alliance. ISBN 0-226-26894-2 • Sal Restivo. Kuhn's Philosophy of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-45808-3 . (1983). two men fully committed to the same list of criteria for choice may nevertheless reach different conclusions.

Retrieved September 19.). 144. Accessed 20 March 2008. [10] "Thomas Kuhn Paradigm Shift Award" (http:/ / webapps. edu/ orgs/ polanyi/ TAD%20WEB%20ARCHIVE/ TAD33-2/ TAD33-2-fnl-pg8-24-pdf.stevens. 1962-11-17. post-modernism and materialist dialectics (http://www. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. "Polanyi vs. 26 June 1996) • Review in the New York Review of Books (http://www. acscomp. Scientific Change (Symposium on the History of Science.28n.S. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. Aage Petersen. 1996 (3rd ed. [6] Kuhn. 1987. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 19 June 1996) • Thomas S. 9 vol 116 no 28. http:/ / lilt.html) (obituary by Lawrence Van Gelder. The Sun. [5] Dyson. T.html) (Biography. Denmark Saturday morning.emory.ariannascuola.). stanford. 9–15 July 1961). 24–25.utexas. 1962" (http:/ / www.html) (obituary.44. Thomas Kuhn. ISBN 0-226-45805-9 • Kuhn. University of Chicago Press.mit. Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity. American Chemical Society. The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. • Kuhn. jsp?ContentId=WPCP_012540). 1963.html) • Color Portrait (http://stanstudio." The Polanyi Society. The Road Since Structure: Philosophical Essays.shtml) . pdf.com/books/ 98090-road-structure-philosophical-essays/) • Thomas Khun's Theory of incommensurability (http://www. pp. pp. Thomas (1977). 2012.S. New York Times. University of Oxford. .edu/mfp/kuhnobit. [7] See Thomas S. http:/ / www. Carlsberg.edu/entries/thomas-kuhn) entry by Alexander Bird in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Thomas Kuhn (http://des.edu/V116/N28/kuhn. and Erik Rudinger at Professor Bohr's Office. Oral History Transcript — Niels Bohr. External links • Thomas Kuhn (http://plato. The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change. Copenhagen. T. • article on his Road Since Structure: Philosophical Essays (http://www. . ISBN 0-226-45800-8 • Kuhn. Freeman (May 6. missouriwestern. 73.. Retrieved 2010-02-28. The Tech p. Crombie (ed. acs. aip. Kuhn (http://tech. "The Function of Dogma in Scientific Research".com/Boston_Photo_Blog/photo-of-thomas-samuel-kuhn) • History of Twentieth-Century Philosophy of Science (http://www.S. pdf [9] "Thomas Kuhn Paradigm Shift Award" (http:/ / web2011. Retrieved September 19. [2] Alexander Bird (2004).wsws.com) BOOK VI: Kuhn on Revolution and Feyerabend on Anarchy . 2000. Scientific American: 40.eu/joomla/filosofia/ i-problemi-della-filosofia/epistemologia/301-thomas-khun-incommensurability. American Chemical Society. Kuhn. The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512942-7. New York and London: Basic Books and Heineman.html) • John Horgan's Interview http://www. pp. ISBN 978-1-4432-5544-8. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http:/ / plato. [8] Moleski. Kuhn: Worldviews Apart. Oxford University Press.des. C. pp.Thomas Kuhn • Kuhn. ISBN 0-226-45798-2 129 References [1] "Last interview with Niels Bohr by Thomas S. [4] Kuhn.edu/mfp/Kuhnsnap. Martin X.with free downloads for public use.emory. org/ history/ ohilist/ 4517_5. Devised Science Paradigm" (http://www. 2012. November 17. com/ wp-content/ uploads/ 2010/ 04/ Kuhn-Objectivity-Value-Judgment-and-Theory-Choice. org/ findawards/ detail. Kuhn. Leon Rosenfeld. 347–69 in A.edu/csw/cgi-bin/shapers/kuhn/ • Thomas S. John (May 1991). Missouri Western State University.edu/users/vl/notes/weinberg.cs. htm.S. ilstu. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 320–39 http:/ / commonsenseatheism. Thomas (2000). "Profile: Reluctant Revolutionary". 1977. Kuhn. and the Internet: Tools of Scientific Revolutions. Center for History of Physics. 1970-1993.stanford.philsci. Inc. edu/ gmklass/ foi/ readings/ horgan. . edu/ entries/ thomas-kuhn/ [3] Horgan.org/articles/2011/oct2011/ kuhn-o28. org/ awards/ thomas-kuhn-paradigm-shift-award). p. Outline of Structure of Scientific Revolutions) • "Thomas Kuhn. 1894-1912. T.shvoong. T. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1999). html). the Genome.

(http:// opinionator. On qualifying.[5] .[2] He was born in London (some sources give his place of birth as Stratford on Avon. Stratford. probably because his entry in Who's Who gave his father's address as Snitterfield. London 10 October 1971 (aged 88) Died Influenced by William McDougall Influenced Hans Eysenck Sir Cyril Lodowic Burt (3 March 1883 – 10 October 1971) was an English educational psychologist who made contributions to educational psychology and statistics. a critical view and memoir of Kuhn. London.nytimes. Shortly after he died. Burt is known for his studies on the heritability of IQ. a medical practitioner.com/2011/03/06/the-ashtray-the-ultimatum-part-1/?scp=1&sq=ashtray&st=cse) 130 Cyril Burt Cyril Burt Cyril Burt in 1930 Born 3 March 1883 [1] Westminster. Some scholars have asserted that Burt did not commit fraud. and his wife Martha. in fact the Burt family moved to Snitterfield when he was ten). James's Park.blogs. he became the assistant house surgeon and obstetrical assistant at Westminster Hospital. The Ashtray: The Ultimatum (Part 1 [of 5 parts]). the first child of Cyril Cecil Barrow Burt (b.Thomas Kuhn • Errol Morris. Life and career Childhood and education Burt was born on 3 March 1883.1857).[3][4] Burt's father initially kept a chemist shop to support his family while he studied medicine.[5] The younger Cyril Burt's education began in London at a Board school near St. his studies of inheritance and intelligence came into disrepute after evidence emerged indicating he had falsified research data.

Cyril Burt In 1890. McDougall. a physician.[8] Burt graduated with second-class honours in 1906 which he supplemented by a teaching diploma. brother of Francis Galton. who all went on to have distinguished careers in psychology. and Karl Pearson. and the allegations of fraudulent scholarship against him. two defining characters of the London School of Psychology whose membership includes both Galton and Burt. and later won a scholarship to Christ's Hospital. Germany. where he was to work under the famed physiologist Sir Charles Sherrington.[6] One of the elder Burt's more famous patients was Darwin Galton. Oxford. and the inheritance of intelligence. including Raymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck. especially his studies in statistics and individual differences. This issue. In 1907. One of the conclusions in his 1909 paper was that upper-class children in private preparatory schools did better in the tests than those in the ordinary elementary schools. taking over the position from Charles Spearman. Burt visited the University of Würzburg. Burt influenced many students. where he first met the psychologist Oswald Külpe. in accordance with the Mental Deficiency Act of 1913. where Burt's father opened a rural practice. with the responsibility of picking out the 'feeble-minded' children. Burt was a consultant with the committees that developed the Eleven plus examinations. Burt was one of a group of students who worked with McDougall. from 1892 to 1895.[7] In 1909 Burt made use of Charles Spearman's model of general intelligence to analyse his data on the performance of schoolchildren in a battery of tests. Burt resigned his position at the LCC and the LDTC after he was appointed Professor and Chair of Psychology at University College. so much so that his father. where he specialized in philosophy and psychology. and that the difference was innate. including Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed and The Mismeasure of Man. This work brought Burt into contact with eugenics. knowing Burt's interest in Galton's work. and carried out much of his child guidance work on the premises. then located in London. which included William Brown. where he developed his interest in psychology. Burt was much involved in the initiation of child guidance in Great Britain and his 1925 publication The Young Delinquent led to opening of the London Child Guidance Clinic in Islington in 1927. This first research project was to define Burt's life's work in quantitative intelligence testing. thus ending his almost 20-year career as a school psychological practitioner. Warwickshire in 1893. in which he was to work on the standardization of psychological tests. The post also allowed him to work in Spearman's laboratory. eugenics. Charles Spearman. May Smith. he studied at Jesus College. London. an interest that would last the rest of his life.[9] 131 Work in educational psychology In 1908. In the summer of 1908. proposed by Francis Galton.[7] He notably established that girls were equal to boys in general intelligence. are discussed in various books and articles listed below.[5] Early in Burt's life he showed a precocious nature. The visits the Burts made to the Galton estate not only allowed the young Burt to learn about the work of Francis Galton. thus giving Burt his initial inquiry into the development and structure of mental tests. Arthur Jensen and Chris Brand. He attended King's School. but also allowed Burt to meet him on multiple occasions and to be strongly drawn to his ideas. suggested that he focus his senior project on psychometrics. Burt took the part-time position of a school psychologist for the London County Council (LCC). Warwick. and received research assistants from the National Institute of Industrial Psychology. Burt took up the post of Lecturer in Psychology and Assistant Lecturer in Physiology at Liverpool University.[7] From 1902. In 1913. McDougall invited Burt to help with a nation-wide survey of physical and mental characteristics of the British people.[11] Later career In 1931.[10] In 1924 Burt was also appointed part-time professor of educational psychology at the London Day Training College (LDTC). the latter under William McDougall. often took the young Burt with him on his medical rounds. John Carl Frugel. While at London. . and toward the end of his life. the family briefly moved to Jersey then to Snitterfield.

According to Ronald Fletcher there is also full documentary evidence of the existence of Miss Conway. Donald MacRae had personally received an article from her in 1949 and 1950.[12][22][23] William H. leaves little doubt that he committed fraud. They based this on the lack of independent articles published by them in scientific journals. were invented by Burt himself. and the fact that they allegedly only appeared in the historical record as reviewers of Burt's books in the Journal of Statistical Psychology when the journal was redacted by Burt. and he was accused of falsifying research data.77 by Burt). and Burt had plenty. he was made honorary president of Mensa in 1960. it was generally accepted that "he had fabricated some of the data. he became the first British psychologist to be knighted for his contributions to psychological testing and for making educational opportunities more widely available."[28] W. frequently referred to as "the Burt Affair. Hunt argues that Burt did not harm science in the narrow sense of misleading scientists with false results. Margaret Howard and J. Burt retired but continued writing articles and books. Leslie Hearnshaw. which was presented by the publisher as arguing that "his defenders have sometimes. and that his critics have often jumped to hasty conclusions.[21] In 1976. a close friend of Burt and his official biographer. He died of cancer at age 88 in London on 10 October 1971."[24] Robert Joynson and Ronald Fletcher published books in support of Burt. John Cohen remembered her well during the 1930s and Prof. but by no means always. Hamilton claimed in a 2000 book review that the claims made by his detractors in the so-called "Burt Affair" had been either wrong or grossly exaggerated. but that in the broader . though some of his earlier work remained unaffected by this revelation. would report exactly the same correlation.[29] Jensen has also argued that "[n]o one with any statistical sophistication. Philippe Rushton have pointed out that the controversial correlations reported by Burt are in line with the correlations found in other twin studies.[12] Burt was a member of the London School of Differential Psychology."[14][15][16][17] Shortly after Burt died it became known that all of his notes and records had been burnt. according to an account by J. The 2007 Encyclopædia Britannica noted that it is widely acknowledged that his later work was flawed and many academics agree that data were falsified.[19][20] The possibility of fabrication was first brought to the attention of the scientific community when Kamin noticed that Burt's correlation coefficients of monozygotic and dizygotic twins' IQ scores were the same to three decimal places. three times in succession if he were trying to fake the data. In 1946. Burt was elected President of the British Psychological Society.77. concluded after examining the criticisms that most of Burt's data from after World War II were unreliable or fraudulent.D. been correct. though his earlier work is often accepted as valid. [25] [26] Cambridge University Professor of Psychology Nicholas Mackintosh edited Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed?. Burt published numerous articles and books on a host of topics ranging from psychometrics to philosophy of science to parapsychology. Conway. across articles – even when new data were twice added to the sample of twins.[30] According to Earl B. 0. Miss Howard was also mentioned in the membership list of the British Psychological Society. He officially joined Mensa soon thereafter. however. Because he had suggested on radio in 1946 the formation of an organization for people with high IQ scores. It is his research in behavior genetics. the London Sunday Times claimed that two of Burt's supposed collaborators. Hunt. and of the British Eugenics Society."[27] Psychologists Arthur Jensen and J. 132 "The Burt Affair" Over the course of his career. it may never be found out whether Burt was intentionally fraudulent or merely careless. Tucker argued in a 1997 article that: "A comparison of his twin sample with that from other well documented studies. Prof.Cyril Burt In 1942.[18] From the late 1970s. Philippe Rushton.75 vs. most notably in studying the heritability of intelligence (as measured in IQ tests) using twin studies that have created the most controversy. 0. However.[12][28] Rushton (1997) wrote that five different studies on twins reared apart by independent researchers corroborated Cyril Burt's findings and had given almost the same heritability estimate (average estimate 0. Noting that other studies on the heritability of IQ have produced results very similar to those of Burt's."[18] This was due in large part to research by Oliver Gillie (1976) and Leon Kamin (1974).[13] At age 68.

Medical World. Sternberg (ed.Cyril Burt sense science in general and behavior genetics in particular were profoundly harmed by the Burt Affair. . (1959). "Burt.). • Burt. R. (1962).L. & Williams. C. C. New York: Macmillan .L.L. (1994). "The influence of motivation on the results of intelligence tests". • Burt. 1-21 • Burt. (1921). Occupational Psychology. C. S. • Burt. The causes and treatments of backwardness (4th ed.L. New York: Norton. London: University of London. "The mentally subnormal".".).L. in R. • Burt. Edited by Anita Gregory. C. 9-20. (1971). E. (1948). 27.) Bickley: University of London Press. King. (1979).L. 297-300. 93.L. Is Intelligence Distributed Normally? [32]. (1944). C. "Quantitative genetics in psychology". Republished London: Oxford University Press. 53-71. Articles by Burt • Burt. 15. (1935). Cyril Burt: Psychologist.L.L. C. "Factor analysis and its neurological basis".L. Republished (2nd ed. C. L. London: University of London. • Burt.L. (1945). New York: Wiley and London: Hodder and Stoughton • Burt. 175-190.L. The young delinquent. London: Oxford University Press. (1923).L. The gifted child. (1937).Q.L. Mental and scholastic tests London: P. • Burt. C. C. An autobiographical sketch.L. C. King. (1925). C. Republished and revised (3rd ed. 231–234). C. 23. London : Allen & Unwin.[31] 133 Further reading Biographies • Burt. (1961). (1963). S. (1940). ESP and psychology. "Inheritance of general intelligence".. British Journal of Statistical Psychology. AEP (Association of Educational Psychologists) Journal. Books by Burt • Burt. C.L.L.L.) London: Staples. • Burt. How the mind works.).L. (1979). leading to an unjustified general rejection of genetic studies of intelligence and a drying up of funding for such studies.) London: University of London Press.E. C. (1930). (1975). • Burt.L. (1949). London: BBC. Study of the Mind. • Burt. (1957). C. 14. London: P. Also published London: Hodder and Stoughton. Republished and revised (4th ed. New York: Cornell University Press. London: University of London. • (1983) "Sir Cyril Burt". (4th ed. 6 (1) [Special issue] • Scarr. • Burt. Intelligence and fertility. C. 1. The Backward Child. pp. Ithaca. London. (1985) The intelligence men: Makers of the I. Republished (5th ed. The factors of the mind: An introduction to factor analysis in psychology. S. (1938). (1975). • Burt. Handbook of tests for use in schools. • Burt. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology. (1946). The subnormal mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. C. C. Cyril L. London: Staples. • Fancher.L. 129-135. London: University of London Press. • Hearnshaw. (1962). • Burt. A psychological study of typography. • Burt. C.) London: University of London Press. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. controversy. American Psychologist. (1937). 24. Encyclopedia of intelligence (Vol. C.J. (1972). • Burt. (1961). (1960). British Journal of Statistical Psychology.

British Journal of Statistical Psychology.). Primary sources Archival collections related to Burt in the United Kingdom. Oxford University Press. British Journal of Education Studies. 1-15. 33. 105-128. • Rushton. "Sir Cyril Burt: Scientific Fraud". Educational Research. • Hartley. In N. (1959). (1994).1860-c. S. (2002). 99-117. "Victim of scientific hoax (Cyril Burt and the genetic IQ controversy)". • Woolridge. Ideology. 11. 1989.[34] • Liverpool University Special Collection and Archives holds Burt's personal papers (Ref: D191).. S.L. 8. • Rowe. • Lamb. 31-69.1990. The Mismeasure of Man. C. Mankind Quarterly. J. "Definition and scientific method in psychology". 193-1934 (Ref: SPSL) [36]. • Tizard. • Burt. . (1995). c. • Burt. • Burt.L. ISBN 0-19-852336-X. Special Collections and Western Manuscripts holds Burt's correspondence with CD Darlington. Nicholas John (ed. 7. W. 555-567. Oxford University Press • Fletcher. & Gregory. 40-44. Donald 'Sir Cyril Burt and typography: a re-evaluation'. "The Examination at Eleven Plus". 30. 33(2) 145-162. American Psychologist. In Mackintosh. 1. R. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.J. • Burt. J. N. 3-16. James and Rooum. 1995). Intelligence. C. Science. • Rushton. and the papers of his secretary Margarethe Archer. 27: 251-258 • Tucker. • The British Psychological Society History of Psychology Centre holds Burt's correspondence and reprints. ISBN 0-415-01039-X. (1958). Loring Brace.P. Jensen. "General ability and special aptitudes". H. Cyril Burt : fraud or framed? (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. K. "Progress and Degeneration in the IQ debate:comments on Urbach". • Nicholas Mackintosh (editor) (1995. and the Media. IQ and science: The mysterious Burt affair. 11. Adrian (1994). • Blinkhorn. The Burt Affair. "New evidence on Sir Cyril Burt: His 1964 speech to the Association of Educational Psychologists [33]". Br J Philos Sci.). Re-reconsidering Burt: Beyond a reasonable doubt.L. British Journal of Psychology(1983) 74. 13. British Journal of Statistical Psychology.). "Was Burt Stitched Up?". (1996). J (1976). Oxford University Press.. (Ref: D432). Nature. "Scientific method in psychology: II". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences.J.J. (2nd ed. R. (1989). (1991).F.L. C. 203-212 • Arthur R. 31. 81-83.L. • Gould. 1-12. • Oxford University: Bodleian Library. Race is a Four Lettered Word.B. W. (1978). (1959). 134 Readings on the Burt Affair • Steve Blinkhorn (1989).P. "The Burt controversy: The comparison of Burt's data on IQ with data from other studies". Behavior Genetics. and correspondence with Society for Protection of Science and Learning. C. the Genesis of the Concept. 203. D. New Brunswick.Cyril Burt • Burt. 340:439. 1960–1966. (1997). "Burt and the early history of factor analysis". In C. ISBN 0-19-852336-X. Loring Brace (2005). c1920-1971 [35]. (1958). "The inheritance of mental ability".L. (1958). Cyril Burt: Fraud or framed?. (1992). Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed?.Mackintosh. "Biased tidings: The media and the Cyril Burt controversy". Society. • C. C. & Plomin. Measuring the mind : education and psychology in England. • Joynson. New York: Routledge. R.: Transaction.

1093/ref:odnb/30880. N. (1989). [30] W. scientificcommons." (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2 August 2009.x. 99–103. The Burt Affair. (1979). google. wiley. Joynson. Intelligence 30 (2002) 555–567 [23] Fletcher. Race. Oxford University Press. [18] "Sir Cyril Burt.1023/A:1018302319394. 2007. Human Intelligence. p2. F. pdf) Personality and Individual Differences 23: 169-180. "Burt. com/ cgi-bin/ Upstream/ rushton-burt?embedded=yes& cumulative_category_title=J. L. Society. Charlotte/Blue Ridge Mensa. (1979). Annals of Human Genetics 64 (4): 363–374. Jensen. org/ index. mugu. ca/ faculty/ rushtonpdfs/ Burt2002. 1a 486 (The Registration district was St. + Phillipe+ Rushton& cumulative_category_id=Rushton)" J. britannica. au/ books/ about/ Science_Ideology_and_the_Media. or. "Race. . Raymond. (1979). PMID 9463070. "Two Views of The Bell Curve" (http:/ / en. Number 2 (1972). Mazumdar. R. H. uwo. Retrieved July 2007. 40(5) [13] "What is Mensa and what does it do?" (http:/ / www. p. P.1046/j. May 1995. interscience. (Ref: Penrose) [38]. Ithaca. Robert Billington (1989). Geo. doi:10. The Science and Politics of IQ. "What to do about fraud charges in science. Indiana University (http:/ / www. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p11 [9] Hearnshaw. com/ 65/ bu/ Burt-Cyr. html) The Columbia Encyclopedia. Crucial data was faked by eminent psychologist. shtml). abelard. • University College London (UCL). bartleby. "The Cyril Burt Affair" (http:/ / www. (24 October 1976). [15] Joynson. (1995). J. (subscription or UK public library membership (http:/ / www. Cyril Burt. ca/ psychology/ faculty/ rushtonpdfs/ Gould. March–April 1994. archive. [4] The birth of Cyril Lodowic Burt was recorded in the General Register Office (now part of the Office for National Statistics) index of births in England and Wales for the June quarter of 1883:-BURT. [3] Hearnshaw. . Maryland: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. J. Intelligence. [14] Plucker. New Brunswick. org/ burt/ burt-ie. [24] http:/ / www3. (1997). "Burt. [31] Hunt. (1974). [26] "Science. v. p.1469-1809. University of London. Oxford University Press. . [21] *Hearnshaw. Earl (2011). lrb. Contemporary Psychology 40 (5). Psychometrika 37. p. [8] Hearnshaw. Jensen. com/ Cyril-Burt-N-J-Mackintosh/ dp/ 019852336X [28] Miele. New Brunswick. ssc. Jonathan. cfm?page=mensa). [20] Gillie.2000. p2 [6] Hearnshaw. shtml). ISBN 0-85473-635-2. asp [33] http:/ / psychology. uk/ v11/ n21/ raymond-fancher/ fixing-it-for-heredity). p7 [7] "Burt. O. D. 115-117. London Review of Books. [17] Mackintosh. Cyril Burt: Psychologist. Science. 2005. Retrieved 7 December 2012. Ideology and the Media" (http:/ / books. London: Institute of Education. Philippe Rushton. indiana. Sq. London: Routledge. Georges. And Genetics: Conversations with Arthur R. (1979). cbrmensa. L. ideology & the media: The Cyril Butt affair. Retrieved July 2007. amazon. Ideology and the Media: The Cyril Burt Scandal.. Richard (2002). 19 Apr. The Burt affair.6440363. [32] http:/ / www.31(3). p13 [10] Hearnshaw (1979) p44 [11] Aldrich. Retrieved 7 December 2012. oup. Britannica Concise Encyclopædia. http:/ / www. 234–235. (1979). Potomac. com. (1991). (1997). And The Brain. London: Routledge. edu/ ~intell/ index. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed. Samelson. Frank (2002).). indiana. Sixth Edition. ." (http:/ / concise. [22] John Philippe Rushton: "New evidence on Sir Cyril Burt: His 1964 Speech to the Association of Educational Psychologists".. com/ ebc/ article-9358363/ Sir-Cyril-Burt) Encyclopædia Britannica. N J: Transaction Publishers. Intelligence. Human Intelligence. ISBN 0-8133-4274-0 [29] Rushton. [19] Kamin. Cyril Lodowic. 135 References [1] Arthur R. 2006. USA: Transaction Publishers. co. org/ web/ 20041013222543/ http:/ / www. will the Burt affair ever end?". Sir Cyril Lodowic (1883–1971)". 2007. pdf . New York: Cornell University Press. doi:10.Cyril Burt • Imperial College. The Institute of Education 1902-2002 : a centenary history. [2] Hearnshaw. ISBN 0-415-01039-X. Archives and Corporate Records Unit holds Burt's correspondence with Herbert Dingle. University of London. uwo. Oxford: Westview Press. Hamilton (July 2000). Google Books. Pauline H. . Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed? Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. which included parts of Westminster) [5] Hearnshaw. R. Sir Cyril Lodowic". [16] Fletcher. Genetica 99 ((2-3)): 145–51. org/ 3778919). B. doi:10. (1979). edu/ ~intell/ burtaffair. Ronald 1991 Science. London: Sunday Times. Cyril Lodowic St. "Sir Cyril Burt (1883–1971)". ISBN 0-8014-1244-7. [12] " Victim of scientific hoax – Cyril Burt and the genetic IQ controversy (http:/ / web. London: Hodder and Stoughton. com/ oxforddnb/ info/ freeodnb/ libraries/ ) required). psychologist. "Fixing it For Heredity" (http:/ / www.J." (http:/ / www. 1951-1959 (Ref: H Dingle collection) [37]. Special Collections holds letters from Burt to LS Penrose. com/ cgi-bin/ abstract/ 45746/ ABSTRACT [25] Fancher. [27] Publisher's book description. Hanover Square. "A review of Dysgenics: Genetic Deterioration in Modern Populations". html?id=8kyDmgeFsEMC& redir_esc=y). Leslie Spencer (1979).

uk/history/resources/ resources_home. org.info/ LondonBurt. bps.html). asp?search=ss&sText=cyril+burt&LinkID=mp58783).nationalarchives. • Oxford University: Bodleian Library.edu/~intell/burt.uk/nra/default.ac.uk/live/search/person. University of London.uk/Library/ special-coll/).indiana.individualdifferences. ac.britannica.uk/collections/ archive/burt.imperial. Special Collections and Western Manuscripts (http://www. ox.ac. uk/dept/scwmss/) • University College London (UCL). • The Cyril Burt Archives at University of Liverpool Special Collections (http://sca. • Likenesses of Burt in the National Portrait Gallery (http://www. ucl. Burt (http://www.org.bps.ucl.bodley.npg.ac.asp). uk/ dept/ scwmss/ [37] http:/ / www3. bodley.Cyril Burt [34] National Register of Archives (http:/ / www. uk/ hopc [36] http:/ / www. ac. 2007 (http://concise. uk/ nra/ searches/ subjectView. uk/ recordsandarchives [38] http:/ / www. uk/ Library/ special-coll/ 136 External links • Twin study • Concise summary of Cyril Burt (http://www.ac.shtml) • "Sir Cyril Burt.com/ebc/article-9358363/ Sir-Cyril-Burt). ac.cfm).lib.liv. • The London School of Differential Psychology: Cyril L.org.uk/recordsandarchives). • The British Psychological Society History of Psychology Centre (http://www. nationalarchives.) • National Register of Archives (http://www. gov.htm. Special Collections (http://www. imperial. • Imperial College London Archives and Corporate Records (http://www3. [35] http:/ / www. ." Encyclopædia Britannica.ox. Accessed 18 August 2007. asp?ID=P4317).gov.

analysis. or communication. examines assumptions. .[1][2] It is a way of deciding whether a claim is always true.[9] The critical-theory philosophical frame traces its roots to the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory that attempted to amend Marxist theory for applicability in 20th-century Germany. Meaning Critical thinking clarifies goals." There are many positive uses of critical thinking. deliberating as a group about what course of action to take. self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation. or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based"[5] • "includes a commitment to using reason in the formulation of our beliefs"[6] Within the philosophical frame of critical social theory. sometimes true. observation. and/or evaluating information gathered from. willingness to imagine or remain open to considering alternative perspectives. merit. although there is debate among educators about its precise meaning and scope. to the Buddhist kalama sutta and Abhidharma. willingness to integrate new or revised perspectives into our ways of thinking and acting. or analyzing the assumptions and the quality of the methods used in scientifically arriving at a reasonable level of confidence about a given hypothesis.Critical thinking 137 Critical thinking Critical thinking is reflective reasoning about beliefs and actions. as well as explanation of the evidential. and inference.[8] The movement represented a pragmatic response to expectations and demands for the kind of thinking required of the modern workforce. One sense of the term critical means crucial. which means discerning judgment. etc. as a guide to belief and action"[4] • "purposeful. as in the Buddha's teachings: mainly in the kalama sutta and the Abhidharma. or false. conceptual. "Critical" in this context does not mean "disapproval" or "negative. discerns hidden values. It is a part of the formal education process and is increasingly significant as students progress through university to graduate education. methodological. reasoning. applying. Critical thinking is an important component of most professions. analyzing.[3] Definitions Different sources define critical thinking variously as: • "reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do"[2] • "the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing. "Critical" as used in the expression "critical thinking" connotes involving skillful judgment as to truth. reflection. synthesizing. evaluates evidence.500 years. and willingness to foster criticality in others. and assesses conclusions. evaluation. a second sense derives from κριτικός (kritikos). accomplishes actions.[7] History and etymology The critical thinking philosophical frame traces its roots in analytic philosophy and pragmatist constructivism which dates back over 2. as well as the Greek Socratic tradition in which probing questions were used to determine whether claims to knowledge based on authority could be rationally justified with clarity and logical consistency. Critical thinking within this philosophical frame was introduced by Max Horkheimer in his book Traditional and Critical Theory (1937). critical thinking is commonly understood to involve commitment to the social and political practice of participatory democracy. experience. for example formulating a workable solution to a complex personal problem. Critical thinking can be traced in Western thought to the Socratic method of Ancient Greece and in the East. or generated by. partly true. criteriological.

The weak-sense critical thinker is a highly skilled but selfishly motivated pseudo-intellectual who works to advance one's personal agenda without seriously considering the ethical consequences and implications. reflectively. systematically. Reading. and do so in a reasonable and reflective way.Critical thinking To add further clarification on what is meant by thinking critically. breadth. clarity. Critical thinking employs not only logic but broad intellectual criteria such as clarity. to find workable means for meeting those problems Understand the importance of prioritization and order of precedence in problem solving Gather and marshal pertinent (relevant) information Recognize unstated assumptions and values Comprehend and use language with accuracy. critical thinking is "a way of taking up the problems of life. interpretation. and listening can all be done critically or uncritically. writing. and meta-cognition. precision. speaking. explanation. and discernment Interpret data. Richard Paul (1995) articulated critical thinking as either weak or strong."[10] 138 Skills The list of core critical thinking skills includes observation. in general. for example. whenever one must figure out what to believe or what to do. evaluation. and fair-mindedly construct insight with sensitivity to expose and address the many obstacles that compromise high quality thought and learning. accuracy. depth. Expressed in most general terms. Using strong critical thinking we might evaluate an argument. the weak-sense critical thinker is often highly skilled but uses those skills selectively so as to pursue unjust and selfish ends (Paul. and fairness. There is a reasonable level of consensus among experts that an individual or group engaged in strong critical thinking gives due consideration to establish: • • • • • Evidence through observation Context Relevant criteria for making the judgment well Applicable methods or techniques for forming the judgment Applicable theoretical constructs for understanding the problem and the question at hand In addition to possessing strong critical-thinking skills. Conceived as such. a speaker may be evaluated as a credible source of knowledge on a given topic.[11] Procedure Critical thinking calls for the ability to: • • • • • • • • • • • Recognize problems. Critical thinking can occur whenever one judges. or solves a problem. relevance. Thus conceived. decides. as worthy of acceptance because it is valid and based on true premises. inference. credibility. the strong-sense mind seeks to actively. significance. to appraise evidence and evaluate arguments Recognize the existence (or non-existence) of logical relationships between propositions Draw warranted conclusions and generalizations Put to test the conclusions and generalizations at which one arrives Reconstruct one's patterns of beliefs on the basis of wider experience Render accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life In sum: . 1995). one must be disposed to engage problems and decisions using those skills. Upon reflection. Conversely. Critical thinking is crucial to becoming a close reader and a substantive writer. analysis. the strong-sense critical thinker skillfully enters into the logic of problems and issues to see the problem for what it is without egocentric and/or socio-centric bias.

important information may remain undiscovered. one considers evidence (like investigating evidence). disorganized. narrow. or the information may not even be knowable – or because one makes unjustified inferences. confident in reasoning. their assumptions. or step-by-step. The deliberation characteristic of strong critical thinking associates critical thinking with the reflective aspect of human reasoning. using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions. Those who are ambivalent on one or more of these aspects of the disposition toward critical thinking or who have an opposite disposition (intellectually arrogant. therefore. The dispositional dimension of critical thinking is characterological. Thinking might be criticized because one does not have all the relevant information – indeed. imprecise. emotional. shallow. recognizing and assessing. and the applicable theoretical constructs for understanding the problem and the question at hand. On the other hand."[12] 139 Example thinker Irrespective of the sphere of thought. recommending that we bring greater reflection and deliberation to decision making. indifferent toward new information. or imprudent) are more likely to encounter problems in using their critical-thinking skills.[14] Reflective thought In reflective problem solving and thoughtful decision making using critical thinking. the relevant criteria for making the judgment well. Its focus is in learning and developing the habitual intention to be truth-seeking. the applicable methods or techniques for forming the judgment. one's thinking might be criticized as being the result of a sub-optimal disposition. illogical. analytical. Those who would seek to improve our individual and collective capacity to engage problems using strong critical thinking skills are. and practical consequences • communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems. lazy. not on hard and fast. inquisitive. irrelevant. mistrustful of reasoning. open-minded. Critical thinking is based on self-corrective concepts and principles. One's thinking may be unclear. the context of judgment. procedures. implications. both individually and collectively. Principles and dispositions Willingness to criticize oneself Critical thinking is about being both willing and able to evaluate one's thinking. Failure to recognize the importance of correct dispositions can lead to various forms of self-deception and closed-mindedness.[15] . intolerant. as need be. or fails to notice important implications. inaccurate. due to ignorance or misapplication of the appropriate learned skills of thinking. systematic. and prudent in making judgments. uses inappropriate concepts.Critical thinking "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tends. without being unduly influenced by others' thinking on the topic. "a well-cultivated critical thinker":[13] • • • • raises important questions and problems. biased. formulating them clearly and precisely gathers and assesses relevant information. testing them against relevant criteria and standards thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought. or trivial. heedless of consequences.

advise other leaders. engineer. empathy. thereby decreasing the risk of adopting. mentor protégés. Thus. Habits or traits of mind The habits of mind that characterize a person strongly disposed toward critical thinking include a desire to follow reason and evidence wherever they may lead. Instructors must reveal their reasoning behind the questions in order to guide the students in the right direction. self-deception. evidence sources. informal) but also broad intellectual criteria such as clarity."[17] Critical thinking skills through Socratic method taught in schools help create leaders. The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. political thinking. inquisitiveness. Students also accomplish follower-ship skills that can be used to probe the leader's foundations. the student may not know what the instructor or leader wants from him. without the intellectual traits of mind. biological thinking. legal thinking. some educators believe that schools should focus on teaching their students critical thinking skills and cultivation of intellectual traits. propaganda. sociological thinking. therefore. breadth. evaluate. Socratic method for critical thinking skills can become confusing if an instructor or leader uses the method too rigidly. their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. courage. mathematical thinking. distortion. significance and fairness. bias. However. etc. etc. etc.[16] When individuals possess intellectual skills alone. modes of thought such as anthropological thinking. but manipulative and often unethical or subjective thought. psychological thinking. Given research in cognitive psychology. weak sense critical thinking results. even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning. reflect. a system of related. and confidence in reasoning. motivate followers. Importance Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines (by referencing their respective sets of permissible questions. the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion. business person. Socratic method is defined as "a prolonged series of questions and answers which refutes a moral assertion by leading an opponent to draw a conclusion that contradicts his own viewpoint. autonomy. perseverance. even-handedness. a false belief. confidence in reason. chemical thinking. explain. thinking like a painter. Nurses through critical thinking skills can question. sculptor. much more often. misinformation. acting on. a systematic approach to problem solving. Critical thinking forms."[17] Critical thinking skills can help nurses apply the process of examination. or thinking with. Fair-minded or strong sense critical thinking requires intellectual humility. historical thinking. and influence peers. evaluate. and overlapping. criteria. and restructure their thinking. "Socratic method can serve twenty-first-century leaders to instruct students. Instructors that promote critical thinking skills can benefit the students by increasing their confidence and creating a repeatable thought process to question and confidently approach a solution. relevance. ethical thinking. though critical thinking principles are universal. ecological thinking. depth.Critical thinking 140 Competence Critical thinking employs not only logic (either formal or. musical thinking. precision. Critical thinking skills can helps nurse problem solve. An instructor or leader may disillusion the students if he uses particular style of questioning. Within the framework of scientific skepticism. and other intellectual traits. In other words. However. critical thinking without essential intellectual traits often results in clever. Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice. mistakes can happen due to a thinker's inability to apply the methods or because of character traits such as egocentrism. philosophical thinking. integrity.). and reconstruct the nursing care process by challenging the established theory and practice. Critical thinking skills through Socratic method serve to produce professionals that are self-governing. Critical thinking is considered important in the academic fields because it enables one to analyze. credibility. and make a conclusive decision about the current . accuracy.

This process of intellectual engagement is at the heart of the Oxford. some have skills but not the disposition to use them. including initial learning. Some skill in applying those methods. All students must do their own thinking. Cambridge and London School of Economics tutorials. individually or in group problem solving and decision making contexts. An attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of one's experiences 2. principles. and suggests that education at all levels should train people in three principal types of thinking and reflection: receptive. and political issues that are affecting healthcare delivery.Critical thinking situation they face. critical thinking and ethical reasoning. Nurses can acquire critical thinking skills through the Socratic method of dialogue and reflection. Le Cornu (2009) argues a case which links critical thinking to a heightened individualism which she considers is not so prevalent in the East. it would be helpful to embody new techniques in nursing. their own construction of knowledge. This is a process of application. continue to address these same three central elements. but they are embedded in subject-specific content. often in a Socratic manner (see Socratic questioning). Knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning 3.[22] In schooling John Dewey is just one of many educational leaders who recognized that a curriculum aimed at building thinking skills would be a benefit not only to the individual learner. Critical thinking creates "new possibilities for the development of the nursing knowledge. 141 Research Edward Glaser proposed that the ability to think critically involves three elements:[12] 1. and theories that are inherent in content. principles. The core concepts are always there."[19] There is currently a growing recognition that the Western emphasis on critical thinking has a broader and deeper impact than relates simply to cognitive skills. some are disposed but lack strong skills."[18] Due to the sociocultural. Good teachers recognize this and therefore focus on the questions. Contemporary cognitive psychology regards human reasoning as a complex process that is both reactive and reflective. and some have neither. Good teachers cultivate critical thinking (intellectually engaged thinking) at every stage of learning. The second occurs when learners effectively use those ideas. but to the community and to the entire democracy.[20] The relationship between critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions is an empirical question. Educational programs aimed at developing critical thinking in children and adult learners. The tutor questions the students. There are two meanings to the learning of this content. each discipline adapts its use of critical thinking concepts and principles (principles like in school). The key to seeing the significance of critical thinking in academics is in understanding the significance of critical thinking in learning. Critical thinking also is considered important for human rights education for toleration. activities that stimulate the mind to take ownership of key concepts and principles underlying the subject. intellectual engagement is crucial. readings. and could help young people to develop capacities for independent judgement. This is a process of internalization. . As emphasized above. The Declaration of Principles on Tolerance adopted by UNESCO in 1995 affirms that "education for tolerance could aim at countering factors that lead to fear and exculsion of others. environmental. Durham. The first occurs when learners (for the first time) construct in their minds the basic ideas. The key is that the teacher who fosters critical thinking fosters reflectiveness in students by asking questions that stimulate thinking essential to the construction of knowledge. Some people have both in abundance. and theories as they become relevant in learners' lives. appreciative and critical. Two measures of critical thinking dispositions are the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory[21] and the California Measure of Mental Motivation. For students to learn content.

Mores. ISBN 9780716717911 [2] Ennis. Bureau of Publications. There used to also be an Advanced Extension Award offered in Critical Thinking in the UK. (1987).Critical thinking In the UK school system. S. p. at the lowest cognitive levels. 20011. W. the UKCAT.[24] From 2008. The full Advanced GCE is now available: in addition to the two AS units. Customs. Critical Thinking is offered as a subject that 16. the AS is often useful in developing reasoning skills.[23] Nevertheless. candidates sit the two papers "Resolution of Dilemmas" and "Critical Reasoning". page 14–15.[26] The study noted concerns from higher education. 26 [6] Mulnix. Teaching Thinking Skills: Theory and Practice (pp.W. Many examinations for university entrance set by universities. Peter A. (2008).x. B. doi: 10. Columbia University. philosophy. ISBN 0-404-55843-7. open to any A-level student regardless of whether they have the Critical Thinking A-level. References [1] Ennis.. Robert (20 June 2002). criticalthinking.00673. ISBN 978-1-57273-460-9 [10] Sumner. on top of A-level examinations. An Analysis of the Concept Criticality in Adult Education. Retrieved January 18. arguments on their deductive or inductive validity. Under the OCR exam board.illinois. p. due to its comparative lack of subject content. Baron and R. 4. and Practice(2003). org/ aboutCT/ define_critical_thinking. org/ files/ Concepts_Tools. 2013. . for example.D.com. 142 Research in efficiency of critical thinking instruction A meta-analysis of the literature on teaching effectiveness in higher education has been undertaken. An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. Manners. Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages.2010..1469-5812.R. insightassessment. illinois. However. D. as well as producing their own arguments. New York: Ginn and Co. Retrieved 2 June 2012. also include a critical thinking component. R. Sternberg (Eds. H. In J. . p. criticalthinking. New York. Insightassessment. and Morals. Cambridge International Examinations have an A-level in Thinking Skills. [3] Brookfield. html). [12] Edward M. Linda Elder (2006). cfm) (1987) [5] Facione. J.to 18-year-olds can take as an A-Level. Teachers College. The study concluded that although faculty may aspire to develop students' thinking skills. Assessment and Qualifications Alliance has also been offering an A-level Critical Thinking specification.. com/ CT-Resources/ Teaching-For-and-About-Critical-Thinking/ Critical-Thinking-What-It-Is-and-Why-It-Counts/ Critical-Thinking-What-It-Is-and-Why-It-Counts-PDF). in biblical study. Theory. 9-26). Critical Thinking and Reasoning: Current Research. A Taxonomy of Critical Thinking Skills and Dispositions.). and analyze. and Paul. politicians and business people that higher education was failing to meet society's requirements for well-educated citizens. pdf) (PDF). William (1906). R. Glaser (1941). p. Thinking critically about critical thinking. ISBN 0549778349 [8] See wikt:critical [9] Ruggerio. Foundation for Critical Thinking. rather than development of intellect or values. and the full Advanced GCE is useful for degree courses in politics. Capella University. education.. New York: Freeman. V.[25] OCR exam board have also modified theirs for 2008. Richard. Concepts and Tools" (http:/ / www. "The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking. B. "Neglected Issues in the Field of Critical Thinking" in Fasko. the BioMedical Admissions Test and the Thinking Skills Assessment. [11] See NCES 95-001. edu/ rhennis/ SSConcCTApr3. many universities do not accept it as a main A-level for admissions. providing the skills required for critical analysis that are useful. . [13] Paul. in practice they tend to aim at facts and concepts in the disciplines. "Contesting criticality: Epistemological and practical contradictions in critical reflection" in Proceedings of the 41st Annual Adult Education Research Conference (2000) [4] Scriven. students can sit two exam papers for the AS: "Credibility of Evidence" and "Assessing and Developing Argument". Educational Philosophy and Theory. history or theology. 471 [7] Raiskums.W. (2010). such as the LNAT. M.1111/j. faculty. It also tests their ability to analyze certain related topics such as credibility and ethical decision-making.edu. The A-level tests candidates on their ability to think critically about.education. Critical Thinking: What It is and Why It Counts (http:/ / www. J. "A Super-Streamlined Conception of Critical Thinking" (http:/ / faculty. 633. Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking (http:/ / www.

10th ed. maxwell. php)." in Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment. ISBN 978-0-521-79679-8.W. Thinking and Reasoning in Human Decision Making: The Method of Argument and Heuristic Analysis. org. ezproxy. ISBN 978-0-19-504884-1 • Facione. org. Kahneman (Eds). Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts – 2007 Update (http://www. (1995) Critical Thinking: How to Prepare Students for a Rapidly Changing World.1469-5812. Article 4. (2012) Critical Thinking. and Elder. airpower. Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction.1111/j. uk/ qualifications/ academic/ uppersec/ alevel/ subject/ aleveldetails?assdef_id=765_804).: E. (2002) Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life. Published by Financial Times Prentice Hall. Griffin. Center for Research in Critical Thinking (UK) / Edgepress (US). Francis Watanabe. Dubuque Iowa. (2002) "Two Systems of Reasoning. com. Addison Greenwod (Ed). • Mulnix. ISBN 0-534-60516-8 • Dauer. NCES 94–286. ISBN 0-13-064760-8. • Damer.x. Dillon Beach: Foundation for Critical Thinking Press. Hendricks. uk/ qualifications/ asa_levelgceforfirstteachingin2008/ critical_thinking/ faqs. ISBN 0-944583-09-1. aqa. (2005) Thought 2 Talk: A Crash Course in Reflection and Expression. in conjunction with: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education. uk/ qual/ gce/ critical_thinking_new. ISBN 0-13-114962-8. (2006) Critical Reasoning: Understanding and criticizing arguments and theories. J & Paulsen. 1995 143 • Le Cornu. 1989. p. Roderick. 46 [23] Critical Thinking FAQs (http:/ / www. ED 315–423 [17] Leadership by the Socratic Method(2007) http:/ / www. ISBN 978-1-891557-58-3 [21] About The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (http:/ / liberalarts. • Paul. html [18] Catching the wave: understanding the concept of critical thinking (1999) http:/ / web. 2001. California Academic Press. ocr.html) • Hamby. socccd. T. Govitch. B. edu/ ehost/ pdfviewer/ pdfviewer?sid=1b19c3f2-920e-4e59-b63d-c8a0ca4260a1%40sessionmgr15& vid=5& hid=17 [19] Declaration of Principles on Tolerance. New York: Automatic Press / VIP. Wadsworth.Critical thinking [14] Hindery.Y. Thinking critically about critical thinking. 6th Edition. ThomsonWadsworth). Richard and Elder. Cambridge University Press. Richard. Alec and Scriven.2010. Elder. Internalization and Externalization: Towards a fuller understanding of the process of reflection and its role in the construction of the self". ISBN 978-0-944583-10-4 [16] The National Assessment of College Student Learning: Identification of the Skills to be Taught. W. Edward. Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research [22] Research on Sociocultural Influences on Motivation and Learning (http:/ / books. (2010). Linda. D. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Publishing. 6th edn. ISBN 978-0-7734-7407-9 [15] Paul. US Dept of Education. (2005) Attacking Faulty Reasoning. and Assessed.A. google. org. • Paul. Richard. . af. • Paul. doi: 10. Adult Education Quarterly 59 (4): 279–297 Further reading • Cederblom. edu/ assessment-notes-cctdi/ ) by Thomas F. Foundation for Critical Thinking. Michael. wabash. Facione and Facione. (2007) The Philosophy of Anything: Critical Thinking in Context. Critical Thinking: An Introduction to Reasoning. (2006) Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life. Redesigning Higher Education: Producing Dramatic Gains in Student Learning. Mellen Press.com/articles. Richard. Linda. 2008. cie. mil/ airchronicles/ apj/ apj07/ sum07/ tucker. (2009). Richard. 3 [20] Solomon. Educational Philosophy and Theory. Nelson Laird. P. Published by McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-803828-6. 4. University of Cambridge Local Examinations [25] "New GCEs for 2008" (http:/ / www. Alison. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7575-4724-9 • Fisher. Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.00673. The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools. com/ books?id=OT12dZ0binIC& pg=PA46& lpg=PA46& dq="california+ measure+ of+ mental+ motivation"& source=web& ots=nAonFnIHoS& sig=bfnOuCC7HAk1zQulf06YlvlzO0I& hl=en). ISBN 87-991013-7-8 • Moore. N. insightassessment. p. ISBN 0-9531796-0-5 • Vincent F. Sal Carrallo (PI). html) from Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations [24] "Thinking Skills" (http:/ / www. Brooke Noel and Parker.W. (Belmont. Linda. Assessment and Qualifications Alliance [26] Lion Gardiner. Indoctrination and Self-Deception or Free and Critical Thought? Lewiston. 2007. CA. (1997) Critical Thinking: Its Definition and Assessment. Learned. J. 4th ed. "Meaning. S. ERIC Document No. ebscohost. See also.

getfeedback.csicop.Critical thinking • Twardy. (2003) Bad Thoughts – A Guide to Clear Thinking.pdf) by Donald Jenner • Critical Thinking Means Business (http://www.net/jenner/djenner/archive/ CritiqueAndCriticalThinking.com/iq/critical-thinking-skill-test.cogs. Skeptical Inquirer magazine.edu/taxonomy/2410) at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project • Informal logic (http://plato. • What "Critical" means in "Critical Thinking" (http://www.exforsys.org/3008/).yudu.com/item/details/61785/ Browne-Keeley---Asking-the-Right-Questions--A-Guide-to-Critical-Thinking--8th-Ed. Periklis.org/Science/Science_in_Society/Skeptical_Inquiry/Critical_Thinking/) at the Open Directory Project • Critical Thinking Skill Test (http://www.Vol. • Critical Thinking: What Is It Good for? (In Fact. What Is It?) (http://www. Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies. Charles R.stanford. How To Books.dmoz.indiana.com/Library/A18lwz/ BrowneKeeleyAskingth/resources/index. ISBN 0-9543255-3-2.htm?referrerUrl=http://www. • van den Brink-Budgen.8(2) 144 External links • Critical thinking (http://philpapers.html) – Critical Thinking Quiz • Critical Thinking Web (http://philosophy. ISBN 978-1-84528-386-5 • Whyte. html) by Howard Gabennesch.com/en/downloads/whitepapers/ Pearson_TalentLens_Critical_Thinking_Means_Business.edu/entries/logic-informal) entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Critical thinking (http://www.talentlens. (2010) Critical Thinking as Dialectics: a Hegelian-Marxist Approach (http://www. (2003) Argument Maps Improve Critical Thinking (http://cogprints. • Theodore Schick & Lewis Vaughn "How to Think About Weird Things: Critical Thinking for a New Age" (2010) ISBN 0-7674-2048-9 • Pavlidis.com/ index.net/assets/com_casestudy/00051/ Watson_Glaser_a_critical_friend.hku.org/si/2006-02/thinking.citigraphics.hk/think/) – Online tutorials and teaching material on critical thinking. Keeley.pdf) – An independent critical evaluation • Asking the right question – A Guide to Critical Thinking (http://content. Neil Browne And Stuart M.jceps. Corvo. Teaching Philosophy 27:2 June 2004. • The Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (http://www. R (2010) 'Critical Thinking for Students'.pdf) A book authored by M. J.yudu.org/browse/critical-reasoning) at PhilPapers • Critical thinking (https://inpho. Dr.pdf) – A guide to developing critical thinking ability by Pearson .php?pageID=article&articleID=194).

[4] The Presidential Committee on Information Literacy released a report on January 10. others do exist. including traditional literacy. The updated report advocates for further information literacy advocacy and reiterates its importance.. In 2003. National and University Libraries in the UK.[5] Also in 1998. are related to information literacy and important foundations for its development. For example. More than that it sets Information Literacy as a basic Human right that it "promotes social inclusion of all nations". to be able to identify. together with UNESCO and the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science.Information literacy 145 Information literacy The National Forum on Information Literacy defines information literacy as “. and critical thinking skills. stimulate debate about the ideas and about how those ideas might be used by library and other staff in higher education concerned with the development of students' skills. The resulting Prague Declaration described information literacy as a "key to social. information literacy itself is emerging as a distinct skill set and a necessary key to one's social and economic well-being in an increasingly complex information society.the ability to know when there is a need for information. Although other educational goals. cultural and economic development of nations and communities. Zurkowski. In 1999. defining some nine standards in the categories of "information literacy". SCONUL.[8] The Alexandria Proclamation [9] linked Information literacy with lifelong learning. the National Forum on Information Literacy. This update outlined the six main recommendations of the original report. 1989. A number of efforts have been made to better define the concept and its relationship to other skills and forms of literacy. library skills. Zurkowski used the phrase to describe the "techniques and skills" known by the information literate "for utilizing the wide range of information tools as well as primary sources in molding information solutions to their problems". computer literacy. opportunities to develop information literacy and an Information Age School.[10] . another conception defines it in terms of a set of competencies that an informed citizen of an information society ought to possess to participate intelligently and actively in that society.” [1][2] This is the most common definition. The report's final name is the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report. and "social responsibility". the Society of College. the American Association of School Librarians and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology published Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning. "independent learning". outlining the importance of information literacy.. institutions and individuals in the 21st century" and declared its acquisition as "part of the basic human right of life long learning".. however. examining areas where it made progress and areas that still needed work..[3] History of the concept The phrase information literacy first appeared in print in a 1974 report by Paul G.[1] In 1998. sponsored an international conference in Prague with representatives from some twenty-three countries to discuss the importance of information literacy within a global context. written on behalf of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. a coalition of more than 90 national and international organizations. to "facilitate further development of ideas amongst practitioners in the field . evaluate. which further established specific goals for information literacy education. The recommendations of the Presidential Committee led to the creation later that year of the National Forum on Information Literacy. the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy produced an update on its Final Report. and effectively use that information for the issue or problem at hand."[7] A number of other countries have developed information literacy standards since then. locate. published "The Seven Pillars of Information Literacy" [6] model.

and that they join the Leadership Council in issuing a "Call to Action" to schools. to design one or more models for information literacy development appropriate to formal and informal learning environments throughout people's lifetimes 3. by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States.[12] President Obama's Proclamation stated that "Rather than merely possessing data.. Americans have unprecedented access to the diverse and independent sources of information. local governments. lifelong learning.. integrate." Obama's proclamation ended with: "Now. to develop a national research agenda related to information and its use.. I call upon the people of the United States to recognize the important role information plays in our daily lives. 2009."[12] 146 Presidential Committee on Information Literacy The Presidential Committee on Information Literacy was formed in 1987 by the American Library Association's president at the time Margaret Chisholm. [to] develop a technology literacy component for its five-year Strategic State Plan. structured information access.. create and communicate information in order to function in a knowledge-based economy and society. community organizations. and evaluate information for any situation.." The Executive Order states further: " ICT Digital Literacy is defined as using digital technology. evaluate. The report defined information literacy as the ability "to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate.. I.Information literacy On May 28. to ensure the existence of "a climate conducive to . as well as institutions such as libraries and universities. Though we may know how to find the information we need." His Executive Order ends with the following: " I FURTHER REQUEST that the Legislature and Superintendent of Public Instruction consider adopting similar goals. do hereby proclaim October 2009 as National Information Literacy Awareness Month. in turn.[11] Information literacy rose to national consciousness in the U. and civic leaders to advance California as a global leader in ICT Digital Literacy". [to] develop a California Action Plan for ICT Digital Literacy (Action Plan). evaluate. "The Leadership Council. collate. The committee outlined six principal recommendations: to "reconsider the ways we have organized information institutionally. to define Information Literacy within the higher literacies and its importance to student performance. manage. whether true or not. The committee was formed with three specific purposes 1." He also directs "The California Workforce Investment Board (WIB). and defined information's role in our lives at home in the community. At the same time. California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Executive Order S-06-09 establishing a California ICT Digital Literacy Leadership Council. that can help separate truth from fiction and signal from noise. shall develop an ICT Digital Literacy Policy.S. Over the past decade. whose 1989 final report outlined the importance of the concept.S.. and use effectively the needed information" and highlighted information literacy as a skill essential for lifelong learning and the production of an informed and prosperous citizenry. President of the United States of America.. we must also learn the skills necessary to acquire.The Leadership Council. and appreciate the need for a greater understanding of its impact. employers. higher education institutions. which.. and have that opinion amplified within the information marketplace. to promote "public awareness of the problems created by information illiteracy". workforce training agencies. we have seen a crisis of authenticity emerge. in consultation with the Advisory Committee. We now live in a world where anyone can publish an opinion or perspective. Barack Obama." The Governor directs ". and active citizenship 2. to determine implications for the continuing education and development for teachers[13] A seminal event in the development of the concept of information literacy was the establishment of the American Library Association's Presidential Committee on Information Literacy. to ensure that California residents are digitally literate. therefore. with President Barack Obama's Proclamation designating October 2009 as National Information Literacy Awareness Month. is directed to establish an ICT Digital Literacy Advisory Committee. and in the work place". in consultation with the Advisory Committee. U. we must also know how to evaluate it. communications tools and/or networks to access..

The update looks at what the Final Report set out to accomplish. the updated report recognizes what the previous report and the National Forum were able to accomplish. In the release of its Final Report in 1989. and democracy. This new generation of information literate citizens will truly be America's most valuable resource". In realizing it still had not met all objectives. (2) to design one or more models for information literacy development appropriate to formal and informal learning environments throughout people's lifetimes. it set out further recommendations to ensure all were met. This report and several others that followed. and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them. evaluate. to include information literacy concerns in teacher education. who are prepared for lifelong learning. Ultimately. led the American Library Association (ALA) to convene a blue ribbon panel of national educators and librarians in 1987. and (3) to determine implications for the continuing education and development of teachers. the seminal report “A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform” declared that a “rising tide of mediocrity” was eroding the very foundations of the American educational system. To be information literate."[13] In March 1998 the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy re-evaluated its Final Report and published an update.Link text [14] One of the most important things to come out of the Presidential Committee on Information Literacy was the creation of the National Forum on Information Literacy.Information literacy students' becoming information literate". there also exists the potential of addressing many long-standing social and economic inequities. how to find information. Ironically. and to continue working toward an information literate world. It was. 147 National Forum on Information Literacy Background In 1983." Acknowledging that the major obstacle to people becoming information literate citizens." the report . the report did not include in its set of reform recommendations the academic and/or the public library as one of the key architects in the redesign of our K-16 educational system. in conjunction with the rapid emergence of the information society. and use effectively the needed information. Before identifying what still needs to be done. a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate. its six main goals. the genesis of the current educational reform movement within the United States. They are people prepared for lifelong learning. and how far it had come to that point in meeting those objectives. Producing such a citizenry will require that schools and colleges appreciate and integrate the concept of information literacy into their learning programs and that they play a leadership role in equipping individuals and institutions to take advantage of the opportunities inherent within the information society. To reap such benefits. The ALA Presidential Committee on Information Literacy was charged with the following tasks: (1) to define information literacy within the higher literacies and its importance to student performance. "is a lack of public awareness of the problems created by information illiteracy. information literate people are those who have learned how to learn. asking the National Forum and regular citizens to recognize that "the result of these combined efforts will be a citizenry which is made up of effective lifelong learners who can always find the information needed for the issue or decision at hand. the American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy summarized in its opening paragraphs the ultimate mission of the National Forum on Information Literacy: “How our country deals with the realities of the Information Age will have enormous impact on our democratic way of life and on our nation's ability to compete internationally. The updated report ends with an invitation. productivity. people--as individuals and as a nation--must be information literate. They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized. and active citizenship. in fact. and to promote public awareness of the relationship between information literacy and the more general goals of "literacy. lifelong learning. because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand. Within America's information society.

non-White. information literacy skill development has been the exception and not the rule. Duke. demonstration projects. D. two of which specifically address the needs of those with low-incomes: Online content for Low-Income and Underserved Americans Initiative. and National Education Association (NEA). This successful collaboration was sponsored by the National Forum on Information Literacy. For example. and workplace venue. For example.C. business. it has been much harder to overcome the digital divide. technical assistance. families. business. For those who are poor. and the California Initiative Program. to promote information literacy skill development at every opportunity. and workforce development programs. The Summit was held at NEA headquarters in Washington. economic. governmental. all dedicated to mainstreaming the philosophy of information literacy across national and international landscapes. the National Forum on Information Literacy has made significant strides internationally in promoting the importance of integrating information literacy concepts and skills throughout all educational. particularly as it relates to the integration of information literacy practices within our educational and workforce development infrastructures. Although the initial intent of the Forum was to raise public awareness and support on a national level.” Thus. particularly in light of the ever growing social.L. the National Forum on Information Literacy has evolved steadily under the leadership of its first chair. Mission Statement section). Committee for Economic Development. A number of the Forum’s members address the specific challenges for those disadvantaged. and to engaged citizenship participation. Today. disabled. 148 The forum today Since 1989. Dr. Patricia Senn Breivik. Educational Testing Service. the Institute for a Competitive Workforce. throughout every educational. the A. living in rural areas or otherwise disadvantaged. the Forum represents over 90 national and international organizations. A major outcome of the Summit was the establishment of a national ICT literacy policy council to provide leadership in creating national standards for ICT literacy in the United States. older. As stated on the Forum’s Main Web page. The Children’s Partnership advocates for the nearly 70 million children and youth in the country. domestic.Information literacy recommended the formation of a coalition of national organizations to promote information literacy. many of whom are disadvantaged. and. found that students in first grade classrooms were exposed to an average of 3. prompting us to re-energize our promotional and collaborative efforts here at home. In the United States. development of educational materials. In the final analysis. resulting in the Prague Declaration (2003) and the Alexandria Proclamation (2005) each underscoring the importance of information literacy as a basic fundamental human right and lifelong learning skill. and government to address America’s information literacy deficits as a nation currently competing in a global marketplace.A. the National Forum on Information Literacy will continue to work closely with educational. and non-profit organizations in the U. Another example is the National Hispanic Council on Aging which is: Dedicated to improving the quality of life for Latino elderly. and communities through advocacy. . and political urgency of globalization. Presidential Committee established the National Forum on Information Literacy. 2006. it recognizes that achieving information literacy has been much easier for those with money and other advantages. a volunteer network of organizations committed to raising public awareness on the importance of information literacy to individuals. policy analysis and research (National Hispanic Council on Aging.6 minutes of informational text in a school day. Nell K.S. The Children’s Partnership currently runs three programs. over the last several years. the first national Summit on Information Literacy brought together well over 100 representatives from education.[15] In October. the National Forum co-sponsored with UNESCO and IFLA several “experts meetings”. however. to our economy. capacity and institution building. to our diverse communities. in 1989. In a 2000 peer reviewed publication.

infolit. http://www.infolit. The IAIL also sees "life-long learning" as a basic human right.CT: Greenwood Publishing Global information literacy The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) IFLA has established an Information Literacy Section.org/ala/aasl/aaslpubsandjournals/kqweb/kqarchives/vol32/324TOC2. (2004). and Gee.html Gibson. The Section has.gov/pubs/NatAtRisk/index.html Alexandria Proclamation: A High Level International Colloquium on Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning.[17] The following organizations are founding members of IAIL: • Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy (ANZIIL) • based in Australia and New Zealand • http://www.anziil. C.org/2003.ifla. in turn.html • National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL) • based in the United States • http://www. Information Literacy Section. Librarians. educators and information professionals may self-register and upload information-literacy-related materials (IFLA.ac. and their ultimate goal is to use information literacy as a way to allow everyone to participate in the "Information Society" as a way of fulfilling this right.S.Information literacy 149 Bibliography Prague Declaration: “Towards an Information Literate Society” . "The primary purpose of the Information Literacy Section is to foster international cooperation in the development of information literacy education in all types of libraries and information institutions.cnr. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ acrl/ publications/whitepapers/presidential. html 1989 Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report http:/ / www. E.cfm 1983 A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform http://www.org/ • European Network on Information Literacy (EnIL) • based in the European Union • http://www. called InfoLit Global." http://www.ceris.org/2005.) According to the IFLA website.cfm Breivik P. ala. Higher education in the internet age: Libraries creating a strategic edge.infolit.html (archive copy [16]) 2006 Information Literacy Summit: American Competitiveness in the Internet Age http:/ / www.ala.org/en/about-information-literacy The International Alliance for Information Literacy (IAIL) This alliance was created from the recommendation of the Prague Conference of Information Literacy Experts in 2003.org • NORDINFOlit • based in Scandinavia • SCONUL (Society of College.sconul. n.G. One of its goals is to allow for the sharing of information literacy research and knowledge between nations. org/ reports. Westport.http://www. National and University Libraries) Advisory Committee on Information Literacy • based in the United Kingdom • http://www. Information literacy develops globally: The role of the national forum on information literacy.uk/groups/information_literacy . developed and mounted an Information Literacy Resources Directory. infolit.it/Basili/EnIL/index. http://www.d. Knowledge Quest. (2006).ed.

Drawing upon Enlightenment ideals like those articulated by Enlightenment philosopher Condorcet.[19] Specific aspects of information literacy (Shapiro and Hughes. suggesting seven important components of a holistic approach to information literacy: • Tool literacy. format. to introduce them into the electronic public realm and the electronic community of scholars. potentials and limits. or the ability to understand the form. process. mass media. and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Media and Information Literacy According to the UNESCO website. if citizens are to be intelligent shapers of the information society rather than its pawns. organization. and to make intelligent decisions about the adoption of new ones. text. human and social strengths and weaknesses. if information is to be part of a meaningful existence rather than a routine of production and consumption". or understanding how information is socially situated and produced. benefits and costs of information technologies. one that encouraged not merely the addition of information technology courses as an adjunct to existing curricula. Shapiro and Hughes outlined a "prototype curriculum" that encompassed the concepts of computer literacy. • Social-structural literacy. or the ability to evaluate critically the intellectual. ideology. reading. Scientific. or the ability to format and publish research and ideas electronically. library skills. looking at how information literacy is currently taught. experience."[18] Their goal is to create information literate societies by creating and maintaining educational policies for information literacy. object. • Publishing literacy. and how to raise awareness.[21] . critical conception of a more humanistic sort"..Information literacy 150 United Nations Educational. understand. or the ability to understand and use the practical and conceptual tools of current information technology relevant to education and the areas of work and professional life that the individual expects to inhabit. first impressions. policy. Hughes advocated a more holistic approach to information literacy education. training them in the importance of information literacy and providing resources for them to use in their classrooms. Shapiro and Hughes argued that information literacy education is "essential to the future of democracy. or the ability to continuously adapt to. • Critical literacy. location and access methods of information resources. and speaking which go beneath surface meaning. 1996) In "Information Literacy as a Liberal Art". subject matter.. Shapiro and Shelley K. writing. or discourse". official pronouncements. dominant myths. in textual and multimedia forms . especially daily expanding networked information resources. • Research literacy. They work with teachers around the world. and "a broader. They also publish pedagogical tools and curricula for school boards and teachers to refer to and use. how it differs in different demographics. • Emerging technology literacy. traditional clichés. and mere opinions. to understand the deep meaning. event. To this end. social context. assessment and use of information and media in their professional and personal lives. received wisdom. but rather a radically new conceptualization of "our entire educational curriculum in terms of information". • Resource literacy. UNESCO publishes studies on information literacy in many countries. and to humanistic culture. root causes. Jeremy J. this is their "action to provide people with the skills and abilities for critical reception.[20] Ira Shor further defines critical literacy as "[habits] of thought. and personal consequences of any action. evaluate and make use of the continually emerging innovations in information technology so as not to be a prisoner of prior tools and resources. or the ability to understand and use the IT-based tools relevant to the work of today's researcher and scholar.

maps. Evaluating: The final step in the Information Literacy strategy involves the critical evaluation of the completion of the task or the new understanding of the concept. p. Depending upon the task. as well as the model’s reliance on problem-solving rhetoric. Discriminating between fact and opinion 2. there is no reason students cannot work through steps at an individual pace. In addition. and aims toward the development of critical thinking. What is known about the topic? 2. almanacs. 4. What information is needed? 3.Information literacy 151 Educational schemata One view of the components of information literacy Based on the Big6 by Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz. Examples of basic steps in this stage are: 1.32). Often. 6. While the Big6 approach has a great deal of power. Sources may include books. Creating/presenting: In step five the information or solution is presented to the appropriate audience in an appropriate format. it also has serious weaknesses. the Big 6 process allows for seamless differentiation by interest (Jansen. 2003). uses the Big6 model for its information literacy workshops. 8). Selecting/analyzing: Step three involves examining the resources that were found. and graphs are presented. According to Story-Huffman (2009). social bookmarking tools. 2009. United Arab Emirates which is an English as a second language institution. encyclopedias.[22] 1. Finding more information if needed 5. the need for information and its use are situated in circumstances that are not as well-defined. A number of weaknesses in the Big6 approach have been highlighted by Philip Doty: This approach is problem-based. Sources may be in electronic. The useful resources are selected and the inappropriate resources are rejected. 3. A paper is written. Chief among these are the fact that users often lack well-formed statements of information needs. using Big6 at the college “has transcended cultural and physical boundaries to provide a knowledge base to help students become information literate” (para. in Dubai. Organizing/synthesizing: It is in the fourth step this information which has been selected is organized and processed so that knowledge and solutions are developed. print. In primary grades. Where can the information be found? 2. is designed to fit into the context of Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive objectives. Differentiated instruction and the Big6 appear to be made for each other. etc. Basing comparisons on similar characteristics 3. A presentation is made. illustrations. Organizing ideas and information logically 5. discrete. Locating: The second step is to identify sources of information and to find those resources. The first step in the Information Literacy strategy is to clarify and understand the requirements of the problem or task for which information is sought. Big6 has been found to work well with variety of cognitive and language levels found in the classroom. For example. Basic questions asked at this stage: 1. While it seems as though all children will be on the same Big6 step at the same time during a unit of instruction. Noticing various interpretations of data 4. Was the problem solved? Was new knowledge found? What could have been done differently? What was done well? The Big6 skills have been used in a variety of settings to help those with a variety of needs. sources that will be helpful may vary. The information must be determined to be useful or not useful in solving the problem. . or other formats. and monolithic as problems (Doty. Drawings. the library of Dubai Women’s College.

Many of those who are in most need of information literacy are often amongst those least able to access the information they require: Minority and at-risk students. and rooted in the concepts of library instruction and bibliographic instruction. media. 1998).The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and recognizes the importance of information to a democratic society. In this view. and economically disadvantaged people are among those most likely to lack access to the information that can improve their situations. Category 3: Social Responsibility Standards: 1.The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and practices ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology. para. 1989.The student who is an independent learner is information literate and strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation. is the ability "to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate. In the publication Information power: Building partnerships for learning (AASL and AECT. Other literacies such as visual. 3. and basic literacies are implicit in information literacy.The student who is an independent learner is information literate and pursues information related to personal interests. used primarily in the library and information studies field. 152 Another conception of information literacy This conception.The student who is information literate uses information accurately and creatively. not the least of which is information overload which can overwhelm students. 2. 1998) Since information may be presented in a number of formats. and twenty-nine indicators are used to describe the information literate student.The student who is information literate accesses information efficiently and effectively.The student who is information literate evaluates information critically and competently.The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information. network. p. 2. computer.Information literacy Eisenberg (2004) has recognized that there are a number of challenges to effectively applying the Big6 skills.The student who is an independent learner is information literate and appreciates literature and other creative expressions of information. 2. 3. nine standards. information literacy is the basis for lifelong learning. people with English as a second language. 1989. Category 2: Independent Learning Standards: 1. 7) . 3. illiterate adults. three categories. evaluate and use effectively the needed information" (Presidential Committee on Information Literacy. (Presidential Committee on Information Literacy. the term "information" applies to more than just the printed word. (AASL and AECT. 1). Most are not even aware of the potential help that is available to them. The categories and their standards are as follows: Category 1: Information Literacy Standards: 1. Part of Eisenberg’s solution is for schools to help students become discriminating users of information.

The information evaluation process is crucial life skill and a basis for lifelong learning. Research shows that people evaluate more effectively if causes are revealed. students should be encouraged to practice formal argumentation. To survive in this information society. Critical thinking is an important educational outcome for students. Students must be trained to distinguish between fact and opinion. workers will need to possess skills beyond those of reading.[23] Educational methods and practices. In Osborne (2004) many libraries around the country are finding numerous ways to reach many of these disadvantaged groups by discovering their needs in their own environments (including prisons) and offering them specific services in the libraries themselves.Information literacy As the Presidential Committee report points out. They must be encouraged to use cue words such as "I think" and "I feel" to help distinguish between factual information and opinions. and decision-making. must facilitate and enhance a student's ability to harness the power of information.[24] Education institutions have experimented with several strategies to help foster critical thinking. Information related skills that are complex or difficult to comprehend must be broken down into smaller parts. as a means to enhance information evaluation and information literacy among students. This is both a difficult and complex challenge and underscores the importance of being able to think critically. Key to harnessing the power of information is the ability to evaluate information. deliberation. training and information they need. workers of the future will be required to actively participate in the management of the company and contribute to its success.[23] Such initiatives . Effect on education The rapidly evolving information landscape means that education methods and practices must evolve and adapt accordingly. Information literacy must become a key focus of educational institutions at all levels.[24] Evaluation consists of several component processes including metacognition. This requires a commitment to lifelong learning and an ability to seek out and identify innovations that will be needed to keep pace with or outpace changes. personal disposition. Barner's (1996) study of the new workplace indicates significant changes will take place in the future: • • • • The work force will become more decentralized The work force will become more diverse The economy will become more global The use of temporary workers will increase These changes will require that workers possess information literacy skills.[25] Debates and formal presentations must also be encouraged to analyze and critically evaluate information. Education professionals must underscore the importance of high information quality. where available. actions and events. 153 The impact of a changing economy The change from an economy based on labor and capital to one based on information requires information literate workers who will know how to interpret information. writing and arithmetic. Education professionals should encourage students to examine "causes" of behaviors. Another approach would be to train students in familiar contexts. When evaluating evidence. The SCANS (1991) report identifies the skills necessary for the workplace of the future. cognitive development. within our increasingly information-centric society. to ascertain among other things its relevance. goals. Rather than report to a hierarchical management structure. members of these disadvantaged groups are often unaware that libraries can provide them with the access. authenticity and modernity.

describing five standards and . and information literacy skills terminology may vary. we must critically evaluate information to establish a public demand for high information quality. particularly in the act's aims to increase "school readiness". and gain knowledge". all of which are important components of information literacy. & tools" to "inquire. a division of the American Library Association (ALA). which identified nine standards that librarians and teachers in K-12 schools could use to describe information literate students and define the relationship of information literacy to independent learning and social responsibility: • • • • • • • • • Standard One: The student who is information literate accesses information efficiently and effectively. Standard Eight: The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and practices ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology. Standard Five: The student who is an independent learner is information literate and appreciates literature and other creative expressions of information. and on the use of new and existing information for problem solving". to "share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our democratic society". As a society.Information literacy would aid educators help people become more Information Literate. and to "pursue personal and aesthetic growth". Standard Two: The student who is information literate evaluates information critically and competently.[28] In 2000. Standard Seven: The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and recognizes the importance of information to a democratic society. released "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education". to "draw conclusions. think critically.[26] Of specific relevance are the "focus on lifelong learning. but all have common components relating to information literacy. Standard Three: The student who is information literate uses information accurately and creatively.[5] In 2007 AASL expanded and restructured the standards that school librarians should strive for in their teaching. These aspects of literacy were organized within four key goals: that "learners use of skills. Standard Six: The student who is an independent learner is information literate and strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation. Standard Nine: The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information. and create new knowledge". • Instruction in information literacy skills must be integrated into the curriculum and reinforced both within and outside of the educational setting. visual. technology.[27] In 1998. textual. Information literacy skills are critical to several of the National Education Goals outlined in the Goals 2000: Educate America Act. and "adult literacy and lifelong learning". 154 Education in the US Standards National content standards. resources. "student achievement and citizenship". apply knowledge to new situations. Because information literacy skills are vital to future success: • Information literacy skills must be taught in the context of the overall process. the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL). make informed decisions. These were published as "Standards for the 21st Century Learner" and address several literacies: information. and digital. the American Association of School Librarians and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology published "Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning". state standards. Standard Four: The student who is an independent learner is information literate and pursues information related to personal interests. the ability to think critically.

• Standard Two: The information literate student accesses needed information effectively and efficiently. Lower order skills would involve for instance being able to use an online catalog to find a book relevant to an information need in an academic library. effective curriculum development is vital to imparting Information Literacy skills to students. legal. or in terms of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. set information literacy goals. technology teachers. and evaluate the processes by which this learning has been achieved by preparing portfolios. problem-based learning and work-based learning) to help students focus on the process and to help students learn from the content. it is also vital to facilitate repetition of information seeking actions and behavior. uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose. to a more collaborative approach where the students themselves feel empowered. Higher order skills would involve critically evaluating and synthesizing information from multiple sources into a coherent interpretation or argument.Information literacy numerous performance indicators considered best practices for the implementation and assessment of postsecondary information literacy programs. Much of this challenge is now being informed by the American Association of School Librarians that published new standards for student learning in 2007. since we tend to learn through repetition. and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally.[30] Eisenberg strongly recommends adopting a collaborative approach to curriculum development among classroom teachers. • Standard Three: The information literate student evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system. assess their own learning.[29] These standards are meant to span from the simple to more complicated. librarians. . develop a broad instruction plan. Within the K-12 environment. Given the already heavy load on students. The five standards are: • Standard One: The information literate student determines the nature and extent of the information needed. and using rubrics. and other educators. from the "lower order" to the "higher order". Information literacy skills are necessary components of each. learning and research logs. Staff must be encouraged to work together to analyze student curriculum needs. 155 K-12 education restructuring Educational reform and restructuring make information literacy skills a necessity as students seek to construct their own knowledge and create their own understandings. The importance of repetition in information literacy lesson plans cannot be underscored. individually or as a member of a group. • Standard Four: The information literate student. efforts must be made to avoid curriculum overload. A students’ proficiency will improve over time if they are afforded regular opportunities to learn and to apply the skills they have learnt.[30] To this extent. Students demonstrate their skills. it is very important that a students' specific needs as well as the situational context be kept in mind when selecting topics for integrated information literacy skills instruction The primary goal should be to provide frequent opportunities for students to learn and practice information problem solving. These educators can also collaborate on teaching and assessment duties Educators are selecting various forms of resource-based learning (authentic learning. • Standard Five: The information literate student understands many of the economic. and design specific unit and lesson plans that integrate the information skills and classroom content. The process approach to education is requiring new forms of student assessment. Within a school setting. Today instruction methods have changed drastically from the mostly one-directional teacher-student model.

Virginia. At an international level.[30] Eisenberg claims that the Big6 is the most widely used model in K-12 education. Many states have either fully adopted AASL [31][32] information literacy standards or have adapted them to suit their needs.[34] on the other hand. and evaluation.Information literacy 156 Efforts in K-12 education Information literacy efforts are underway on individual. use of information. course-related instruction. Imaginative Web based information literacy tutorials such as TILT[36] are being created and integrated with curriculum areas. location and access.[38] Librarians often are required to teach the concepts of information literacy during "one shot" classroom lectures. online tutorials. and regional bases. Efforts in higher education Information literacy instruction in higher education can take a variety of forms: stand-alone courses or classes. .. Academic library programs are preparing faculty to facilitate their students' mastery of information literacy skills so that the faculty can in turn provide information literacy learning experiences for the students enrolled in their classes. It defines the six steps as being: task definition.[37] State-wide university systems and individual colleges and universities are undertaking strategic planning to determine information competencies. "Library media programs" are fostering information literacy by integrating the presentation of information literacy skills with curriculum at all grade levels. The six regional accreditation boards have added information literacy to their standards. but are also being employed by regional educational consortia. or being used for staff development purposes. to incorporate instruction in information competence throughout the curriculum and to add information competence as a graduation requirement for students. synthesis. workbooks. There are also credit courses offered by academic librarians to prepare college students to become information literate. The Big6 is made up of six major stages and two sub-stages under each major stages. or course-integrated instruction. 2009) [33] increasing rely on these guidelines for curriculum development and setting information literacy goals. One attempt in the area of physics was published in 2009. Such approaches seek to cover the full range of information problem-solving actions that a person would normally undertake. information seeking strategies. But information literacy efforts are not being limited to the library field. This set of skills seeks to articulate the entire information seeking life cycle.[23] States such as Oregon (OSLIS. chose to undertake a comprehensive review. when faced with an information problem or with making a decision based on available resources. involving all relevant stakeholders and formulate it own guidelines and standards for information literacy.[35] Another immensely popular approach to imparting information literacy is the Big6 set of skills. local. two framework documents jointly produced by UNESCO and the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) developed two framework documents that laid the foundations in helping define the educational role to be played by school libraries: the School library manifesto (1999).

It provides. There is some empirical indication that students who use technology as a tool may become better at managing information.D. televisions. and Anne Marie Casey.M. producing tests. A. off campus. and presenting ideas. and technology as the tool of instruction approach. from the Educational Testing Service (ETS) • Standardized Assessment of Information Literacy Skills [41] (Project SAILS) developed and maintained at Kent State University in Ohio • Information Literacy Test [42] (ILT) developed collaboratively by the James Madison Center for Assessment and Research Studies and JMU libraries • Research Readiness Self-Assessment [43] (RRSA) from Central Michigan University originally designed by Lana V. sensing the environment. analysis. or any other means of distance education. communicating. and communication (Carpenter. With the prevalence of course management systems such as WebCT and Blackboard. in courses taken for credit or non-credit. library staff are embedding information literacy training within academic programs and within individual classes themselves (Presti. Distance education Now that information literacy has become a part of the core curriculum at many post-secondary institutions. and present information. and articulation through a range of activities that include: writing. visual images. video cameras. transform. including online learning and distance education. Technology. wherever these individuals are located. former variation known as iSkills. in continuing education programs. students. 2). This is called technology information literacy [39] Technology is changing the way higher education institutions are offering instruction. simulation. providing effective information literacy programs brings together the challenges of both distance librarianship and instruction. Ivanitskaya. Information literacy assessment tools • iCritical Thinking [40]. The use of the Internet is being taught in the contexts of subject area curricula and the overall information literacy process. physical movement. video editing equipment. Schools are starting to incorporate technology skills instruction in the context of information literacy skills. and before that ICT Literacy Assessment. . • More Assessments of Information Literacy [45] • WASSAIL. and TV studios. 2002). concentration. 1989.S. and generating reports. offers users the tools to access. p. an extension of their powers of perception. manipulate. Ph.Information literacy 157 Technology Information Technology is the great enabler. music. mathematics. and developed in collaboration with many of their colleagues [44]. The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) addresses this need in its Guidelines for Distance Education Services (2000): “Library resources and services in institutions of higher education must meet the needs of all their faculty. thought. Technology in schools includes computers. use.L. in all of its various forms. evaluate. an open-source assessment platform for storing questions and answers. for those who have access to it. in courses attended in person or by means of electronic transmission. it is incumbent upon the library community to be able to provide information literacy instruction in a variety of formats. whether on a main campus. in distance education or extended campus programs—or in the absence of a campus at all. comprehension. Two approaches to technology in K-12 schools are technology as the object of instruction approach. and academic support staff.” Within the e-learning and distance education worlds.

html)". ERIC. K. Shapiro and Shelley K. Hughes (Mar/Apr 1996). pdf/ PragueDeclaration. org/ about-the-national-forum/ international-alliance-2/ ). gov/ news. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ aasl/ guidelinesandstandards/ learningstandards/ AASL_LearningStandards. . ala. No. cfm). B. ed. ifla. php-URL_ID=15886& URL_DO=DO_TOPIC& URL_SECTION=201. pdf). edition. ala. html). Retrieved 2012-10-28. "National Information Literacy Awareness Month" (http:/ / www. M. Retrieved 2012-10-28..1804. ed. American Association of School Librarians and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. ala. . Educom Review 31 (2). Retrieved 2012-10-28. sconul. 1989. [23] Eisenberg. Retrieved 2012-10-25. . Retrieved 2012-10-28. . org/ acrl/ publications/ whitepapers/ presidential). org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ aasl/ aaslpubsandjournals/ slmrb/ slmrcontents/ volume21999/ ALA_print_layout_1_202785_202785. (2000). php-URL_ID=22445& URL_DO=DO_TOPIC& URL_SECTION=-465.. Retrieved 2012-10-28.Information literacy 158 References [1] "What is the NFIL?" (http:/ / infolit. "Evaluating information: An information literacy challenge" (http:/ / www. K. N. Jan 2000. pdf)". 28. [22] "Welcome to the Big6" (http:/ / big6. whitehouse. Retrieved 2012-10-28. January 10. ala. Journal of Library & Information Technology. Retrieved 2012-10-28. Retrieved 2012-10-28. html).6 minutes per day: The scarcity of informational texts in first grade". from :http:/ / publications. uk/ groups/ information_literacy/ sp/ model. . [21] Ira Shor (Fall 1999). Information Literacy: Essential Skills for the Information Age. html). pdf). educause. 2. org/ ci/ en/ files/ 19636/ 11228863531PragueDeclaration. 2nd. SCONUL.. org/ 1999-4/ information. [8] "The Prague Declaration – 'Toward an Information Literate Society'" (http:/ / portal. org/ 68gh6PUQv [17] "International Alliance" (http:/ / infolit. webcitation. com/ ). "The Seven Pillars of Information Literacy Original model" (http:/ / www. ala. UNESCO. Office of Governor Edmund G. Retrieved 2012-10-28. html). gov/ legislation/ GOALS2000/ TheAct/ index. html). [14] http:/ / www. pdf). (2008). Retrieved 2012-10-28. ala. Feb 1999. . [20] Jeremy J. " Goals 2000: Educate America Act (http:/ / www. html). & Practice 4 (1). [19] "Media and Information Literacy: Documents" (http:/ / portal. . .. org/ 68gfMAeC1 [10] "The Alexandria Proclamation on Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning" (http:/ / archive. New York: Cambridge University Press. cfm). gov/ ERICDocs/ data/ ericdocs2sql/ content_storage_01/ 0000019b/ 80/ 36/ a8/ 87. [2] "Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2012-10-28. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ acrl/ publications/ whitepapers/ presidential. Jan 1994. uk/ groups/ information_literacy/ sp/ model. in/ ojs/ index. C. 1989. php?id=12393). " Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (http:/ / www. unesco. Zurkowski (Nov 1974). ala. National Forum on Information Literacy. Retrieved 2012-10-28. drdo. pdf). edu/ apps/ er/ review/ reviewArticles/ 31231. edu/ journals/ jppp/ 4/ shor. org/ about-the-national-forum/ what-is-the-nfil/ ). 2007. unesco. Lowe. sconul. D. [27] Eric Plotnick. (1991). ericdigests. [4] Paul G. IFLA. 2009. ca. Libraries Unlimited. webcitation. [3] Carol Collier Kulthau (Dec 1987). "What is Critical Literacy?" (http:/ / www. [13] "Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report" (http:/ / www. org/ III/ wsis/ BeaconInfSoc. [24] Fitzgerald. Pluralism. [11] "EXECUTIVE ORDER S-06-09" (http:/ / gov. . ED427777. [12] Barack Obama (2009). "The Information Service Environment: Relationships and Priorities" (http:/ / www. The skills of argument. UNESCO. [9] http:/ / www. php/ djlit/ article/ viewFile/ 288/ 182 . cfm [15] Duke. [18] "Media and Information Literacy" (http:/ / portal. & Spitzer. January 10. " Standards for the 21st Century Learner (http:/ / www. B. pp. [25] Kuhn. Retrieved July 10. "3. 39-47. . Retrieved 2012-10-28. gov/ ERICDocs/ data/ ericdocs2sql/ content_storage_01/ 0000019b/ 80/ 1c/ ba/ 3d. ac. pdf)". September 2003. Retrieved 2012-10-28. [16] http:/ / www. 9 November 2005. School Library Media Research. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. org/ ci/ en/ ev. Vol. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ acrl/ publications/ whitepapers/ progressreport. March 2008. M. pdf). Reading Research Quarterly 35: 202–224. [5] "Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning" (http:/ / www. Brown Jr. Information Literacy: Essential Skills for the Information Age. ac. . [26] United States Congress.R. lesley. htm)". The Journal of Pedagogy. (2004). 2. [28] American Association of School Librarians. A. unesco. The National Forum of Information Literacy. org/ ci/ en/ ev. . . 1998. eric. "Information Literacy as a Liberal Art" (http:/ / net. html [7] Moira Bent (November 2007). Retrieved 2012-10-25. M. ERIC Digests. [30] Eisenberg. H. ed. . org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ aasl/ guidelinesandstandards/ informationpower/ InformationLiteracyStandards_final. ACRL. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ acrl/ standards/ standards. " Information Literacy (http:/ / www. gov/ assets/ documents/ 2009literacy_prc_rel. Retrieved 2012-10-28. Retrieved 2012-10-28. gov. . . [6] http:/ / www. "Information Skills for an Information Society: A Review of Research" (http:/ / www. . [29] Association of College and Research Libraries. . eric. Information Literacy Meeting of Experts.

S. edu/ assessment/ resources/ prodserv/ instruments_ilt. Mission statement. from http:/ / www. • Eisenberg. Washington. • National Commission of Excellence in Education. fr/ vst/ LettreVST/ english/ pdf/ april2006_EN.com/presentations/sreb/ • Eisenberg. gov/assets/documents/2009literacy_prc_rel. (2003). P. jmu. 2009. 1488512ecfd5b8849a77b13bc3921509/ ?vgnextoid=159f0e3c27a85110VgnVCM10000022f95190RCRD& vgnextchannel=e5b2a79898a85110VgnVCM10000022f95190RCRD [41] https:/ / www. Devon. Am. Information literacy: The whole enchilada [PowerPoint Presentation]. Bibliographic instruction: The digital divide and resistance of users to technologies. org/ [42] http:/ / www. mueller. • Doty. ets. Phys. J. (1998). and T. Retrieved April 20. html [34] Blake. D. M. • Breivik. htm 159 Further reading • Association of College Research Libraries (2007). 26-33. (2004).utexas. Washington. Messina (2009). pdf [32] http:/ / weblink. htm) [37] Miller. pdf. htm [43] http:/ / rrsa.3213525. 2nd. Retrieved July 10. Summary of Findings. edu/ twiki/ bin/ view/ RRSA/ Versions [44] http:/ / rrsa. Retrieved July 10. (1983).big6. edu/ twiki/ bin/ view/ RRSA/ Publications [45] http:/ / jonathan. 14-18. J. P. Retrieved October 27. W. DC: U. 30(2). E. (2009). utsystem.VST. ala. from http://www. & Spitzer.edu/~l38613dw/website_spring_03/readings/ BiblioInstruction.Information literacy [31] http:/ / www. (1992). org/ portal/ site/ ets/ menuitem. edu/ nf/ intro/ internet. Retrieved July 14. P.ischool. n° 17 – April 2006 . pdf [33] http:/ / old. edu/ infolitassessments. 17–20 October 1988). (1996. Outcome Measures for Information Literacy Within the National Education Goals of 1990. Washington.pdf . (ED 226 006) • National Hispanic Council on Aging. (2004) Information Literacy: Building on Bibliographic Instruction. B. Restructuring Relationships in Virginia. org/ teacherResources/ highGatherOrganize/ aaslstandards1. & Senn. 77 (12): 1112. from http://www. (Document ID: 975373301). (nd). A. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ acrl/ issues/ infolit/ standards/ accred/ accreditation. inrp. 38(1). cfm). from http://www. M. • Grassian. faculty. Government Printing Office. [39] http:/ / en. K. 2009. American Libraries. wikibooks. (2nd ed. projectsails. C. [36] (http:/ / tilt. cmich. March/April). ala. (2006).cfm • Barner. 2009 from http://www. 2009. Change. Annotated Bibliography. 2009. The First-Year Experience and Academic Libraries: A Select. 35(9).. (Exeter. Presidential Proclamation: National Information Literacy Awareness Month. Seven changes that will challenge managers-and workers. us/ ~liblinks/ AASLstandards. (2006). cmich. 2009. org/ wiki/ Instructional_Technology/ Technology_Information_Literacy [40] http:/ / www.org/ala/acrlbucket/is/ publicationsacrl/tmcfyebib. Chabot. Using the new technologies to create links between schools throughout the world: Colloquy on computerized school links. Information literacy: Educating children for the 21st century. • Obama. from National Forum on Information Literacy Web site. C. Lettre d’information . Government Printing Office. [35] Endrizzi. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ aasl/ guidelinesandstandards/ learningstandards/ AASL_Learning_Standards_2007. Final Report to National Forum on Information Literacy.whitehouse.S.S.1119/1. (2004). R. Retrieved July 13.. Information Literacy. DC: National Education Association. (1989). 2008. 51-53. C. J.S. Lowe. United Kingdom.html • Doyle. scsd. 2009.. C. edition. • Carpenter. Libraries Unlimited. "A student's guide to searching the literature using online databases". The Futurist. DC: U.. P.ala. from Alt-Press Watch (APW). Information Literacy: Essential Skills for the Information Age. A Nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. [38] (http:/ / www. noctrl.). Retrieved July 12. oslis. M. lib. L. doi:10.

Cal. Chicago: American Library Association. however. MI: Loex News.html • Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. The terms exegesis and hermeneutics have been used interchangeably. The Seven Pillars of Information Literacy model. and the term "Biblical exegesis" is used for greater specificity.ca. (29)2-3. Adjectives are exegetic or exegetical (e. 2010 from http:// www. U.uk/groups/information_literacy/sp/model.. S. • Presti. J.gov/news. encompassing all forms of communication: written. • Schwarzenegger.lib. Word usage One who practices exegesis is called an exegete (from Greek ἐξηγητής). 3-12-13.. exegetical commentaries). (2002). Christianity Views of Christian exegesis Different Christians have different views on how to perform Biblical Exegesis. while exegesis focuses primarily on the written text.pdf • Ryan. Exegesis includes a wide range of critical disciplines: textual criticism is the investigation into the history and origins of the text. and the original audience. & Capra. in the sense of an eisegetic commentator "importing" or "drawing in" his or her own purely subjective interpretations in to the text.). Information literacy toolkit. R. hermeneutics is a more widely defined discipline of interpretation theory: hermeneutics includes the entire framework of the interpretive process.edu/index. The two most common views are revealed and rational. (2007). However. 160 External links • ELD information literacy wiki. Retrieved November 3. 2009 from http:// gov.php/ Information_Literacy) Exegesis Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι 'to lead out') is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text. Incorporating information literacy and distance learning within a course management system: a case study. Traditionally the term was used primarily for exegesis of the Bible. 2004 from http://www. Sacramento. especially a religious text. Davis (http://eldwiki. Chicago: American Library Association. Executive order S-06-09.ucdavis. (2009). the opposite of exegesis (to draw out) is eisegesis (to draw in). unsupported by the text itself. verbal and nonverbal. (2001). Eisegesis is often used as a derogatory term. Other analysis includes classification of the type of literary genres present in the text. CA.sconul.php?id=12393 • SCONUL. in contemporary usage it has broadened to mean a critical explanation of any text.Information literacy • Osborne. Ypsilanti. P. (2004).emich.ac. (Ed. Retrieved October 27. and an analysis of grammatical and syntactical features in the text itself. edu/public/loex/news/ln290202. . S. The plural of exegesis is exegeses. Retrieved February 3. In Biblical exegesis. but exegesis may include the study of the historical and cultural backgrounds for the author.g. the text. From outreach to equity: Innovative models of library policy and practice.

Additions to Esther. German universities such as Tübingen have had reputations as centers of exegesis. The form of each book may be identical or allow for variations in methodology between the many authors which collaborate to write a full commentary. some. followed by detailed commentary of the book in a pericope-by-pericope or verse-by-verse basis (split up either into chapters or smaller units of text). Traina's book Methodical Bible Study[1] is an example of Protestant Christian exegesis. out of order). and so the words of those texts convey a divine revelation. the Bible has a "fuller meaning" than its human authors intended or could have foreseen. Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremiah). from a Catholic or Reformed (Calvinist) perspective.e. Psalms may be split over 2 or 3 volumes as a matter of course. Bel and the Dragon. accuracy. and the Jeremiah (i. Before the 20th century. The school became embroiled in the modernist crisis. and had to curtail its New Testament activities until after Vatican II • the Pontifical Biblical Institute of Rome practises exegesis in a more canonical way Protestant traditions For more than a century. 161 Bible commentaries A common published form of a biblical exegesis is known as a 'Bible commentary' and typically takes the form of an encyclopedia-like set of books each of which are devoted to the exposition of one or two books of the Bible.Exegesis • Revealed exegesis considers that the Holy Spirit (God) inspired the authors of the scriptural texts. in the USA. each volume will inevitably lean toward the personal emphasis of its author. while short books such as the deuterocanonical portions of Daniel. Catholic traditions Catholic centres of biblical exegesis include: • the École Biblique of Jerusalem founded in 1890 by the Dominican order's Marie-Joseph Lagrange. However. for example. a commentary would be written by a sole author. Harvard and Yale became famous. Book of Susanna. the Divinity Schools in Chicago. the principle of sensus plenior applies that because of its divine authorship. in the order they appear in the Bible (although often published over a decade or longer. Prayer of Azariah. Long books or those that contain much material either for theological or historical-critical speculation such as Genesis. . such as the or the Four Gospels may be multiple. but today a publishing board will commission a team of scholars to write a commentary. In this view of exegesis.or single-volume. Esther. synonymous with "artistic inspiration"). Robert A. with each volume being divided out among them. See also InterVarsity Press. or a commentary that focuses on textual criticism or historical criticism from a secular point of view. • Rational exegesis bases its operation on the idea that the authors have their own inspiration (in this sense. and within any commentaries there may be great variety in the depth. Each book's commentary generally consists of a background and introductory section. or the Pastoral or Johannine epistles are often condensed into one volume. A single commentary will generally attempt to give a coherent and unified view on the Bible as a whole. so their works are completely and utterly a product of the social environment and human intelligence of their authors. and critical or theological strength of each volume.

and sustenance for the thoughts and feelings of the present. Tannaim Tannaitic exegesis distinguishes principally between the actual deduction of a thesis from a Bible passage as a means of proving a point. you say to Scripture. he had only heard of that principle a great many . Ishmael b. xiii. the two Talmuds. To this were added. which may be best designated as scholarly interpretations of the Midrash. rules of conduct and teachings. was recognized by the Tannaim and the Amoraim.Exegesis 162 Judaism Traditional Jewish forms of exegesis appear throughout rabbinic literature. Because of this move towards particularities the exegesis of the Midrash strayed further and further away from a natural and common-sense interpretation. It comprises the legal and ritual Halakha. moral instruction. Traditional literature contains explanations that are in harmony with the wording and the context. This was done to find religious edification. judgment. the importance attached to the smallest portion. on the one hand. and the midrash literature. endowed with the authority of a sacred tradition in the Talmud and in the Midrash (collections edited subsequently to the Talmud). However. The Babylonian Amoraim were the first to use the expression "Peshaṭ" ("simple" or face value method) to designate the primary sense. In Babylonia was formulated the important principle that the Midrashic exegesis could not annul the primary sense. and exegesis of the written Law. Biblical interpretation by the Tannaim and the Amoraim. and the non-legalistic Aaggadah. that did not follow the words. Elisha said. It reflects evidence of linguistic sense. Hyrcanus: "Truly. Halakha and Aggadah In the halakhic as well as in the haggadic exegesis the expounder endeavored not so much to seek the original meaning of the text as to find authority in some Bible passage for concepts and ideas. The contrast between explanation of the literal sense and the Midrash. a Babylonian amora of the fourth century. Midrash Midrash exegesis was largely in the nature of homiletics. that while at 18 years of age he had already learned the whole Mishnah. 'Be silent while I am expounding!'" (Sifra on Lev. of value even today. a Biblical exegesis of the Pentateuch and its paragraphs related to the Law or Torah. But side by side with these elements of a natural and simple Bible exegesis. which also forms an object of analysis. it proved an obstacle to further development when. a compendium of Rabbinic homilies of the parts of the Pentateuch not connected with Law. the traditional literature contains an even larger mass of expositions removed from the actual meaning of the text. which includes the Mishnah." the Midrashic exegesis. rejecting an exposition of Eliezer b. Midrash The Midrash is a homiletic method of exegesis and a compilation of homiletic teachings or commentaries on the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). it became the sole source for the interpretation of the Bible among later generations. expounding the Bible not in order to investigate its actual meaning and to understand the documents of the past. the belief that the words of the Bible had many meanings. These two terms were later on destined to become important features in the history of Jewish Bible exegesis. contrasting it with the "Drash. 49). and an insight into the peculiarities and difficulties of the Biblical text. The above-mentioned tanna. the slightest peculiarity of the text. for which he wished to have a Biblical foundation. although their idea of the literal meaning of a Biblical passage may not be allowed by more modern standards. This principle subsequently became the watchword of commonsense Bible exegesis. and the use of such a passage as a mere mnemonic device – a distinction that was also made in a different form later in the Babylonian schools. How little it was known or recognized may be seen from the admission of Kahana. on the other. was a product of natural growth and of great freedom in the treatment of the words of the Bible. and. the collective body of Jewish laws. Jewish exegetes have the title meforshim ‫( מפורשים‬commentators).

The reading of the Biblical text. on the one hand. plural: Arabic: ‫ . which formed a part of the synagogue service. It was. the fundamental part of the national science. Tafsir does not include esoteric or mystical interpretations. The scribes found the material for their discourses. on the other. and that this inner meaning conceals an even deeper inner meaning. was the subject of the primary instruction. who set themselves to preserving and transmitting the pronunciation and correct reading of the text. and. The Targum made possible an immediate comprehension of the text. the Aramaic translation of the text. the close study of the text of the Bible. . the Masorah was to be for the words of the Bible. Kahana's admission is characteristic of the centuries following the final redaction of the Talmud. The scribes were also required to know the Targum. By introducing punctuation (vowel-points and accents) into the Biblical text. is strongly concerned with textual exegesis.Exegesis years later (Shab 63a). in the second division of the several branches of the tradition. The intelligent reading and comprehension of the text. the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. usually of the Qur'an.ﻣُﻔﺴﺮ‬mufassir. but continued during ancient times. providential that. Jewish exegesis did not finish with the redaction of the Talmud. also Karma-Mīmāṃsā). it remains a subject of study today. but was continuously influenced by the exegesis taught in the schools. in contrast to Uttara Mīmāṃsā ("posterior" inquiry. was pursued with rare energy and perseverance by the Masorites. arrived at by a correct division of the sentences and words. Punctuation. and the Hagiographa. in the seventh century. An author of tafsīr is a mufassir (Arabic: '‫ . called in traditional Hebrew attribution the Torah (the Law or Teaching). Its notion of shabda "speech" as indivisible unity of sound and meaning (signifier and signified) is due to Bhartrhari (7th century).[3] While adherents of Sufism and Ilm al-Kalam concur with the Shi'a. at least in one direction. in support of this view. the Prophets. "interpretation") is the Arabic word for exegesis or commentary. most mainstream Sunni Muslims do not.[2] Islam Tafsir (Arabic: ‫ . and consequently gave rise to the study of philology and the philosophy of language. was the precursor of an independent Bible science to be developed in a later age.ﻣﻔﺴﺮﻭﻥ‬mufassirūn). according to Rabbi Akiba's saying.ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ‬tafsīr. also known as Pūrva Mīmāṃsā ("prior" inquiry. which are covered by the related word Ta'wil. The Haggadah. 163 Mikra The Mikra. especially furnished the material for the sermon. served to widen the knowledge of the scholars learned in the first division of the national science. formed the course of instruction in the Bible. protected the tradition from being forgotten. It was also divided into the three historic groups of the books of the Bible: the Pentateuch. in each community: they consider exegesis an important tool for the understanding of the Scriptures. Indian philosophy The Mimamsa school of Indian philosophy. Shi'ite organization Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project cites the prophet Muhammad as stating that the Qur'an has an inner meaning. therefore. Jews have centres for exegetic studies around the world. The primary meaning is no longer considered. also Brahma-Mīmāṃsā). The ability and even the desire for original investigation of the text succumbed to the overwhelming authority of the Midrash. they supplied that protecting hedge which. The synagogues were preeminently the centers for instruction in the Bible and its exegesis. the third of these branches. just at the time when the Midrash was paramount. the Nevi'im (the Prophets) and the Kethuvim (the Writings) respectively. which was combined with that of the Targum. but it becomes more and more the fashion to interpret the text according to the meaning given to it in traditional literature.

ISBN 0-8254-2736-3. Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (EPHE). ISBN 0-8024-0743-9. ulb. Gordon D (2001). • Fee. • Kaiser. sorbonne. ISBN 0-310-27951-8. Steve Lemke. ISBN 978-0-9828715-6-0. au/ april11/ krauth. • Doriani. Michigan: Zondervan. • Hayes. Oakland. Getting the message : a plan for interpreting and applying the Bible. Grand Rapids. The Teachings of the Qur'an (http:/ / www. Brian S Rosner (2000). ISBN 0-8028-4925-3. htm). and Theological. pp. Section des Sciences Religieuses (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-8010-2197-9. ISBN 1-57075-410-1. com. etc. • Corley. 2005. (1985). ISBN 0-8308-1438-8. The Denotation of Generic Terms in Ancient Indian Philosophy (1996) Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. Grand Rapids. William Wade. . php3?c=169) [6] Centre Interdisciplinaire d'Etude des Religions et de la Laïcité (CIERL) (http:/ / www. Cambridge. Commentary & Reference Survey: A Comprehensive Guide to Biblical and Theological Resources.. It is a scholarly text accompanying a film. fr/ index. Westminster John Knox Press. Miguel A. candidate. including the Sorbonne in Paris. Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics: The Search for Meaning (Revised and expanded edition ed. Living by the Book.Exegesis 164 Exegesis in a secular context Several universities. Bruce. next to exegesis in a religious tradition. Text: Journal of writing and writing courses 15 (1). ISBN 5-94381-123-0. Robert A. Leicester: Inter-Varsity. org/ quraninislam/ 2. 268. Wheaton. Michigan. ISBN 978-0-310-31230-7. Methodical Bible Study. William W. Introduction to Biblical Interpretation.[6] put exegesis in a secular context. ISBN 0-8499-0774-8. A Guide to Biblical Commentaries & Reference Works: for students and pastors. Michigan: Baker Books. ISBN 978-0-664-22775-3. ac. literary text. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=164& Itemid=244) [5] Leiden Institute for the Study of Religions (LISOR) (http:/ / www. Daniel (1996). pp. Eerdmans. John (2010).). Chicago: Moody Press. (1991). ephe. Desmond. At Australian universities.[5] and the Université Libre de Bruxelles (Free University of Brussels). Grant Lovejoy (2002). be/ philo/ cierl/ ) [7] Krauth. Gordon D. htm). T. • Fee. Michigan: Kregel Academic & Professional. Biblical Hermeneutics: A Comprehensive Introduction to Interpreting Scripture. • Peter Barenboim. Biblical Exegesis: A Beginner's Handbook. Tennessee: Broadman & Holman. leidenuniv.). Grand Rapids. Exegetical. Tennessee: Doulos Resources. "Biblical Roots of Separation of Powers".. • Kaiser. Mich. (2002) Reading the Bible from the Margins. • De La Torre. see also chapter 3. Buist M. al-islam. Moscow : Letny Sad. Interpreting the New Testament Text: Introduction to the Art and Science of Exegesis. 288. . ISBN 0-8054-2492-X. John Haralson.[7] Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4] Traina. ISBN 1-58134-408-2.2 in Peter M. Walter C (1998). Phillipsburg New Jersey: P&R Pub. Maryknoll: New York: Orbis Books. Texas: Word Pub. 349. Further reading • Alexander. New Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Darrell L. Toward an Exegetical Theology: Biblical Exegesis for Preaching and Teaching (1st paperback edition ed. Scharf.gov/2006400578 • Bock. Nigel (2011). Illinois: Crossway Books.. How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth (3 Revised ed. universiteitsgids. textjournal. Dallas. • Hendricks. To What End Exegesis?: Essays Textual. ISBN 0-310-24604-0. John (2003). Zondervan. Grand Rapids. Douglas Stuart (2003-11-01).). UK: W. • Klein. Walter C. produced by the PhD.: Francis Asbury Press. Howard G. http://lccn. Grand Rapids. Craig Blomberg. pp. Robert L Hubbard. Fanning (2006).loc. • Evans. ISBN 978-0-87552-238-8. Nashville. Kermit Allen Ecklebarger (1993). Moisés Silva (2007). Carl R Holladay (2007). nl/ index.[4] Leiden University. the exegesis is part of practice-based doctorate projects. • Glynn. "Evolution of the exegesis: the radical trajectory of the creative writing doctorate in Australia" (http:/ / www.B. Secular exegesis is an element of the study of religion.

). 1900) • Wolf. New Jersey. De Bibliorum Textibus (Oxford. Wheaton.ca/seminary/mtsmodular/ reading-rooms/interpretation): Extensive online resources for biblical exegesis (Tyndale Seminary) • JewishEncyclopedia. The Hermeneutical Spiral: A Comprehensive Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. Introduction to the Massoretic Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible (London. The History of Interpretation (London. Basic Bible Interpretation.godward. 1783–84) • Zöckler.com) • VBVBC. InterVarsity Press. • VanGemeren. Willem (1997). 320. • • • • • • • • • Diestel. Illinois: Victor Books. Meyer.org/cathen/05692b. 1863) Geiger. Einführung in das griechische Neue Testament (Leipzig. Bibliotheca Hebraica (Jena. ISBN 978-0-8066-4429-5. 1897) Hody. Michigan: Zondervan Pub. 1909) Pfleiderer. 1795–1814) • Swete. Bibliotheca Judaica (Leipzig. ISBN 0-89693-819-0. France (http://www. article "Bibelwissenschaft" in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Tübingen.php?p=1_2) • Biblical Interpretation and Application Reading Room (http://www. pp. 1886) Fürst..jewishencyclopedia.biblicalstudies. New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology & Exegesis.htm) • Inerrancy and New Testament Exegesis by R. The new joy of discovery in Bible study (Newly revised ed. ISBN 978-0-310-39021-3. 1909). Roy B (1991). Grand Rapids. ISBN 0-8254-4099-8. T.org): Website where visitors can give their personal Bible commentary on all Bible verses • Biblical Exegesis (http://www.newadvent. Urschrift und Uebersetzungen (Breslau. • Wald.com/index. continued by Köcher as Nova Bibliotheca hebraica (Jena. An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (London. Oletta (2002). Grant R (2006). Das Urchristenum (Berlin. Methodical Bible study : a new approach to hermeneutics.org/archives/BS Notes/ Basic rules for NT exegesis. 1857) Ginsburg.html) • A type of Biblical Exegesis called arcing (http://www. ISBN 0-310-48170-8. Ridgefield Park. New York: [distributed by] Biblical Seminary in New York. Michigan: Kregel Publications. pp. 1897. • Ryken. 1886. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress. Grand Rapids. 1715–33).jsp) • Basic Rules for New Testament Exegesis by Brian Knowles (http://www.htm) at Catholic Encyclopedia . House. 1996.uk/ article_inerrancy_france. 324. Geschichte des Alten Testaments in der chrislichen Kirche (Jena. 165 Other works • Bertholet and A.org. Handbuch der theologischen Wissenschaften Nördlingen. 1705) Nestle. Grand Rapids. • Zuck.tyndale. Leland (1984). Michigan: Academie Books. 1902) Rosenmüller. Robert (1952).biblearc.Exegesis • Osborne. Historia Interpretationis Librorum Sacrorum in Ecclesia Christiana (Hildsburgshausen. ISBN 0-8308-2826-5.com (http://www.vbvbc. 1890) External links • Exegesis of the Hebrew Scriptures By Overall Context and Convergence of Verses From Different Places (http:// thesufferingservant.org (http://www. How to read the Bible as literature. • Traina. • Rightly Divided: Readings in Biblical Hermeneutics.com/index. 1869) Farrar.

Exegesis • Zoroastrian exegesis (http://www.html) from Encyclopædia Iranica 166 .iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v9f2/v9f202.

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