# Calculation of of earth quake loads in acc.

with Eurocode 8/NS-EN1998-1

Course: June 4th 2009, Norwegian Steel Association

CONTENTS
– – – – – – – – – – Shear Force at Ground Level Seismic Class Effect of Soil Type Natural periods Design Spectrum Load factors and combinations Seismic mass Distribution of forces within building. Capacity control Exemption Criteria

Earth quake in structures

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Essentials giving greatest contribution to Fb: Natural period of structure (T). Energy dissipation in structure, (q). Soil Type (S).

• Earth quakes are dynamic fenomenons and are solved in accordance with this. • F = m*a > 0 (Sir Isac Newton, 1666). • F = ms*Sd(T)*λ (Eurocode + NA, 2008)

Load factors for earth quakes: Accident Limit State Permanente laster 1.0 Jordskjelv last 1.0 Load factors for permanent variable loads: (valid for seismic mass) Boliger 0.3 Forsamlingslokale 0.0 1.6 Lager 0. 1.3 Kontorer 0.6 Butikker 0.0 For krefter i konstruksjonen For brudd i grunnen.0 – 0.8 .8 (se nedenfor) 1.0 – 0.0 1.0 Dominerende variabel last 0.8 (se nedenfor) Andre variable laster 0.

3.Material factor.(1)) .6.1.1 (NA. Steel • γm = 1.

3.85 for T < 2*TC and more than 2 storeys.pkt 4.3. • • • • F = ms*Sd(T)*λ ms = the seismic mass of the structure = dead load + permanent loads + % of live loads.2: Shear forces at ground level or at the top of a rigid basement.0) .2. Sd(T) = design spectrum λ = correction factor (0. otherwise 1.

5 (4)P Design Spectrum – principal shape Most buildings are within: (Tb+Tc)/2 and (Tc+Td)/2 .2.ref pkt 3.2.

5/q – 2/3)) ag*S*2. S .5*(TC*TD/T)/q .5*(TC/T)/q ag*S*2.5/q ag*S*2.T 0 < T < TB TB < T < TC TC < T < TD T > TD Sd(T) = Sd(T) = Sd(T) = Sd(T) = ag*S*(2/3 +(T/TB)*(2.Sd(T) = Design Spectrum ag .

Parameters that must be determined: • • • • • • • • q = construction factor < 1.5 – 4> ag40hz = peak value of ground acceleration < 0 – 3. governed by soil factor S 2 orthogonal directions is considered.0 – 1.7 – 2.7 and greater> T = Natural period of the structure.0> ag = 0.0 m/s²> γ1 = Factor for seismic class < 0.8* ag40hz* γ1 = design ground acceleration S = Soil factor. TC og TD in the design spectrum (Sd(T)).5 s – 1. usually < 0. dependent on the ground conditions < 1.5 s> TB. .

) the last 110 years. The map indicates automatic registrations performed by av NORSAR of earth quakes and other seismic activities (explosions etc.Earth quake in Norway the last 110 years. ILL: NORSAR .

ag40hz = peak value for ground acceleration .

ag40hz = peak value for ground acseleration .

γ1 = Factor for seismic class (≈ ’pålitelighetsklasse’) .

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Then calculate design ground acceleration: • ag = 0.8* ag40hz* γ1 .

Effect of Soil under and around building: • Illustrated by a case in Iceland. .

2000 Hveragerði Keflavík M6. Thjorsa Bru Reykjavik M6.5 .June 17 . June 21 .2000 Selfoss Þorlákshöfn Thjorsa-bridge Hella Hvolsvöllur 0 10 20 30 40 50 Scale in Kilometers .5.Example of increase of earthquake actions Case study in Iceland.

Thjorsa Bru – Different type of soil on each side. 8-10 m thick Lead-rubber bearings Thjorsa-River Pier Back wall with wing walls Alluvial deposits. 18-20 m thick Bedrock Approach span Bedrock on the east side Lava rock on alluvial deposits on west side . Accelerometer WEST SIDE 50 mm expansion joints EAST SIDE 50 mm expansion joints Lava rock.

(s) 10 15 Insignificant Sd(t) .50 0.Accelerations measured in 2000 for the same quake.00 WEST SIDE N-S EAST SIDE N-S Acceleration .29 hz.00 -0. 83 m West side Lava rock. less Sd(T) Vertical Vertical Insignificant Sd(t) 0.00 -0.50 0.(s) 10 15 0 5 Time .21 hz. greater Sd(T) -0.50 0.50 0 5 Time .(g) 0. 18-20 m thick Dolerite (bedrock) 0.50 E-W E-W 0.50 0. 8-10 m thick East side Thjorsa River Sand and fine gravel.

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Effect of ground types (S-faktor) .

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.E Possibility of great pore overpressures Lateral forces on Piles Partly freestanding piles. Structural interaction soil and building Foundation flexibility in analyses.Geotechnical advice needed when: • • • • • • • • • Geotechnical advice or values not given by Eurocode. Possibility for lique-faction (Soil type S2 ) Plastified and soft clay and silts (Soil type S1 ) Mix of several Soil Types A .

Natural periods of the structure. T .

T The basic equation: T = α * √(M/K) • • • • M = Seismic mass: Masses from permanent loads + % variable K = stiffness: Some contribution from the load bearing structure and some from the ”non load bearing” structure .Natural periods of the structure.

T (CONSERVATIVELY) . (4) og (5). T1 = Ct ⋅ H 3 / 4 where C = 0.050 for other systems Second approximate equation: T1 = 2 ⋅ d d is the horizontal displacement in meter on the top floor when the forces of gravity are applied as horizontal forces THE EQUATIONS USUALLY DETERMINE FOR A SHORT PERIOD.085 for steel frames C = 0.(3).2.2.3.3.075 for concrete frames C = 0.Approximate equations for the first natural period: point 4.

H3/4 T1 = 2 . √(M1/K1) T1 = Ct . π . √ d .Natural period. T. flexibility of foundation T1 = 2 .

Which modes shall be calculated? X-direction Y-direction Rotation Several periods are calculated when: - The sum of the swing mode masses < 90% of total mass The swing form has mass > 5% of total masse .

• Buildings in seismic class .2D or 3D analyses to calculate T required for: • Non Regular buildings •Buildings designed in DCM ( 2 < q < 4) • Buildings with foundations partly on rock and deposits.

and 5 % .Natural periods for non-regular structures: • • • • Use computer programmes (2D or 3D) Calculate all required swing modes (90 %.rule) Accurately determine the T-values Test against the excemption criteria .

5/q*(TC*TD/T) .5/q ag*S*2.5/q*(TC/T) ag*S*2.5/q – 2/3)) ag*S*2.Calculate the following : Sd(T) = Design Spectrum 0 < T < TB TB < T < TC TC < T < TD T > TD Sd(T) = Sd(T) = Sd(T) = Sd(T) = ag*S*(2/3 +(T/TB)*(2.

5 (4)P Respons Spectrum (in principle) .2.Point 3.2.

Le = the distance between the outer strucural parts withstanding applied loasds. • .4 – Reinforcement factor δ • • δ = 1+x/ Le x = the distance of the structure in question from the mass centre of the overall structure in the level measred at right angles to the relevant seismic load.3.Udesired eccentricity (Torsion) point 4. measured at right angles to the direction of the seismic load in question.3.2.

Shear force at foundation level or at the roof level of a rigid basement F= m*Sd(T)*λ .

point 4. .3.3.3 The distribution of shear forces on the floors of the building.2.

The distribution of shear forces on the floors of the building. • Will also be given by a 2D or 3D dynamic analysis .

Sd(T)< 0.q ≤ 1.ag S = γI * agR * S < 0.5 => Simplified design rules may be used Limiting conditions Very low seismiscty: Condition: .05 g = 0.How and when do we design for earth quakes? Low seismicity: Condition: .1 g = 0.q ≤ 1.5 => Do not require earth quake design .49 m/s2 .98 m/s2 .

05g = 0.49 m/s² • when Sd(T) < 0.1 (5)P Excemption criteria. •Very low seimicity.2.3.ref NA.49 m/s² with q < 1. γ1 = 0. Not necessary to determine sufficient capacity for seismic loads: • Structures in seismic class I (i.05g = 0.7) • Light timber structures • when ag*S <0.5. in sum As ic ’bas at g th n esig rd s fo iple rinc p r d fo nte cou ac are ’ .e.

5. Carry out design and sizing acc to Gjennomføre dimensjonering iht NS-EN Steel Standard without additional requirements.2.3.1) • DCL is a straight forward first attemt to design for earthquakes. .5) Ved ikke-regularitet i oppriss reduseres q til 0.5 ≤ q ≤ 2.0 Elstic analyses without accounting for nonlinearities.Structures with small energy dissipation.8*q < 1. (pkt 4. DCL: • • • 1. (Only if q≤1.