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Atlas of Electrochemical Nyquist Diagrams. I.

One semicircle and straight line A guide to select equivalent circuits

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Bio-Logic @ www.bio-logic.info

September 28, 2011

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Contents
1 Nyquist diagrams made of one straight line 1.1 Capacitive straight line . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 C1 element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 R1+C1 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3 Q1 element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.4 R1+Q1 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.5 Q1 element, α1 = 1/2 . . . . . . . . . 1.1.6 W1 element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.7 R1+Q1 circuit, α1 = 1/2 . . . . . . . 1.1.8 R1+W1 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Inductive straight line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 L1 element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 R1+L1 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Q1 element, α1 < 0 . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.4 R1+Q1 element, α1 < 0 . . . . . . . . 1.2.5 L1+C1 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.6 R1+L1+C1 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Nyquist diagrams made of one semicircle 2.1 One capacitive semicircle . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 R1/C1 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 R1+R2/C2 circuit . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 R1/(R2+C2) circuit . . . . . . . . 2.2 One inductive semicircle . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 R1/L1 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 R1/L1 circuit, R1 < 0 . . . . . . . 2.2.3 R1+R2/L2 circuit . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 R1+R2/L2 circuit, R2 < 0 . . . . 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 17 17 17 17

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3 Nyquist diagrams made of one semicircle and straight 3.1 Capacitive semicircle and straight line . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 C1/(C2+R2) circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 C1+R2/C2 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 R1+C1/(C2+R2) circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.4 R1+C1+R2/C2 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.5 C1/(Q2+R2) circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.6 Q1+R2/C2 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.7 R1+C1/(Q2+R2) circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

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. . . .3. . . . . . . .1 L1+R2/C2 circuit . .6 R1+R2/L2+W1 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . Inductive semicircle and straight line . . .2. . . . . . . . .8 R1+Q1+R2/C2 circuit . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .1. . .3 R1/L1+Q1 circuit . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. α1 < 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . .4. . . .2 R1+L1+R2/C2 circuit . . . . α1 < 0 . .3. . . . . 3. . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . .3. . . .3. . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .2.4 . . .9 C1/(R2+W2) circuit . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 3.5 R1/L1+Q1 circuit. . . . . . . .2 R1+R2/L2+C1 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .10 R1+C1/(R2+W2) circuit . . . .4. . .1. . . .2 3. . . .1 R1/L1+L2 circuit . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 R1+R2/L2+Q1 circuit . . . . . . . .4. . . . 17 18 18 18 19 21 21 21 21 22 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 3. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.4 R1+L2/(R2+L3) circuit .1 R1/L1+C1 circuit . . . Inductive semicircle and capacitive straight line . . . . . . . . . . . α1 < 0 .4 R1+Q1+R2/C2 circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .1. . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 R1+R2/L2+Q1 circuit.3. . 3. . . 3. .4. 3. . . . 3. . .5 R1/L1+W1 circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Q1+R2/C2 circuit. . .12 R1+W1+R2/C2 circuit . . . 3. .2 L1/(R1+L2) circuit . . . . . . . .11 W1+R2/C2 circuit . . . . . . . Capacitive semicircle and inductive straight line . . . . . . .4. . . . . .3 R1+R2/L2+L3 circuit . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3. . 3. . . α1 < 0 .

3. 1. p. 1. p. 6 cf. 6 cf.1. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Π4 0 0 0 Π4 cf. p.1. 6 cf.1.5. Re Z. 7 (1 ) 1. For an electrochemical system C1 denotes the electrochemical double layer capacity Cdl . 6 cf.1. p. p. p.1.1. 1 Nyquist diagrams are always plotted using convention of electrochemists: orthonormal parametric plot −Im Z vs.1. 1. C1 element C1 Figure 1. p. 1.1: Six different Nyquist diagrams made of one capacitive straight line. 1.1 Capacitive straight line Table 1. 6 cf. 1.7.1.Chapter 1 Nyquist diagrams made of one straight line 1.2.1. 5 . 6 cf.1.8.1: C1 element. 1.4.1. 1. 1.1 Fig. p. 5 cf. The arrows always indicate the increasing frequency direction.6.

2.2: R1+C1 circuit.3. 1. Q1 element Q1 Figure 1. 1.3 with α1 = 1/2. W1 element 1.5.7 R1+Q1 circuit. 1. cf. Electrical circuits containing CPEs: http://www.6 Fig. 2].3 Fig.3: Q1 element (CPE element. For an ideally polarized electrode C1 denotes the electrochemical double layer capacity Cdl and R1 the ohmic (RΩ ) or uncompensated resistance (Ru ) [1]. 1. Q1 R1 Figure 1. α1 = 1/2 Fig. . 1.2 Fig.4 [1.1. 1.1. Handbook of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.4 R1+Q1 circuit Fig. 2]. 1.1.1.html) 1.4 with α1 = 1/2. R1+C1 circuit C1 R1 Figure 1. α1 = 1/2 Fig. 1.1.info/potentiostat/notesheis. 1.6 CHAPTER 1. NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE STRAIGHT LINE 1.1.bio-logic.4: R1+Q1 circuit [1.5 Q1 element.

1 Fig.1. L1 element L1 Figure 1. . 8 cf.bio-logic.6.7: L1 element.5: W1 element (Warburg impedance. p. 8 cf.2. p.3.1.2. p. 1.2: Four different Nyquist diagrams made of one inductive straight line and two diagrams made of one capacitive and one inductive straight line. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cf. 8 cf. cf.6: R1+W1 circuit. 1.4. 1. 1. 1. p. 1.2. 7 cf. Diffusion http://www.info/potentiostat/notesheis.html).7. p. 8 1. R1+W1 circuit W1 R1 Figure 1.2.5.2.2. 1.2 Inductive straight line Table 1.2. 8 cf.1. INDUCTIVE STRAIGHT LINE 7 W1 Figure 1. 1.6. of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.2.8 Fig. 1. Handbook impedances: 1. p.2.

4 R1+Q1 element. NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE STRAIGHT LINE 1.9: L1+C1 circuit. R1+L1 circuit L1 R1 Figure 1.2. 1. 1.2.4 with α1 < 0. . L1+C1 circuit C1 L1 L1 C1 Figure 1. 1.9.3 Q1 element. 1. 1.2.8 CHAPTER 1.10: R1+L1+C1 circuit.8. 1.2. 1.2 Fig.2.8: R1+L1 circuit. α1 < 0 Fig. R1+L1+C1 circuit C1 L1 R1 R1 L1 C1 Figure 1. 1. 1.6 Fig. α1 < 0 Fig.5 Fig.10.3 with α1 < 0.

p. C1 > 0 Fig. R1. 2. 2. 11 2.2. Electrical circuits containing CPEs: http://www.1: Four different Nyquist diagrams made of one capacitive semicircle. 2.1 R1/C1 circuit Figs.Chapter 2 Nyquist diagrams made of one semicircle 2.1. 2. 2. p.1. 11 cf.1. p. p. cf. 1 Replacing C by Q (CPE element) in a parallel RC circuit changes a semicircle in a ”depressed” semicircle arc.html 9 . 2. Handbook of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.info/potentiostat/notesheis.1. 9 cf.1.1.2 (1 ).1.2. 9 cf.1. C1 > 0 Fig.2.1. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cf. R1 < 0. 2. 2. 10 cf.bio-logic. 2.1.1 One capacitive semicircle Table 2. p.2.

Handbook of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.2: Nyquist diagrams of the impedance for the R1/C1 circuit.1: R1/C1 circuit. 2 The R1+R2/C2 and R1/(R2+C2) circuits are non-distinguishable.e. these circuits can be interchanged (cf.5 (2 ).3: Voigt circuit.html). C1 > 0. Ωc 1 R1C1 Ωc 1 R1C1 0 0 R1 0 R1 0 Figure 2.1. i. 2. τ = Ri Ci 1 + iωτ 1 + iωτ C1 C2 C3 Cn R1 R2 R3 Rn Figure 2. right R1 < 0. 2.bio-logic. Circuits made of resistors and capacitors: http://www.3. NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE SEMICIRCLE C1 R1 Figure 2.10 CHAPTER 2. Left: R1.info/potentiostat/notesheis. For an electrochemical system C1 denotes the electrochemical double layer capacity and R1 the charge transfer resistance Rct . 2. Z(ω) = n ∑ i=1 ∑n Ri Ri = i=1 . .2 R1+R2/C2 circuit Figs. C1 > 0.4. 2. Voigt circuit with one time constant Figs.

For an electrochemical system C2 denotes the electrochemical double layer capacity Cdl . R1. R2. Left: R1 > 0.2.5: R1+R2/C2 circuit. C1 > 0. Ωc 1 R2C2 Ωc 1 R2C2 0 0 R1 R1 R2 0 R1 R2 0 R1 Figure 2. R1 the ohmic (RΩ ) or uncompensated resistance (Ru ) and R2 the charge transfer resistance Rct . C2 > 0 Fig. R1. C2 R1 R2 R1 R2 C2 Figure 2. . right: R1 < 0.6.4: Nyquist diagram of the impedance for Voigt circuit with one time constant. C1 > 0.6.1. R2. 2. 2. C2 > 0 Fig. R2 > 0.6: Nyquist impedance diagrams for the R1+R2/C2 circuit. ONE CAPACITIVE SEMICIRCLE 11 Ωc 1 RiCi 0 0 Ri Figure 2. R2 < 0.

NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE SEMICIRCLE 2.12 CHAPTER 2.3 Figs.7. R1. R2.7: R1/(R2+C2) circuit and Nyquist impedance diagram. 2.1. C1 > 0 . R1/(R2+C2) circuit Ωc R1 C2 R2 R1 R2 C2 0 0 R1 R2 R1 R2 1 R1 R2 C2 R1 Figure 2.

3. p.2: Four different Nyquist diagrams made of one inductive semicircle.1 R1/L1 circuit Figs.2 R1/L1 circuit. p.9. Left: R1 > 0. 13 cf. 2. .2.2 One inductive semicircle Table 2.2.4. ONE INDUCTIVE SEMICIRCLE 13 2.1. 2.2.8.9: Nyquist impedance diagram for the R1/L1 circuit. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cf.2.8.8: R1/L1 circuit. right: R1 < 0. 2.2. 2. 14 2. R1 0 R1 0 Ωc 0 R1 L1 Ωc R1 L1 0 Figure 2. p.2. R1 < 0 Fig. p. R1 < 0. 13 cf. 2.2. 2.2.2. 2. L1 R1 Figure 2. 2. 14 cf.

2.3 R1+R2/L2 circuit Figs. 2.14 CHAPTER 2. 0 R1 R1 R2 0 R1 R2 R1 Ωc 0 R2 L2 Ωc R2 L2 0 Figure 2.10. R2 < 0 Figs. 2. 2.11. . L2 R1 R2 R1 R2 L2 Figure 2. Left: R2 > 0. NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE SEMICIRCLE 2. 2.2.11. 2.10: R1+ R2/L2 circuit.4 R1+R2/L2 circuit. right: R2 < 0.11: Nyquist impedance diagrams for the R1+R2/L2 circuit.10.

19 cf. 3. 18 cf.1 (1 ).12. p.1. 3. 17 cf.1. 3.2 Fig. 3. 18 cf.2. p. p.3.1. p. 3.5.e.1: Six different Nyquist diagrams made of one capacitive semicircle and one straight line (limiting cases). 3.1. 15 . 17 cf. 3. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cf.1 C1/(C2+R2) circuit Fig. i. these circuits can be interchanged (cf. p. p.1 Capacitive semicircle and straight line Table 3.1. Circuits made of resistors and capacitors: http://www. 15 cf.2. p.Chapter 3 Nyquist diagrams made of one semicircle and one straight line 3.html).1. 16 cf.1.4.1.8. p. p.9.1. p.11. 19 3. 3.6.1. 15 cf.1.1.1. 3. 3.12.1. 17 cf. Handbook of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. 3. 3. 3.info/potentiostat/notesheis. 3. p. 3. C1+R2/C2 circuit 1 C1/(C2+R2) and C1+R2/C2 circuits are non-distinguishable.bio-logic.7.1. 17 cf. 17 cf. p.

3. 3.1.1: C1/(C2+R2) circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams. R1+C1/(C2+R2) circuit C1 C2 R1 R2 0 R1 C1 C2 R2 0 Figure 3. 3. .16CHAPTER 3.3 Fig.3: R1+C1/(C2+R2) circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams. NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE SEMICIRCLE AND STRAIGHT LINE C1 C2 R2 0 C1 C2 R2 0 Figure 3. C2 C1 R2 C1 R2 C2 Figure 3.2: C1+R2/C2 circuit.

5 Fig. R1+C1+R2/C2 circuit C2 C1 R1 R2 R1 C1 R2 C2 Figure 3. 3. C1/(Q2+R2) circuit C1 Q2 R2 C1 Q2 R2 0 0 Figure 3.1. CAPACITIVE SEMICIRCLE AND STRAIGHT LINE 17 3.1. 3. 3.1. 3. Q1+R2/C2 circuit 3.6 Fig.4.4: R1+C1+R2/C2 circuit.5: C1/(Q2+R2) circuit.7 Fig.3. 3.8 Fig. 3.4 Fig.1.5. R1+C1/(Q2+R2) circuit 3.6. 3. R1+Q1+R2/C2 circuit .1.1.8.7.

11 Fig.9.1. 3.8: R1+Q1+R2/C2 circuit.10 Fig. 3.1.9 Fig.7: R1+C1/(Q2+R2) circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams.10. 3. 3.6: Q1+R2/C2 circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams.18CHAPTER 3. W1+R2/C2 circuit . R1+C1/(R2+W2) circuit 3. C1 Q2 R1 R2 R1 C1 Q2 R2 0 0 Figure 3.11. C2 Q1 R1 R2 R1 Q1 R2 C2 Figure 3. C1/(R2+W2) circuit 3. NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE SEMICIRCLE AND STRAIGHT LINE C2 Q1 R2 Q1 R2 C2 Figure 3.1.

3.9: C1/(R2+W2) circuit (Randles circuit) and Nyquist impedance diagrams.bio-logic. (cf.12.html) C1 W2 R1 R2 0 R1 C1 W2 R2 0 Figure 3. Handbook of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.info/potentiostat/notesheis.10: R1+C1/(R2+W2) circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams. Diffusion impedances: http://www.12 Fig. CAPACITIVE SEMICIRCLE AND STRAIGHT LINE 19 C1 W2 R2 0 C1 W2 R2 0 Figure 3. 3. R1+W1+R2/C2 circuit .1.1.3.

20CHAPTER 3. NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE SEMICIRCLE AND STRAIGHT LINE C2 W1 R2 W1 R2 C2 0 0 Figure 3. C2 W1 R1 R2 R1 W1 R2 C2 0 0 Figure 3. .12: R1+W1+R2/C2 circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams.11: W1+C2/R2 and Nyquist impedance diagrams.

2: Four different Nyquist diagrams made of one capacitive semicircle and one inductive straight line (limiting cases). 3. 21 cf. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cf. 3. 21 cf. R1+L1+R2/C2 circuit 3.2 Capacitive semicircle and inductive straight line Table 3. 3.3 Fig.2.13. 3.2.2.14. Q1+R2/C2 circuit.2.2. p. α1 < 0 . 21 cf.13: L1+R2/C2 circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams. 3. CAPACITIVE SEMICIRCLE AND INDUCTIVE STRAIGHT LINE 21 3.2. 3.3.1 Fig. p.2. p. 3.1.2.3.4.2 Fig.15. 22 0 3.2. L1+R2/C2 circuit 0 C2 L1 R2 0 L1 R2 C2 Figure 3. p. 3.

Α1 0 R2 0 Q1 R2 C2 Figure 3.22CHAPTER 3.2.16. 0 C2 Q1. R1+Q1+R2/C2 circuit.4 Fig. 3. α1 < 0. α1 < 0 . NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE SEMICIRCLE AND STRAIGHT LINE 0 C2 L1 R1 R2 0 R1 L1 R2 C2 Figure 3.14: R1+L1+R2/C2 circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams.15: Q1+R2/C2 circuit. 3.

2.16: R1+Q1+R2/C2 circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams. α1 < 0.3. Α1 R1 R2 R1 Q1 R2 C2 0 0 Figure 3. CAPACITIVE SEMICIRCLE AND INDUCTIVE STRAIGHT LINE 23 0 C2 Q1. .

3: Four different Nyquist diagrams made of one inductive semicircle and one inductive straight line (limiting cases). 3.bio-logic.6.1 Fig. p.2. 24 cf.1.3 Fig. 3.3. 3.19.3. R1+R2/L2+L3 circuit 2 The R1/L1+L2 and L1/(R2+L2) circuits are non-distinguishable. 3. 3. 25 cf.17: R1/L1+L2 circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams.3. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cf. p.3.3 Inductive semicircle and straight line Table 3.3. 24 cf.5.3. 3. p.18 (2 ).info/potentiostat/notesheis.17. p. 24 cf. p.2 L1/(R1+L2) circuit Fig.3. cf.3.html . 3. 3.4.24CHAPTER 3. 25 cf. R1/L1+L2 circuit 0 L1 L2 R1 0 R1 L1 L2 Figure 3. 3. Handbook of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.3. 3. Circuits made of resistors and inductors: http://www. NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE SEMICIRCLE AND STRAIGHT LINE 3. 25 3. p.3. 3.

21. 3.19: R1+R2/L2+L3 circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams.18: L1/(R1+L2) circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams.3. 3.22. 3. 3. R1+L2/(R2+L3) circuit 3. INDUCTIVE SEMICIRCLE AND STRAIGHT LINE 25 0 L1 L2 R1 0 L1 R1 L2 Figure 3.3.3.3. R1+R2/L2+Q1 circuit. α1 < 0 3. 0 0 L2 L3 R1 R2 R1 R2 L2 L3 Figure 3.4 Fig. α1 < 0 . R1/L1+Q1 circuit.20.6 Fig.5 Fig.3.

NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE SEMICIRCLE AND STRAIGHT LINE 0 L2 L3 R1 R2 0 R1 L2 R2 L3 Figure 3. 0 0 L2 Q1.20: R1+L2/(R2+L3) circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams. Α1 0 R1 0 R1 L1 Q1 Figure 3. 0 L1 Q1.22: R1+R2/L2+Q1 circuit (α1 < 0) and Nyquist impedance diagrams. Α1 R1 R2 R1 R2 L2 Q1 0 Figure 3. .26CHAPTER 3.21: R1/L1+Q1 circuit (α1 < 0) and Nyquist impedance diagrams.

4. 3.4. p.4.24. 28 3. 27 cf.4 Fig. p. 27 cf.4. R1+R2/L2+Q1 circuit .2 Fig. 3.4.3. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cf. p.23: R1/L1+C1 and Nyquist impedance diagrams.25.4 Inductive semicircle and capacitive straight line Table 3. 3. 3.3. 3. p. 28 cf. p.4: Six different Nyquist diagrams made of one inductive semicircle and one capacitive straight line.4.2.4. 3.6. p. INDUCTIVE SEMICIRCLE AND CAPACITIVE STRAIGHT LINE 27 3. 3.1 Fig.23. R1/L1+C1 circuit L1 C1 0 R1 0 R1 L1 C1 Figure 3.4. R1+R2/L2+C1 circuit 3. 3.26. R1/L1+Q1 circuit 3.4.5. 3. 3. 27 cf. 27 cf.4.3 Fig.4.4. 3.1.

25: R1/L1+Q1 circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams.24: R1+R2/L2+C1 and Nyquist impedance diagrams.28CHAPTER 3. L2 Q1 R1 R2 R1 R2 L2 Q1 0 0 Figure 3.4. NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE SEMICIRCLE AND STRAIGHT LINE L2 C1 R1 R2 R1 R2 L2 C1 0 0 Figure 3.6 Fig.4. R1+R2/L2+W1 circuit .26: R1+R2/L2+Q1.27. L1 Q1 0 R1 0 R1 L1 Q1 Figure 3. R1/L1+W1 circuit 3. 3. 3.5 Fig.28. 3.

INDUCTIVE SEMICIRCLE AND CAPACITIVE STRAIGHT LINE 29 L1 W1 0 R1 0 R1 L1 W1 Figure 3. .3.28: R1+R2/L2+W1 and Nyquist impedance diagrams.27: R1/L1+W1 circuit and Nyquist impedance diagrams.4. L2 W1 R1 R2 R1 R2 L2 W1 0 0 Figure 3.

NYQUIST DIAGRAMS MADE OF ONE SEMICIRCLE AND STRAIGHT LINE .30CHAPTER 3.

–. J. A. and Sluyters. 176 (1984).-C. and Lefort. Sluyters-Rehbach. G. Fabrication and characterization of ZrB2 -SiC ceramic electrodes coated with a proton conducting. G. H. P. J. J.Bibliography [1] Brug.. ´ [2] Lonne. J. The analysis of electrode impedance complicated by the presence of a constant phase element. Electroanal.. Corrected Proof (2011). Chem.. M. N. Labbe. SiO2 -rich glass layer. Glandut. L. 31 . Electrochimica Acta In Press. 275–295. Q... van den Eeden..

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