O LEVEL HISTORY NOTES SECTION 1

Sir Hamza Muhammad Ali O/A LEVEL GUIDES AND NOTES www.o-alevel.com

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Title: O Level History Notes Author: Sir Hamza Muhammad Ali

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SHAH WALIULLAH (1703-62)
Birth & Education: Qutub-ud-Din popularly known as Shah Wali Ullah was born in Delhi in 1703. He belonged to a respected family. His father Shah Abdul Rahim founded Madrassa Rahimya and also helped to compiled Fatawa-I-Alamgiri a book of Islamic legal text under the direct supervision of Emperor Auragzeb Alamgir. Shah Walliullah received his education from Madrassa Rahimya and also taught there for twelve years. In 1724 he went to Arabia, he was greatly influenced by the teaching of Abu Tahir bin Ibrahim a well-known scholar of his time. He returned to Delhi in 1732. Political & Social Conditions of India during Shah Waliullah’s Time: The social & political condition of India during Shah Waliullah’s time was extremely bad there was political instability & insecurity of life, property & hanor were not secure as there were a number of disruptive forces at work in the muslim society. Disintegration of the Mughal empire had set in & the Muslims were split up among themselves. Taking advantage of this situation of the division of the Indian muslims the neighboring non-Muslim communities like the Marathas, jats & skins were now threatening to overwhelm Dehli & finish the once mighty mughal Empire. Ignorance about quran and sunnah. B/C Hindus and muslim live togetter. Social Conditions: As far as the social condition of the Indian Muslims was concerned, they were divided among different religious groups & there was a constant trouble between the Shia & Sunni sects, which was a serious threat to Muslim society. More over after the death of Aurangzeb the Mughal Empire began to crack and crumble because of the incapable successors. In 1793 Nadir Shah attacked Delhi. The result of this plunder was that the Muslims suffered the most, the infidels gained strength & as the attack has weakened the power to Delhi the neighboring non-Muslim attacked one by one. After Nadir Shah’s attack, Delhi was attacked, by Jats, who not only plundered Delhi but took away whatever they could lay their hands on. After sometime the Marathas & Sikhs also attacked Delhi & thus the conditions of Muslims in Delhi became worse Loss of power also caused economic suppression, sectarian differences and social degradation among the Muslims. Shah Wali Ullah appeared in his crucial period & exerted to make the Islamic regima independent of all these props. His services in the religious, political & economic fields for the above cause are discussed below: Educational Services: Shah Waliullah believed that many of the problems Muslims faced was due to their ignorance about islam & the Holy Quran. He felt that an emphasis on Quranic teachings would not only improve their knowledge, but it would also reduce the sectarian differences & create a feeling of unity. Shah Wali Ullah worked hard to ensure that he was a role model for other Muslims His deep understanding of the Holy Quran, Hadith, Fiqah and Tasawuf made him highly knowledgeable scholar at an early age. As Arabic was not widely understood by the Indian Muslims, thus the average Muslims derived his knowledge from the teaching of Muslim Jurists. A. Translation of Holy Quran Shah Wali Ullah recognized that the principles of Islam could not be followed properly unless the Holy Quran itself was understood. As the Indian Muslims did not understand the Holy Quran in Arabic since it was not their language thus Shah Waliullah translated the Holy Quran into Persian, which was the main language of the Indian Muslims of that time. The Ulema criticized Shah Wali Ullah, but his work proved very popular Later his two sons, Shah Abdul Qadir and Shah Rafi translated the Holy Quran into Urdu, which meant that many more people could study it. B. Hijatul-Balighah in this book, Shah Waliullah discussed at length the principle & fundamentals of Islam. In this he explained the methods of changing the muslim society into a real Muslim society. He advises the Indian Muslims to act upon the teachings of Holy Quran & asked them to forget their differences & unite.

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C.

Izalat-al-Akhfa is another renowned book of Shah Waliullah in which he has written the explanation of the Holy Quran. Shah Waliullah wrote extensively on hadis & Fiqah. He altogether wrote 51 books, out of which 23 are in Arabic & 28 are in Persian. D. End of the Shia-Sunni Rivalry: - Shah Waliullah very firmly rejected the belief of some Sunnis that the Shias were not Muslims. He tried to bridge this difference opionion by writing an account of the first four Khalifas of Islam in a way that should acceptable to both the sects. His Political Services: The political conditions of the Mughal Empire were in a bad state. The Mughal rulers had become lazy & ease loving & the officers had become totally corrupt. A. His Letters to the Kings & Nawabs For the Protection Of Indian Muslims: The Marhatas were a permanent threat for the Mughals. They had killed many Muslims & had destroyed their lands & fields. The Muslim Kings, Nawabs & Knights were leading lives of ease & did not care for their people. The Mughal rule was shaking & was on the verge of decline. Shah Waliullah wanted to save the Muslims from these loot & plunder. He wanted that the Muslims should lead peaceful lives & for this purpose he wrote letters to the kings & Nawabs but in vain. B. His invitation to Ahmed Shah Abduli to Attack Indian: when his efforts of writing to the Muslim kings & Nawab resulted in nothing their finally. Shah Waliullah invited Ahmed Shah Abdali to attack India. In his letter Shah Waliullah encouraged Ahmed Shah & pleased him to launch an attack, as it was the only way left to save the Muslims of India. In his letter to Ahmed Shah, he explained the geographical situation of India & the economic condition of the people & also the military strength of the enemies. Due to his effort, Ahmed Shah Abdali the ruler of Kabul combined his forces with Najib-ud-Dullah the leader of Rohillas & attacked India in 1761. This battle, which was also known as 3rd Battle of Panipat. Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the Marhatas & crushed their power. But due to the lazy & ease-loving attitude of the Mughal rulers, the Muslims could not avail this golden opportunity of the conditions created by Shah Waliullah. However he was able to arouse the consciousness of the Muslims of India. His Economic Services: Shah Waliullah was very concerned about the economic conditions of the Indian Muslims. He requested the workers to work for more hours & spend less. He laid great stress on Adi & Tawazen that is Justice & Equilibrium. He stressed labour; peasants & craftsmen should be justly rewarded. He also urged the traders & businessmen to adopt a fair system of trading & making money. His Death: Shah Waliullah was laid to rest in 1762, happy to saw the defeats of the Marhatas by Ahmed Shah Abdali but disappointed that Ahmed Shah did not stay back in India. His sons & followers ably continued his work. Under his successors the Madrassa-I-Rahimya also continued to flourish.

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SYED AHMED SHAHEED BARAILVI (1786-1831)
Syed Ahmed’s Birth & Education: Syed Ahmed was born near Lucknow in the town of Rae Bareli. He was faithful following of Shah Abdul Aziz. In 1806 he enrolled in Madrassa of Shah Waliullah (Madrassa-I-Rahimiya). Hs graduated from Madrassa & joined a Pathan military force led by Amir Khan. He learnt about European weaponry including use of Artillery. In 1821 he went for Haji & returned to Deihi in 1823 with a clear vision of Jihad He soon founded the “Jihad Movement” which was aimed at nothing less than the rejuvenation & restoration of Muslim power. Syed Ahmed’s Aim & Objectives as A Muslim: The purpose of Syed Ahmed’s life & struggle was not only confined to the spread of islam by preaching & persuasions but he believed in taking practical steps for this purpose. The main purpose before Syed Ahmed & his followers was the establishment of a state, which was based on the Islamic principles. His approach to freedom was based on the armed struggle & confrontation against the foreign (British) & non Muslim forces. Syed Ahmed’s Jihad Movement: Born on Azah-Born on Friday Players. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barailvi Started his Jihad Movement” from Punjab & N.W.F.P. The Punjab was under sikh ruler Ranjit Singh who had imposed tax on beard, banned “Azaan” & other religious activities of the Muslims. The Punjab also seemed a logical location from which to start a Jihad as it was the only area in the subcontinent not under muslim or British control. In addition, because the Afghan & Pathan tribes would tribes would be ready to assist them, there was no danger of being surrounded on both sides by hostile forces. Syed ahmed visited towns around the Punjab & the united provinces to whip up support & was joined by notable Muslim support (shah ismail shaheed, grand son of shah waliullah. The initial force of a few hundred men led by syed ahmed could not reach the area directly from Delhi for obvious reasons & so had to proceed through the long & difficult route through rajashan, sindh & Balochistan until they reached Kabul. A part from the obvious need to avoid the sikh forces at this stage. Syed ahmed also collected support & troops along the way. In 1826 he established his headquater to naushera & sent a massage to ranjit singh eithere accept islam or get ready for war. Ranit singh used degrading remarks against islam & the muslims. The 1st battle against Sikhs was fought in 1826 in okara & 2nd battle at Hazro both won by the muslims. The end of 1830 captured Peshawar by the forces of jihad. This success encouraged other pathan tribes to join syed ahmed jihad movement & the number of people reached up to 80,000. SASB wanted a jihad to restore the muslim faith. The Punjab was under the sikh and Punjabi muslims found it difficult to plactice their religion and were humiliated by the Sikhs.

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Causes of Failure of Jihad Movement:1. After the successes in the wars against Sikhs, Ranjit Singh created disruption in the camp of the Mujahideen through his agents who called the reforms of Syed Ahmed as UnIslamic.A conspiracy was hatched against, the movement & an attempt was made on the life of Syed Ahmed by poisoning him, which he survived. Sardar Yar Muhammad was bribed to betray to Syed Ahmed & joined the Sikhs against Mujahideen.Some misunderstanding arose between the pathans & the Mujahideen & the Pathans now deserted the Movement. Syed Ahmed was still hopeful & he now shifted his headquarters to Balakot. He met the Sikhs again in 1831 at Balakot. A serve & courageous battle took place where Syed Ahmed, Shah Ismail & many of the Mujahideen lost their lives. Lack of cooperation between the followers of Syed Ahmed & local Pathan tribes. Lack of proper funds to provide for different expenses of the Movement. Poor war equipment. Lack of proper military training in the Mujahideen fighters.

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After capturing Peshawar, Syed Ahmed tried to introduce Islamic system of Government, which out down the influence of Tribal chiefs & thus created dissatisfaction.

Past Paper Questions November 2002 Q-1) why did Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barailvi wish to revive islam in the Sub-Continent? [7] Possible Examination Questions Q-1) why was Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barailvi a very suitable person to lead opposition to the British? Q-2) what role did Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barailvi play in opposing the Sikhs? Q-3) what were the reasons for the failure of the Jihad Movement?

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HAJI SHARIATULLAH (1781-1840)
Introduction:Ever since the loss of independence, the Muslims of India were not only hovering in the domain of uncertainly but also many un-islamic ideas were taking place in the minds of Muslims. It was at that time that some Muslim thinkers throught that unless the Muslim were brought back to the teachings of the Quran & Hadis, would not be possible to save Muslims from their ruin. This shows that growth or Religion & national Movements in the subcontinent was not a spontaneous act. All these movements started not only in one part of Indo-Pakistan but throughout the country. One of the movements started by Haji Shariatullah in Bengal was Faraizi Movement’.

Haji Shariat Ullah’s Birth & Education: -

Haji Shariatullah was born in the district of Faridpur in the year 1781. After receiving his early education in his village he got an opportunity to perform Haji at the age of 18 He stayed there in Hejaz for 20 years & studied religion & Arabic. He returned to Bengal in 1806. During his stay in Arabia he was greatly impressed by doctrines of sheikh Mohammad Abdul Wahab who had intiated the Wahabi Movement in Arabia.

Conditions Of The Muslims In Bengal & Reasons Of Starting The Faraizi Movement By Haji Shariatullah: When Haji Shariatullah came back to Bengal from Arabia, he was in much pained to see the miserable conditions of the Bengal Muslims. The British traders & the Hindu Zamindars were giving them a rough treatment. The Muslims there had also gone far away form the paths of the true religions Islam being influenced by the Hindus; they were sunk in various superstitions. Haji Shariatullah was deeply moved by these prevailing conditions of the Muslims of Bengal & decided to improve it. Thus he started the Faraizi Movement among the Muslims. The Faraizi Movement: Haji Shariatullah started his Faraizi Movement, The Faraizi Movement emphasized on performing of Faraiz, which were the religious duties, imposed by Allah. He also asked his Muslim brothers to give up all the un-Islamic practices. His followers thus came to be known as Faraizi’. Furthermore Haji Shariaullah utterly disliked the expressions of Pir (Master) & Murid (Disciple) & desired them to be replaced with the title of Ustad (Teacher) & Shagird (Student). He believed that these titles signified a complete submission by relationship between Ustad & Shagird.

Adopting Tauba: Haji shariat ullah urged from his followers to adopt ‘Tauba’ as a manifestation of repentance for all the past sins & a pledge to lead a righteous & God-fearing life in future. His followers as already mentioned were known as Faraizi. His movement brought the Muslim peasants together against the cruel treatment by the Hindus Zamindars. Declaring India as Dar-ul-Harb: Haji Shariatullah declared India as Dar-ul-Harb (Lands of Infidels) where Eid & Friday prayers could not be offered. The Movement of Haji Shariatullah was direct, Jihad against the religious oppression & superstitions. It infused a new life among the Bengali Muslims & especially among the peasants. With this movement his sowed the seed of independence in Bengal. He thus brought a renaissance in the history of Bengal & Prepared the ground for his successors for future works.

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Opposition of Hindu Zamindars against Haji Shariatullah: Haji Sahib was greatly opposed by the Hindus who were disturbed by the unity of the Muslim peasants. They started harassing him by putting up false cases against him. Ultimately he was forced to leave Dhaka. He thus returned to his birthplace in faridpur district & continued his religious preaching & fighting against the non-islamic forces. His Death: Haji Shariatullah breathed his last in the year 1840 & was succeeded by his son Dadu Main who continued his father’s movement. Possible Examination Questions Q-1) Why did Haji Shariat Ullah mean by Dar-Ul-Harb? Q-2) Why was Haji Shariat Ullah’s movement called the Faraizi Movement? Q-3) Why did Hindu Landlords drive Haji Shariat Ullah out of East Bengal? Q-4) Why did the British imprison Mohsin ud-Din?

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WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 1857 (Meerut May 1857 – August 1858 Allahabad)
The revolt of 1857 was the important landmark in the history of the sub-continent. It marked the beginning of the country’s struggle for independence after 150 years of foreign rule. The revolt of the sepoys accompanied by the civilians was so strong that the foundation of British rule in indo-pakistan weas shaken. It seemed for sometime that the company’s rule had disappeared from the land. The causes of the war of independence were political, social economic & religious: 1. Political Causes: - The English East Indian company had been growing fast over the sub-continent ever since the battle of Plessey 1757; soon afterwards in 1764 the British got yet another victory in the battle of Buxar against the Indians. The victory at Buxar brightened the prospects of the company in India. By 1818 practically all the Indian states had either been annexed or had entered into a treaty with the British. a. Annexation Policy of the British: - The Britishers through their diplomacy continued to expand their rule by annexing different states of the sub-continent for example Sindh, Mysore, Oudh, etc as a result their territorial limits also increased. Doctrine of Lapse: - Lord Dalhousie applied a new policy for the expansion of the British Empire, which was called ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ in 1852. According to the doctrine the rulers of state were not allowed to adopt sons. As a result their states were annexed many states like Oudh, Jhansi, Behar etc through this doctrine. These annexations created a sense of insecurity among the general public. They became suspicious of the British policies. Before the introduction of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’, the replacement of both Sanskrit & Persian by English as the official language in 1834 had further upset both the Hindus & Muslims. Confiscation of Property of Nobles: - It was decided by the past rulers that the nobles were always granted large estates which served as a source of income for them. The British Government reversed this policy & confiscated thousand of such states. As a result thousands of affected persons went against the company. That is why when the war broke out those landlords were in the front-line.

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2. Economic Causes: - The new agrarian policy of the British, destruction of the local industries, unemployment & monopoly of the British traders were some important economic causes of the war. a. Agrarian Policy: - The new agrarian policy introduced by the British Government shook the foundations of the village communities. The Zamindars were now asked to provide documents to proof about their land holdings. If they failed to do so then their properties were confiscated. In addition the rates of taxes on the lands were also increased due to which thousands of zamindars were in great problem. Destruction of Local Industries: - As a result of the industrial revolution in England, cheaper & superior goods now flowed in Indian markets. The local industries could not compete with the imported goods, as a result the local industries badly suffered. Unemployment: - The British did not trust the Indians due to this factor Indians were not appointed on important jobs especially on the higher posts. The higher posts were now reserved for the British only. This policy resulted in unemployed & many educated Indians were now without a job. Due to destruction of local industries (cottage industries) left millions of people jobless especially among lower classes. Religious Causes: Propagation of Christianity: - Although in the beginning the English had shown respect towards all religions, yet with the passage of time they changed their mind & devised ways & means of propagation of Christianity in India. The missionaries wre sent to India from England for preaching. They did their preaching mainly on the public places with the support of British Government. Bible was included in the syllabus of different school. More ever the British Government now passed a law according to which the convents were allowed to keep their ancestral properties. Anti-religious Laws: - The British Government introduced certain laws which were against the prevailing religions of the sub-continent. For example the windows were allowed to remarry which

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greatly offended the Hindus & so did the banning of the sati custom in 1829. The British Government banned Pardan.

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Military Causes: Disbandment of Armies of the annexed states: - The British had annexed many states of the subcontinent on the basis of the doctrine of lapse. Now they declared that the armies of these annexed states were banned. This action of their left thousands of local soldiers unemployed. As the British Army marches into Afghanistan, it created problem Because the Hindu soldiers did not want to leave what they saw as ‘Mother India’ The Muslims soldiers were also unhappy with having to fight fellow Muslims.

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Greased Cartridges: - The British introduced a new kind of cartridges which were greased in cow’s & pig’s fat & the soldiers were required to chew the top & then use it. Since there were both Muslims & Hindus soldiers in the army; they became too agitated with this new introduction as pig is consider Haram for Muslims & cow is a sacred animal for the Hindus. Now both communities refused to use these new cartridges. Causes of the Failure of the Revolt of 1857

War of independence 1857 was over officially in August 1858. Although the people made great sacrifices and waged a heroic struggle to end the foreign domination; the attempt to expel British failed due to number of reasons: There was absence of fully organized plan and coordination between the freedom fighters; they fought like rabbles in different groups at various places. Even there was no coordination between the local rulers who were fighting individually so they were defeated easily by the British troops. British troops numerically inferior were superior to the armies of the local soldiers; they were well trained, well equipped and well disciplined. The British also had advantage of effective and adequate military equipments and resources. Their control over telegraph and postal system enable them to gather information from various fronts of the war and issue necessary instructions. There was very little unity and the sense of nationalism amongst the Indian states. The rising was led by princes and big landlords. They were temporarily united to achieve a single common goal of throwing out British from India. Most of the rulers were fighting to restore their own regional authority and restoration and the protection of their own rights. Many of the prominent states for example Hyderabad, Gwalior and Nepal remained loyal to the British. Rulers of Kashmir and Punjab assisted British government during the rising. Apart from the Rani of Jhansi (Lakshmi Bar) and Nana Sahib there was no capable central leadership who could unite whole population. The last Mughal King was too old and weak and was not fit to be the leader of the rebel’s army. The British succeeded in bribing certain freedom fighters in the Indian camp. These traitors betrayed their own men & sided with the British troops, which resulted a great loss to Indians. Impact of the War of Independence 1857 Bahadur Shah Zafar the last Mughal emperor exiled by the British to Rangoon in Burma and Mughal rule (Muslim Rule) was ended from India forever. War of independence also put an end to the rule of British East India Company and crown rule was established. British held Muslim responsible for the rising because they were the chief fighters and Muslims of India wanted to restore Muslim Rule n India. On other hand Hindu had no such desire. Hindu joined hand with British and started a revengeful policy to crush Muslims in all fields of life. Soon after the War of Independence British government realized that some of their earliest policies were wrong for example abolition of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ and change n the policy of annexation; they did much to correct them in next 50 years.

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CAUSES OF DOWNFALL OF MUGHAL EMPIRE The Mughal refused to learn and accept the new trends in academics and military. Consequently, British who were fully equipped with these new trend s dominated them. The conquering of Mughal during the Akbar period was vast and continous due to which wealth and treasures were unlimited & these areas were difficult to control. Too many officers were appointed in the government; the expenditure of their salaries weakened the edconomy. After Akbar, the following rulers distributed and threw this wealth with both hands. The office bearers became leisure lovers. The son of Akbar (Jehangir) wasted this wealth in the construction of domes & forts. After Jehangir, Noor Jehan also spent the wealth lavishly & indiscriminately. The Mughals though skilled in land warfare were no match for the British who were a seafaring nation. After Akbar the Mughals did not make any major attempts to improve their arms & weapons. When dynasties are in power for long period, it is easy to imagine that success will continue forever. This happened with the Mughals, who lat their army’s expertise decline until it was no longer an effective force. It should also not be forgotten that it was true that huge sums were wasted when emperors died and there was succession dispute. Jagirdars were sqeezing too much revenue out of the peasants & this ruined the agricultural economy of the jagir. Rulers were busy in expanding the empire, so they got little time in consolidating their hold in all the parts of the empire. The huge empire was very difficult to administer. Decisions often had to be relayed over thousands of miles. Obviously emperors could not know exactly what was happening in every part of empire. This is one reason why Aurangzeb encouraged the use of mansabdars. With the weak control from the center, the mansabadari system was not sufficiently supervised and administrative efficiency declined. Discontent grew and revenue from tax collection declined. Industrial Revolution started in the west, development in education & new farm implements while in the east decline of Mughal rule was obvious. After the death of Orang Zeb, his grand son Jehandar set on throne that took the lavish life to its height. He made Lal kunwar his friend who with the help of his friends & relatives was bestowed upon the wealth & properties having no limits. As a result of this lavish expenditure, the treasury became empty. With these moral evils of Mughals, the curse of Marhatas & the attack of Nadir Shah Durrani completed the story of down fail of Mughal rule in this sub-continent. The Mughal Empire was huge and within the empire there was an array of different peoples and different religions. As Mughals were continually fighting rebellions, there was always a pressure of the empire from suparalist elements. The cost of putting down rebellions and fighting wars against invaders, such as Nadir Shah from Persia was enormous. The Mughal Empire was is serious decline by the end of the 18th century. The weakness of the Mughal Empire, together with the strength of the British, meant the fail of one mightiest dynasty in history was almost inevitable.

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THE EAST INDIA COMPANY & BRITISH COLONIAL RULE IN NORTHERN & NW INDIA The English had always desired to trade with India & their main interest were ‘Spices and Christians’, but the English were not the 1st Europeans to do trade with India in 1498 Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gamma visited India and established a base in Goa in 1510. in 1600, Queen Elizabth I, granted a charter to British East India Company, giving it a monopoly for all British trade east of Africa. The 1st serious effort made by the British for trade with India was made in 1608 through Captain Hawkins who requested the Mughal Emperor Jehangir to set up a factory in Surat. The request was turned down (pressure by the Portuguese). In 1612 another request was made through Sir Thomas Roe, which was accepted by khurram (Future Shah Jehan) and thus the company setup its factory at Surat. In 1615 British Company had a minor battle with Portuguese to remove their from India. In 1640 the English built fort (head office) at Madras. In 1681 they got a charter to keep warships, soliers and weapons for the defense of their factories. In 1674 the got a charter to keep warships, soldiers and weapons for the defense of their factories. In 1674 the British moved their heaquarters to Bombay and founded the town of Calcutta in 1690. Auranzeb suspected the East India Company of Issuing their own coins and avoiding taxes. In 1691 Auranzeb fought with the British and defeated them and they have to pay a huge fine, if they wanted to trade in India. After acquiring all the important coastal strategic bases in India the company made some changes in their policies and started to get involved in the administration of India. In 1751 a brief war broke out between British and France, which was won by British. Battle of Plassey 1757: The province of Bengal was one of the largest and the richest province of India. It was also economically very important due to its natural resources and trade. A fierce battle took place at Plassey in 1757 in which due to the treachery of Mir Jaffer the Nawab of Bengal Sirajudalla was defeated. The company then appointed Mir Jaffer as the new Nawab of Bengal as promised. Battle of Buxar 1764: In 1764 the victory at Battle of Buxar meant that EIC also received trading rights from Nawab of Oudh as well as new territory. The EIC had been established to gain as much profit as possible but its greed after battle of Buxar embarrassed the British government. The company made huge profit from its monopoly of the trade in Bengal and company merchants become accustomed to receiving personal ‘gifts’, which increased their wealth, whilst they made huge profits, the local people were exploited and many died in a serious famine, which hit Bengal. Act of Parliament 1773: The British government was forced to act to try to stop this misgovernment. In 1773 it passed an Act of Parliament, which required the EIC to provide good government to stop this anarchy. Then in 1784 the British government passed the India Act and took direct control of the Indian possessions. It appointed a Governor-General, who would control of the three presidencies (Bombay, Madras and Calcutta). There would also be Provincial governor and a C-in-C of the armed force. The EIC continued to trade, but lost most of its administrative powers. In 1784 the first British Governor General of India, warren Hastings, signed a treaty ending the First Maratha war between the British and Marathas. This gave the British the opportunity to extend their influence elsewhere.

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O LEVEL HISTORY NOTES SECTION 2

BY SIR HAMZA MUHAMMAD ALI
O/A LEVEL GUIDES AND NOTES | www.o-alevel.com

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PARTITION OF BENGAL 1905
Bengal was a big adminstrative unit under the British rule had been finally established in India. It began to be felt that Bengal should be split up into two parts for administrative convenience. It was also the first major politial crises faced by British after winning the control on subcontinent. REASONS FOR THE PARTITION: The main reason for the partition of Bengal was that since it was a large province with a population of 85million people, so it was not possible for one governor to control it. The population of Bengal comprised of both Muslims & Hindus. Among them 58million was Hindus & 27million were Muslims. The British claimed that Bengal was too large to govern as one province and that it would be more efficient to govern it as two smaller province. In 1903 Viceroy Curzon proposed that Bengal should be partitioned into West Bengal and East Bengal. It was two years before the proposal was put into effect, but in 1905 the British partitioned Bengal as Curzon suggested. THE PARTITION: The partition of Bengal came into force on 16th October in 1905, according to which Bengal was divided into two provinces: (A) East Bengal & Assam with Dhaka as its capital. The eastern province would include Assam and three districts previously considered to be a part of West Bengal, Dhaka, Chittagong and Mymensingh. It had a population of 31million people out of which 18 million were muslims. (B) West Bengal with Calcutta its capital. It had a population of 54million out of which 45million was Hindus. REACTION OF MUSLIMS & HINDUS ON PARTITION: The muslims greatly welcomed the partitiopn and felt jublicant over it because in the newly created East province, they were in majority. On 22nd October 1905 a large number of Muslims met at Dhaka & appreciated thanks giving prayers to celebrate the establishment of the new province. Now at last the Muslims had true recognition - a province in which they were in th majority. This would enable million of Muslims to escape from the oppression of Hindu rule. The Hindus on the other hand reacted violently to the partiiton because they had been holiding a privilege position in the socio-economic life of Bengal till the partition took place. They now believed that they loose their status & declared that the partiiton was an attempt to weaken & divide Bengal and called it " Divide and rule " policy of British. The Hindus grealty opposed this partition & started a movement generally know as " Swadeshi Movement " in which they boycotted all English goods. Many Hindus observed he partition day as the day of National mourning. Even the Indian national congress supported the Hindus. THE ANNULMENT OF THE PARTITION: Since 1908 the Congress leaders had been spreading the story that hte government was thinking of repeating of the partition of Bengal bit hte government stood firm on its decision, which had taken in 1905, but this did not discourage Hindus. They launched a movement for boycott the British goods. The muslims were also asked to participate in it but they refused to do so. Their refusal caused more agitation among the Hindus & led to Hindu-Muslim riots. Even there was an assassination attempt from Hindus on the future viceroy Lord Minto. The muslims who were only relying on the assurance given to them by the British which was soom disillusioned when in 1910, Sir John Jenkins, a member of the Viceroy's Executive Council, made a proposal for the capital of British Indian Empire to be shifted to Delhi from Calcutta and suggested that partition of Bengal should be reversed. Lord Hardinge the new Viceroy agreed to reverse the partition of Bengal. King Georgve V, who was visting India, announced the decision at a Durbar in Delhi.

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EFFECTS OF ANNULMENT ON THE MUSLIMS: The reversal of the partition was bitterly opposed by the Muslims, but the British were not to be moved. The muslims now realized just how vital it was that the Muslim league prospered if Muslim were to receive fair treatment in India. They now had lost all their hopes & created feeling of distrust among the Muslims about British. The deep disappointment caused by annulment of the Partition, however indirectly served to quicken the growth of the Muslim politics. They became politically more consicious. They came to the decision that they could not trust the British Government fot the protection of their rights. JUNE 2009 (c) ‘The reasons for partitioning Bengal in 1905 were more important than those that caused its reversal in 1911.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement. (1–2) It wanted to be free. LEVEL 2: Description of partition and/or reversals. (3–6) Bengal was too large and needed partitioning. Hindus were in the majority and wanted reunification. LEVEL 3: Explains reasons for partition OR reversal. (7–10) LEVEL 4: Explains BOTH. (9–13) Partition Supporters of Partition among the British thought it would be sensible to divide up the province for administrative convenience. Bengal was very large and producing significant administrative problems. By doing this, the British felt that the province would be easier to administer, especially at the time of a new British government in power. Many Muslims supported Partition because they believed that it would give them dominance in the new province. Of the 54 million people in pre-Partition Bengal, 42 million were Hindus, but a new separate East Bengal would have a Muslim majority. Reversal Congress argued that Partition was part of the British ‘divide and rule’ policy which would weaken India and Indian unity. Major protest (meetings and mass rallies) organised by Congress, supported by many Hindus, was so great that it caused the British to reconsider it. Many Hindus started a mass boycott of British goods under the ‘Swadeshi Movement’. A few extreme Hindus adopted terrorist behaviour and, among other attacks, attempted to assassinate Lord Minto. LEVEL 5: As Level 4: also produces a judgement or evaluation. (14) June 2007: (b) Why did the British decide to reverse the partition of Bengal in 1911? LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement [1] The Hindus didn’t like it. LEVEL 2: Identifies reasons [2-4] Hindus wanted to protest and banned British goods. LEVEL 3: Explains reasons [5-7] The Hindus’ objection to Partition was so great that it caused the British to reconsider it.

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Congress opposed it by holding meetings and there were mass rallies which put pressure on the British government. They thought it was a deliberate attempt to ‘divide and rule’ on the part of the British. The Hindus were so angry that they attempted to assassinate Lord Minto and started their boycott of British goods under the ‘Swadeshi Movement’. There was also an outbreak of terrorist activities. Further Lord Curzon, originator of the idea, was no longer viceroy so a change of policy was easier. JUNE 2006: (c) ‘Bengal was partitioned in 1905 because of geographical factors.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement It wanted to be free [1-2] LEVEL 2: Description of geographical or other factors It was too large and Hindus were in the majority. [3-6] LEVEL 3: Explains at least one factor [7-10] LEVEL 4: Explains at least two. Geographical factors to be explained for maximum marks Of the 54 million people in Bengal 42 million were Hindus. It seemed sensible to divide up the province on religious grounds and also because it was becoming very large and producing significant administrative problems. By doing this it was felt that the province would be easier to administer especially at the time of a new British government in power. The Muslims believed that partition would bring an end to Hindu oppression and that they would enjoy true recognition in a province in which they were in a majority. The Hindus believed that the partition would come about as part of the British ‘divide and rule’ policy which would weaken Hindu unity and its influence in the new East Bengal. [9-13] LEVEL 5: As Level 4 - also produces a judgement or evaluation [14] (Bajwa pages 97-98, Kelly pages 50-52)

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FORMATION OF MUSLIM LEAGUE, IT'S AIL & OBJECTIVES (1906)
Introduction: During the time of Sir Syed the need for a political party of the Muslims was not fully realized because as long as long as he live, he fully performed the functions of a political party but after his death there was a urgent need for a muslim political party. In 1885 when Indian national Congress (INC) was formed, Sir Syed advised the muslims not to join INC as this party was only working for the benefits of Hindus. By the 1900 the political conditions in India has showed that the Hndu-Muslim relations were not cordial any more & due to these unhealthy conditions the Muslims of Subcontinent forced to form their own political party apart from INC for the protection of their rights &also to fight for those rights which they were not given by the Government.

THE CAUSES OF FORMATION OF ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE (AIML):
A) Hindu Urdu Controversy: In 1898 INC demanded that India should be treated as cultural whole & Hindi should be declared as the official language of India. Some Muslim leaders launched a movement against these actions of INC but no result. B) Behaviour of different Hindu Organization: Hindu extremist group " ARYA SAMAJ " demanded that Muslims should be forcibly converted into Hinduism. C) Hindu Muslim riots: The frequent and never ending riots between Hindus and Muslims further strengthened the formation of seperate political party for the muslims. These riots generated the spirit on Muslims Nationalism among the Indian muslims. D) Reaction of the Hindus to the Partition of Bengal: The negative reaction of the Hindus when the government declared the partition of Bengal in 1905 further convinced the Muslims to establish their own seperate political organizations. E) Simla Deputation (1906): Lord Minto became a Viceroy of India in 1906 & it was felt that some constitution reforms would be introduced in India. Lord Minto was vacationing at Simla where a delegation of Muslims leaders led by Sir Aga Khan met him in 1906. The deputation demanded the seats in the legislatures, quota in government services & seats in courts for the Muslims. They also demanded for seperate electorate for the Muslims. Minto accpeted most of the demands & it was a great success for the Muslims. After the acceptance of demands from Lord Minto, now Muslims of India realized that it's high time to organize a political party, which can protect the rights of Muslims in India.

FORMATION OF ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE (AIML) IN 1906
The Mohammedan Educational Conference held its 20th annual session at Dhaka on 30th Dec 1906. After the meeting Nawab Salim Ullah Khan of Dhaka presented a resolution for the formation of political party for the muslims & suggested the name of "All India Muslim confederacy" for the organization. On 30th Dec 1906 All India Muslim league was formed in Dhaka. Nawab Viqal-ul-Mulk was appointed as the president & Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk as the general secretary. 1st annual session of AIML was held in 1907 in Karachi under the Chairmanship of Sir Adamjee Pir Bhai & 2nd Session in 1908 at Aligarh & Sir Aga Khan was appointed as the President & Bilgrami as the new secretary General. POLITICAL ROLE OF AIML FOR THE MUSLIMS OF THE SUBCONTINENT: With the establishment of AIML in 1906, the Muslims of India came to have their own political party. Later on this party turned into large & the role representative of the Indian Muslims in the freedom movement.

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After the partition of Bengal as the Hindu agitation grew more intense, more & more Muslims left the INC & joined the AIML. Quaid-e-Azam also joined AIML in 1913. The AIML held its first &last joined session with INC in LUCKNOW in 1916. For the time it started & till the creation of Pakistan it showed great progress & provided help for the Indian Muslims in getting a seperate state for themselves. During the course of its journey it corssed many paths like Lucknow Pact, Khilafat movement, Non Co-operation Movement, Simon Commision, Jinnah's 14 points & elections of 1937 & 1945. JUNE 2009 (b) Why was the Muslim League established in 1906? LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement. (1) They wanted their own party. LEVEL 2: Identifies reasons. (2–4) Muslims were not united. Congress was seen by some as a party for Hindus, not all Indians. LEVEL 3: Explains reasons. (5–7) The belief among some that Muslim rights would not be advanced if they continued to rely on the Indian National Congress. They saw it as an organisation which would only advance Hindu views. Congress was demanding that India should be treated as a cultural whole and Hindi should be declared the official language. By not organising a Muslim group, they saw that they would continue to be disorganised and disunited. Even more worrying to some Muslims was the growth of tiny extreme Hindu nationalist groups demanding that Muslims be forcibly converted to Hinduism. Equally, they saw a way to increase their influence with the British and gain better terms for Muslims (because many British saw India as organised and divided on religious lines). Therefore, a number of prominent Muslims founded the League.

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NOV 2006 (b) Why was the Simla Delegation of 1906 an important turning point for the Muslims of the sub-continent? LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement, for example: They got on better with the British. [1] LEVEL 2: Identifies reasons, for example: It led to a separate electorate for Muslims and the formation of the Muslim League. [2-4] LEVEL 3: Explains reasons, for example: The Muslim demands for separate representation, election by only Muslim voters and weightage in all elected bodies were accepted by the British. This resulted in a sudden upturn in Muslim-British relations and helped to remove the previous bad feelings between the 2 sides. It also paved the way for demands for a separate homeland with the granting of a separate electorate. It also guaranteed Muslims an independent role in the political process and as a result led to the formation of the All-Indian Muslim League later in the year. [5-7] June 2005 (b) Why was the Muslim League founded in 1906? LEVEL 1: Simplistic statement They wanted a party of their own 1 LEVEL 2: Identifies reasons The Muslims were disorganised and disunited. The Indian National Congress was an Hindu organisation 2-4 LEVEL 3: Explains reasons Muslim rights would not be advanced if they continued to rely on the Indian National Congress. It was seen as an organisation which would only advance Hindu views. The Congress was demanding that India should be treated as a cultural whole and Hindi should be declared the official language. By not organising a Muslim group they would continue to be disorganised and disunited. Even more worrying was the growth of extreme Hindu nationalist groups who demanded that Muslims be forcibly converted to Hinduism. Therefore, a number of prominent Muslim leaders founded the Muslim League .

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MORLEY- MINTO REFORMS (INDIAN COUNCILS ACT 1909)
Three years after the formation of the AIML, Morley-Minto Reforms were introduced in 1909, which contained the most important demand of AIML. In 1905 Lord Minto as Viceroy replaced Lord Curzon & in 1906 John Morley was appointed as Secretary of State for India.Both Lord Minto and Secretary of State John Morley were convinced that the Indian's demanded for an increased share in the government of their country was fully justified. They worked together to draw up a series of reforms, which were passed by the British Parliament in 1909 as the Indian Councils Act (popularly known as Morley Minto reforms). The main provisions of these reforms were: (i) Muslims representatives to the councils were elected by a seperate Muslim only electorate. (ii) The imperial Council was increased to 60 members by adding more 'no-official memebers'. However the British retained control by ensuring that the majority of members were "official" (iii) Members of Central Executive Council were permiited to discuss budget, administration, official policies & matters of general importance. (iv) Provincial Councils were also increased to 50members in the larger provinces and 30 in smaller provinces. The most important consequence of the reforms was the accpetance of the separate electrorate for Muslims. The Hindus argued that this was undemocratic and for the next 25 years. Congress was to pass an annual resolution calling for an end to separate electorates. The Morley Minto reforms increased the numbers of Indian sitting on the councils but it must be remembered that the councils had no real powers. Their functions were purely advisory. The British did not intend that locals should have the power to change government policy. The British acceptance of the rights of the muslims to have seprate electorates was its mai feature & the 1st step towards Pakistan. Although the INC disappointed because they hoped for more but it recognized the act because it was the 1st step towards selfrule. The ultimate constitution making power was in the hands of British Government. Nov 2008: b) Why did Congress oppose the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909? Nov 2005: c) Were the Morley-Minto reforms the most important attempt by either the Muslims, the Hindus or the British in seeking a solution to the problems in the sub-continent between 1906 and 1920? Explains your answer.

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LUCKNOWPACT (1916)
In 1915 both the Muslim league and Congress had their annual meeting in Bombay. Muslim leaague partly with the urging of Jinnah had included the demand for self rule in their program which delighted the congress and committees comprising of muslim league and congress were formed to try to reach some common grounds of understanding. This feeling of co operation led to the first major experiment and the two parties tried to fig common political ground against the British. This culminated in 1916 with Lucknow Pact. Jinnah borught both the parties closer. Jinnah led Muslim league while Ambeka Charan led Congress. It was the greatest effort of Jinnah to bring both the nations closer because he always tried his best to bring the Hindus and the Muslims closer to each other. After this pact M.A.Jinnah was given the title of ' The Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity' Main Provision of the Pact: 1) The Congress accepted separate electorate for Muslims. 2) 1/3rd seats would be reserved for Muslims in central legislature. 3)Muslims and Hindus would be given weighted in the provinces where they formed minority. 4) No bill affecting any particular communtiy would proceed with in any council if 1/3rd of the representatives of that commnunti opposed it. COMMON SET OF DEMANDS PRESENTED BEFORE THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT: * The number of elected seats on the counsils should be increased. * Motions, which were passed by large majorities in the councils should be accpeted as binding by the British government. * Minorities in the provinces should be protected. * All provinces should have autonomy Importance: Congress for the first time recongnized Indian Muslims as a seperate nation by accpeting electorates. It was the first and last time that both AIML & INC were jointly agreed by the set of constitutions reforms and political demands against the Briths. Most of the Constitutional features of the pact were later incoporate in the reforms of 1919. Nov 2004: c) The lucknow pact of 1916 was the only beacon of hope for Hindu-Muslims unity between 1914 and 1930. “ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.

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MONTAGUE CHELMFORD REFORMS (MONTAGUE REPORT)(1919) (GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1919)
In the middle of 1918 Secretary of state for India Edwin Montage and the Victory Lord Chelmsford published a report on Indian constitutional reforms, which were sent to the Government for approval and was enforced in 1919. It wa the 1st time that an official British document mentioned the possiblity of self-rule by the Indians in all internal matters. Its main recommendations were as follow: 1) Bicameral legislature was established in the center. The time period of the Upper House (Council of State) was to be 5 years and that of the Lower house (legislative Assembly) to be 3years. 2) Seperate electorates were kept for the Muslims and the Sikhs. 3) System of "Diarchy" was introduced in the provinces which gave authority to the central government to interfere in the provincial matters. 4) Ou of 103 seats of the Legislative assembly 32 seats were reserved for the Muslims. 5) The council of State would have 60 members, 33 og whom would be elected. 6) Council of Princess was set up with 108 members to allow the princes to debate matters of Importance. 7) The British also claimed that they were extending voting rights to more local people, but new regulation still meant that only 5.5 million (2%) of India's 250 million populations could vote. The Monatgue Chelmsford reforms were set out in the Government of India Act of 1919. These reforms disappointd the Muslims league and Congress because many Indians had fought with the British in the !st world wa and they expected much greater concessions. Congress and Muslim league had recently come together, calling for self-rule. Congress split into factions over the acceptance of these refors while Muslim league could not get any concrete suggestion about selfrule. Hwevr both parties accepted it. The Rowlatt Act: The Britsh had offered concessions in Montague Chelmsford Reforms, which they hoped would win the support of the Indian people. However, they had every intention of taking strong and effective action against any element in India,which opposed British rule. In December 1917, a committee was formed under Justice Rowlatt to investigate revolutionary activity in India. The Rowlett Act was passed in 1919 and the purpose was to deal with those who did not accept Montford report. This act included the right of arrest without a warrant and detention without bail; In reactions M.A Jinnah resigned from the Imperial Legislative Council in protest and Gandh called strikes against the proposals. The Punjab faced the most profound impact of Rowlett Act in Amitsar. A meeting that had been organized was banned by the Government but the organizers Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus decided to go there. In that peaceful demonstration there were 20 thousands people at Jallianwala Bagh. A British officer General Dyer ordered all exits to be sealed off and for soldiers to open fire without warning on unarmed civilians. Around 4 hundreds people were killed in Jallian wala Bagh Massacre. Conclusion: It was the first time that an official British document mentioned the possiblity of selfrule by the Indians in all internal matters. These reforms disappointed the Muslims and the Hindus because they both and hoped for more concessions. This meant that the British had a tight grip in local bodies and there were only minor concessions.

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THE KHILAFAT MOVEMENT(1919)
At the beginning of 1st world war (1914) seat of Khilafat was held by Turkey (Ottoman Empire). In the frist world war, the Turks had fought on the side of the Germany and Au Train Empire agaisnst Britain, France and Russia. British wanted Indian Muslims to fight in the war against the Turks, but they knew that British would respect the rights of the Khalifa and Turkish Empire would be maintained. As a result of this promise thousands of Muslims joined the British Army. Turkish side defeated at the end of the war. Muslims all over the world were concerned with how Turkey would be treated. Istanbul had been the home of Caliphate and the Turkish Sultan was recognized as the Khalifa or caliph. The Allies hpoed to destroy the Ottoman Empire by encouraging, Turkey to become a nation rather than an empire. The treaty Of Versailles set out to divide Germany into two parts. KHILAFAT COMMITTEE: The Muslims of India decided to launch a movement for the safeguard of the institution of Caliphate and to manifest their resentment over actions the Allies had taken in Turkey. A “Khilafat Committee” was set up in 1919 to conduct and to organize the Khilfat movement with Maulana Shaukat Ali as its General Secretary. Congress also supported this movement under Abdul Kalam Azad. This movement was launched to pressurize the British into keeping their promises. In Novemeber 1919 the 1st Khilafat Conference was held in Delhi. Gandhi was also present at the Conference. A resolution was alos passed asking the muslims as religious duty to adopt the policy of non-cooperation with the British. In December 1919 the 2nd Khilafat Conference was held in Amritsar. At the same time both Congress and muslims League were also meeting the city. It was agreed that all three organizations should work together to oppose plans to dismember the Turkish empire. Khilafat Delegation: The khilafat delegation left for England in march 1919 under the leadership of Maulana Mohammed Ali Johar and met the Prime Minister Lloyd George. The Prime minster refused to accept any arguments extended by the Khilafat Delegation and it failed without achieving its purpose. While the delegation was still in Europe the terms of the treaty of Severs with turkey was announced. According to these terns; institution of Khilafat was abolished. Turkey was reduced only to Turkish orgin area. Allied divided the non-Turkish part of Ottoman Empire among themselves. Non-Cooperation Movement: In August 1920 a full scale Non-Cooperation Movement was launched in with the collaboration with Gandhi. Gandhi came forward with their full support for the movement. Indians were asked to give up Government. Services, renounce title and boycott courts of law and British goods, walk out of schools and colleges. Gandhi assured the people that if this movement would be in a united, disciplined and non-violent fashion, they would attain “Swaraj or Self-Rule” with in a year. The Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement took the shape of mass movement. This was the most serious political threat that the British faced after the War of independence 1857. Hindu-Muslim unity was at its height. The congress cleverly decided to use Muslim agitation to press the British for the further concession on self-rule and to show the Muslims that the hindu Muslims unity was beneficial. Quaid-e-Azam was not in favour of Gandhi’s non-cooperation program because he thought that it might be violent, so he reisgned from Congress in 1920.

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HIJRAT MOVEMENT: It was a by-product of Khilafat Movement. In 1920 Abdul Kalam Azad and Maulana Abdul Bari gave a call for Hijrat Movement and urged the muslims to migrate to a place where they can freely pratice their religion,they called India as ‘dar-ul-Harb’. Nearly 18000 muslims mostly from Sind, NWFP and Punjab after selling their land and properties, migrated to Afghanistan. The Afghan Government welcomed them in the beginning but afterwards refuse to accept them. Many people perished in the way and those who returned back to India to find them homeless and doomed forever. As a result of this all muslims became backward in all fields of life. This migration to Afghanistan is known as the, “Hijrat Movement” in the history of India. CHAURA CHAURI INCIDENT: The non-cooperation movement was leading to violence and losing its momentum. In Feb. 1922 at Chaura Chauri in a village near UP a trouble erupted between the police and the demonstrating procession. The hostile mob set fire to the police station where 22policemen were burnt alive. Gandhi was so upset that he immediately and unilaterally called of non-cooperation movement doing great deal of damage to the entire Khilafat Movement.

REASONS FOR THE FAILURE OF KHILAFAT MOVEMENT:
* The non-violence, non-cooperative movement turned into violence. After the Chaura Chauri incident in feburary 1922, Gandhi himself called of the Non-Cooperation movement which caused a sever blow to the Khilafat Movement. * Gandhi and other muslim’s leader of the movement were arrested in 1922 with the arrest of leaders the movement lost its momentum.\ * Although the Khilafat Movement was the first movement in which Hindus and Muslims worked together, their unity was probably always doomed to failure. The Hindu aim for self rule was not really an objective of the muslims and Hindus were prepared to support the Muslims in protecting their religious right only as long as it helped move India towards the self-rule. * Hijrat Movement at critical stage was another blow for Muslims. Hijrat to Afghanistan where the Muslims were shocked by the lack of support from the Afghan governement. * On 3rd March 1924 the final and deadly blow was struck at the Khilafat movement by Mustafa Kamal Ata Turk Pasha who exiled Khalifa, Muhammad Vl and abolished Khilafat and established nationalist governement of Turkey.ss? June 2009: b) Explain the reasons for the failure of the Khilafat Movement? June 2006: b) Explain why the Khilafat Movement had failed by 1924? Nov 2008: c) ‘The Khilafat Movement failed by 1924 of poor leadership.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer?

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SIMON COMMSION(1927)
In 1927 British Government announced to send a seven-member commisiion under the Chairmanship of Sir John Simon to preapre the report for the new reforms. The commisiion had no Indian member, Congress and a section of Muslim league announced to boycott the commission. But a section of Muslim League headed by Mian Mohammad Shafi stood for co-operation with the commission. The commission completed its work and these recommendations were published in 1930. The Simon Commision Recommendation: * Abolition of Diarchy * federal form of government with maximum powers for the provinces. * Seperate electorates for Muslims. * Weight age for the Muslims in minority provinces. * Muslims demanded for the seperatio on Sind from Bombay and introduction of reforms in NWFP was not rejected but postponed. * Muslims should not be given one third of the seats in Central Legislature. In reaction Congress launched Civil Disobedience Movement against the recommendation of Simon Commission, Gandhi and Nehru both were arrested. Where as the Muslim league stayed aloof form the campaign.

DELHI PROPOSALS(1927)
In 1927 Mohammad Ali Jinnah called a conference of all Muslims leaders in Delhi to discuss the future of constitutional reforms and seperate electorates. These demands were known as the Delhi Proposals and were: 1) Sindh should be seperated from Bombay with full provincial status and all previous British reforms should be applied to the Frontier Province and Balochistan. 2) In Punjab and Bengal the allocated fewer seats should be corrected. 3) Muslims should be given one-third of the seats in the central legislature through joint electorates then the Muslims league would be prepared to give up separete electorates.

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NEHRU REPORT(1928)
The congress and Muslim leage had already rejected the recommendations of the Simon Commission. The Indian leaders accpeted the chllenge and convenced an All parties conference at Delhi in Feburary 1928 to prepare draft for the Constiutional reforms. A nine-member committee headed by Pundit Motilal Nehru ( father of Jawaharial Nehru) was established to draft the future Constitution of India. The representation of the Muslims in the committee was of an insignificant nature. Ali Imam and Shoaib Qureshi were the two Muslims representatives in the committee. Th report submitted by the committee is known as "Nehru Report" which contained the following major recommendations: 1) Full dominion Status for India(that the meant India would become independent, but remain a member of Common Wealth accpeting the British monarch as Head of State). 2) Seperate electorates and wieght ag were rejected. 3) The muslims were to get proportional representative in Central legislature. 4) Sindh should be seperated from Bombay. 5) Full provincial status to be given to NWFP and Balochistan. 6) India should have a unitary form of government with a strong center. 7) The vote for all adult men and women. 8) India to be a federation with a two chamber parliament. Muslims dislike the findings of the Nehru report as most of the Muslims demands were rejected. The recommendations of Nehru report were place for the final approval. In all parties Convection held at Calcutta in December 1928. The Muslims l eaders also attended the convection. At that occasion Quaid-e-Azam proposed three ammendments in the Nehru report which were as follow: 1) One-third representations for the Muslims in the Central legislature. 2) Muslims representation in the Punjab and Bengal on the basis of population. 3) Federal form of government with maximum powers (autonomy) for the provinces. Hindu majority rejected all these ammendments. It was last attempt M.A Jinnah to reconcile Congress with Muslim league. The Nehru report marked the end of any future cooperation between the Congress and the Muslim league. Leading Muslim figures were disillusioned with the Congress and were never trust it again.

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FOURTEEN POINTS OF QUAID-E-AZAM (1929)
In 1929 Quaid-e-Azam decided to give its own formula for the constitutional reforms in reply for Nehru Report. He convinced the meeting of the Muslim league in Delhi and gave his famous 14points formula: 1) The future constitution should be federal with powers resting with provinces. 2) All provinces should have same amount of autonomy. 3) Affective representation of all the minorities in all the legislatures and other elected bodies. 4) One-third Muslim representation in the Central Assembly. 5) All the minorities of India shall have the right to elect their members by seperate or joint electorates. 6) Muslims majority shall not be converted to minority in the Punjab, Bengal, and NWFP. 7) Full liberty of belief and worship shall be granted to all communties. 8) No bill shall be passed in any passed in any elected body if 3/4 of any communtiy in that body opposed it. 9) Sindh should be seperated from Bombay. 10) Reforms in NWFP and Balochistan should be introduced like other provinces. 11) Muslims should be given share in the services of state. 12) Safeguard for the protection of Muslim culture and promotion of Muslim eduation, language, religion and civilization. 13)One-third Muslims ministries in all the cabinets either central or provincial. 14) The federation of India must not change laws without consent of provinces With the rejections of 14points by the Congress and other Hindu leader, the Nehru report was also doomed and it created great deal of suspicion in the Muslims who were now seriously thinkg for a seperate homeland. June 2009: c) ‘The 14 points were Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s greates achievement in the years 1929 to 1947. ‘Do you agree? Explain your answer? Nov 2007 b) Why did Jinnah produce his 14points in 1929?

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ALLAMA IQBAL'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS AT ALLAHBAD(1930)
The fourteen point of Quaid-e-Azam created great confidence amongst the Muslims who gathered behind their leaders. The muslims were now fully aware of their distinct national character and identity. They were cinvinced that the Hindus an the Muslims were two seperate nations. The annual session of the muslim league was held at ALLAHBAD in 1930, which was presided over by Allama Iqbal. In the address Iqbal discuseed the political situation of the Subcontinent. His address is regarded as a document on Islam being the system of life. He declared Islam as a complete code of life and gave very sound and strong arguements in support of his views. He aws fully convinced that the Muslims of India would ultimately have to establish a seperate homeland, as they could not live with the Hindus in the united India. He viewd that Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and NWFP should be group together to make a seperate state, which should be given a dominion status within of outside the Brtish empire. Iqbal's address address further clarified the 'Two Nation Thoery' and demanded a seperate homeland for the muslims. It was the first occasion when a demand for a seperate homeland was made from the muslim league platform. IMPORTANCE OF ALLAMA IQBA'S ADDRESS TO THE PAKISTAN MOVEMENT: * Allama Iqbal was the 1st Muslim leader to suggest partition of the subcontinent in keeping with the two-nation theory. He has, therefore been called ‘The father of the ideology of Pakistan’ * His views acted as an ispiration to many Muslims who were uncertain about how to defend their religion and culture. Iqbal gave them a clear cut objective, as he set out a goal for Muslims to work towards a separate homeland. * Allama Iqbal was also the insiration for other Muslims leaders. In 1934 Chaudri Rehmat Ali’s Pakistan scheme was built upon his ideas. They were also to be the basis of Jinnah’s Pakistan Resolution in 1940.

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ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES(1930-32)
Simon Commission report that was finally published in may 1930, invited criticism from all iver India. Congress announced complete boycott and started civil disobedience movement under Gandhi’s command. Demonstrations and violence spread through out the country. Gandhi and Jawaharal Nehru were arrested. The political situation had become tensed in the country. British Government realized that without the cooperation of Indians it was not possible to introduced constitutional reforms in London. There were three sessions of Round Table Conference held at London during 1930 to 1932. First Round Table Conference (12 Nov. 1930-19 Jan 1931): In this conference all the parties were represented except Congress. Congress refused to attend unless there was a guarantee that any thing agreed at the Conference would be implemented. British Government gave no such guarantee. Congress declared that Swaraj- self rule. The Muslim decided to attended the Congress in spite of Congress boycott. Muslim delegation included Sir Aga Khan, M.A Johar, Maulvi Fazaal-ul-Haq and M.A Jinnah. Important issues decided at the conference were: The princely States agreed to extend their cooperation in forming an All India Federation. The britsh agreed that representative government should be introduced at provincial level. Seperation of Sind from Bombay. To introduce Federal System of government in India. No agreement was reached as to the question of muslims weight age in future constitution. Since congress was India’s largest party and absent from 1st Round Table Conference, it was difficult to take final decision. Gandhi-Irwin Pact (17-19Feb. 1931): The civil disobedience movement had failed and the Congress wanted to wringgle out of this situation while the government too was desirous of Congress participation in the Second Round Table Conference because the government had realized that without Congress any solution for Constitutional reforms would be difficult. Lord Irwin extended invitation to Gandhi for folks and an agreement between Gandhi and Irwin was signed with the following salient proposals: 1) The Congress will end its civil disobedience movement. 2) The Congress will attend the second Round Table Conference. 3) The government will withdraw all ordinances against Congress. 4) The government would withdraw all notification/ enactments relating to offences not involving violence. 5) The government should release all persons detained during Civil disobedience movement. Second Round Table Conference(7 Sept- 1st Dec 1931): Gandhi adopted a stubborn and unreasonable attitude on all matters and refused to accept any rights of minorities. After adopting the stiff attitude Gandhi sat back quietly observe the proceedings. He did his best to prove India as one nation and nationality so that he could claim to represent the Indian people alone. But the Quaid-e-Azam replied that Indian Muslims were also a separate nation of India which had its own interests. Non settlement of minorities issue could be reached and the second Conference ended without reaching at any conclusion mainly because of rigid attitude of Gandhi.

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Third Round Table Conference (17 Nov – 24 Dec 1932) Before the 3rd session of the Round Table Conference, British announced their own solution for the communal and constitutional problem of India known as ‘Communal Award’. British Prime minister Ramsay MacDonald announced it on 16th August 1932. The congress once again abstained from the conference because Gandhi had started h is civil disobedience movement. Quaid-eAzam did not take part in this conference and Sir Aga Khan led the Muslim delegation. The Conference could not solve the problems of Hindu Muslims and proved a formality. Gandhi and Nehru were in jail. The Conference ended after few meetings without achieving anything.

COMMUNAL AWARD(1932)
The British government gave enough time and chance to Indian leaders to come up with a workable constitutional setup, after vainly waiting. British government published their own scheme known as Communal Award in 1932. it retained separate electorate for the Muslims and all other minorities but the Muslims majority in Punjab and Bengal were reduced to minorities and due to this the Muslims rejected it while the Congress was not happy with this award. Nov 2009: b) Why was the second round table conference of 1931 unsuccessful? June 2008 b) Why were the three roundtable conference held between 1930 and 1932? June 05: c) How successful were the three roundtable conference of 1930-32? Explain your answer?

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GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1935
The roundtable Conference could not solve the constitutional problem problem of India but they enabled the government to understand the problems and to take some concrete steps to solve them. The recommendations of these conferences were contained in a white paper, which was published in 1933 and discussed in the British Parliament. The parliament passed the bill which was enforced in the country as “Government of India Act, 1935. It was a last set of legislation provided by the government of India. The act contained two parts, provincial; the provincial part of the Act of 1935 was enforced when general elections in the country was held in 1937 and it remained enforce till the transfer of power in 1947. Federal part of the act never brought into operation and the Central Government was remained under the act of 1919. 1) For the first time the provinces were given more authority and power and made them separate entities. 2) The system of “Diacrchy” was dropped at the provincial level but introduced at central government level. 3) The supremacy of the British Parliament reminded intact as no Indian Legislatures was authorized to notify or amend the Constitution. 4) Representatives and responsible government at Provincial level was introduced. 5) The provincial executive was handed over to representatives of the people who were accountable before the provincial legislature. 6) NWFP waws given the full provincial states. Two new provinces of Sindh and Orrisa were created, which increase the total number of province to eleven. 7) Parliamentary system was introduced and the provinces were given the full autonomy. 8) Every provinces was given a council of ministries whose advice was binding on the governor. 9) The property qualifications was lowered which gave 35million Indians the right to vote (1/4 of India adult population). Evaluation: This act of 1935 failed to win appreciation from various sector. The political leaders of India rejected it for it failed to meet the demands of the different political faction. Quaid-e-azam declared thait it was a ‘ Defective document’. Raj Gopal Charia declared it as worst than the system of Diarchy and Nehru called it ‘Charter of Slavery’ The federal system was defective in many ways. This act provided the basis for negotiations, which is finally resulted in British leaving India. Parliamentary systems had been set up in which the Indian people were to gain increasing representation. The people were not given the rights. All authority was vested in the parliament which was a British institution. Nov 2008: b) Why was there so much opposition to the Government of India Act of 1935? Nov 06: b)Why was the Government of India act of 1935 so important to the future of the Subcontinent?

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ELECTIONS (1937) AND CONGRESS MINISTRIES (1937-39)
The government announced to hold election to the provincial legislative assemblies in 1936-37. There was 1771 seats of provincial assemblies. Although both Muslim league and Congress had rejected the Act of 1935 but still they decided to contest he elections. The results of the election were shocking for the muslims of India and for the muslims league, which could not get mentionable support from the voters. Congress achieved a big victory and managed to get clear majority in five provinces and formed coalition in few other provinces (Bombay,Bengal and N.W.F.P) to form its ministries on the eight provinces. The muslim league failed to win considerable support. Reasons for the defeat of Muslim League: It was the 1st major election of the muslim league as a mass party. Congress was the oldest,richest and best organization political party where as muslim league was middle class organization with insufficient funds. There was no link between the masses and the leaders of muslims league who belonged to the high class society. As the provincial autonomy was guaranteed according to the act of 1935, so this thing made muslims league leaders overconfident and no fear or threat of Hindu domination in the Muslims majority provinces. Formation of ministries: The Congress adapted a rigid attitude after winning the elections in majority. Congress leaders behaved in a dictorial manner and imposed their own will. The Congress took offices in eight provinces. The congress was also reluctant in sharing the power with the muslims league and laid down degrading conditions for the muslim league to be included in the ministry. Th muslim league rejected these terms and pure Congress ministries were formed. Congress atrocities on the muslims: The congress began it rule by imposing its will on the Muslim minorities in the provinces under its rule. The muslims were forbidden to eat beef. Severe punishments were awarded to those who slaughtered the ‘mother cow’. Every effort was made to humble and humiliate Islam. A policy was made by the Congress to erase the Muslim’s culture. Hindi was imposed as the official language in all the provinces. Azan was banned and organized attacks were made on the muslims who were busy in worship in the mosques. Noisy processions were passed near the mosques at prayer times. Pigs were pushed into the mosques and Azan was interrupted. The muslims lodged complaints with the authorities but the decision were always against the muslims. Bande mataram: It was a song in which degrading remarks were used against the muslims and Islam wriiten by a Bengali novelist Bankim Chatterjee. The Congress insisted on commencing the day’s beginning by the recitation of this Song and also adapted it as the national anthem. Widdia Mander scheme: This educational policy aimed at converting the non-hindus to Hinduism. It was introduced in educational institutes. The students were asked to pay respect and homage to Gandhi’s picture with folded arms in posture of Hndu worship and sing Hymns in hs praise. Dr Zakir Hussain a Congress Muslim was the author of this Scheme. Wardha Scheme: A basic education scheme was launched by Gandhi as Wardha, later known as Wardha Scheme and was introduced in all Congess education ministries. Spinning Cotton by hand

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was made a part of the school curriculum and tachings was to be in Hindi. It aimed at creating at creating a high respect among the yound minds about the Hindy heroes and religious leaders. It sought to isolate the yound generation of the muslims from their religion, culture and civilization. It also aimed at injecting the political ideas of the Congress into the minds of Muslim children. If completely ignored religion and favored Hindi at the cost of Urdu. Hindu-Muslims riots: During the congress rule organized attempts were made on the honour, property and lives of the Muslims. The Hindus were to assault the Muslims and the properties were set on fire. Muslims children and women were abducted. Muslims mass contact campaign: The main objective of this campaign was to crush the popularity of the Muslims league amongst the Muslim. The campaign began by directly contacting the Muslims masses with a view to win them over to the Congress. End of the Congress rule: The 2nd World war broke out on 3rd September 1939. The war had a direct impact on Subcontinent. The british Indian Army was the largest contigent of the Britsh Army. Lord Linlithgow the Viceroy of India declared the war with Germany by the side of India too. Congress criticized this announcement and passed a resolution on 15th Spetember 1939. The resolution demanded that India would not be fight unless it was free. British Government refused to accept the demand. On 22nd October 1939 the Congress called on all ministries to resign by saying ‘The war had been declared without consulting the congress Ministries’. Day of Deliverance: Thus more than two and half year rule of Congress come to an end. Following the resignation of the congress ministries. All India Muslim league officially celebrated the ‘ Day of Deliverance’ on 22nd December 1939 as a celebration to mark an end of Congress ruel,which w as based on tyranny,oppression and injustice. Nov 09: c) Do you agree that the celebration of the ‘Day of Deliverance’ in 1939 was justified? Give reasons for your answer. June 07: b) Why did Muslims object to the rule of the Congree party between 1937 and 1939? June 04: b) Why was Congress rule of 1937-39 hated by the Muslims? Nov 06: c) The main reason why Congress rule 1937-39 was so hated because of the introduction of Wardha Scheme. Do you agree? Explain your answer.

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THE PAKISTAN RESOLUTION(1940)
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first muslim who pointed out that the Hindus and the Muslims were separate nations. In 1930 Allama Iqbal gave the idea for a separate homeland for the Muslims on the same basis. In 1933 Chaudri Rehmat Ali suggested the same idea and the name. At first M.A .Jinnah was not in favour of idea. He believed that muslims would be bettor of in a federation in which they had political autonomy and a promise that their rights would be safeguarded. But the two years of Congress rule and a growing realization that the British would soon be force to leave India convinced, M.A.Jinnah that it was to consider establishing a Muslim State. The Historic annual session of Muslim league began on 23rd March in 1949 at Lahore under the chairmanship of Quaid-e-Azam. On 23rd March 1940 the famous resolution which was called ‘Pakistan Resolution’ by Hindu press and was put forward buy Fazul-ul-Haq “Sher-e-Bengal” and seconded by Chaudri Khaliq-uz-Zaman. It was passed with great enthusiasm. The important part of the resolution was as follow: “Georgraphically contiguous units are demarcated into regions… In which the Muslims are numerically majority as in the north-western and eastern zone of India should be grouped to constitute independent and soverrign.” This resolution was passed unanimously and soon became known as ‘Lahore Resolution’. However the Hindu press began referring it as ‘Pakistan Resolution’ and that title was soon adopted. The Muslims of the subcontinent had finally got their rallying call. The years of oppression from the British and the Hindus were to be put behind them. Now it was the time to work for the homeland to become a reality – and it was the Muslim league which was undisputed leader of ‘Pakistan Movement”

AUGUST OFFER OF LORD LINLITHGOW(1940)
The british government wanted the co-operation of Indian especially Muslims during the world war ll. On the behalf of the British Government Lord Linlithgow the British viceroy made an important declaration in August 1940. To expand the Executive council of governor general including more Indian members from the political parties.. To set up the War advisory councils of Indians. To set up a constitution making body after the war of suggest the new constitution of India. The British government made it clear that there would be no transfer of power to any party at present whose authority was denied by the large and powerful element of Indian society. Critcism: Both All India Muslim league and Congress rejected the August offer. The Congress demanded immediate transfer of power; it wanted power first and Hindu Muslim settlement afterwards. All India Muslim league that wanted party of seats for Muslims in the Executive Council rejected the offer for inadequate representation of Muslims in the Government.

THE CRIPSS MISSION(1942)
Mr Chirchill the British prime minister announced to send the delegation headed by Sir Stafford Cripps, to suggest the recommendation for the new reforms and to persuade the Congress leader ship to support the war effort. The mission reached Delhi on 23rd March 1942 to hold the discussion

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with the Indian leaders but because of the dead lock between Congress and the Muslim league, the mission failed to reach any agreement, it however submitted its recommendation, which are as follow: Proposals: Dominion status for India after the war Any provinces of states would be to opt out of proposed Indian Federation Election would be held at the end of world war During the British government would retain control of the defence of India. Criticism: Congress, which had observed the weak position of the British Government during the did not want to offer any concession to the British, so it decided to use that occasion to pressurize the government and demanded immediate transfer of power to a Congress dominated body. Gandhi regarded the proposals of government as a “Post dated Cheque on a falling bank”. All India Muslim league also rejected the proposals because there was no guarantee that the proposals would lead to Pakistan. June 09 & Nov 04: b) Why was the Cripps mission of 1942 unsuccessful? Nov 09: c) Was the Cripps Mission in 1942 the most important factor during the 1940s that led to the partition of the sub-continent in 1947? Give reasons for your answer.

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On 8 August 1942, the India National Congress Committee passed its ‘Quit India Resolution’ calling for immediate withdrawal of the British. This resolution “Quit India” was to be followed by open non-violent civil disobedience and resistance to British Rule. Gandhi called it ‘Do or Die’ attempt to force British out. He argued that if the British left India, there would be no longer be threat of Japanese invasion. The British responded firmly by arresting most of the senior leaders of congress e.g Gandhi, Nehru and Azad etc as well as by banning the Congress party. For several weeks there was widespread rioting and the British lost control in some parts of the Country. Thousands of Indian lost their lives. The muslims league did not approve of the Quit India movement campaign Quaid-e-Azam raised the slogan ‘Divide and Quit’ in answer to Gandhi’s “Quit India Movement”. Muslim league neither supported Congress nor the British Government. During this movement, Quaid-e-Azam termed the “ Quit India Movement” as a Black mail, saying that congress was trying to exploit Britain’s problems to win advantage for it self. June 05: b) Why was the ‘Quit India’ movement formed in 1942?

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QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT(1942)

GANDHI-JINNAH TALKS(1944)
Lord Wavell released Gandhi from prison in may 1944. Gandhi proposed Jinnah that they should meet to consider the future of India after the British departure, which now seemed inevitable. Throughout September 1944 the two met at Jinnah’s home in Bombay. Although many people expected a comprise to be reached, the talks broke down for a number of reasons: Gandhi wanted the Muslim league to give immediate support to Congress in its struggle to remove the British. Only after the British left could partition be considered. Jinnah knew that he had to secure partition before the British left. Gandhi also wanted the central government to have control over key areas such as defence and foreign policy. Jinnah wanted these matters to be in the hands of the provinces. Gandhi considered himself to be speaking for all India. Jinnah reminded him that really he was just the spokesman of Congress. Gandhi gave the impression that he did not support the ‘Two nation theory’ , whereas this had now become official Muslim league policy. Importance: Though the meeting ended on failure but it was a great technical and political achievement of Muslim league and Jinnah. As the Congress through its main leader (Gandhi) had been forced to negotitate with Muslim league on equal footing and recognize that there were two leaders in India Jinnah representing the Muslims and Gandhi representing the Hindus. Nov 05: c) Were the Gandhi Jinnah talks the most important factor during the 1940s that led to the partition of the Sub-Continent in 1947? Give reasons for your answers.

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SIMLA CONFERENCE(1945)
In 1945 Lord Wavell the Viceroy of India announced a plan for the transfer of power of India to its natives. To discuss the details of the plan Lord Wavell invited representatives from the various political parties in a conference at Simla in june 1945. Wavell Proposals: An Executive council should be set up as Interim Government under the present constitution (Government of India act 1935) until a new constitution could be agreed on. The Executive Council would contain equal number (5 each) of Muslims and Hindus. All portfolios would be given to Indians expect defense and Viceroy. To discuss the formation of the Executive Council and the future handover the Viceroy called a conference of all the political parties in Simla. The Muslim league delegation included Quaid-eAzam, Liaquat Ali Khan and Khawaja Nazimuddin while Gandhi, Abdul Kalam Azad and Khizar Hayat Tiwana represented the Congress. They deliberately included Muslim members in the delegation to demonstrate that not all Muslims were members of the Muslim league. There was a deadlock over the Muslim league’s demand that all the five members of the Executive Council should be the nominees of the Muslim league. The Viceroy accepted four and Chief Minister of Punjab and Unionst party leader Khizar Hayat Tiwana demanded one Muslim seat out of Muslim quota, which was accepted by the Viceroy. Jinnah also pointed out as the Sikhs and Scheduled Castes on the Council were bound to vote with the Hindus, this would mean permanent Muslims minority in the Executive Council. Jinnah also objected LordWavell could see no solution to the problem and closed the conference on 14th July 1945. Another British attempt to find a solution had failed.

ELECTIONS(1945-46)
The general elections to the provincial and central legislatures were held in 1945-46. Both the parties took an active part in these elections because the constitutional future of India was dependant on the results of these elections. Both Congress and Muslim league contested the election on two exactly opposed slogans. Congress wanted to keep Subcontinent united, whereas Muslim League wanted to divide it. Results of Election: The results showed that the Muslims league won all the 30 muslims seats in the Central Assembly and 446 out of 495 Muslims seats in the Provincial Assemblies. The Congrss won the same victory in the Hindu majority areas. In Bengal, the Muslim League won 113 out of 119 Muslim seats and formed ministry in Sindh. The Victory of Congress in N.W.F.P was a serious blow to the league, Muslim League won 17 out of 36 Muslim seats and Congress took 19 Muslims seats and Dr. Khan Sahib formed ministry with Congress. In Punjab, Muslim league won 79 out of 86 Muslim seats and Khizar Hayat Tiwana formed the ministry with Congress. Congress won total 930 seats gaining an absolute majority in 8 provinces. Conclusion: Result of the elections not only divided the assemblies between Muslim League and Congress but also approved the Muslim league claim that, it was a sole representatives party of the Muslims of Subcontinent and the demand for the establishment for a separate Muslim homeland was true.

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DELHI RESOLUTION
When all the election results were announced, an all Indian Muslim league legislators convention was announced in Delhi between 7 to 9 April, 1946. Nearly 500 Muslims who had been elected attended it. A resolution was passed known as ‘ Delhi resolution’. This demanded that the Muslims majority provinces to be made into a fully independent sovereign state.

THE CABINET MISSION PLAN (1946)
The British Prime minster, lord Clement Attlee announced that a special mission consisting of three cabinent Ministers would be sent to India to discuss the constitutional issues with the viceroy and Indian political leaders. The Canbinent mission was consisted of Lord Oathic Lawrence Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V Alexander. Quaid-e-Azam made it clear to the mission that the Muslim majority areas should be grouped together to make a soverign and independent Pakistan comprising of six provinces. Congress was opposed to any partition and would not accept Jinnah;s idea. The mission conducted meeting with top leaders of India in Simla Sir Stafford Cripps openly supported Congress. Abdul Kalam Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru, Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Vallabhai Patel represented Congress while Quaid-eazam, Liaquat Ali Khan, Nawab Ismail and Abdul Rab Nishtar represented the Muslim league demanded two separate constitution making bodies be set up for framing the respective constitution. Both the parties could not accept the proposals of each other. The Cabinent Mission and Viceory formulated a three-tier constitutional plan, which was as follow: Long term Plan: 1) It rejected the idea of establishing Pakistan 2) There would be three different parts to post-British India. A) The Hindu majority territories B) The western muslim provinces C) Bengal and Assam 3) Each part would have local autonomy and would be able to draw up its own constitution 4) Foreign affairs defence and communication would be managed by a central Indian Union. Short term Plan: The mission also proposed of setting up of an interim Central Government in which the Indian national should hold all portfolios. Gandhi criticized and rejected the plan and called it ‘An appeal and an advice’ while the Muslim league accepted long term and short term plans. The viceroy broke his promise by refusing to form the government only with Muslim league. On other hand Nehru, however said that Congress would not feel bound by the plan once the British had gone. The muslim league felt that his made further discussions pointless. Any agreement might just overturned after the British had gone. So the Cabinet Plan was dropped.

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DIRECT ACTION DAY (1946)
By late summer 1946, it was clear that the British with drawl from India w as imminent. The Muslims feared that the British might pull out and leave India to sort out its own problems. It that happened, the Muslims would surely suffered at the hands of the overwhelming Hindu majority. What was needed a show of Muslim solidatory and an indication of muslim strength to both the British and Congress. In july 1946 the Muslim league passed a resolution declaring that it should prepare for the final struggle against both the British and Congress. On 16th August 1946 the Muslim league called for a ‘Direct Action Day’ to show the strength of Muslim feelings. In many places thousands demonstrated peacefully to show Muslim solidatory. In Calcutta, however the demonstrations turned into violence in which up to 4000 people died in the Great Calcuuta killing.

3RD JUNE PLAN (PARTITION PLAN 1947)
Lord Mountbatten was appointed as the last viceroy of India and he was told by the prime minister, lord Clement Attlee to hand over the power to the Indian by 1st june 1948. Attlee had deliberately set a short time span for arrangement to be made. He feared that if more time were given, there would only be more disagreement. When mountbatten reached India, he faced problems like muslim league wanting partition and congress opposing it and he had very short time. In march 1947 there were riots and killing between Muslims and Hindus in Punjab. Soon the trouble spread to other provinces. After negotiations, he had worked out a partition plan. The Congress met on 1st may 1947 and gave its acceptance of the partition plan and muslim league also gave its approval. Mountbatten got approval from the British Government and the plan was issued on 3rd june 1947. The main characterstics of the plan were: India would be divided into 2 different states on the midnight of 14 and 15 August 1947 Government of India act 1935 would be modified to adopt as the temoporary Constitution for both India and Pakistan. Boundary Commission would be set up to demarcate the boundary between India and Pakistan. Military and Financial assets would be divided between India and Pakistan Legislature of sind would be given chance to vote Pakistan. Referendum would be adopted to decide NWFP future. Muslims members in the legislative assembly of Bengal And Punjab were given chance to vote for Pakistan. Appropriate measures would be adapted to decide the future of Balochistan. Rulers of Princely states would be given option to join Pakistan or India or remain independent.

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The issue which was not solved on 14th August was the boundary between Muslims and nonMuslims areas. Lord MountBatten had appointed Sir Cyril Radcliffe to head a boundary Commission to establish new borders, particularly in Bengal and Punjab. Radcliffe had four assistance, two nominated by the Muslim league and two by Congress. The decision of the boundary Commission (known as Boundary reward on Radcliffe award) was announced on 16th August 1947. The muslim league was disappointed to hear that Calcutta was given to India, even though the Muslim areas surrounded it.In Punjab both Ferozpur and Gurdaspur were given to India. Again the muslims were disappointed by this decision. Ferozpur had a muslim majority and Pakistani had evidence to suggest the Radcliffe had originally awarded it to Pakistan but had been forced b MountBatten to change his mind. Gurdaspur also had a muslim majority. By awarding it to India the Indian now had a border with Kashmir and future disputes between India and Pakistan became inevitable. Jinnah told people of Pakistan that the awards were Wrong and unjust and perverse.However, the partition had been take place two days earlier. INDEPENDENCE ACT OF 1947: The British Government passed the Indian independence acts on 15 july 1947. The act ordered that from 15 august two independent dominions be established by the names of India and Pakistan. These dominions have complete freedom to pass any act or bll and the Government of India act 1935 was to be the provincial constitution until replaced. The princely states were given the option to join one or either of the country.

RADCLIFFE AWARD(1947)

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POLITICAL ACHIEVEMENTS BY QUAID-E-AZAM(1906-47)
In 1906 Jinnah made his 1st formal entry In politics when he became the member of Inc. In 1906 Jinnah became the member of Imperial legislative Council In 1913 he joined All India Muslim league. By 1916 Jinnah was one of the leading figure in Indian politics. He was respected & admired by both Hindus and Muslims & called as the ‘Ambassador of Hindu Muslim unity’. In 1916 Lucknow pact was signed between AIML & INC mainly because of the efforts of M.A.Jinnah. It was the political agreements based on scheme for constitutional reforms for India. Jinnah resigned from the imperial legislative Council in 1919 in protest at the passing of ‘Rowlett Act’.Because of the rising influence of Gandhi, Congress deicided to back out of the separate electorate accepted in 1916 & calling of the Non-cooperation movement in 1920. In 1920 Jinnah resgined from Inc protesting against the policies of Gandhi. In 1927 Simon Commission arrives in India since the commission had no Indian member so the Aiml under the leadership of M.A.Jinnah decided to boycott it. In 1928 when Nehru report was passed Jinnah tried to reach a compromise on the issue of separate electorate but INC refused to accept the proposals of Jinnah. After that jinnah abounded the efforts of Hindu Muslim reconciliation. In 1929 at Delhi during the meeting of Muslim league M.A.Jinnah put forward his famous 14points, which was the formula for constitutional reforms in reply to Nehru report. It contained constitution safeguards for the protection of Muslims culture & politics. In 1931 & 32 Jinnah attended the 1st & 2nd session of the RTC in London, where he firmly talked about the protection of minority’s right in India. Being disappointed by Indian politics he decided to stay in England in 1934 after numerous requests of Allama Iqbal & Liaquat Ali Khan he returned India and was elected as the life president of AIML. In the provincial election of 1936-37 AIML did not perform well as it had hoped. So immediately after the elections of 1936-37 the AIML launched the program of mass contact under the leadership of M.A.Jinnah. The labor born fruit and Muslim league membership rose from ten thousand to hundred thousands. Jinnah was now know as Quaid-e-Azam the great leader. With the outbreak of 2nd World war, INC directed its minister to resign from their posts. Following the resignation of INC’s minister Quaid asked all Muslims to celebrate ‘The Day of Deliverance’ in Dec 1939. On 23rd March 1940, a historic session of AIML was held under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. During the session a resolution was passed demanding the establishment to separate soverign & independent state for the muslims of India. August offer of 1940, Cripps mission 1942, Simla Conference 1945 & the cabinent mission 1946, these were all scheme to solve the communal and constitutional problems of India. In all these schemes effort were made by both Hindus & British to undermine the representative character of AIML, to prevent the establishment of Pakistan and to preserve the Indian untiy. But Quaid led the Pakistan Movement so successfully that no device could harm the establishment of Pakistan In the election of 1945-46 under the dynamic leadership of Quaid. Aiml won the majority of Muslims seats in central & provincial legislatures and proved that Aiml demand for separate homeland was true so that British and hindus surrendered before the exemplary struggle of Muslims under the leadership of Quaid and Pakistan came in to existence in 14th August 1947.

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Chaudri Rehmat Ali was born in Hoshiyarpur in East Punajb on 16th November 1897. He received his basic education from Jallandar and passed his B.A from Government college Lahore. In 1915 he founded a society named Bazm-e-Shibli. In 1930 he went to England where earned the degress of M.A.Jinnah and Bar at Law from Cambridge University and Dublin University. Contribution in Pakistan Movement: In 1930 Round Table Conference were held in London to discuss possible political agreement between Hindus,Muslims and British. Chaudri Rehmat Ali met the muslims leaders including M.A.Jinnah and tried to convince them to give the idea of Indian federation and focus their energies to form a separate homeland for the muslims. But at this stage M.A.Jinnah and other leaders remained unconvinced nd they refuse to accept the proposals of Chaudri Rehmat Ali. In 1933 Chaudri Rehmat Ali founded the ‘Pakistan Movement’ which issued its 1st pamphlet on Pakistan under the title of ‘Now or Never’ in that pamphlet tht Muslims should have their own homeland called ‘Pakistan’. Muslim states comprising the Punjab. N.W.F.P, Kashmir, Sind, Balochistan. Muslim homeland which was formed from the initials of components units, P for Punjab, A for afghania, K for Kashmir, S for Sind and Tan for Balochistan. The word Pakistan means the ‘ Land of Pure’. His views were different from Allama Iqbal as Chaudri Rehmat Ali wanted his Muslims homeland to be independent. He was rightly awarded when in 1940 ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE adopted his central demand for a separate homeland for the Muslims and later the name ‘Pakistan’ which was also coined by Chaudri Rehmat Ali adopted for the muslim homeland. He was one of those leaders who lived to see the establishment of Pakistan. But he did not agree with the final map of Pakistan. His contribution also never appreciated officially. He visted Pakistan in 1948 and live in Lahore for sometime and left for England. He died in Cambridge on 3rd feburary 1951. Nov 05: b) Why was Chaudri Rehmat Ali an important influence on the Struggle for a separate homeland for Pakistan?

CHAUDRI REHMAT ALI (1897-1951) AND THE PAKISTAN MOVEMENT

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Section 2 PAST PAPERS QUESTIONS (2000-2003)
JUNE 2002 1(b) Why was the Khilafat Movement founded? [7] (c) Which of the following contributed the most to the Pakistan National Movement: (i) Allama Iqbal’s Address of 1930; (ii) Chaudhary Rahmat Ali’s Scheme of Pakistan; (iii) Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s Lahore Resolution of 1940? Explain your answer with reference to all three of the above. [14] JUNE 2003 2(b) Why was the Muslim League founded in 1906? [7] (c) ‘The Morley-Minto reforms were the most important of the attempts by either the Muslims, Hindus or the British government in seeking a solution to the problems in the sub-continent between 1906 and 1920.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] 3(b) Why was Dr Allama Muhammad Iqbal an important influence on the struggle for a separate homeland for Pakistan? [7] (c) Was the Simla Conference of 1945 the most important factor during the 1940s leading to the partition of the sub-continent in 1947? Give reasons for your answer. [14] 4(b) Why was Bengal partitioned in 1905? [7] (c) Was the Chaura Chauri incident of 1922 the most important reason for the failure of the Khilafat Movement? Give reasons for your answer. [14]

5(b) Why was Congress Rule of 1937–39 so hated by the Muslims. MAY JUNE 05: 6(b) Why was the Muslim League founded in 1906? [7] (c) Was the Khilafat Movement founded because the Muslims feared the break up of Turkey after the First World War? Explain your answer. [14] 7(b) Why did Jinnah produce his 14 Points in 1929? [7] (c) How successful were the three Round Table Conferences of 1930-1932? Explain your answer. [14]

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JUNE 06: 8(b) Explain why the Lucknow Pact of 1916 came about. [7] (c) ‘Bengal was partitioned in 1905 because of geographical factors.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14] 9(b) Explain why the Khilafat Movement had failed by 1924. [7] (c) Was the introduction of Jinnah’s 14 Points in 1929 the most important factor in the development of the Pakistan Movement between 1928 and 1935? Give reasons for your answer. [14] JUNE 08: 10(b) Why was it necessary to hold three Round Table Conferences (1930–32)? [7] (c) ‘The main reason why Congress rule (1937–39) was hated so much by many Muslims was because of the introduction of Bande Matram.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14] JUNE 10: 11)Read the source below carefully to answer question (a). The election results of 1937 created more problems than they solved. Congress was able to form a government in most of the provinces and began to exert control over the minorities. They introduced the Wardha Scheme amongst many other reforms. (a) What was the Wardha Scheme? [4] (b) Why was the Khilafat Movement founded? [7] (c) ‘The Muslim League was established in 1906 because the Hindus had their own political party.’ Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] 12)Read the source below carefully to answer question (a). During the summer of 1946 the Muslim League became increasingly worried that the British might simply withdraw from India and leave it to the Indians to sort out the problems that they had left behind. What followed was called the Direct Action Day. (a) What was the Direct Action Day? [4] (b) Why did Jinnah produce his 14 Points in 1929? [7] (c) ‘The First Round Table Conference of 1930 was the most successful one of all three.’ Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14]

Nov 10: 13 Read the source below carefully to answer question (a). Bengal was the largest of the provinces of India. It was a huge area to govern as one unit and the British government decided that it should be partitioned in 1905. This had the effect of causing conflict between the Muslims and Hindus, especially as the Muslims welcomed partition. The Hindus decided to form the Swadeshi Movement. (a) What was the Swadeshi Movement? [4] (b) Why was the Simla Deputation of 1906 an important event for the Muslims of the subcontinent? [7] © Was the migration to Afghanistan the most important reason why the Khilafat Movement failed? Explain your answer. [14]

Oct 09: 14)(b) Why was the Second Round Table Conference of 1931 unsuccessful? [7] (c) Do you agree that the celebration of the ‘Day of Deliverance’ in 1939 was justified? Give reasons for your answer. [14] Oct 08: 15) (b) Why did Congress oppose the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909? [7] (c) ‘The Khilafat Movement failed by 1924 because of poor leadership.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] 16)(b) Why was there so much opposition to the Government of India Act of 1935? [7] (c) Was the Cripps Mission in 1942 the most important factor during the 1940s that led to the partition of the sub-continent in 1947? Give reasons for your answer. [14] Oct 07: 17(b) Why did Jinnah produce his 14 Points in 1929? [7] (c) ‘The Morley-Minto reforms were more important than any other political developments between 1909 and 1919’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] oct 06: 18(b) Why was the Simla Delegation of 1906 an important turning point for the Muslims of the subcontinent? [7] (c) Was the abolition of the institution of the caliphate in 1924 the main reason for the failure of the Khilafat Movement? Give reasons for your answer. [14] 19(b) Why was the Government of India Act of 1935 so important to the future of the subcontinent? [7] (c) ‘The main reason why Congress rule (1937-1939) was so hated was because of the introduction of the Wardha Scheme.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14] Oct 05: 20(b) Why was the Partition of Bengal reversed in 1911? [7] (c) Were the Morley-Minto reforms the most important attempt by either the Muslims, the Hindus or the British in seeking a solution to the problems in the sub-continent between 1906 and 1920? Explain your answer. [14] 21)(b) Why was Chaudhri Rehmat Ali an important influence on the struggle for a separate homeland for Pakistan? [7] (c) Were the Gandhi-Jinnah talks the most important factor during the 1940s that led to the partition of the sub-continent in 1947? Give reasons for your answer. [14]

O LEVEL HISTORY NOTES SECTION 3

Sir Hamza Muhammad Ali O/A LEVEL GUIDES AND NOTES www.o-alevel.com

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THE GOVERNOR-GENERALSHIP OF QUAID-E-AZAM, 1947-1948
On 15th August 1947 Quaid-e-Azam assumed the office as the Govemor General of Pakistan. However, he took the role of Chief Executive in the new government. He chaired cabinet meetings & was the president of the constituent assembly.

BUILDING A NATION:
• He could little about the fact that the country that the country was divided in to two distinct areas-east & West Pakistan. He works hard toward establishing the Pakistan was a single, united country. He stressed people not thing of himself or herself as for example: Punjabi or Bengali

Quaid-e-Azam declared himself “Protector General of Minorities”. He made it a absolutely clear that the state of Pakistan was not going to discriminate against any citizen on the ground of his religion.

To help the newly arrived refugees he setup a Relief Fund to rehabilitate them as quickly as possible. The people were quick to respond with donations in cash & kind.

Quaid secured membership of the country in to the United Nation Organization (UNO) on 30th September 1947. This helped in gained recognition & support among the other nations of the world.

BUILDING A GOVERNMENT:
• Quaid-e-Azam paid up his attention towards setting up the administrative machinery. Karachi was made the capital of Pakistan where the central secretariat was setup. Without carrying inadequate office equipments, the government officers began their work with zeal & sentiments of sacrifices.

Liaqat Ali Khan was appointed prime Minister and Cabinet was formed. A Constituent Assembly was set up to begin to frame a constitution for the new Pakistan.

The Civil Services were recognized to draft the civil services rules.

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He also completed the judicial structure of administration by creating the Federal court.

BUILDING AN ECONOMY:
• Quaid-e-Azam gave monetary independence to Pakistan by establishing the State Bank of Pakistan on 1st July 1948.

In 1948 Jinnah’s Industrial policy Statement made it clear that he & the government wanted to setup industries in Pakistan as quickly as possible.

Canal Water Dispute was settled due to Quaid’s efforts. He also helps to persuade to Indian government to hand over the agreed share of financial assets from pre-partition of india.

ESTABLISHING NATIONAL SECURITY:
• Although Pakistan has been given poor military equipment & it lacked military officers for the army. Quaid fulfill this gap by offering temporary commission & using British officer in Pakistan army.

Although Pakistan army was ill equipped saw its 1st action in Kashmir. Despite being out numbered & having inferior arms & ammunition, it stoop up well & held its own in fighting.

Problems of Partition and Nascent Pakistan State
Pakistan came into existence on 14th August 1947. Just after the establishment the nascent state faced number of problems. Many of the early problems of Pakistan were related with dispute with india e.g. Accession of Princely States, Canal Water Dispute, Refugee Problem and Accommodation Crises, Division of Military Assets and Division of Financial Assets. In fact these problems were deliberately created by India so that Pakistan could not maintain its independent status and rejoin the Indian federation. The Congress leaders did not want to see Pakistan coming into being as a free and independent country. So when they failed to stop the emergence of Pakistan, they created problems for the newly born country to cripple its administration from the very beginning. There were some problems, which came in front just after the independence in Pakistan e.g. Issue of National Language and identity, Issue of Pakhtoonistan and Death of Quaid-e-Azam in 1948.

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(A) Accession of Princely States
At the time of partition there were 462 princely states in Subcontinent, which covered one third of Indian Territory and quarter of its population. The Princely States came under indirect control of British Government because the states were independent in their internal affairs but their defense and foreign relations were under the control of British Government At time of partition the rulers of the states were given option to join either India or Pakistan by the British Government. But the rulers were advised to consider their geographical location and religious trend of the population before their accession. In 1947 the northern states of Dir, Swat, Chitral, Amb and Hunza joined Pakistan. They were joined by Gilgit and Kalat in Balochistan Bahawalpur also joined Pakistan, adding a further 1.5 million inhabitants to the new country. In the East the people of Sylhet voted in a referendum which led to them joining Pakistan By 15th of August 1947 majority of the princely states announced their accession with either Pakistan or India except Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagadh. The Issue of Kashmir: In 1947 Hindu Raja Hari Singh ruled the State of Jammu and Kashmir. This was one of the largest princely State in the Subcontinent and the fact that it had boundaries with Tibet, China, Afghanistan and Russia gave it strategic importance. In spite of the wishes of a large Muslim majority (4 million=77%), Maharaja did not want to join Pakistan. It was believed that he was trying to win independence for his state and so he delayed joining either Pakistan or India. In September 1947 he started a campaign to drive many Muslims out of the Kashmir. Over 200,000 fled to Pakistan and finally the Muslims rose in rebellion. The maharaja forced to india. India forces entered in Kashmir through Gurdaspur, which provided India with the only exit to Kashmir. It was Muslim majority area and was unjustly rewarded to India by the Radcliffe Award. India’s action also proved the fact that accession of Kashmir with India was pre-planned and Gurdaspur was deliberately handed over to India to provide her a link with Kashmir. Quaid-e-Azam ordered Pakistan Army to move Kashmir but General Grassey (1st C-in-C of Pakistan Army) refused to abbey the instructions. Mean while the freedom fighters were able to liberate almost one-third of Kashmir. On 31st December 1948 India submitted a formal complaint against Pakistan in UNO for providing assistance to the freedom fighters in Kashmir. A crasefire was arranged and Kashmir was divided between India and Pakistan. However, Pakistan was angered that India retained the largest area of Kashmir, including the capital, Srinagar. India Prime Minister Nehru agreed that a referendum would be held to know the wishes of Kashmiri people. This referendum has not been held and the ‘Kashmir Issue’ remains a major source of discontent between the two countries today. Pakistan has made numerous demands that UNO resolve the dispute, but, so far, it has been impossible to reach agreement.

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Issue Of Junagadh: Junagadh was a small state on the coast, 300 miles south of Karachi with a population of 700,000. The population was mostly non-Muslims, but its prince was Muslim. After the independence the request for accession with Pakistan was accepted by Quid-e-Azam. But the Indian government refused to accept the accession. An economic blockade of Junagardh was imposed and states were surrounded by Indian force. There was food shortage. By the end of October 1947 the ruler of the Junagardh was force to leave the state. On 9th November 1947 Indian army occupied the state Ignoring the strong protest of Pakistani government India held referendum and majority of the voters cast their vote in favor of the accession with India. Pakistan took up the matter in UNO, which is still unresolved. Issue of Hyderabad: Hyderabad was the largest of the princely states (almost equal to U.K) with population of 160 million and generates revenue of over 160 million rupees Majority of its population was Hindu but ruler whose title was ‘Nizam’ was a Muslim Hyderabad being a prosperous state and because of its prestige and importance wanted to maintain its independent status but Lord Mount batten told him this was not possible. As being Muslim he wanted to accede to Pakistan. The Indian government, however, was determined not to allow Hyderabad to join Pakistan. It began pressurizing the Nizam to join Pakistan. He was unwilling to do so, but finally agreed to enter in respect of defence, foreign affairs and communications The Indians exerted further pressure and in August 1948 Hyderabad filed a complaint before the UNO. Before it could be heard, on 13th September 1948 just two days after the death of Quaid-e-Azam, Indian troops entered Hyderabad, dismantled the state and incorporated it into different provinces in India.

(B) Canal Water Dispute
Canal Water Dispute between Pakistan and India had its origin in Red cliff’s Award. Redcliffe divided the boundary of India and Pakistan in such a way that it cut across River Ravi and Sutlej making India and Pakistan upper and lower beneficiaries. West Pakistan is fertile country but has a hot and dry climate. Rainfall is not plentifui and so it relies upon irrigation system from series of canals, which draw from the three main rivers in the area, the Indus, the Jehlum and the Chenab. The problem for Pakistan was that the flow of water through the canais and rivers was controlled at a series of ‘Head works’, most of which lay in the part of Punjab that was now in India. The Indian government promised not to interfere with the supply of water to Pakistan. On 1st April 1948 India stopped the flow of water (Ravi and Sutlej), knowing that the economy of Pakistan dependent on agriculture, which caused heavy economic loss for Pakistan. In the beginning Pakistan had to pay large amount of money to purchase water from india. The Pakistan government called for the matter to be settled by the international court of justice, but india refused. In may 1948 a temporary agreement was reached. India agreed to allow water from East Punjab to flow into West Punjab, but only if Pakistan agreed to try to find alternative water supplies.

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The dispute was finally resolved on 19th September 1960 when Indus water treaty was signed between president of Pakistan Ayub Khan and Prime Minister of India Jawahar Lal Nehru.

(C) Refugee Problem and Accommodation Crises
Clashes between Hindus and Muslims became usual after the announcement of 3rd June Plan. But the communal violence reached to its height when the Redcliffe Award defined the boundaries of Bengal and Punjab on 16th August 1947. Sikhs who were enraged at the loss of Guru Nanak’s birthplace they were better armed and better organized. Hindus and Sikhs had organized program for the massacre of Muslim Refugees. In the non-Muslim princely states there were examples of state troops being used to support attacks on Muslims. Millions of people found themselves living in the ‘Wrong Country’ and became victims of communal attacks. The only answer was for Muslims to move into Pakistan and non-Muslims to move into India. At the time of partition World’s largest migration took place. Over 10 million people had moved from india to Pakistan or in the other direction by January 1948. A million men, women and children died as a result of violence or the difficulties of the long journey. Nearly 20 million people were made homeless and both india and Pakistan faced enormous problems a huge numbers of refugees field to them for safety Karachi alone received nearly two million refugees in 1947 alone. It was estimated that only west Pakistan had received 5.5 million refugees as compared with East Pakistan’s 3.5 million. Some refugees moved willingly, taking as many of their possessions with them as they could. Other fled from violence and often arrived in their new country with nothing at all Pakistan, as a new and not wealthy country, it was extremely difficult for these people to be accommodated. To help the newly arrived refugees Quaid-e-Azam set up a Relief Fund to rehabilitate them as quickly as possible. The people were quick to respond with donations in cash and kind.

(C) Division of Miitary Assets
It was announced on 1st July 1947, that British Indian Army would also be divided. The agreed division of the military was in a ratio of 65 to 35 in India’s favour, which was with the reference of communal balance in the army. General Auchinleck was appointed as the Field Maritial of the joint army of India and Pakistan and in-charge of the distribution of military asset Pakistan’s immediate requirement for an army of 150,000 soldiers and 4000 officers. These were only 2500 Muslim officers were available. The short falls had to made up of temporary commissions and 500 British officers, which included the 1st two C-in-C of Pakistan Army. India created lot of problems in the division of military assets. Whatever Pakistan received was nothing but scarp and out of order machines, broken weapons, unserviceable artillery and aircrafts. There were 16 ordnance factories and all were situated in India. Eventually a financial settlement was made and Pakistan was given 60 million rupees towards its share in the ordnance factories. Later an ordinance factory was established at Wah. Pakistan received six Armour divisions to India’s

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fourteen, eight Artillery divisions to India’s forty and eight Infantry divisions to India’s twenty one. Pakistan also received the Staff College in Quetta and Service Crops College at Kakul, which later became Pakistan Military Academy.

(D) Division of Financial Assets
At the time of the partition there was a cash balance 4 billion rupees in the Reserve Bank of India, which was to the share between india and Pakistan on the ratio of 17 to India and 5 to Pakistan. Pakistan was to receive 750 million rupees, which was initially delayed by the Indian government. After the protest of Pakistan India agreed to pay 200 million rupees. As the war between Pakistan and India had started on the issue of Kashmir in 1948, India again stopped the rest of the amount by saying that Pakistan could use it to but arms. After the protect from Pakistan and the threat of hunger strike from Gandhi, Nehru forced to pay another 500 million rupees. How ever the remaining 50 million rupees are still not paid. The money was Pakistan rightful share India deliberately withhold it because they hoped that Pakistan would become bankrupt.

(E) Issue of National Language and Identity
Immediately after the establishment of Pakistan language controversy was started between East and West Pakistan. When the members of the Constituent Assembly belonged to East Pakistan. Liaquat Ali Khan Prime Minister of Pakistan refused to accept the demand that created resentment among East Pakistan. Refusal of the demand ultimately transformed into a political movement. In March 1948 while addressing at Dhaka Quaid-e-Azam declared, “Urdu and Urdu alone would be the National Language of Pakistan”. Advise of Quaid temporarily took the heat out of Language Movement but the issue was not settle it exploded later after the death of Quaide-Azam. Pakistan was mainly made up of five different regions, they were: 1) The Pakhtuns in the north 2) The Balochs in the west 3) The Sindhis in the south 4) The Punjabis in the northeast 5) The Bengalis in the east. These people had different traditions, cultures, languages and lifestyle. Pakistan was not comprised of a single united people and there was much work to do in convincing everyone of the wisdom of joining the new state. Thus created a problem of National identity.

(F) Issue of Pakhtoonistan
At the time partition the “Red Shirts” the ally of INC controlled N.W.F.P. The Khan Brothers, Dr. Khan Sahib and Abdul Ghaffar Khan, were there leaders. Despite the 1947 referendum in which the people of the region voted to join Pakistan, the leaders of the “Red Shirts” demanded

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union with Afghanistan or complete regional autonomy. The Afghan government also supported the issue that the “Pakhtoons” or Pathans living in both Pakistan and Afghanistan belong to the same race and the “Pakhtoons” of Pakistan wanted to be the part of union with Afghanistan, called “Pakhtoonistan”.

(G) Death of Quaid-e-Azam
Despite all the problems, Pakistan continued to march under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-eAzam, Nobody can deny the fact that in the early year predominant leadership of Quaid-e-Azam was a source of strength for Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam died on 11th September 1948, just after one year of independence. After the death of Quaid-e-Azam there were other great leader too but unfortunately none was of the caliber of Quaid-e-Azam.

Significant Features of various Ministries (1947 – 1988)
Governor Generals of Pakistan (1947 – 1956)
• Quid-e-Azam: Assume power as the 1st Governor General of Pakistan on 15th August 1947, died on 11th September 1948. Khwaja Nazimuddin: Assume power after the death of Quaid-e-Azam on 14th September 1948, resigned from his office after the death of Liaquat Ali Khan to become the prime Minister on 17th October 1951. Malik Ghulam Muhammad: Assume Power on 19th October 1951, forced to resign because of his ill health on 15th October 1955. Major General Iskander Mirza: Assume power on 16th October 1955, resigned from the office of Governor General on 22nd March 1956 to become the President of Pakisrtan.

Presidents and Chief Martial Law Administrators of Pakistan (1947 – 1988)
• Major General Iskander Mirza: Elected as the 1st President of Pakistan by the Members of the National Assembly on 23rd March 1956, forced to resign by General Ayub Khan on 27th October 1958. General Ayub Khan: Assume power as the 1st Chief Martial Law Administration of Pakistan on 27th October 1958, sworn as 2nd President of Pakistan in February 1960 resigned in March 1969 because of widespread protest against his government.

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• General Yahya Khan: He became the Chief Martial Law Administrator and 3rd President of Pakistan after the resignation of General Ayub Khan on 25th March 1969, he resigned on 20th December 1971 after the separation of East Pakistan. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto: Assume the power as the 1st Civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator and the 4th President of Pakistan on 20th December 1971, resigned from the office of the President when elected as the Prime Minister of Pakistan by the National Assembly on 13th August 1973. Chaudri Fazal Elahi: Elected as the 5th President of Pakistan on 14th August 1973, retired at the end of his term on 16th September 1978. General Zia-ul-Haq: Assume power as the Chief Martial Law Administrator on 15th July 1977, also became the 6th President of Pakistan after the retirement of Fazal Elahi on 16th September 1978, died in plane crash on 17th August 1988.

Ghulam Ishaq Khan: The Chairman of Senate assumed the office of President after the death of Zia-ul-Haq on 17th August 1988, forced to resigned on 8th July 1993.

Prime Ministers of Pakistan (1947 – 1988)
• Liaqat Ali Khan: He became the 1st Prime Minister of Pakistan on 15th August 1947, shot dead on 16th October 1951. Khwaja Nazim uddin: Assume power on 17th October 1951, dismissed by Ghulam Mohammed on 17th April 1953. Mohammad Ali Bogra: Appointed (twice by Ghulam Mohammad on 17th April 1953, Ghulam Mohammed dissolved the Constituent Assembly on 11th August 1955.

Chaudri Mohammad Ali: Elected by the members of the members of the Constituent Assembly as the Prime Minister on 11th August 1955, forced to resign when lost majority in the Assembly on 12th September 1956.

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• Hussain Shaheed Suharwardy: Assume power on 12th September 1956, forced to resign when lost majority in the Assembly on 17th October 1957. Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar: Assume power on 18th October 1957, forced to resign when lost majority in the Assembly on 16th December 1957. Feroz Khan Noon: Assume power on 18th December 1957, removed when Martial Law was imposed on 17th October 1958. General Ayub Khan: On 22nd October 1958, Major General Iskander Mirza appointed General Ayub Khan as the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Noor-ul-Amin: Nominated by General Yahya Khan on 7th December 1971, removed after the separation of East Pakistan on 20th December 1971. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto: He became the 1 st democratically elected Prime Minister of Pakistan on 12th August 1973, removed by General Zia-ul-Haq on 5th July 1977, when Martial Law was imposed on the country.

Mohammad Khan Junaijo: Appointed by General Zia-ul-Haq as the Prime Minister of Pakistan on 23rd March 1985, dismissed by Zia-ul-Haq on 29th May 1988.

Benazir Bhutto: After the election held in October 1988, Benazir Bhutto (daughter of Z.A. Bhutto) becoming the 1st woman Prime Minister of Pakistan in November 1988.

1st Martial Law imposed by President Major General Iskander Mirza on 7th October 1958 and lifted by President General Ayub Khan on 1st March 1962. 2nd Martial Law imposed by President General Yahya on 25th March 1969 and lifted by Z.A. Bhutto on 1st March 1972. 3rd Martial Law imposed by General Zia-ul-Haq on 7th March 1977 and lifted by President General Zia-ul-Haq in December 1985.

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Liaquat Ali Khan (1947 – 1951)
He was the 1st Prime Minister of Pakistan. Although he was unable to handle many of the problems, which Pakistan faced at that, but there was no doubt that he wanted to see Pakistan developed. After the death of Quaid-e-Azam, he gained good popularity; his contribution to the Pakistan Movement included his convincing the Quaid to return from England, to lead the Muslim League in 1934. As the 1st Prime Minister of Pakistan he kept the economy working but did not frame a constitution for country. He was assassinated in October 1951.

Objective Resolution 1949
On 12th March 1949, the 1st Constituent Assembly of Pakistan passed a resolution, it was moved by Liaquat Ali Khan the 1st Prime Minister of Pakistan. The basic principles of Objective Resolution were; • • • • • • The constitution should observe the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice as laid down by Islam. Muslims would be able to lead their lives according to Islamic principles. Other religious group should be able to practice their religion freely. Minorities and the poor would be legally protected from social injustice. All fundamental human rights should be guaranteed. The legal system should be independent of government.

Advantages: It was the 1st step towards the constitution making and most important accasion in the life of Pakistan. In Objective Resolution the Islamic and ideological character of the newly established state was preserved. In view of these basic principles, the Objective Resolution contained fundamental principal on which the future constitution of Pakistan was to be based. Criticism: The Objective Resolution contained several references to Islam, as it tried to counter criticism from Ulema that the new government had not made Pakistan a proper Islamic state, with a constitution based on the Shariat. There was no agreement that how these objective would be implemented. Further more, no timetable given for the holding of elections and drafting of constitution.

Khawaja Nazimuddin (1948 – 1951)
He was from East Pakistan. He lacked firmness and was an honest and God fearing person. Unfortunately he could not stop the influence of executive branch of government in the politics.

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In 1951 Malik Ghulam Mohammed who was Finance Minister at that time, persuaded him to step down as a Prime Minister from the post Governor General. In 1953, Pakistan suffered a great food crisis due to flooding in East Pakistan and severe economic problems leading to civil unrest. This unrest was exploited by religious elements that wanted Ahmediyas to be declared as Non-Muslims. The government of Khawaja Nazimuddin was criticized for lacking firmness in the maintenance of law and order and dealing with the economic situation. In 1953 Malik Ghulam Mohammed dismissed Khawaja Nazimuddin’s government and appointed Muhammad Ali Bogra as new Prime Minister.

Malik Ghulam Muhammad (1951 – 1955)
When Pakistan came into being in 1947, Ghulam Mohammad was inducted in the 1st Cabinet of the country as Finance Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan during the alst days of his rule was well of his life, decided to remove Malik Ghulam Mohammad from his Cabinet due to his bad health. But death of Liaquat Ali Khan turned the tables for Ghulam Mohammad. When Khawaja Nazimuddin resigned as Governor General to become the Prime Minister, Cabinet elected Gulam Mohammad as 3rd Governor General of Pakistan. After assuming the charge as Governor General Ghulam Mohammad started dominating the affairs of the country and Khawaja Nazimuddin merely became a powerless Prime Minister. Economic Reforms: In 1950 a planning Commission was set up to oversee economic development in Pakistan. In 1951 it launched a Six Year Plan for Pakistan. In 1952 a major jute processing plant was opened at East Pakistan and exploration for oil/gas led to the discovery of vast reserves of natural gas at Sui in Balochistan. Political Matters: From 1951-53 there was severe drought in Pakistan. This affected food production and in 1953 severe food shortages led to noting in most cities throughout Pakistan. The rioting, however, had not been just about food shortages. It had also a religious element. Some Ulemas had begun a campaign against the Ahmedis. They demanded that ali Ahmedis be dismissed from office, including Zafarullah Khan. In April 1953 Ghulam Mohammad dismissed Khawaja Nazimuddin and three other members of the Cabinet, blaming them for not controlling the economy and the riots that resulted from food shortages and issue of Ahmedis. New Cabinet was formed which includes a new Prime Minister, Mohammad Ali Bogra,who had been the acting ambassador to the USA. In September 1954 M. Ali Bogra tried to reduce the discretionary powers of Governor General under which Ghulam Mohammad kdismissed khawaja Nazimuddin’s government. Ghulam Mohammad acted immediately and dissolved the Constituent Assembly. He then chose a new Cabinet in which he re-appointed Bogra as Prime Minister. Maulvi Tamiz ud-din the speaker of dissolved assembly challenged the decision in Sindh High Court. The court gave verdict in favor of Maulvi Tamiz-ud-din, but the Supreme Court reversed the decision Singh High Court. Ghulam Mohammad fell ill and had to resign in August 1955. Major General Iskander Mirza replaced him.

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Maj. Gen. Iskander Mirza (1955 – 1958)
He became Governor General of Pakistan after Malik Ghulam Mohammad in October 1955. He had joined the British Indian Army but he had been on political service by the British, so he was a perfect bridge between military and civil service. He also used his power in an unconstitutional manner by overthrowing political governments. In 1956, he became the 1st President of Pakistan (According to the 1st Constitution of Pakistan in 1956, the designation of Governor General was changed into President.) and was successful in formulating 1st Constitution of Pakistan on 23rd March 1956. He also invited General Ayub Khan to take over and proclaimed 1st Martial Law in Pakistan. One Unit scheme 1955: In October 1955, Governor General Iskander Mirza introduced a scheme known as ‘One Unit Scheme’. This scheme was about joining all the four provinces and ten princely states of Pakistan into single administrative system. The federation of Pakistan would then officially consist of West Pakistan as one province with population of 34 million and East Pakistan as other province with population of 44 million. The main reason given for creating the unified province of West Pakistan was to improve administration and economic resources. However, East Pakistan took it as a mean of denying them a majority of seats in the national assembly. In the constitution of 1956 equal number of seats were given to East and West Pakistan.

Field Marshal M. Ayub Khan and ‘Decade of Progress’ (1958 – 1969)
On 7th October 1958 Iskander Mirza, abrogated the Constitution of 1956 and proclaimed Martial Law in the country with himself as the President. He appointed General Ayub Khan, the C-in-C of Pakistan Army as Chief Martial Law Administrator. On 27th October 1958 Iskander Mirza was forced to resigned and exiled by Ayub Khan. It was to be the 1st period of direct rule in the country.

Political Activities
Ban over political parties: For Ayub Khan political leaders created political instability in the country, they also blocked the way of country’s progress. To culminate the influence of the political leaders and parties and to prevent their entry into politics Ayub Khan banned all political parties under Martial Law Regulation of 1958. Basic Democracies: The 1st step in Ayub Khan’s constitutional reforms came with the introduction of the Basic Democracies Order on 26th October 1959. This four-tier system in which ordinary people elected union council members who in turn elected district and divisional members Later it was stated in the 1962 Constitution that the 80,000 elected Basic Democrats would also form the electoral college for the election of the President and members of the

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Central and Provincial Legistatures. System of Basic Democracies deprived the common people from taking part in the election of President, National and Provincial assemblies directly. At the end of 1959, Ayub asked the Basic Democrats for a vote of confidence. Almost 95% of them declared their confidence in Ayub Khan and on 17th February 1960 he was confirmed as President of Pakistan for the next 5 years. Constitutional Changes: On 17th February 1960 Ayub Khan announced the creation of a Constitution Commission to make recommendations for a new constitution. Ayub Khan introduced the 2nd Constitution on 1st March 1962; he described it as combining ‘Democarcy with Discipline. It was Federal and Presidential type of constitution. Criticisms: • Constitution of 1962 provided democratic dictatorship, as it provided the President dictatorial powers. The Governors and Ministers were appointed by the President and could dissolve the assembly. The Constitution was dictated by Ayub Khan and imposed without any discussion in Parliament. • After the introduction of 2nd Constitution in 1962, Martial Law was lifted and ban on Political parties was removed. It appeared that Pakistan was moving nearer to a democratic system, but actually, Ayub’s reforms had increased the powers of the ruling elite. This had happened because the major landlords dominated the elections to the Basic Democracies and often used coercion or bribery to influence the results. • The Constitution also further upset the people of East Pakistan. They felt that they would have little part in governing Pakistan. Gradually they were coming to realize that Pakistan’s government was in the hands of military and civil officials from West Pakistan. Various steps were taken to placate East Pakistanis: (1) Both Urdu and Bengali were recognized as two of the national languages. (2) The National Assembly Session was to be held in both Dhaka and Islamabad. (3) If the President were from West Pakistan, then the Speaker of the National Assembly was to be from East Pakistan. Despite these measures the people of East Pakistan still believed that West Pakistanis governed Pakistan. This resulted in feeling of unease in East Pakistan.

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