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Reasons Metis (Half Breeds) Left Treaty.

Reasons Metis (Half Breeds) Left Treaty.

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Many Metis people who had taken Treaty later left Treaty and took Metis Scrip. Notes for a Metis Talking Stick Spreecast on January 31, 2013.

Many Metis people who had taken Treaty later left Treaty and took Metis Scrip. Notes for a Metis Talking Stick Spreecast on January 31, 2013.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Lawrence J. Barkwell on Feb 03, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Notes: Reasons Half-Breeds Left Treaty

Edited and Compiled by Lawrence Barkwell Coordinator of Metis Heritage and History Research Louis Riel Institute

Notes for Metis Talking Stick, Spreecast of January 31, 2013, 6:00-8:00 PM, E.S.T. My research deals with Western Canada Treaties one to eight Lists of Metis who left: • • • • • • • • • • • An 1886 un-numbered list An 1888 list of 674 persons An 1892 list of 794 persons – replaces previous lists which Ottawa lost. Sandy Bay Mb. April 1886 list of 48 Metis An 1879-80 list of Women who commuted their annuities – 225 women An 1885-87 Manitoba list of Metis from Duck Bay, Fairford, Eb and Flow and Lake Manitoba who left: 61 persons A Birtle Agency list of Metis who left post - 1886: 35 persons A Fort Alexandre List of 21 Metis who wish to withdraw. A Peeaysis Band (Lac la Biche) List of 84 Metis who withdrew. A Lac la Biche list by Patrick Pruden asking for Commissioners to attend so that the 57 Metis people signing his petition could withdraw. Assorted records of Metis from St. Peters Reserve who withdrew.

Reasons Half Breeds left treaty
• • For economic advantage in hard times. Many Metis entered treaty long before the land had been selected for the various reserves. Thus by the time the reserves were selected and surveyed many Metis found that they had built their houses and/or farms outside of their Band’s reserve. Thus many decided to withdraw from treaty and take their Metis scrip to apply against the land they were living on and farming. Threats that they would eventually be removed from the reserve.


army servicemen). One Arrow. There was also a mass exodus of Metis and Plains Cree to Montana after the 1885 Resistance. Some joined the Flathead Reserve. St. eg. It was often economically advantageous to take scrip. Muskeg Lake lost all annuity payments and was without a chief for over ten years. Duck Bay moved to Pine Creek. Many eventually returned to Canada and now make up the Montana Reserve. • • • • • • • • • 2 . The reserve was not located where they wanted or was on poor land for farming.• Punished for Resistance activities and removed from Band Annuity Lists. Peeyasis Band at Lac la Biche. Chakastaypasin Band (who also lost their reserve). Others were enfranchised under the rules (university graduates. Muskeg Lake. others were itinerant and became known as the “Landless Cree” and were part of Rocky Boy’s group. true for Sandy Bay and Lac la Biche. Peters there was a mass exodus to Prince Albert led by John Smith and James Smith )six Smith brothers in all) from St. The reserve was moved.. Indian Affairs officials under Hayter Reed were encouraging Metis to leave to reduce the costs to Indian Affairs. Papaschase Band Tricked into leaving treaty. Their joint Cree/Metis council was led by Little Bear (Imasees) and Gabriel Dumont. encouraged by the US government. Women who married non-Indians were removed or left Treaty. or wanted to buy and sell liquor. There were a series of deportations back to Canada. St. eg. eg. There was then a subsequent removal of Metis from the Turtle Mountain Band lists (Little Shell people). The people were starving and no reserve had been surveyed eg. There was a mass exodus to Turtle Mountain and Montana after the 1885 Resistance. Sandy Bay and Gamblers. eg travel pass requirement to be off reserve. Many of their Metis followers later withdrew from Treaty. Peter’s The Smith’s then signed Treaty six and got their own reserves in Saskatchewan. Other Metis left because they didn’t like the Indian Affairs rules. Peters moved to Peguis. or wanted to vote.

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