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THIS PAPER APPEARS IN: Education Technology and Computer (ICETC), 2010 2nd International Conference
Embedded systems have grown tremendously in recentYears, not only in their popularity but also in their complexity. Gadgets are increasingly becoming intelligent and autonomous .in electronic auto toll collection Vehicle’s identify is the core technology to realize. But what's mean the vehicle's automatic identify system? It's the technology which can identify the vehicles passed without any action adopted by the driver or observer, when vehicles passing the special dot. It can be applied not only in highway's electronic toll collection system; here in this system we are using RFID and SMART CARD system for identification and for the toll pay respectively.
RFID Systems consist of a transponder, also known as a tag, which is basically a microchip connected to an antenna. The tag is mounted to an item, such as a pallet of goods in a warehouse, and a device called a reader communicates with the tag via radio waves. Depending on the type of tag that is used, the reader can receive detailed information or it can receive data as simple as an identification number A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. A smart card or microprocessor cards contain volatile memory and microprocessor components Smart cards can provide identification, authentication, data storage and application processing
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio waves to transfer data from an electronic tag, called RFID tag or label, attached to an object, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object. Some RFID tags
active or semi-passive (also known as battery-assisted). The minute electrical current induced in the antenna by the incoming radio frequency signal provides just enough power for the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit in the tag to power up and transmit a response. Instead. Many RFID tags do not use a battery. Most passive tags signal by backscattering the carrier wave from the reader. This means that the antenna has to be designed both to collect power from the incoming signal and also to transmit the outbound backscatter signal. The tag receives the message and responds with its identification information. The RFID tag includes a small RF transmitter and receiver. The tag's information is stored electronically. PASSIVE TAGS Passive RFID tags have no internal power supply. An RFID reader transmits an encoded radio signal to interrogate the tag. TYPES OF RFID TAGS RFID tags come in three general varieties: passive. the tag uses the radio energy transmitted by the reader as its energy source. usually a small battery. whereas semi-passive and active tags require a power source. Passive tags require no internal power source (they are only active when a reader is nearby to power them). . The application of bulk reading enables an almost-parallel reading of tags. The RFID system design includes a method of discriminating several tags that might be within the range of the RFID reader.can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.
With an embedded microcontroller. carry out their own on-card functions (e. are similar to active tags in that they have their own power source. Contact 2. fewer errors) than from passive tags due to the ability for active tags to conduct a "session" with a reader. Communications from active tags to readers is typically much more reliable (i. The card connects to a reader with direct physical contact or with a remote contactless radio frequency interface. fobs. active RFID tags have their own internal power source. SEMI-PASSIVE TAGS Semi-passive tags. but the battery only powers the microchip and does not power the broadcasting of a signal. also called semi-active tags. smart cards have the unique ability to store large amounts of data. encryption and mutual authentication) and interact intelligently with a smart card reader. There are two general categories of smart cards: 1.. Smart card technology conforms to international standards (ISO/IEC 7816 and ISO/IEC 14443) and is available in a variety of form factors.e. Contactless . SMART CARD A smart card is a device that includes an embedded integrated circuit chip (ICC) that can be either a secure microcontroller or equivalent intelligence with internal memory or a memory chip alone. and USB-based tokens. including plastic cards.ACTIVE TAGS Unlike passive RFID tags. which is used to power the integrated circuits and to broadcast the response signal to the reader.g. subscriber identity modules (SIMs) used in GSM mobile phones.
KEY FEATURES: Up to 512 kB flash. 10-bit ADC and DAC Low power Real-Time Clock (RTC) with independent power and 32 kHz clock input.0 full-speed device. ideal for applications such as building entry and payment that require a very fast card interface EMBEDDED MICROPROCESSOR (LPC 2148): The LPC2148 microcontrollers are based on a 16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI-S CPU with real-time emulation and embedded trace support. two Fast I2C-bus (400 Kbit/s) . USB 2.CONTACT A contact smart card must be inserted into a smart card reader with a direct connection to a conductive contact plate on the surface of the card (typically gold plated). data. Both the reader and the card have antennae. The range is typically one-half to three inches for non-batterypowered cards. Multiple serial interfaces including two UARTs (16C550). and the two communicate using radio frequencies (RF) over this contactless link. In-System Programming/In-Application Programming (ISP/IAP) via on-chip boot loader 60 MHz maximum CPU clock available from programmable on-chip PLL with settling Time of 100 us. CONTACTLESS A contactless card requires only close proximity to a reader. Most contactless cards also derive power for the internal chip from this electromagnetic signal. Transmission of commands. and card status takes place over these physical contact points.
60 MHz maximum CPU clock available from programmable on-chip PLL with settling Time of 100 us.6 V (3. PROJECT BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The paper is concerned with automated toll collection system using the active RFID tags. The system will electronically classify the vehicle and calculate the exact amount to be paid by the vehicle owner. Hence RFID wireless communication realized the core technology of ETC (Electronic Toll Collection). On-chip integrated oscillator operates with an external crystal from 1 MHz to 25 MHz Power saving modes include Idle and Power-down. who frequently pass through tollgates. vehicles are made to pass through a sensor system that is embedded on the highway just before the tollgate.3 V ± 10 %) with 5 V tolerant I/O Pads. which will deduce the appropriate amount. ensuring no pilferage of the toll amount.0 V to 3. . are required to have a prepaid smartcard. by using an automated smart card reader and the automatic palisade will open all these modules are interfaced to the embedded controller. Vehicle owners. CPU operating voltage range of 3.
BLOCK DESIGN PROPOSAL FOR THE SYSTEM AUTOMATIC PALISADE (RELAY) LCD DISPLAY SMARTCARD READER MAX 232 EMBEDDED CONTROLLER MAX 232 RFID CARD READER TOLL BOOTH SYSTEM SMART CARD RFID CARD RFID CARD PLACED INSIDE THE VEHCHILE .
0. LANGUAGE: All editions provide a complete Embedded C/C++ development environment and KEIL includes extensive middleware libraries. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT FUNCTION MODULE FOR AT89S52 BASED: FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE The KEIL U version IDE which Keil C51 Product is a complete software development environment for the 8051 microcontroller family.C. Us Flash+ Ver. a free software utility sponsored by NXP. MISCELLINOIUS COMPONENTS. P. FOR LPC 2148 BASED: The KEIL MDK-ARM is a complete software development environment for ARM7 (LPC 2148) and ARM9 processor-based devices. FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONTROLLER (ARM LPC 2148/AT89S52). POWER SUPPLY UNIT MAX 232 IC.0 programmer for MCS51 microcontrollers developed by UC micro systems. WIRELESS CAMERA. . 4. Flash the device using FLASH MAGIC. ULTRSONIC DISTANCE SENSOR.HARDWARE REQUIREMENT FUNCTION MODULE ZIG BEE MODULES.
COM WWW. The amount will be automatically debited from the user account.COM WWW. from theoretical and experimental analysis. designed and realize outdoor prototype system for short-range wireless infrared communication.FLASHMAGICTOOL.PLATFORM: WINDOWS XP.GOOGLE. And it also realized the data exchange between terminal software and system control center.ALLDATASHEETS. CONCLUSION: This paper mainly reviewed the research and development Work on the highway parking system.COM WWW. and through software simulated the vehicle terminals' integrate highway parking process.COM .COM WWW.COM WWW.HOWSTUFFWORKS. completed the business functions and system requirements of logical design phase. By using this traffic at the toll gates can be avoided and the users can pass the toll gates without stopping.WIKIPEDIA. Using RFID wireless communication realized the core technology of ETC. achieved the desired objectives.KEIL. REFERENCE WWW.
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