.

000 Index 0 1 2 0 < 4.4 ≥ 38.000 and ≤ 11.9 ≥ 39 and ≤ 36 Blood leukocytes (μL) ≥ 4.000 or > 11.5 and ≤ 38.Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia Risk Index Factor Temperature (°C) ≥ 36.5 and ≤ 38.000 1 .

mm Hg > 240 or ARDS ≤ 240 and no ARDS Pulmonary radiography No infiltrate Diffuse (or patchy) infiltrate 2 0 2 0 1 Localized infiltrate 2 .Tracheal secretions None Nonpurulent 0 1 Purulen Oxygenation: PaO2/FIO2.

Progression of infiltrate* None Progression (heart failure and ARDS excluded) Growth of pathogenic bacteria on tracheal aspirate culture* No. rare. or light growth 0 0 2 Moderate or heavy growth Same bacteria as on Gram stain 1 1 .

Merokok mengakibatkan penurunan jumlah sel darah merah Terutama di paru Meningkatkan resiko pnemonia .

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