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The project was undertaken to analyze the concept of, “Effectiveness of Training and Development” in meeting the objectives of an organization and to adopt the best practices of the industry to serve the customer. The study was conducted in Bangalore with special reference to Manipal Speciality Hospital, Rajarajeshwari nagar, Bangalore to study and analyze the Training and Development system of Manipal and give suggestions to improve the Training system.
The Manipal Group is renowned worldwide for its pioneering work in healthcare and education spanning five decades. Its Healthcare Division runs 15 hospitals. Manipal group has ventured beyond the boundaries created by history, geography, nationality, genders, socio-economic strata and found opportunities to create wealth of different kind - in the form of health, knowledge and social security - working towards a better future. What makes Host company different from its competitors is the superior quality of service and its willingness to incorporate new technology. Today Manipal is trying to command a leadership position in the service industry segment of Asia.
To accomplish the above, around 50 employees of Manipal Speciality Hospital, Bangalore were surveyed and interviewed. The core purpose of the survey was to find out employee perspective towards the training that is given to them. The primary objective of the study are as follows-
To study and analyze the present Training and Development system adopted. An interview based on a questionnaire to know how does the
general towards the organization and the training methods used. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 1 employee feels in
Effectiveness of Training and Development
The idea behind the study is to adopt the best practices and to eliminate the pitfalls of the system.
study gives feedback on Training methods followed in Manipal Speciality
Hospital and its effectiveness in meeting the objectives of the organization. The methodology used to realize the above objective involves collection of data through both primary and secondary sources. For collecting the data, the questionnaire was developed and distributed randomly to the employees and was requested them to fill the questionnaire. The sample size of the research is 50 respondents. After getting the responses from the respondents, analysis and interpretation was done. At the end, suitable suggestions and recommendations, based on the findings of the study are given. The entire project report is presented in the form of a report using chapter scheme, developed logically and sequentially from “Introduction” to Bibliography and References.”
JnanaVikas Institute of Technology
Effectiveness of Training and Development
Health care means a wide and intensive form of services, which will be related to well being of human beings. Health Care is a social sector. Health Care services are provided at state level with the help of central government. Health care is a wide and intensive industry, which covers Hospitals, Health Insurances, Medical software, Health- equipments and Pharmacy in it. Major inputs of health care industry The major inputs of health care industries are as listed below: I. II III. IV. Hospitals Medical insurance Medical software Health equipments
OVERVIEW OF HEALTHCARE SECTOR IN INDIA
India’s healthcare sector has made impressive strides in recent years. It has transformed to a US$ 17 billion industry and is surging ahead with an annual growth rate of 13% a year. The healthcare industry in India expected to grow in size to Rs 270,000 core by 2012. The healthcare industry employs over four million people, which makes it one of the largest service sectors in the economy of our country. Healthcare is dependent on the people served; India’s huge population of a billion people represents a big opportunity. People are spending more on healthcare. The rise in literacy rate; the higher levels of income; and an increased awareness through the deep penetration of media, has constituted to greater attention being paid to health. India has a very low density of doctors. Infant mortality is amongst the highest in India. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 3
Fortis. “India. The private Healthcare segment has grown into a formidable industry estimated to be Rs. It is very serious about encouraging indigenous R&D and creation of human capital. ORIGIN OF THE INDUSTRY JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 4 . Union Minister of State for External Affairs. Most users of healthcare prefer private services to government ones. Duncan. Using the latest technical equipment and the services of highly skilled medical personnel these hospitals are in a position to provide a variety of general as well as specialists’ services. New Delhi. Ispat. The Government of India places top priority to healthcare in the national agenda. Wockhardt. As medical costs sky rocket in the developed world. Escorts have made significant investments in setting up state-of–the-art private hospitals in cities like Mumbai. Good Healthcare in India is in extreme short supply and it is this gap that Corporate are looking to plug. Chennai and Hyderabad.000 crores. in his theme address. leading to greater socio-economic progress of the country. countries like India have immense potential for what is called "Medical Tourism". highlighted Harpal Singh. Conference Chairman.Effectiveness of Training and Development Hospitals in India are running at 80-90% occupancy. was now poised to take leadership in the fast emerging arena of healthcare management which is witnessing the first signs of globalization”. said Vinod Khanna. Major corporations like the Manipal. “India is well positioned to tap the top end of the $3 trillion global healthcare industry because of the facilities and services it offers. Max. This would improve the quality of life of our people.8. with outstanding human resource talent and the setting up of world class medical facilities. Apollo Group. and by leveraging the brand equity of Indian healthcare professionals across the globe”. Piramal.00.
there were schools with attached hospitals. it was declared open to the civilian population. In ancient India. P. Cooper.group of hospitals. The idea of starting such an institute had earlier been mooted by Sir Robert Grant. cancer. In South India an edict dated 1097 of Veera Chola Maharaj refer to a sixteen bedded hospital for students of the school attached to the templeat Tirumakundal in Chingleput District. By the turn of the century.C. In India. In Bombay. medical schools had already been established in Calcutta and Madras. the J. Baliga.Effectiveness of Training and Development Institutions created specifically to care for the ill appeared early in India.Hospital with its Grant Medical College was responsible for introducing modern allopathy to western India.R. Education'. however on seeing that less qualified Britishers were preferred over competent Indian physicians for jobs. in the 16th century. started functioning in May 1845. Earlier. hospitals for men and animals were established during the reign of Maurya and Gupta Kings. Under the Emperor Ashoka (260 B.J.).Sen (surgeons) and V.J. the first hospital was opened in 1676. an elementary course in medicine was organized in this hospital. Later. R.J.N. The Tata Memorial Hospital (1941) and the Cancer Research Institute (1952) are in the forefront of India's fight against the dreaded disease. Albuquerque built the Royal Hospital in Goa. the J. Western medicine was introduced by the Portuguese sometime in the 16th century. Named after Sir Jamshetjee Jejeebhoy whose munificent donation helped in the building of this hospital.V. The famous people associated with this hospital over the years include Jivraj N Mehta and R. This centre was built solely out of personal JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 5 . Such hospitals were known as "Veera Solan". There are also ruins of a hospital at Mahintale near Anuradhpura in Sri Lanka. built a large hospital at Fatehpur Sikri. The motto of the Tata Memorial Centre. nationalists decided to build a hospital where Indian doctors could treat patients. In 1510. the son of Ashoka. in 1703.K. It is believed to have been constructed by Mahendra. founded in the year 1843. Vakil (physicians ). Bombay [comprising the above two institutions] is ' Service. This led to the formation of the King Edward VII Memorial (KEM Hospital) in 1926. A. The East India Company built a Military Hospital in Madras in 1664. A few religious and charitable endowments in South India established schools with attached hospitals. then Governor of Bombay in 1835. later on in 1750. Emperor Akbar. Research. Khanolkar (pathologist). Many years later.
Of this. Indian families spend 600 per month on healthcare which is 11% of the household income. Lady Meherbai Tata was sent to England in 1930 for treatment of leukemia. To her horror. The density of doctors is also low. MARKET OVERVIEW India has a fairly comprehensive healthcare system comprising of government and private service providers. Later. Perhaps the Indian hospital best known all over the world is the Christian Medical College. Ms Scudder. males were also admitted. From 1947 onwards. Vellore. The heart transplant performed by P. Her husband.000. Asked to assist in childbirth. all 3 children died.Effectiveness of Training and Development tragedy. training. Rs 185 billion is spent on healthcare annually. an American Schoolgirl was visiting her parents in India in the late 19th century. SIZE OF MARKET India's healthcare industry is estimated at Rs 1000 billion. Another institution of repute is the AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Sciences). Ida Scudder. based at a town. India has 94 beds per 100. therefore to build a hospital for cancer patients in India.Venugopal in 1994 was in this hospital. showing that they are willing to spend provided the service they get is of JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 6 . There are only 43 doctors for a population of 10. pharmaceuticals account for Rs 200 billion. Sir Dorabji realized that such a thing would not be possible for most Indians. a school for Nurses (1909) and finally a medical school for women in 1918. On average. she started a school for compounders (1903). the system reaches barely fifty percent of the population – mainly on account of general infrastructure bottlenecks.000. 130 km from Madras in South India. The country lags behind international standards on basic healthcare infrastructure and facilities.000 populations as compared to the WHO norm of 333 beds per 100. This prompted Ida to study medicine in the USA. New Delhi which was started in 1956 for the development of excellence in all aspects of heath care including undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. On returning to India in 1900. research and experimentation. he decided. As per some estimates. started a Clinic in Vellore. It is a 1500 bed hospital. However. Ida refused since she was ignorant of the procedure.
According to The World Health Report 2000. unlike other industries. In addition. Both of those will increase demand for the healthcare industry. stands untouched by recession.2% of its GDP. Manipal hospitals a thirdlargest hospital chain. making it the third largest growing sector in India.2% to 7. or smaller cities such as Hyderabad or Pune. There had been a steady growth in this sector. Mumbai. Feedback ventures expect private equity funds to invest about USD 1 billion in the health care sector in the next five years. 80. All of these lead to a positive outlook for growth in the healthcare industry. Chennai.2% of the GDP. which continue to remain upbeat about their performance in FY09-10. The Indian healthcare industry.000 crores by year 2012 that GDP 6.Effectiveness of Training and Development high standard. Many hospitals have planned growth strategies and expect good out comes this fiscal. the “baby boomer” generation is beginning to reach the age where increased medical attention is almost necessary. revenues from the healthcare sector accounts for 5. The sector’s perceived recession-proof nature the demand-supply gap and the possibility of attractive financial returns makes it attractive for investors. The health care sector has been attracting huge investment from domestic players as well as financial investors and private equity firms across the globe. India's health expenditure is 5. planed to form a new entity to run its hospitals as part of a restructuring that it expects will help raise Rs100-125 crore for expansion and help attract investors in further fund-raising activities. and further the healthcare sector is projected to grow to nearly 1.5% and a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 15-17 percent for at least the next 7-10 years. FUTURE OUTLOOK People are both living longer and expecting a higher quality of life. The economic slowdown does not seem to have had a major impact on corporate hospitals. Manipal Hospitals expects to acquire a hospital or a chain of two to three hospitals in New Delhi. COMPANY PROFILE JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 7 . Public and private health expenditure is 13% and 87% respectively.
7 government associate hospitals with 2565 beds. 24 Colleges and over 20000 students from over 39 countries. Manipal Group has a strong academic focus. is renowned worldwide for its pioneering work in healthcare and education spanning five decades. Manipal Health Systems. Physician. Its Healthcare Division runs 15 hospitals with 1250 doctors and 4250 beds.Effectiveness of Training and Development BACKGROUND AND INCEPTION OF THE COMPANY Manipal Group Founded 5 decades ago by Dr. Educationist. the Manipal Group. The parent company. 7 rural health centers and 14 Medical Colleges with over 9000 students and 275 faculty staff. MAHEDeemed University at Manipal is a University Town with 3 Universities. Banker and Philanthropist. TMA Pai. the Hospital Management Company of the Group treats over 19 lakhs patients every year. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 8 .
Bangalore is one of 5 Manipal Hospitals within what it refers to as the "Bangalore cluster. The hospital has been declared winner of the prestigious Golden Peacock National Quality Award 2005 in the service category. It is a rather integrated system providing healthcare to both national and international patients from many areas.700 and over 275 consultants supporting its 600 beds and 40+ specialties. Manipal Hospital in Bangalore is one of 15 hospitals within a large health care service system. it is comprised of 9 primary care clinics and 55 community health programs. tertiary. genders. Per our review. ENT and so many more.working towards a better future. Diagnostics and Allied Areas.Effectiveness of Training and Development Manipal group has ventured beyond the boundaries created by history." The hospital promotes itself for its quality. geography.5 million patients each year. It has a staff of over 1. Manipal Hospital-Airport Road.700 beds and over 1. knowledge and social security . Manipal Hospitals offers quaternary. nationality. serving 1. secondary and primary health care delivery services which has been covered over. Besides its 15 hospitals. socio-economic strata and found opportunities to create wealth of different kind . With a team of some of the best doctors in the world. Nursing. an attentive staff. plastic surgery. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 9 . This multi-super specialty center provides medical services in 43 specialties in such areas as accident and emergency.in the form of health. affordable healthcare housing 600 beds. HISTORY It is India’s first hospital to be ISO 9001:2000 certified for Clinical. cardiology. state-of-the-art equipment. The entire hospital system houses 3. the hospital provides specialized medical services at affordable costs in over 40 specialties.000 doctors.
5 Million Patients. Annually Manipal Speciality Hospital. Rajarajeshwari Nagar Bangalore JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 10 .Effectiveness of Training and Development • • • 15 Hospitals 9 Primary Care Clinics 55 Community Health Programs Manipal Hospitals has strength of • • • 3700 Beds Over 1000 Doctors 1.
Effectiveness of Training and Development Manipal Specialty Hospital. Rajarajeshwari Nagar is a recent health care venture by Manipal Hospitals. The hospital endeavors to provide total healthcare solutions at affordable costs to patients across every strata of the society with its eminent doctors. This 120 bed multispecialty secondary care hospital further strengthens the availability of quality healthcare by offering state-of-the-art diagnostics and consultancy services in all major clinical specialties in an upcoming satellite town on the outskirts of Bangalore. NATURE OF BUSINESS CARRIED JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 11 . well – trained nursing team and Para medical support staff.
patient centricity and ethical practices. The company is also presently engaged continuously to strive for clinical excellence. MISSION We are committed to be the most preferred and comprehensive service provider in meeting health care needs of the community. education. We will earn its trust through services differentiation of clinical excellence.Effectiveness of Training and Development Manipal health enterpriser has been the only public sector undertaking making profit since its inception. research and hospitality of various life saving and essential service sector. personalized care and medical services that are responsive to the needs of the society. ably supported by high-end technology. Manipal is in the areas of health care. QUALITY POLICY We will provide world class healthcare by harnessing the “state-of-the-art” technology in medicine. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 12 . Manipal is today actively involved in providing the path.breaking medical services. education and research. VISION Our Vision is to become Asia's leading healthcare provider with happy and satisfied patients and stakeholders.
SERVICE PROFILE Manipal Specialty Hospital. Minor OT (Starting in near future) ICU Medical / Surgical Pediatric / Neonatal Semi.Effectiveness of Training and Development We will strive to meet expectations and endeavor to surpass them and all our actions will reflect that we are truly “INSPIRED BY LIFE.” We will accomplish this through a team of trained and dedicated personnel with cost effectiveness.Special Rooms Special Room Page 13 Day Care Pre and Post Operative Area JnanaVikas Institute of Technology .4( 1 & 2 Functional). Rajarajeshwari Nagar endeavors to provide total healthcare solutions at affordable costs to patients across every strata of the society with its eminent doctors. The lists of Service they provide are as follows Anesthesia Cardiology Dermatology Dental Medicine Department of General & Minimally Invasive Surgery ENT Urology Internal Medicine Obstetrics & Gynecology Ophthalmology Orthopedics and Spine Surgery Pediatrics Physiotherapy IN.PATIENT SERVICE Operating Room . well-trained nursing team and Para medical support staff.
& Gynae General Surgery Paediatrics Eye / ENT Dermatology Cardiology / Cardio-thoracic Surgery Orthopedics Neurology / Neuro Surgery Nephrology Urology Endocrinology Rheumatology Plastic Surgery Nuclear Medicine (Gamma Camera)( yet to start) 24 hrs Pharmacy Dialysis Diagnostic ECG / TMT / ECHO / Doppler / HOLTER EMG/ EEG etc.Effectiveness of Training and Development Labor Room Pediatric Ward General Ward (Male and Female) Deluxe Rooms Trauma Care Centre OUT PATIENT SERVICE Consultations Internal Medicine Obst.Ray Ultrasound ECHO Doppler JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 14 . (yet to start) Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation Vascular Surgery (yet to start) CATH LAB (yet to start) MORTUARY (yet to start) Endocrinology Rheumatology Dental Medicine Laboratory Services Blood Bank (will start in near future) Radiology & Imaging CT Scan MRI X.
Manipal Group .Effectiveness of Training and Development Complete Non – Invasive Cardiac Endoscopy (Upper and Lower GI) AREA OF OPERATION OWNERSHIP PATTERN Founder-Dr. TMA Pai Chairman.Ramdas Pai Page 15 JnanaVikas Institute of Technology .Dr.
Simanta Sharma Dr.Medical Services/ Compliances & Education Dean & Principal Head. Mathew Verghese Mr. Basawraj S Kuppasad Dr.Material Management Head. T Ramoji Dr.Human Resources Assistant Vice President . A Malathi Ms. Sudharshan Ballal Dr.Media. Ramesh Raju Designation Chief Executive Officer Chairman Medical Advisory Medical Director-Manipal Hospitals President CFO & Company Secretary COO & Medical Superintendent Head. Raghuraman T S Mr. TMA Pai was the founder of the Manipal group. Brands & Products President Deputy General Manager – Finance Deputy General Manager-Human Resources Unit Head – Operations Unit Head – Operations Unit Head – Operations Board. Sudhakar Prabhu Mrs. Manipal Hospitals Name Mr. K D Sathyanarayanan Dr. Nagendraswamy S C Mr.Ramdas Pai.Central Procurement General Manager .Information Technology Vice President Projects General Manager . Rajen Padukone Dr. Saroja Jaykumar Dr.Effectiveness of Training and Development It’s a Family owned Business Dr. R V Bharath Mr. Nandkishor Dhomne Mr. Nagendraswamy S C Mr.& JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 16 . Ganesh Selvaraj Mr. The business is now carried by his son Dr. Vittaldas Pai Mr. Saritha Vijayanagar Dr. Major.
Deluxe. dialysis. labor ward. Basement Blood Bank. and Clinical administrator cabin. Auditorium. Ayurveda. nursing. Paediatric GW. Bangalore St. Maintenance. Library. lab reception. casualty. OPDs. MRD. IT Dept. Administration. cathlab. and Center Head cabin. Bangalore INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITY Hospital Layout Ground floor Front office. HR. Second Floor Special ward.Effectiveness of Training and Development COMPETITORS BGS Hospital. Bangalore WACKART Hospital. First floor General Ward Reception. Semi special ward. NICU. physiotherapy. Stores. SICU. Bangalore Sagar Hospital. casualty reception. Nursing College JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 17 . Finance. lab. radiology department. OT. billing. Male / Female GW. Reception. Bangalore Apollo Hospital. PICU. John Hospital. pharmacy. facility.
This certification was received in 2003. This was an all India survey conducted by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs. 2008. diagnostic. 2006. 2006. This certification provides a sense of assurance that the quality of care and patient safety is on par with the high standards set by the International Society for Quality Healthcare (ISQua) an International body which grants approval to accreditation bodies in the area of healthcare. Government of India. An all India Survey conducted by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs. 2007 and 2008.ISO 9001:2000 for providing multi super specialty tertiary healthcare services in clinical. The Week – Adjudged best hospital in Bangalore consecutively for the past five years. ISO Certification. nursing and allied areas. Government of India. Bangalore has been ranked in the top 5 categories in “INDIA’S MOST CARING HOSPITALS” survey. 2004. Bangalore: The Consumer Voice – Awarded the Most Patient Recommended Hospital in India. Golden Peacock Award – Winner of the Golden Peacock National Quality Award 2005 JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 18 . Bangalore NABH (National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers) – the accreditation is valid from February 11.Effectiveness of Training and Development AWARDS & ACCOLADES Quality Accolades bagged by Manipal Hospital. NABL (National Accreditation Board for Testing & Calibration Laboratories) – the accreditation is valid from October 11. Manipal Hospital. List of awards and recognitions received by Manipal Hospital.
Effectiveness of Training and Development WORK FLOW MODEL JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 19 .
in the same way Manipal is also improving its quality of product and services with improved techniques to make available the service at the right place at the right time. the demand for good quality health service is increasing.Effectiveness of Training and Development FUTURE GROWTH AND PROSPECTS The growth of the company is immense. The company is not only focusing on domestic service but also on international service. MSH Future Plans • Preventive health care centre (a) Immunization program (b) Health check program (c) Active interactive sessions between public and doctors (d) Public awareness for various insurance schemes • • • • • • • • Health care tourism spot Tie-ups with social organizations to attract lower and middle class society 24 hr Regional Blood bank centre Organ donation. as people are becoming more health conscious. preservation and transplant centre Trauma care centre at petrol bunk Major heart care centre De-addiction centre. The graph is showing upward trend from which we can say that the company is in a stable position and the company future is expected to be bright. It has already expanding its marketing to some of the countries in Asia. anti-obesity centre & rehabilitation centre for mentally and physically challenged patients Child care centre JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 20 . To meet the demand of the health care industry is pulling in the efforts in the same place to meet the demand. From the day of inception the company is making profit.
Obviously. These are the “Levers” which the executives use to influence complex and large organizations.Effectiveness of Training and Development MCKENSY’S 7s FRAME WORK According to Mc Kinsey a company strategy is only one of the 7 elements of the successful practices. There are seven basic dimensions. at around the same time that Tom Peters and Robert Waterman were exploring what made a company excellent. The 7’s frame work first appeared in “the art of Japanese management” by Richard Pascal and Anthony Athos in 1981. which represent the core of managerial activities. The 7S model was born at a meeting of our authors in 1978. They had been looking at how Japanese industry had been so successful. there was a concerned effort on the part of the originators of the model to coin the JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 21 .
trained and motivated. What it does best. call center systems. online systems. etc). online systems. Staff: the company's people resources and how they are developed. structure and systems can be considered the “hardware” of success while style. call center systems. Structure: the basic organization of the company. covering everything from management information systems. areas of expertise and responsibility (and how they inter-relate). ORGANISATION ACCORDING TO MCKINSEY’S 7s MODEL JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 22 . etc). Systems: formal and informal procedures that govern everyday activity. Skills: the capabilities and competencies that exist within the company. reporting lines. through to the systems at the point of contact with the customer (retail systems. through to the systems at the point of contact with the customer (retail systems. staff and shared values can be seen as the “software Companies in which these soft elements are present are usually more successful at the implementation of the strategy. Strategy: the direction and scope of the company over the long term. Ultimately they guide employees towards 'valued' behavior. Systems: formal and informal procedures that govern everyday activity. Strategy.Effectiveness of Training and Development managerial variables with cords beginning with the letter ‘S’ so as to increase the communication power of the model. its departments. covering everything from management information systems. Style: the leadership approach of top management and the company's overall operating approach. Shared values: the values and beliefs of the company.
recruitment consultants. Business strategy is the choice of direction and the action that the company adapts to achieve its objectives and goals in a competitive situation. attitude towards risks have been carefully examined while formulating strategies. preferences.e. advertisement.Effectiveness of Training and Development STRATEGY Actions a company plans in response to or anticipation of changes in its external environment. The recruitment system flow as per the process given below: • • • • • • • Review of the Requirement Preparation of the Position Profile i. Consequently the values. web posting etc) Screening Functional Assessment HR Assessment Offer JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 23 . covering everything from management information systems to the systems at the point of contact with the customer. Recruitment It is the process of searching for prospective applicants and simulating them to apply for job in an organization.e. referrals. SYSTEMS The system refers to formal and informal procedures that govern everyday activity. The strategies of the company are developed on the basis of analysis of internal and external environment. Resource Requisition Justification Sourcing (i. “Care with personal touch” is one of the strategy used by Manipal to serve their customers.
What it does best.e. SKILLS The skill refers to capabilities and competencies that exist within the company. however. This can help balance out the lack of worker motivation caused by an autocratic management style. reservation. but feedback to the management is encouraged to maintain morale. In case of any confusion. leading to a lower labor turnover. Communication is again generally downward. A skill captures a company’s crucial attributes or capabilities. matter is referred to corporate office for guidelines. Implementation is done after threadbare discussion among various groups of employees. stroke of any issues. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 24 . the patterns of actions taken by over a period of time.what the company does best. it is essentially dictatorial. distinctive competencies.Effectiveness of Training and Development • • • • Reference Check Pre -Employment Medical Check Offer Confirmation Travel & Stay STYLE Style refers to the employees shared and common way of thinking and behaving – written norms of behavior and thought: Style i. This style can be highly advantageous when it engenders loyalty from the employees. thanks to the emphasis on social needs. The leader explains most decisions to the employees and ensures that their social and leisure needs are always met. decisions take into account the best interests of the employees as well as the business. Manipal has paternalistic form of management style. ways of expanding or shifting competencies.
CEO and President come under the category of top management. we do well” STRUCTURE Organization structure is a system of relationship that governs the activities of the people who are dependent upon each other from achieving the common objectives. CEO is the supreme authority to take decision with the consent of President. Manipal will conduct an annual general meeting every year. CEO. create. general manager etc. image. Some of the skills that the employee should restrain are Leadership Passion Accountability Innovation Integrity Collaboration Quality “the courage to shape a better future” “committed in heart and mind’ “if it is to be. For the purpose of easy and effective administration all the activities of Manipal have been broadly assigned to the following parts. Company’s each division having ISO 9001-2008 certificate and it has adopted excellent quality policies and all modern-safety and security measures at all the levels. executive director. delight” “be real” “leverage collective genius” “what we do.Effectiveness of Training and Development Manipal has good skilled labor force and well-equipped latest facilities and technologies. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 25 . President. Under the control of Head Operations several departments are working and various managers and departmental heads assist each department. Head Operations. it’s up to me” “seek. Uses highly sophisticated machine and equipments to give good service to its customers.
these values have great meaning because they focus attention and provide a broader sense of purpose. They also change environment by providing a basic meaning to people working in the organization.Effectiveness of Training and Development SHARED VALUES It refers to the fundamental values that are widely shared in the organization and serve as guiding principle that are important. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 26 .
Effectiveness of Training and Development Identifying corporate values is also the first essential step in defining the organization’s role in the largest community in which it functions. the organization approaches to recruitment. The recruitment system in Manipal is not 100% centralized. staff also includes. which are having more than 250 employees as on 31st March 2011. selection and specialization. how recruits are trained. socialized. In certain case employees are appointed in each division. integrated and how there are managed? The employees of the company are appointed from all over India. How people are developed. Manipal Speciality is the private sector units. Manpower is the main strength of any organization. It includes both technical and non-technical employees. Leadership: “The Courage to shape a better future” Passion: “Committed in heart and mind” Integrity: "Be real" Values of the company: • • • • • • Customer satisfaction Commitment to total quality Cost and time consciousness Innovation and creativity Respect for the individual Integrity STAFF The organization has developed and has looked into its people. their background and competencies. Manipal has highly skilled and well-experienced employees who are capable in doing the task efficiently. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 27 .
The top management analyses the strengths and weakness of the organization as a whole and evaluates those opportunity and threats that exists at the time of review. the strengths. 5. Medical facilities and equipment and infrastructure (room is a/c. Attitude of the staff. nurse and staff 7. Manipal is making continuous profits from the day of its inception. 2. 6.Specialization 11. Manipal employees have strong commitment towards their work that helps for quality service in time.Effectiveness of Training and Development SWOT ANALYSIS The process of corporate diagnosis usually begins with SWOT analysis i. Strengths: 1. SWOT is a diagnostic exercise which assists top management in integrating the organization with its environment. 4.Pricing is reasonable. Manipal has a huge customer base throughout the country. Quality of the doctors. phone lines…. Manipal maintains quality standards certified by ISO. opportunities and threats.e. weakness.) 8.9001. even the menials (human touch) 10. Ambience and the general atmosphere of the hospital 9. Organization maintains good relationship with their employees because of good HR practice with supports to achieve the organizational objectives. 3. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 28 .
4. A scope in expansion of its service on a wider network of countries around globe.Effectiveness of Training and Development Weakness 1. As people are growing more health conscious the demand for health care industry is increasing. Capacity of meeting higher demand and attain optimum utilization of existing resources. No legal advisory department. Locational disadvantage Opportunities 1. Not a general hospital. Weak promotion and advertisement strategies. 6. 3. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 29 . 4. Electronic service transaction 5. The demand for Manipal is not only in India but also in other countries where the demand for Manipal service is increasing day by day. 5. 2. 7. Credit is not allowed to bulk agents. 2. 3. It can also drastically reduce its transportation expenditure by having network transportation. They can further increase their international service capacity from the existing one as they enjoy goodwill of customers abroad. The company has capability of achieving global standards. which encourages them to switch over to competitors. Manipal is making itself ready to grab the opportunities to capture the market.
Due to globalization more number of hospitals in health care sectors has entered into global market. Competitions. It fails with competitors in advertisements and promotion. 5. To increase the facilities they provide. 4. 7. 10. This has enlightened the competition much more. 8. If the company does not update itself in proper intervals the competitors may become severe threat. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 30 . Threats: 1.Effectiveness of Training and Development 8. The government is reducing the grants given to hospitals. More training to the staff for improving their behavior and medical knowledge. 9. To become more specialized in various fields. Unawareness among public. Another threat the company is facing is of substitutes. The instable government and changing policies and procedures. 6. 3. 2. thus making it impossible to cater to the poor people.
employees. are interrelated in the organization. competitors etc… • • • • • • • • • During the organization study I got familiarize with the various managerial levels and I acquired the knowledge of division of labor in the company according to its various This has helped me in acquiring information regarding facilities provided to the It helped me to understand how various department functions and how their activities It also gave me an opportunity to understand how managerial decision affects the It has helped me to gain knowledge about the various method followed in Training It has sharpened my knowledge about employee growth and development through Knowledge of fair and equitable compensation based on performance. . self management program. strategy and their operations. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 31 practical applications. finance etc. practices. policies. Manipal gave me the immense opportunity to study the behavior. its function and its business conditions in the initial stage and its ground growth.Effectiveness of Training and Development LEARNING EXPERIENCE The main objective of this project was to have brief study of organization. products. It helped me gain knowledge about the company’s operations. nature of business. customers and pubic in large. analyses the various product profiles of the organization and major survey on Training and its Effectiveness. training. company in future. This has helped me a lot to understand how the classroom theories are applied in the organizations. functions such as HR. In fact it exposed me to the corporate world. Program. Staying in Manipal for almost 8 weeks gained me basic knowledge to know more details about how and when Manipal was started. An opportunity to know how the grievances of the employees are reduced. its working. This is the first experience to me in Manipal where I undergone Project works in Manipal for 8 weeks. marketing. its background.
If used properly it leads to maximum utilization of human resources. planning. leadership and evaluation). Functions performed by personnel department are: • • • • • • • • • • Manpower planning Recruitment Selection and placement Training and Development Performance management system Wage and salary administration Employee relations and welfare facilities Legal compliances Compensation and benefits Retirement Human resource planning is a double edged weapon.e. Human resource is the important resource of any organization. The aim of this department is to utilize man power to the fullest extent. They represent an investment whose development and utilization requires managing (i. Hence if an organization has to succeed it has to select right men to right job and right place at the right time. organizing.Effectiveness of Training and Development HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT Human beings are resources to an organization. There is a fundamental truth in the cliché that “People are the organizations most important assets”. The complicated and challenging task of human resource management is handled by the personnel department. reduces excessive labor turn over and high JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 32 .
employee performance by increasing an employee ability to perform. learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look in to the distant future. less skill oriented and stresses on knowledge. specific industry analysis and like.Effectiveness of Training and Development absenteeism. abilities and knowledge to an employee or it is any attempt to improve present or future. The objective of the training is to enable the employees to grow acquire knowledge of thought and action. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 33 . which enable the participants to gain skills. managers and executives. Every organization consists of human resource department which is inevitable in today’s fast changing world. Training is needed not only for technicians who work in the shop floor but also for supervisors. management. usually by changing the attitude or increasing his/her skills and knowledge. What is “Training”? Training refers to importing of specific skills. Development is. Training is a tool for increasing individual performance and overall organizational growth. candidates will be placed on the jobs to perform the tasks given to them effectively. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training and Development nowadays constitute an ongoing process in any organization. human relations. In Manipal. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. principles and techniques. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. So is the case with Manipal which has an effective HR department. After training. Any training & development programme must contain inputs. through learning. totally 250 employees are working at present. Knowledge about business environment. improves productivity and aims in achieving the objectives of the organization.
Further. apart from the other advantages mentioned above. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 34 . with all its many activities functionally related. for it makes employees more effective and productive. and the needs for supervision is reduced. moreover. therefore. earning power and job security. wastage and spoilage are lessened. it enables employees to develop and rise within the organization. Training is a practical and vital necessity because. development and education. for it helps in reducing dissatisfaction. Such concepts require not only careful planning but also a greater emphasis on employee development. It is an integral part of the whole management programme. Such commitment to the company and the growth in the quality movement has led senior management teams to realize the increasing importance of training. heightens the morale of the employees. and increase their market value. It is actively and intimately connected with all the personnel or managerial activities. Recognition of the importance of training in recent years has been heavily influenced by the intensification of the overseas competition and the relative success of economies like Japan. There has also been more recognition of the need to complement the qualities of employees with the needs of the organization. Germany etc. trained employees make a better and economical use of materials and equipped.Effectiveness of Training and Development IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training is the corner stone of sound management. Training. grievances and absenteeism. reduces the rate of turnover. It moulds the employee’s attitudes and helps them to achieve a better cooperation with the company and a great loyalty to it. technological development and organization change have gradually led some employers to the realization that success relies on the skills and abilities of their employees and this means considerable and continuous improvement in Training and Development. This has also been underscored by the rise in HRM with its emphasis on the importance of people and the skills they possess in enhancing organization efficiency. complaints.
information and techniques and developing the skills they will need in their particular fields. To impart to new entrants the basic knowledge and skill they need for an intelligent performance of definite tasks. To help the employee develop as an individual so that the organization can recognize and use the maximum possible potential of its employees. TRAINING: “Training is a short term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skill”. 2. “Training refers only to instruction in technical and mechanical operations. 4. SUBJECT BACKGROUND OF THE REASERCH TOPIC EDUCATION: “EDUCATION IS THE UNDERSTANDING and interpretation of knowledge”. 5. To help employees work as team members since no individual can accomplish the goals of the organization single handedly. To ensure that each employee is equipped with capabilities to perform various tasks associated with his role. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 35 . Training courses are typically designed for a short term.“Education is concerned with increasing the general knowledge and understanding of the employees”.Effectiveness of Training and Development OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 1. stated set of purposes”. To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts. 3.
3.Effectiveness of Training and Development DEVELOPMENT: “Development is an inclusive process with which both managers and individual employees involved. 7. 10. the worker is enabled to make the more economical and best use of equipment. 5. It helps each individual employee to utilize or develop his/her full potential. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 36 . Training and Development is continuous & its scope exists throughout the career. Employees feel that they are being taken care of by the management and these results in increasing their morale. To help a company fulfill its future personnel needs 9. To improve health and safety PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING 1. information and techniques. they become well qualified by this and the increase their market value and earning power. but also provide an environment designed to discovering and cultivating basic attitudes and capabilities and facilitating continuing personal growth”. By training. To improve organization culture. 2. NEED FOR TRAINING 1. Training program helps in increasing the quality and quantity of output. This results in the reduction of cost of production. Trained employee needs less supervision because of this supervisor can increase his span of management. It offers opportunity to learn skills. resulting in reduced cost of supervision. 6. The objective & scope of a training plan should be defined before its development is begun in order to provide a basis for common agreement & cooperative action. 4. The availability of trained personnel ensures long term stability and flexibility in the organization. 8. 2. The workers are exposed to the latest concepts.
6. 5. which involves stress and strains. To improve the cost effectiveness of Training and Development programme. The goals & purpose of evaluation must be clear. Growth is a challenge. Evaluation must be continuous. 5. so the objectives of the employee Training and Development must be set in clear terms. 2. Training and Development must meet the organization objectives. Evaluation must provide means for trainees to self appraise. Active participation of the learner. It is essential to lay down the criteria of evaluation & it must be realistic. Training should be conducted in the actual job environment to the maximum possible extent NEED FOR EVALUATION OF TRAINING 1. 4. 7. 2. Evaluation must be specific. There exists a gape b/w best performance and present performance and Training and Development can bring out the hidden talents to fill the gaps. 3. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 37 . 6. 4. PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION 1. 4. To identify he deficiencies of Training and Development for incorporating additions to the programme. To assess how far training is useful for improving career prospects of every individuals. To check the effectiveness of Training and Development in improving performance of the employee. Training helps an individual to cope up with these and helps in concentrated effort. 3.Effectiveness of Training and Development 3. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. the feedback of the learner’s performance accelerates growth and improves the effectiveness of Training and Development.
Benefits for the company may include increased sales and more satisfied customers. It also serves as a platform to provide employees the opportunity to structure and channelize their growth in terms of learning & development and / recognition. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 38 . measuring. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The Performance Management System enables the Organization to enhance & sustain its performance by aligning employees' goals & contribution to the Organization’s Vision and Objectives. Benefits for trainees may include learning new skills or behavior. and developing the performance of individuals and teams and aligning performance with the strategic goals of the organization. What is performance Management? Performance Management is a continuous process of identifying. TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS Training Effectiveness refers to the benefits that the company and the trainees receive from training. Training outcomes or criteria refers to measures that the trainer and the company use to evaluate Training programs. What is Performance? Performance is about behaviors or what employees do. not about what employees produce or the outcomes of their work.Effectiveness of Training and Development THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EVALUATION AND EFFECTIVENESS TRAINING EVALUATION Training Evaluation refers to the process of collecting and measuring the outcomes or criteria to determine whether training was effective.
Effectiveness of Training and Development
OBJECTIVES OF PMS
• To align individual performance with the Organization's strategic objectives via goal setting & review, on an annual basis • • • • To differentiate performance contributions vis a vis goals set To enhance individual contributions by identifying development areas To identify/ develop appropriate learning tools/ methods To reward differing individual performances basis contribution
SCOPE OF PMS
• All confirmed employees as of April 1st of the year, are eligible for the Performance Assessment. • Objective Setting & Final Performance Assessment are done on an annual basis (i.e. Financial Year: April – March)
An employee’s Performance Assessment as captured in the formats (i.e. Appraisal forms), is based on two key aspects: 1. Key Responsibilities (the “What”) requisite to be performed in the job 2. Key Competencies (the “How”) that are relevant to different job categories The overall Performance Assessment, is a balanced evaluation of both “Key Responsibilities” & “Competencies” on a four point rating scale The Final Assessment is to result in one of the four ratings enlisted below which are to conform to a normal distribution for respective departments, units & hence the entire Organization:
JnanaVikas Institute of Technology
Effectiveness of Training and Development
• • • •
Outstanding Exceeds Expectations Meets Expectations Needs Improvement
The above ratings have descriptors to enable the assessment on each of the Key
Responsibilities & Competencies
Outstanding: Constantly exceeds expectations in all objectives; Is a role model for the rest of the team
Exceeds Expectations: Is an excellent performer and meets both quality & timeline specifications for most responsibilities
Meets Expectations: Meets job expectations as pre decided & is a steady performer Needs Improvement: Needs to improve performance in several objectives; development areas can be worked upon
Key Process Stakeholders
Appraisee: Every employee/ individual who is assessed is termed the ‘Appraisee’. Thereby all employees are appraisee’s as their individual and thereby collective performance contributes towards the Organization’s performance, growth and success. Appraiser: The supervisor or individual who assesses the appraisee’s performance is termed the ‘Appraiser’. Reviewer: The appraiser’s manager is termed the ‘Reviewer’. H.O.Ds: All performance assessments for a particular department are reviewed overall by the H.O.D before it is sent to the Unit/ Function Head.
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Effectiveness of Training and Development
Senior Leadership Team (SLT): The CEO and his immediate reportees play a key role in ratifying the entire Organization’s Performance Distribution, once all the performance assessments from various Units are received & collated. HR department: The HR team plays the role of a Co – Planner wherein it facilitates the assessment process, in terms of communication of the assessment process flow & guidelines to concerned stakeholders, providing advice to appraisers, H.O.Ds & Unit/ Function Heads on appropriate assessment & translating the assessment to rewards/ recognition and career development proposal to the SLT.
Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for a company or institution and the jobs and functions within it. Competency mapping is important and is an essential exercise. Every well managed firm should have well defined roles and list of competencies required to perform each role effectively. Such list should be used for recruitment, performance management, promotions, placement and training needs identification. The competency framework serves as the bedrock for all HR applications. As a result of competency mapping, all the HR processes like talent induction, management development, appraisals and training yield much better results. Competency Mapping gives an adept HR manager a fairly good picture of the employee to see whether he (or she) needs to perform better or to move up a notch on the scale. Once the employee `tops’ every indicator at his level, he moves on to the next and begins there at the bottom – in short, he is promoted. It helps in determining the Training and Development needs and importantly it helps to encourage the best and develop the rest and a win-win situation for everyone.
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large and small. where company’s people and their families take part in sports and cultural event is the presentation of the Chairman’s Excellence Awards to those individuals who have made exemplary contributions to the company during the year. delegation of responsibility. RECRUITMENT POLICY JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 42 . The most important is company’s annual celebration of oneness. • Involve employees and their families in developing a network of talented people for creative work and long term relationship. As they grow. they make it a point to celebrate their successes. • Attract. energizes and retains the finest talent. • Provide an even-handed opportunity for individual development and advancement based on merit. • Build an organization that is continuously learning and changing to suite the dynamic business environment. develop and retain versatile achievers. with their people. who have made this success possible. The company: • Continuously strive towards working with a multifaceted and talented work force that will bring different perspectives to the table. regardless of their nationality and provide them with the resources to bring out the best in them. They believe in teamwork. • Promote the spirit of teamwork in the workplace-innovation is a process that needs the contribution of many.Effectiveness of Training and Development OTHER HR POLICIES OF MANIPAL Manipal work place attracts. WORK ENVIRONMENT IN MANIPAL Manipal’s work environment values creativity. • Develop and nurture leaders who shall bring out the best in themselves and their teams. competitive challenges and growth.
advertisement. skills and Competencies required to respond effectively to new responsibilities. recruitment consultants. Resource Requisition Justification Sourcing (i. The recruitment guidelines flow as per the process given below: • • • • • • • • • • • Review of the Requirement Preparation of the Position Profile i.e. referrals. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 43 .Effectiveness of Training and Development It is the process of searching for prospective applicants and simulating them to apply for job in an organization. MHS strongly believes in the necessity of facilitating the transition of new employees into the Organization’s work environment so as to equip them with the knowledge.e. web posting etc) Screening Functional Assessment HR Assessment Offer Reference Check Pre -Employment Medical Check Offer Confirmation Travel & Stay INDUCTION POLICY The Induction Policy outlines the orientation & socialization process designed by the Organization to ensure smooth integration of all new joinees into the system by providing them the appropriate support to meet job demands.
Should any associate have any queries/questions regarding his/her work. the associate is encouraged to discuss them with his/her supervisor/manager. GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS COMMUNICATION The company firmly believes that effective communications at all levels significantly aids efficient operation.Effectiveness of Training and Development Induction Framework: The Induction Process ensures initial support at two levels with the aim of integration of the new joinees in to the Organization in a consistent and effective manner: • • At the Human Resources Department level At the new joinees Department level The following end objectives are aimed for: • • • Quicker settling down & enhanced comfort levels of the new joinees into MHS Productivity and efficiency of new joinees within a short period of time Integration of new joinees into the Organization’s work ethics & Values and motivating them to contribute towards MHS Vision & Objectives • Providing employees with an understanding of various key SOPs & safety aspects at the workplace • Reduction of attrition especially in the employee population of 1 year & lesser duration in the Organization • Reduction in costs associated with repeated recruitment. From time to JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 44 . training and lost productivity.
Employee Celebrations Policy JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 45 . Types of Leave Earned Leave or Privilege Leave (EL/PL) .Casual Leave is a leave of short duration. Adoption Leave (AL) – This is the leave that a female/ male employee is entitled to when she/ he. after she/ he has served the probation period.Sick Leave is exclusively and strictly meant to be availed only in an event of sickness.03 days of paternity leave. 1961”. 06 days of sick leave are given. Paternity Leave (PL) . Employees are encouraged to avail this leave at least once in a year.06 days of casual leave.Privilege leave is ‘earned’ leave which the employee is entitled to avail. that is the earned leave are 20 days. is provided.Paternity leave is the leave entitlement for a male employee when his spouse is expecting to deliver/ has delivered a child. Sick Leave (SL) . Employee Leave Policy To facilitate and improve work-life balance for employees and enable them to meet their personal priorities. adopts a child legally. Maternity leave has per “The Maternity Benefit Act.Effectiveness of Training and Development time. is provided. Other announcements will either be circulated. the departmental head or the Country Head may call special communication meetings to ensure that all staff is kept informed of significant issues. Maternity Leave (ML) – Maternity leave is the entitlement for a female employee when she is expecting a child. Relocation Leave (RL): This is leave that an employee is entitled to avail if she/ he is being transferred between MHS Units in two different cities/ towns. which may be availed by an employee for sudden leave requirements. Casual Leave (CL) .
Employee Salary Advance Policy The purpose of this policy is to provide a mechanism for employees to procure salary advances for urgent monetary needs/ commitments such as those for illness. Eligibility Every confirmed employee is eligible for salary advance as per the eligibility mentioned below: • • 2 months of last drawn pay slip gross salary for employees in grades RL1 to 1 month of salary advance for employees in grades M3 and above which will be recovered in the subsequent month. Whistle Blower Policy The purpose of the 'Whistle Blower Policy' is to provide employees a platform to report to the management instances of unethical behavior. etc. Organization Events Fund: This is a fund allocated for promoting cross functional interaction amongst MHS staff through the sponsorship of various forums. both within & across departments. thereby conveying how valued they are to the Organization Manipal Health Systems encourages managers to promote informal interaction amongst staff and express appreciation by celebrating various occasions. actual or suspected. children’s education purpose. MHS thus shall contribute to two types of funds: Department Events Fund: This is a fund allocated for sponsorship of employee wellness initiatives within the department.Effectiveness of Training and Development To plan and execute a variety of events for MHS family members in order to appreciate their work and other important occasions in their lives. fraud or violation of the JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 46 .
000/- Employee Farewell Policy The purpose of this policy is to provide systematic and uniform guidelines for the arrangement and funding of “farewell" get-togethers to affirm and recognize the achievements of those individuals who resign their positions in good standing especially for retirees. Medical Reimbursement Policy The objective of this scheme is to reimburse medical expenses incurred by employees and their family members.000/. integrity and ethical behavior Role of a “Whistle Blower” • The Whistle Blower's role is that of a reporting party with reliable information. in honor of their dedicated and faithful service who have served the Organization for a minimum period of 2 yrs. honesty. The quantum of Medical reimbursement is as per the amount declared in the Flexible Benefits Plan. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 47 . subject to a maximum of Rs. the company will pay a gift cheque to the employee of Rs. 15. nor do they have a right to participate in any investigative activities. • Whistle Blowers should not act on their own in conducting any investigative activities.Effectiveness of Training and Development Organization’s code of conduct or ethical practices. 5. Wedding Gift Policy The purpose of this policy is to express the involvement of the Organization in an important event of the employee’s life by a positive gesture. nor would they determine the appropriate corrective or remedial action that may be warranted in a given case. They are not required or expected to act as investigators or finders of facts. In the event of marriage.per annum. MHS thus wants to achieve highest standards of professionalism. Grievance Redressal Policy The purpose of this policy is to ensure that any employee grievance is handled proactively via an employee friendly process.
Effectiveness of Training and Development General Features: • Any employee who has a genuine grievance must communicate the same to his/her superior. due attention must be given to the problem and earnest effort must be made to solve it within the shortest possible time. • If the grievance is lodged. • If the grievance is about the superior himself/ herself. a fixed time frame must be communicated to the aggrieved employee. • • • The grievance should be dealt with in the presence of representatives from Human Resources function. Even if the immediate superior cannot solve it. The meetings regarding the grievance must have minutes and must be interpreted accordingly. must be filed in the personal file of the employee for future reference. the employee must not discuss the grievance with any of his/her colleagues (Sub-ordinates or superiors) and try gaining support for the cause. it has to be escalated upwards. • During the intermittent period. minutes. The said grievance must be resolved within the time mentioned. if possible. final outcome. concerned individual and the immediate supervisor. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 48 . • While all efforts are taken to resolve the grievance in the earliest possible time. • If the grievance is sensitive in nature i.e. the employee can elevate the grievance to the Head of the department or to the HR Manager/GM-HR. • The final action must be clearly communicated by the superiors and implemented by the Human Resources function. • A copy of all the transactions.
Staff covered under uniform are • • • • • • Nursing Staff Patient Care Coordinators Billing Staff Corporate Relations Housekeeping Engineering and Maintenance JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 49 . To lay down a procedure for addressing any complaints of sexual harassment at work. in line with the clientele of the organization.Effectiveness of Training and Development The interpretation of the above policy rests with the Senior Management of Manipal Health Systems and their decision are final and binding. Policy for Prevention of Sexual Harassment at Work Place To promote ethical and conducive work environment by preventing and deterring sexual harassment at workplace. during normal business operations and to foster a positive & professional image in the organization. Employee Health and Safety Policy To plan the activities and functions of the hospital related to ensuring the safety of employees. To provide clean & safe environment to the employees of Manipal Hospital. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION Consumption of alcoholic beverages in the office is strictly forbidden. Dress Code Policy This policy is intended to define appropriate business attire.
Effectiveness of Training and Development • • • • • Drivers F&B Sports and Exercise Medicine Managers in patient interfacing roles Security JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 50 .
Effectiveness of Training and Development STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Management development is aimed at preparing employees for future jobs with the organization or solving organization wide problems concerning. acquiring or sharpening capabilities required performing various tasks and functions associated with their presence or expected future roles. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 51 .
Training cannot be measured directly but change in attitude and behavior that occurs as a result of Training. SCOPE OF STUDY The study is conducted on the employees in Manipal Specialty Hospital.Effectiveness of Training and Development The motive behind this study is to understand and learn the impact of Training and Development programmes on employees of Manipal Speciality Hospital. Bangalore. Hence the statement of problem is “Effectiveness of Training and Development Programme at Manipal Speciality Hospital” OBJECTIVE OF STUDY To understand the Training programmes and their impact on employees of Manipal Speciality Hospital. Bangalore. Bangalore. So employee assessment should be done after training session by the management. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 52 . Bangalore. To find out the satisfaction level of the employees towards the Training programs. to know the effectiveness of Training given to employees. Hence the study is undertaken up to measure the Effectiveness of Training and Development at Executive and Non Executive levels at Manipal Speciality Hospital. To analyze the views and opinions of the employees regarding the programmes provided at Manipal Speciality Hospital. Bangalore. To study the perception of the employees about the usefulness of the training program with reference to the improvement in their performance and skill enhancement.
JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 53 . The study is descriptive in nature.Effectiveness of Training and Development The study will help the organization To know the present condition of Training and Development programmes. The study is confined to the employees of Manipal Specialty Hospital. The study analyzes the collected data and does not include quantitative techniques such as arriving at statistical inference by testing hypothesis. RL2 and RL1 grade employees as on 19/01/2011 to 19/02/2011. To know the willingness of employees towards Training and Development programmes. The employees were given 2 days of sufficient time to fill the structured questionnaires. To know the expectation of employees towards Training and Development programmes. RL3. RL4. Bangalore for RL5.
it also refers to the blue print of the research process. expert’s interview Data Collection The required data for the project has collected from Primary and Secondary Data Primary Data: Primary data are those.Effectiveness of Training and Development METHODOLOGY Research methodology is purely and simply the framework or a plan for study that guides the collection and analysis of data. which are gathered directly through questionnaire and it is the original source of data collected by the researcher. Research Design: Descriptive Data: Primary and Secondary data Research: Survey method Research instrument: Questionnaire. Research is the scientific way to solve the problems and is necessarily used to improve market potential. It is the overall operation pattern or framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which sources by what procedure. and arriving at the best solution. one by one. considering the resources at the disposal of research. Primary data is collected with the help of structured questionnaire administered to 50 randomly selected employees at Manipal at the managerial level. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 54 . Research Design A research design is a specification of methods and procedure for acquiring the information needed. This involves exploring the possible methods.
which the respondent fills in himself.Effectiveness of Training and Development Secondary Data: Secondary data are those which are generally published sources which are been collected originally for some other purpose they are not gathered specially to achieve the objectives of particular research project. Sample Process Sampling Unit: All Employees of Manipal Speciality Hospital Bangalore. Research Instruments Questionnaire Questionnaire refers to a device for securing answer to a formally arranged list of questions by using the term. Secondary data is collected through the documents provided by HR department such as reports and books of various authors in HRD and annual report of the company. Sample size determination Sample size refers to number of elements to be included in the study. Duration: January-February 2011 Type of sampling Type of sampling used in this survey was simple random sampling. In this method. Questionnaire Design • Open-ended JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 55 . the sampling units had chosen randomly from the total employees at all the levels in the levels in the organization. The sample size of respondents was decided to be 50 and the questionnaire was administered to 50 randomly selected employees of Manipal.
Effectiveness of Training and Development • • • Close-ended Dichotomous questions Multiple questions Statistical Tools The collected data were classified and tabulated and analyzed with some of the statistical tools listed • • Percentage analysis Line graph was used to explain the tabulation clearly JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 56 .
An extensive research could not be undertaken because of time constraints. Bangalore.Effectiveness of Training and Development LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The research is limited only to the employees of Manipal Specialty Hospital. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 57 . No discussion was possible with the department heads regarding Training and Development has they were busy with their work and could not spare time for discussion. The data collection method is through interview method respondents often were hesitant to provide information. The fear of expressing the true facts among the respondents could be a limitation. The result and findings based on employee’s responses sometimes may be biased. The study is descriptive and explanatory in some cases but not casual.
Effectiveness of Training and Development ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 1) Whether Training is given adequate importance in your organization. Particulars Strongly agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Total Frequency 30 55 05 10 100 Percentage 30% 55% 5% 10% 100% Stronly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Inference JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 58 .
Effectiveness of Training and Development 30% of respondents strongly agree and 55% of the respondents agree that the company understand the T&D needs to the employees. This shows the company gives adequate importance regarding T&D to their employees 2) The skill learnt in Training and Development program are helpful to me. Particulars Strongly agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Total Frequency 45 35 10 10 100 Percentage 45% 35% 10% 10% 100% Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Inference JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 59 .
3) Training is periodically evaluated and improved the performance level Particulars Strongly agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Total Frequency 15 50 15 20 100 Percentage 15% 50% 15% 20% 100% 20 15 S trong Ag ly ree Ag ree 15 S trong D a ree ly is g D a ree is g JnanaVikas Institute of Technology 50 Page 60 .Effectiveness of Training and Development 45% of respondents strongly agree and 35% of the respondents agree that the skill learnt in Training and Development is helpful.
4) The HR Department conducts briefing sessions for employees before the actual training program.Effectiveness of Training and Development Inference: 30% of respondents strongly agree and 55% of the respondents agree that the training is periodically evaluated. Particulars Yes No Total Frequency 60 40 100 Percentage 60% 40% 100% JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 61 .
Effectiveness of Training and Development 40 Yes 60 No Inference 60% -of respondents agree and 40% -of the respondents disagree 5) Employees and Organization participate in determining the Training they need. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 62 .
Effectiveness of Training and Development Particulars Strongly agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Total Frequency 10 45 20 25 100 Percentage 10% 45% 20% 25% 100% S trong Ag ly ree Ag ree S trong D ag ly is ree D a ree is g Inference 10% of respondents strongly agree and 45% of the respondents agree that they are also involved in determining the training needs. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 63 . 6) Senior Line Manager is eager to help their juniors develop through training.
your Management takes training program take training seriously.Effectiveness of Training and Development Particulars Strongly agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Total Frequency 05 45 15 35 100 Percentage 15% 50% 15% 20% 100% S trong Ag ly ree Ag ree S trong D a ree ly is g D a ree is g Inference 05% of respondents strongly agree and 45% of the respondents agree that the senior line managers are eager to help the juniors to develop their skills through training. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 64 . 7) Whether.
Effectiveness of Training and Development Particulars Yes No Frequency 75 25 Percentage 75% 25% Total 100 100% Yes No Inference: JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 65 .
Particulars Strongly agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Total Frequency 20 65 05 10 100 Percentage 15% 50% 15% 20% 100% S trong Ag ly ree Ag ree S trong D a ree ly is g D a ree is g JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 66 . 8) There is an adequate emphasis on developing managerial capabilities of the managerial staff through training.Effectiveness of Training and Development 75% of respondents strongly agree and 25% of the respondents agree that the company takes training seriously.
Effectiveness of Training and Development Inference: 20% of respondents strongly agree and 65% of the respondents agree that there is adequate emphasis on developing managerial capabilities of the managerial staff through training. 9) Induction Training is given adequate importance in your organization. Particulars Yes No Total Frequency 42 58 100 Percentage 42% 58% 100% Yes No JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 67 .
10) Senior management takes interest and spends time with the new staff during induction training.Effectiveness of Training and Development Inference: 42% of respondents strongly agree and 58% of the respondents disagree that the Induction Training is given adequate importance in their organization. Particulars Yes No Total Frequency 44 56 100 Percentage 44% 56% 100% JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 68 .
Effectiveness of Training and Development Yes No Inference: 44% of respondents strongly agree and 56% of the respondents disagree 11) Benefit acquired through Training and Development generally helps in JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 69 .
JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 70 .Effectiveness of Training and Development Particulars Upgrade technical knowledge and skills Frequency 33 Percentage 33% 15% 37% 05% 100% Help develop leadership skill down the 15 line Help implement creative ideas Others (Specify) Total 37 05 100 Upg rade T hnica ec l knowledg &s e kills Lea ders s hip kill Crea tive idea s Others Inference 33% of respondents say the training program helped them to gain the technical knowledge and skills and 15% of the respondents gained leadership skills and 37% gained the knowledge to implement creative ideas in their work.
Particulars Yes No Total Frequency 73 37 100 Percentage 73% 37% 100% Yes No Inference: 73% of respondents agree and 37% of the respondents disagree JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 71 .Effectiveness of Training and Development 12) The Training and Development program adds to my creativity and develops new ideas.
Effectiveness of Training and Development 13) Quality of the Training programme needs to be improved. Particulars Yes No Total Frequency 34 66 100 Percentage 34% 66% 100% Yes No Inference: 34% of respondents agree and 66% of the respondents disagree JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 72 .
Particulars Yes No Total Frequency 78 22 100 Percentage 78% 22% 100% Yes No JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 73 .Effectiveness of Training and Development 14) There exists a clear direction to the Training and Development programme.
Particulars Yes No Total Frequency 82 18 100 Percentage 82% 18% 100% JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 74 .Effectiveness of Training and Development Inference: 78% of respondents agree and 22% of the respondents disagree 15) The quality of Orientation and Training received for your current position in the company.
Particulars Strongly agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Total Frequency 38 59 0 03 100 Percentage 38% 59% 0% 03% 100% JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 75 .Effectiveness of Training and Development Yes No Inference: 82% of respondents agree and 18% of the respondents disagree 16) The feedback given after a Training programme is utilized to effect certain improvements.
Effectiveness of Training and Development S trong Ag ly ree Ag ree S trong is g lyD a ree D a ree is g Inference: 38% of respondents strongly agree and 5% of the respondents agree that the feedback given after a Training programme is utilized to effect certain improvements. 17) Does the practice have a consistent. timely and fair method for evaluation individual performance Particulars Strongly agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Total Frequency 27 59 03 11 100 Percentage 27% 59% 03% 11% 100% JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 76 .
Effectiveness of Training and Development S trong Ag ly ree Ag ree S trong D a ree ly is g D a ree is g Inference: 27% of respondents strongly agree and 59% of the respondents agree that training practice is consistent. timely and fair method for evaluation individual performance 18) Does your top management take concerned Training program? Frequency Percentage Page 77 Particulars Yes No Total 67 67% JnanaVikas Institute of Technology 33 33% 100 100% .
JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 78 .Effectiveness of Training and Development Yes No Inference: 67% of respondents agree and 33% of the respondents disagree 19) The Training programme is similar for all employees.
Effectiveness of Training and Development Particulars Same to all Different according ability & attitude Frequency 25 to 10 Percentage 25% 10% 47% 28% 100% As per the complexity of 47 the training Other Total 28 100 JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 79 .
20) Which of the by training methods are provided in the company. 10% of the respondents agree that it different according to ability and attitude. and 47% of respondents agree that it has per complexity of the training. Particulars Embedded training Lectures & Discussions Games & Role-plays Audio-visual/Film show Total Frequency 05 48 05 42 100 Percentage 05% 48% 05% 42% 100% JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 80 .Effectiveness of Training and Development Same to all Different a/c to employee As/complex of training ity Other Inference: 25% of respondents agree that the training program is same for all.
Effectiveness of Training and Development E bedded tra m ining Lec tures& D c s is us ions G mes& R a ole-pla ys Audio-vis l ua Inference: 48% of the respondents agree that lectures and discussion method is followed and 42% of respondents as audio visual /film shows the training & development methods which are adopted at the time of training. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 81 . 21) The three areas most important to your development in future.
Effectiveness of Training and Development Particulars Time management Computer Skills Negotiating skills Leadership Team process Communication Coaching skills Presenting skills Total Frequency 26 0 15 05 29 05 10 10 100 Percentage 26% 0% 15% 5% 29% 5% 10% 10% 100% JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 82 .
Effectiveness of Training and Development T e m na em im a g ent Com puter s ills k Neg tings ills otia k Lea ders hip T mproces ea s Com munica tion Coa chings ills k Pres entings ills k 22) You know what is expected of you at work. Frequency 80 20 100 Percentage 80% 20% 100% Particulars Yes No Total JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 83 .
Effectiveness of Training and Development Yes No Inference: 80% of respondents strongly agree and 20% of the respondents disagree 23) Does your company use a specific training process? If Yes/No justify. Particulars Yes No Total Frequency 73 37 100 Percentage 73% 37% 100% JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 84 .
Effectiveness of Training and Development Yes No Inference: 73% of respondents strongly agree and 37% of the respondents disagree 24) Overall. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 85 . how satisfied are you with the Training you received for your present job.
Effectiveness of Training and Development Particulars Strongly agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Total Frequency 20 58 09 13 100 Percentage 20% 58% 09% 13% 100% S trong Ag ly ree Ag ree S trong D a ree ly is g D a ree is g JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 86 .
25) Any other suggestions/comments from your side which will be useful towards HR Department for its future development. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 87 .Effectiveness of Training and Development Inference: 20% of respondents strongly agree and 63% of the respondents agree that they are satisfied with the training they are receiving for their present job.
certain findings are drawn to make it clear about the “Effectiveness of Training and Development Programmes” organized in the company. It portrayed that 92% of employees feel that Training and Development programme. which shows that company should focus more on these aspects. cultivate the sense of competition and competitiveness among the employees. The employees of Manipal Speciality Hospital. Most of the respondents are highly satisfied with the training programmes introduced by the company. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 88 . Bangalore show interest when they are selected for the Training Programme. which indicate that they all. that the company is committed in promoting the Training and Development programmes. Most of the respondent are of the opinion. Most of the employees think that Training and Development Programmes to certain extent improve the Personality . Most of the employees feel that Training and Development Programmes have moderately increased the skills and talent towards assigned job.Effectiveness of Training and Development FINDINGS After analyzing and interpreting the data. strive for the quality of service.Development. The majority of the respondents believe that Training and Development is increasing the knowledge to the employees.
Survey reveals that 60% of employees satisfied with the Training programme conducted by the organization which is helpful for the practical work. Most of the employees are satisfied with the method of Training implementing at present. arrangements etc given for the programmes.Effectiveness of Training and Development Most of the employees feel that Training and Development Programmes motivate them and build up better team work. Audio-visual/film show method is adopted in the Training and Development. Majority of the employees feel that the organization must conduct needs assessment before Training and Development program. Many respondents have undergone Training and Development Programmes recently. The majority of respondents feel that the feedback collected by the company has been revised properly for the next Training programme. types. It is observed that majority of employees are satisfied with the facilities. methods. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 89 .
HR department is active. As per the Survey all the employees are satisfied with the condition of employment and with the organization. Rules and regulations are strictly followed in Manipal Speciality Hospital. As far as job satisfaction is concerned all the employees are not satisfied with their jobs because of promotion and salary policies. Employees of Manipal Speciality Hospital are very much committed to their work and possess a very good patience level. The employees have a positive feedback towards the Training programs provided for them.Effectiveness of Training and Development OBSERVATIONS Apart from the main topic there were many other aspects related to HR in Manipal Speciality Hospital which came into light not only through my topic but also through a small interaction with workers. Experience of working comes by working under somebody else’s supervision and initially formal training is provided to worker. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 90 . Most employees are satisfied with policies of Manipal Speciality Hospital. The main observations are: Employees of Manipal Speciality Hospital are very punctual. Employees are motivated to reinforce the good behaviors. Employees are promoted on the basis of experience. A good Cooperation can be seen between employees and employer.
Introduce good training programme with selected topics related to improve quality and service. Identification of employees for Training and Development programmes should be done strictly. Mobile Technology such as iPods. The departments Head should asses the Training and Development need of the subordinates.Effectiveness of Training and Development They have a very good Grievance procedure where the problems of the employees are addressed as soon as possible. Introducing new Technologies to Training program like E-Learning. Enhance good communication attitude among the workers and employees. This assessment may increase the level of training effectiveness by the enhancement of good interpersonal relationship. PDAs. which will enable to better service. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 91 . and Simulations and Distance Learning. SUGGESTIONS Introduce more training programmes which will benefit for both employer and the employee. Visit to related hospitals will help to know about their method of work. The Training circular form can also include a brief introduction about the subject for which the training programme has been organized so that the participants are able to understand the topics being covered in the training program in advance. The management should provide an experienced trainer.
yoga etc can be included in the Training and Development Program. Different type of training like spiritual. Training material should be organized in a logical manner and has meaningful units. A separate review committee can be formed. -The term and concept already familiar to the trainee should be used. Training and Development program should be different according to the ability and attitude of the employees. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 92 .Effectiveness of Training and Development It is easier for the trainee to understand the material that is meaningful so all the material should be meaningful and theory can also be made interesting if they include-When material is presented to the employee a variety of similar example should be used. A company should implement their training programmes in a manner that 100% of their employees must agree that their personal growth increases with Training and Development.
Bangalore. skill and attitudes necessary to perform job related task. To make work effectively the concerned departments should organize Training and Development programmes. It also helped to understand the motivation and morale driven up by the training programmes among the employees and their interest to attend the programmes for personality – development. The organizations benefits by having employees with more skills who are more productive. JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 93 . Employees benefit by attending effective training programmes in the organization. I conclude that with proper training an employee can become multi-skilled and this I have practically noticed through my analysis. The introduction of new or innovative process of training program to the existing level will surely help this organization to reach greater heights in the years to come. Thus. Bangalore is good and it can also achieve the level of excellence in the future by making some possible changes in its process.Effectiveness of Training and Development CONCLUSSION The employees in every organization work for the betterment of the organization and so the employees of Manipal Speciality Hospital. The company lays good foundation for career growth of the employees through Training and Development programmes. The study concluded that overall effectiveness at Manipal Speciality Hospital. training endeavors to impart knowledge.
Effectiveness of Training and Development
I have found out that because of the training employees are more able to perform their work very effectively. By imparting suitable training to employees the company achieves the target of: • • •
Low cost High quality Timely service Reliability Value of money Customer satisfaction
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Effectiveness of Training and Development
The management should commit itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to
Training and Development. Learning should be one of the fundamental values of the company.
The Training and Development program should be planned so that it is related to the
trainee’s past experiences and background. The trainee should be helped to see the need of training by making him aware of the personnel benefits he can get through better performance.
It should be recognized that all the trainees do not progress at the same rate. Therefore
flexibility should be allowed in judging the rates of progress in the Training and Development program.
The employer should provide a work environment that will facilitate Transfer of
Training. The manager should ensure that Transfer of Training occurs. As trainee acquires new knowledge, skills and applies them in job situation he should be rewarded for his efforts. The trainee should be provided with personal assistance when they encounter obstacles.
The Training and Development should have more open discussion where the trainee’s
can come out with their opinions and make the program interactive.
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Effectiveness of Training and Development
More of games can be included, like Ice breaker, so that through games the learning will
The trainee should be given the intimation regarding the program in advance so that they can make necessary preparations and avoid unnecessary interruptions.
The Training and Development program should not be held by the same trainer’s
continuously, as the trainees get bored so it would be better to have different trainers for different sessions.
After the program the materials related to the concept can be issued so that the
employees can learn better.
Training and Development should take into consideration the best trainers from well
known training agencies could make the training effective because majority employees are benefited from these kinds of training program’s in many ways. Evaluation of Training Program is very important to determine Effectiveness of Training. So the company should plan and implement a good Evaluation Design to evaluate the Training program.
The Evaluation Design should be appropriate and it should be based on the
characteristics of the company and the importance and purpose of the Training.
A number of different designs can be used to Evaluate Training programs, like Posttest
method, Pretest/Posttest method, Pretest/Posttest with Comparison Group, Time Series method, Solomon Four-Group method etc.
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Dr.com (search on the topic and its related terms and various methods) www. Noe Personnel Management – C B Mamoria Human Resources Management – Gary Dessler Global Perspective – Herold Koontz Organization Behavior – Stephen P Robinson Human Resources Management – Fisher Schoenfeldt Shaw Research methodology . Subba Rao Employee Training and Development . K.google. Aswathappa Personnel and Human Resources Management .com JnanaVikas Institute of Technology Page 97 .Effectiveness of Training and Development BIBILOGRAPHY Human Resources Management .C R Kothari HR Manual and Company brochure Website www.P.manipalhospitals.Raymond A.com www.wekipedia.