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Works Cited

Primary Sources

Beale, David J. Through the Johnstown Flood By a Survivor. A Thrilling, Truthful, and Official History of the Most Appalling Calamity of Modern Times. Philadelphia: Edgewood Pub., 1890. Print. This primary source book was written by Dr. David Joshua Beale, a survivor of the Johnstown flood. It was written in the months following the flood providing an eyewitness account of the events during and after the flood including recovery efforts. Johnson, Willis Fletcher. History of the Johnstown Flood. New York: Edgewood, 1889. Print. This primary source book was written by a current events writer back in 1889. Although the stories and accounts Johnson wrote about in his book contained exaggerations, it gave an understanding of how the Johnston Flood was viewed and understood by many who lived during that time period. It was an example of how the tragic event became a part of the American popular culture. "May 31, 1889 Johnstown Flood by The New York Times." May 31, 1889 Johnstown Flood by The New York Times. Johnstown Pennsylvania Information Source Online, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. This internet source provided primary source articles from the New York Times published just days after the Johnstown flood occurred. It included the initial reports of the devastation and recovery activity that was initiated. McGough, Michael R., Dr. The 1889 Flood in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Gettysburg, PA:

Thomas Publications, 2002. Print. This book contains historical accounts of the Johnstown Flood tragedy including numerous image copies of historical documents and records, primary source photos, and primary source quoted passages as they originally appeared. "Survivor Stories of the Johnstown Flood." Survivor Stories of the Johnstown Flood. Johnstown Area Heritage Association, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. This website from the Flood Museum provided some survivor accounts from the Johnstown Flood including the tragic story of Anna Fenn who lost all seven of her children and her husband. Her account of what she went through during the flood was quoted which included a description of her drowned children floating around her. It provided an example of the immense loss experienced just in one family.

Secondary Sources "A Brief History of the American Red Cross." American Red Cross. The American Red Cross, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. This website provided a brief history of the American Red Cross. It explained the growth of the organization prior to the First World War and afterwards. Advertisement for The Johnstown Horror or Valley of Death. Digital image. LearnNC. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, n.d. Web. 23 Jan. 2013. I used this website to obtain a Johnstown media picture to enhance my website. It helped to understand media awareness after the flood.

American Red Cross Guide to Services. The American Red Cross, n.p., 2011. Print.

This pamphlet provided a more detailed guide of the various services the organization provides including disaster services. It helped to understand how the American Red Cross continues to provide help with disasters today. American Red Cross 125th Anniversary Guide for Teachers of Grades 5 to 12. Washington, D.C.: n.p., 2006. Print. This pamphlet source provided an informative history of the American Red Cross. It included information on the early years of their involvement with disasters that included the Johnstown Flood. American Red Cross symbol. Digital image. Clara Barton. Harvard Square Library, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. This website was used to get a picture of the American Red Cross symbol used in my project design. "Facts About the Johnstown Flood." Facts About the Johnstown Flood. Johnstown Area Heritage Association, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. This internet source provided several facts about the Johnstown Flood. The very descriptive facts given helped to understand the enormous impact the flood had on the town and its people. Flyer for the book on the Johnstown Flood by the Rev. David Beale. Digital image. Johnstown Flood Museum Chronicles the 1889 Sensationalism, and Honors McCullough's Correct History. PG Publishing Co., Inc. Web. 23 Jan. 2013. Another media example was found in this website that was used for enhancement of my project. It provided a sample of the media coverage after the flood. "Founder Clara Barton." Clara Barton. The American Red Cross, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

Information on how Clara Barton founded and led the American Red Cross was provided by this website. It helped me to understand her passion to help people and willingness to take on challenges to meet her goals. Johnstown Flood. Digital image. A PHOTOGRAPHIC STORY OF THE 1889 JOHNSTOWN FLOOD. Swartzentrover.com., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. A picture of a body being recovered in Johnstown was obtained from this website for use in my project. It helped to understand the tragic results of the flood. Johnstown Flood. Dir. Mark Bussler. Perf. Patrick Jordan, Charles King and Jeniffer Lee Dake. Inecom Entertainment Company, 2003. DVD. This DVD was noted as being written from first-hand accounts of survivors. The images and stories helped to bring alive the tragic historical event. It also gave inspirational accounts of heroic acts and success in recovery efforts. Johnstown Flood 4. Craig McLeod. YouTube. Sky three, 19 May 2012. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. This website was used to find even more visual imagery with video clips to add to my project. It provided more information on the American Red Cross and about the townspeople. Johnstown Flood National Memorial - South Fork, Pennsylvania (PA) - (pictures, Information, Links, History) - NPS. Digital image. Cicotello.com. Yahoo.com. Web. 23 Jan. 2013. The Johnstown Flood National Memorial sign picture was added to my project from this website. It was used to show a way the tragic flood is being remembered.

Johnstown Flood of 1889 Photos. Digital image. Johnstown Area Heritage Association. Johnstown Area Heritage Association. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.

This website contained several photos related to the Johnstown Flood that I used to visually enhance the different pages of my website project. It included the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club building and members, Anna Fenn (a survivor) and various images of the destruction and recovery efforts. Johnstown Flood 2. Craig McLeod. YouTube. Sky three,19 May 2012. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. This website was used to find additional visual imagery through the use of video clips I used to add additional information on the Johnstown Flood. It helped provide some background history of the dam and the weather the day of the flood. “Johnstown Inclined Plane Est. 1891.” Welcome to the Johnstown Inclined Plane- world’s Steepest Vehicular Incline. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2013. This website provided a brief history of the Johnstown Incline Plane including its original purpose after the Johnstown Flood in the recovery phase. It explained the later purpose realized for disaster response when later floods took place in Johnstown. Johnstown in the flood’s immediate aftermath. Digital image. Johnstown Flood: May 31, 1889. Homeland Security Watch. Web. 28 Jan. 2013. I was able to use a picture of the destruction in Johnstown from this website in my project.

Kevin MacLeod. “Mourning Song." Classical Sampler. N.d. FreeMusicArchive.org. CreativeCommons. Web. 10 Jan. 2013. I used music from this website to enhance my project. I used music that sounded sad to

add to my recovery page since it was when the tragic reality of the flood destruction was being dealt with by the survivors. Map of Johnstown Flood Path Map, Pennsylvania, United States. Digital image. World Map. Maps. Web. 28 Jan. 2013. A picture of the path of the Johnstown Flood was used in my project from this website. It helped to understand what other communities were also in the destructive path. McCullough, David G. The Johnstown Flood. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968. Print. This book provided valuable information in a documentary style writing account of the Johnstown Flood. Background information was given on the town of Johnstown and its importance during the 19th century and the history of the South Fork dam and why it became known as a national scandal. "Medical Icon: History of The American Red Cross." Medical Tourism Company WorldMed Assist. WorldMedAssist, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. This internet source provided a brief history of the American Red Cross including the response made to the Johnstown Flood in 1889 and the construction of the first “Red Cross hotels” It also provided a list of resources to learn more about the American Red Cross and Clara Barton.

"Mission, Vision, and Fundamental Principles." Mission & Principles. American Red Cross, n.d. Web. 22 Jan. 2013. This website provided information on the American Red Cross including its mission statement and vision statement. It showed how the their commitment to helping those in

need facing disaster continues today. “Morning Has Broken.” Sleepytime Songs. N.d. Ilivid.com.Downloads.nl. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. I used the music from this website to create a mood of hope and starting a new day on the conclusion page of my project. "Our Federal Charter." American Red Cross. American Cross, n.d. Web. 22 Jan. 2013. The relationship the American Red Cross has with the Federal government was explained in this website. It gave an additional understanding of the organization and how the current role of the organization was achieved. Perfect Thunder Storm. Mike Koenig, n.d. SoundBible.com. SoundBible.com. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. I used storm sounds to enhance my project auditorily and create a feel of the day of the flood from this website. Pryor, Elizabeth B. Clara Barton Professional Angel. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1987. Print. This book provided a wealth of biographical information on Clara Barton, the founder of the American Red Cross that was obtained from her diaries, letters and other primary sources. It helped me to understand the initial beginnings of the American Red Cross and its growth during Clara Barton’s involvement with the organization.

"Remembering the Johnstown Flood." Remembering the Johnstown Flood. Johnstown Area Heritage Association, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. Information from this internet source showed how the Johnstown flood was remembered through books, art, films, cartoons and memorials. The examples gave an understanding

of how the Johnstown Flood became part of the popular culture because of it being such a significant event during that time period. Schweikart, Larry. 7 Events That Made America America and Proved That the Founding Fathers Where Right All Along. New York, NY: Sentinel (Penguin Group), 2010. Print. This book discussed the constitutional provisions for disaster relief and discussed how limited they were. It gave a very detailed dissertation on the local Johnstown disaster relief effort and discussed the national response. It compared the Johnstown Flood local response to future disaster responses through 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina. "Significant Dates in Red Cross History." American Red Cross. The American Red Cross, n.d. Web. 22 Jan. 2013. A Red Cross history of events covering the 19th, 20th and 21st century time periods was included in this internet source. It showed the continuing efforts the Red Cross has been making with disaster relief. The Johnstown Flood. A Guggenheim Productions. Inc. Film for Johnstown Flood Museum Association, 1989. Videocassette. This film provided a visual documentary of the events leading up to the actual flood and events that occurred afterwards. The visual imagery and background sounds in the film helped to give a feel of what was experienced during the flood. "The Johnstown Flood and the American Red Cross." The Johnstown Flood and the American Red Cross. Johnstown Area Heritage Association, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. This website provided additional information on the American Red Cross and their role in the Johnstown recovery efforts. It noted that the organization was established as the major disaster relief agency in the United States because of their efforts made in

Johnstown. The information helped to show a turning point in disaster relief efforts. "The Johnstown Flood." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. This was another brief informative website article about the Johnstown flood. It included information on the communities in the path of flood affected before it reached Johnstown. “The Johnstown Incline Plane The Worlds Slowest Rollercoaster!” Ride The Worlds Slowest Rollercoaster In Johnstown PA.N.p., n.d. Web.26 Jan. 2013 This website article gave me information on the Johnstown Incline Plane and how it became important for emergency and rescue efforts for future floods. "The Relief Effort." The Relief Effort. Johnstown Area Heritage Association, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. This website article gave a brief description of the relief effort given following the flood. It gave some focus to the significant and successful response made to help with the relief efforts from our nation as well as the world. View from the Johnstown Flood Memorial. Digital image. Virtual Tourist. VirtualTourist.com. VirtualTourist. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. A picture of the dam site as it is today and the Johnstown National Memorial were obtained from this website for visual enhancement of my project. Water Noise. Caroline Ford, n.d. SoundBible.com. SoundBible.com. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. I used the water sounds from this website to enhance my project auditorily to create the feel of the day of the flood. Weather History: Great Johnstown Flood of 1889. Accuweather. YouTube. AccuWeather, 30 June 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. Information on the Johnstown Flood and its path of destruction was obtained from this

website video clip. I used it to add more description of how the flood moved down towards Johnstown.