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Midterm Exam (1) Define the following terms and provide a specific example illustrating the term.

For the definitions, you may quote from any of the textbooks – please provide the citation, i.e., ({Taylor, p. 73.} or {Chan, p. 73.}) – but the examples may not be taken from these texts. You may use examples from the materials you have worked on during the semester, however. (a) Chief source of information (book) Definition: It is the area where one gets the info to be used for a record. This includes getting the author and title that are to be used for things such as main entry, whose format follows the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. For a book, this is found on the title page verso, which should display the title, author and publishing company name and place (if known). The title page is found towards the front book, which can differ from European books where it can often be found towards the back. Example: So in my example book’s title page, I learn that the title is “The Marriage Plot” by Jeffrey Eugenides. It lists the publisher as Farrar, Straus and Giroux-New York. (b) delimiter Definition: “Delimiters are unique characters that indicate the beginning of a particular subfield” {Taylor, p. 137}. They can be identified by symbols such as | or $. In OCLC, they are not visible for the subfield a. This subfield is in the field, but just not viewable. Example: If one looks at the MARC record for the book “The Rules of Survival” by Nancy Werlin in WorldCat, one sees in field 260, there is $b which signifies subfield b that then lists the publisher name of Allyn & Baco. In this, the delimiter is the $ that is in front of the b. (c) AACR2 Definition: Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition. It is “a set of rules drafted


according to the Paris Principles and governing how works were described and entered into a bibliographic database {Chan, p. 7}. The second edition accounted for more recent materials that were not originally included in the first AACR, such as computer files. This edition also worked towards having an international standard for cataloguing, and bringing together British and North American versions of AACR into one unified one. Example: An example of a cataloguing rule would be rule 1.1A1 which can be found in Chapter 1. Chapter 1 deals with general rules of the cataloguing book, and 1.1A1 gives the general rules for how punctuation should be formatted. (d) Collocate Definition: This involves bringing together materials of a related nature, even if different terminology is used {Taylor, p. 250}. This could be bringing together materials that are by the same author or same corporate bodies. This is related to authority control, as it provides authority control in finding all similar materials together. Example: An example of this would be having all of the books written by J.K. Rowling together. An author search in the SWAN classic catalog for J.K. Rowling brings up all her different works including electronic resources and books with 209 results. (e) Finding aid Definition: Finding Aids are used in archival work. They are a bibliographic retrieval tool that describes entire collections rather than single items. They are descriptive, as they are providing information on an entire collection. Also, they often follow the rule of provenance, which involves describing/outlining when and how an item was acquired. They might also describe the physical characteristics and condition of the collection {Taylor, p. 57}.


Example: An example of a finding aid would be the listing found through the Harvard Library’s Online Archival Search Information System (OASIS) for a Sacco-Vanzetti case records collection 1920-1928. It is listed as being at the Harvard Law Library, and there is information on the acquisition of the items as well as a detailed description of the approximately 2,000 items in the collection. (f) Pseudonym Definition: It is a fictitious/alternate name for the same person. It is often used by authors to change up their name, or they might want to write different things under different pseudonyms. Example: An example would be that the well-known author Stephen King also wrote under the name Richard Bachman. So Richard Bachman would be a pseudonym for Stephen King. (g) ISBN Definition: ISBN stands for the International Standard Book Number. It is a unique number that is assigned to the book that it is placed on. It was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). There are 13 digit ISBNs as well as 10 digit ISBNs. As mentioned on Wikipedia’s website, the code identifies information about the book of the title and the publisher information. Before 2007, the ISBN was 10 digits but after that date it was 13 digits long. Example: When one takes a look at the back of the book “The Warmth of Suns” by Isabel Wilkerson that was published in 2010, one finds the 13 digits ISBN of the book that is 978067944329. (h) Access point


Definition: Access point “refers to the mechanism that enables a user to discover a target document or other listed item” {Chan, p. 145}. An access point could be the author, title, series name or such things. But for our class, we focused on author, title or series. Example: An access point for the book “Practical Magic” could be that listed title as well as the author Alice Hoffman. It could have been the series if this book had belonged to a series. (i) OPAC Definition: Online Public Access Catalog. It is the main type of catalog currently used in the United States. “In these catalogs, records are kept on a local or remote server {Taylor, p. 49}. In the library, they are the tool used to search the collections of the library. Online catalogs also provide information on where to find the item being sought after. Example: the SWAN (system wide automated network) catalog is an online public access catalog used by a consortium of about 80 libraries. It can be accessed through the websites of the libraries within the consortium, and it displays the collections held at all the different libraries. (j) Corporate body Definition: “An organization or a group of persons that is identified by a particular name and that acts, or may act, as an entity” {Chan, p. 543}. So it is group that is often labeled under a certain association. So rather than a book having an author, the author might be an entire corporation or group. Example: an example of a book with a corporate body as an author would be encyclopedias. Upon looking up the Encyclopedia Americana 2000 in the SWAN


catalog, the author is listed as Grolier Incorporated. So this would be an example of a corporate body of a book. (2) The primary components of a MARC record are fields/tags, indicators, and subfields. Define these three terms and provide specific examples explaining what they are and how they are used in a MARC record. Fields/Tags: The fields are the lines in the MARC record that contain the data/information about the record. They contain the subfields. They are “a collection of data elements” {Chan, p. 454}. There are fixed fields as well as variable fields. The fields/tags are expressed by a three-digit code, and each code signifies something. For example, the 100 field provides information about the author. The fixed fields’ code is 00X, and the variable fields range is 01X-8XX {Chan, p. 456}. A specific example can be found by looking at MARC record for the book “Bossypants” by Tina Fey in WorldCat. A field to look at of the many choices could be field 082. This field is used to indicate the Dewey Decimal classification number for an item, and in this case there is one as the book is an autobiography. So field 082 is used to input the Dewey Decimal number, which in this case is 791.45092. Indicators: Within the field, there are indicators that provide even more information about that specific field. There are two indicators for a field, but an indicator can be blank. In such a case, it would be marked blank or have a symbol to signify this. For the same book “Bossypants”, we will now look at field 100 with indicators of 1 __ (indicators are 1 and then blank). This field provides information on the main entry-personal name. But the important part in this example are the indicators. So the first indicator is to signify the part of the personal name entered, and an indicator of 1 signifies the surname. The second indicator is blank, as it is always blank/undefined. These indicators relate to the


fact that the author’s name is written as Fey, Tina. Subfields: the subfield consists of the specific information within the main field, and it has a delimiter in it as well. The delimiter announces the start of a subfield within the MARC record. An example can be found by looking at the book “Bossypants” for a final time at the field 600 with an indicator of 1 0. This field is for a subject added entypersonal name. So the field’s content is: Fey, Tina, $d 1970-. The subfields in this area are subfield a of Fey, Tina and subfield d of 1970-. The subfield a is there but not visible in OCLC, and as mentioned the subfield d has the delimiter, which is a $ in this case. The first subfield is to signify the personal name of the author, and subfield d is used for dates associated with the author. (3) What is the importance of authority control in a library catalog, be it for personal names, corporate and government bodies, or subjects? Use examples of your own creation to illustrate the outcomes of a search if authority control is or isn’t applied. Authority control in a catalog is important in providing a good catalog, and helping a person be able to browse a collection or works of an author or types of works. “Authority control is the process of bringing together all of the forms of name that apply to a single name; all the variant titles that apply to a single work; and relating all the synonyms, related term[s] {Taylor, p. 44}. This is important to have as one looks at Cutter’s rules, which involve being able to find a book through knowing the author, title or subject. If there were no authority control for all the materials by a specific author, one would be unable to meet the first listed Cutter rule. So if all the materials were not brought together by under the same author, one might not find a certain book by them. This would be a disservice to our patrons as well as staff, who both use the catalogue to search


the collection. So an example of authority control can be found by exploring the works of young adult author Becca Fitzpatrick. She has only published three books in her ongoing series so far, with the first one being called “Hush, Hush.” They are books similar to the Twilight series, but with fallen angels. When doing an author search in the SWAN catalog for Fitzpatrick, Becca, I got 6 hits. This is expected as she has only published three of her four planned books so far. The books and sound recordings for her three books came up. So with authority control, I am able to view all of the available material through SWAN by Becca Fitzpatrick. The same thing happened in the SWAN catalog when I did a search for encyclopedias. I got a vast amount of results when I searched for encyclopedias under subject. Authority control has allowed me to view multiple items under the same author as well as the same type of work (encyclopedias). Since the library catalogues that I have encountered use authority control, I do not have a real world example of authority control not being applied. However, the results for my searches done would have very different results without authority control. Rather than being able to view all the different items by Becca Fitzpatrick, I would have to know every single title by her in order to view all of her works. This might prove to be a hard task to accomplish, and I would have to do some investigation outside of the catalogue to find that out. Also, I would not be able to discover various encyclopedias that are available through the catalog since they would not come all come up in my search due to a lack of authority control. Without authority control, the library catalog would become incredibly frustrating and it would not fit the criteria used by people such as Cutter or even Lubetzky who mentioned an objective of the catalog is “to reveal to the user of the catalog, under one form of the author’s name, what works the library has by a given


author and what editions or translations of a given work” {Taylor, p. 45}.

(4) What are Charles Ammi Cutter’s three criteria for the purpose of a library catalog? Do you feel these criteria are still relevant today? Defend your opinion based both on what has been covered in this course thus far and your own observations. Cutter’s three criteria are that catalogs should {Taylor, p. 45}: 1. allow a person to find a book through knowing either the author, title or subject 2. To display what a library has through a given author, subject or type of literature 3. To help in choosing a book in regards to either its edition (bibliographically) or its character (literary or topical) So after looking at the three Cutter criteria, I would say that I would agree that the Cutter rules still apply to the current role of the catalogue. It is very important to be able to search for an entire item. There are books such as the Anglo-American cataloguing rules 2nd edition that we have discussed, which give exact rules on how to entire items into a catalog in order to achieve the rules mentioned by Cutter. But I would want to expand on what a library does. I would say that it would be nice if one could browse a catalogue with more ease. A catalogue seems to be quite functional for retrieving information on a specific thing like a certain author or title, as mentioned in the Cutter rules. So it is there for helping one find a certain item. But there might be times when one wants to browse the entire collection, or a certain area such as one does at a clothing store. One could browse the subjects in the catalogue, but it is not the easiest way and the results depend upon the terminology applied by the cataloguer. Also in a view for the general public, patrons might not use the same subject terms as the ones used in the catalogue. This would provide them with fewer successful results than desired. There has been the use of


the catalogue as a shelflist, through which one could look through the entire inventory of a catalogue for such purposes as collection development {Taylor, p. 46}. It would be nice to have a way to browse the entire collection of a library through the catalogue, but in a streamlined and elegant looking way. I have had patrons at my job at the Oak Park Public Library ask for a paper copy of our library’s collection so that they could casually browse through our items. Of course, I could not provide it since we do not have that anymore. It would also be nice for browsing if one could add a few features that come up in Google, which include giving suggestions as one starts to type a query and being able to link similar subjects together when searching a subject term. So I would continue the Cutter rules, as that is what a library’s catalogue is expected to do and continues to do. But I would want to expand on the rules and role of a catalogue in its outcome for the users.