^^v^w 1^^





Jtljata, SJem







MAR2 61951




Cornell University Library

PJ 6813.H35 1915
Arabic sef-taught (Syrian) with Englisli

3 1924 026 888 945

archive. the United States on the use of the http://www.Cornell University Library The tine original of tliis book is in Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in text.org/details/cu31924026888945 .


. to all snoh we gladly recommend this book. Cycling. Comprehensive Dictionary of Words in Dally Use. Travel Talk. Si. D. Elemental. Bto. Photography. 28. "The book is sound and may be thoronghly recommended to the ordlni ta Oteece.B:e:K (JM[od«ex>iii) Oreek (Modern) Self-Taught. THIMM. Weights and Me "A mast welcome addition to the'Serles. X. Hot Onatoms. Illnstratlon of the Persian Coinage. . 6d."—Army arid Navy Gaze OR. A. . lillem^ntaTy 'GrammaTi' C Trading. BmUBH. Ma. *o. MmMMXtt.COMPANION ^^^^^i—lBMUllli^ VOLUMES:— 1—^—pi— I ! Egyptian (Arabic) BeiriBea by C.. Axchteological and Beligioas Terms. Honey.) W a. Mariborough'a TRAVELLERS' PRACTICAL MKSVA CONVERSATION . Motoring..-blna wnppar. .CMwn l¥*. OERaAH and ITALIAH.' PERSIJLN^. In. by Nicolaos ANASTASSIOU. Cronn " We liaTe pleaanze In recomiuending. Yooabnlaries. With English FhoneUoPronnnciatton. wmnnAK (in oim book. With Phonetic Fronnneiatlon. Money (with English and American valnes). 2s. Vocabnlarivs. IdtcAtfatlo 1 ConTeraations. Trade and Commerce. Greek and Boman Characters. Cdntatnlng AI Fhonetid PTonnnciatioD. Posi • SHEYKH Carespondanca. Containing the Persian Alphabet. Tables of Money with illasferatlon Weights and Measnres. 3b. Gd. A. uoa and Pronnnttlation. Btaamer. red cloth. 3t. English and Tnrldsh Dictionary. a. Crown 8X0. . by HASAN. ^lementary EngliBh Phonetic Pronunciation. Weights and Measnres. EISLISH.O. Ferstam Handii Nnmerals. Self-Taught. red oloth."— The Oxford Magiume. Table-i of Money. Mabbiqxt. Idiomatic Phrases and Dialogues. Coinage. HioopuN and F»ofebbob A.' Those who desire to acqnlre: aaa practloal knowledge . red cloth: 3s. . Third Edition. red oloth. Sight-seeing.."— 'J . GPOWfi IQmn. Crown Iro. Ss. bine wrapper. Turkish Self-'f iraght. FUHCH. "Will do as mnoh as any saU-teachlng can io... td . THIIVliil.. Idltimatlo FhraseB and CO^Tersations. Ai Tables of Money with English and American Yalaes.S. QEOBBinB. 6d. tratiou of the Egyptian Coinage."— £?firt/}>Kan 0az<tt«. Travel Talk. and enlarged by Majob S.) Qb . TravU Talk. [In on* book. .A. bine wrapper. andiUnstratian ot'^Qree Welsbti and Mnsnres. this book. Persian Self-Tanght. Bevised and Be^edlted by TBI In XnrklBh and Boman Characters. Si. Shopping. The Dragoman for traTei Cctntains Yocabnlaries. eSKMAH and DUTCH. ijKUBjman abiuitobd AiiPHABBnaiijiTO Containing Txaral Notes. Fonrth Sditloii. Ontllne of Grammar with Persian Characters Yoeabnlarles and OonTersatlbns. C»asaifled Conversations—BaUway. FUHOR. bine wrapper. Fonrth Bditian. la Srt Anf«)i • «lAt-h oaI* . B. by C. Grammar.


. I'. . 645a..I Piastre Bronze CoiN^' loPfastres - Nickel Coin TURKISH COINS CURRENT (Arabic Sclf-Taueht. 1 IN C7 ^ SYRIA.O.

Maelboeotjgh & Co.Marlborough's Self-Tanght Series. (Syrian. 1915. Fifth Bditioa. D. By A. E.. El^. iMe Chaplain to ihe Rt. N.) With English Phonetic Pronunciation. Bishop in Jerusalem. LoNiDp^r. F. G. Hassam. Odeh. 51 Old Bailey. Rrablc Self-Taught. Enlarged and revised by The Rev. . P.D.. BIyth. Rev.


whilst those portions of the original English text that have been retained have undergone thorough revision with a view to adapting them to modem requirements. Odeh. and any ordinary capacity can . who spent many years in Palestine and Egypt as a missionary and Head Master of St. business carefully selected for practical use in the daily life of tourists. travellers. The system to give the phonetic pronunciation of Arabic in accordance with the scheme adopted by the Congress of OrientaUsts. will greatly facilitate the intelligible pronunciation of the Arabic words at sight. Cairo. diphthongs. (colloquial) men. The Vocabularies and Conversations have been missionaries. and this is partly the reason why students and travellers fight shy of difficult to the language ' . It lias practically been re-written throughout and much entirely new matter has been intents added.PEEFACE. and the key to the vowel sounds. the natives of Syria. and all who come into contact with The work forms an easy guide to spoken Arabic. has been simplified to the last degree. N. At first sight Arabic letters appear very difficult to learn. illustrative of the grammatical The student can thus obtain an intelligent grasp of the words and sentences he learns by heart. and hard consonants. and has since been engaged in teaching Ai-abic at Oxford. but Eastern tongues are not ' acquire by the SELF-TArrGHT method. and make them his own. Mary's School. In carrying out the work of revision the Publishers have had the assistance of the Eev. and the exercises which follow contain abundant conversational matter rules. given at the foot of the pages throughout the Vocabularies and Conversations. and gives the student a practical and of transliteration here employed. carefully devised valuable introduction to the thorough study of the language. rrHE J- present enlarged edition of Arabic 8 elf-Taught is to all and purposes a new work. The new outline of grammar throws much useful light upon the construction of Arabic.

At the same time it may be borne in mind that. pronouncing the phonetic aloud. 1911. Hebrew. The student or traveller. It has indeed survived all the other Semitic languages. The best plan for a beginner to adopt is to copy each lette] untU he has fixed it in his mind foi two or three letters should be dealt with a1 He will be surprised tc a time. amongst others. The ^written or classic Arabic is beautifully constructed. find how soon he begins to understand the characters in theii carefully and repeatedly. becoming his own Dragoman. When travelling it is well to note the sound of the words uttered by the natives. London. will more thoroughly enjoy a sojoun in the East. Having mastered the alphabet. and then writLng the words from memory in the Arabic letters. the labour of learning the Arabic characters is really unnecessary. those of the ancient Hebrews. this purpose only various positions. and is the most exact in its use of the original root. he may proceed to commit to memory the words given in the vocabularies. as this helps one to attach the true value and accustoms the ear to the gutturals and soft aspirants of the Eastern tongue. which include. as most Arabs with whom one comes in contact are quite unable to read the language. but identical with. Chaldee. if this manual is merely reqiiired as a phrase-book. which can be corrected afterwards by reference to the book. In this way he will begin to acqxiire the language as easily as a child learns to speak and write its native tongue. Many common household words of modern Arabs are not merely similar to. . thui master them in a short time. and Syriac. It belongs to the Semitic languages. .4 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. and not the whole alphabet. and it is not too much to say that an Israelite of old and an Arab Sheikh of the present day would be mutually to the phonetics used. intelligible in the expression of their simple wants.

' : . Minerals. Country. page 8 Pronunciation of the Arabic Letters 10 Vowels and Orthographic Signs Rules for the Pronunciation of the Vowels Vocabulakibs (pages 13-66). 22 29 30 34 Dress "Food. The Alphabet and Pkonunciation The Forms of the Letters (pages 7-12). etc. The Land and Water Metals. and Nations 37 48 44 32 House and Furniture Mankind Relations Diseases of the Body . Professions and Trades Human etc. The Physical and Mental Powers.— — CONTENTS. Drinls. Illustration of Coinage [Frontispiece). etc. . Cities.. Qualities.. 11 12 Animals and Birds Fruits 17 38 19 Keptiles and Insects Vegetables Colours Countries. Vegetables. Animals.. . 24 27 42 Parts of Speech Adjectives : 50 57 49 Verbs Terms Times and Seasons Town. and Agriculture Religious 20 39 46 47 13 15 16 Travelling Writing World and Nature... and Smoking Body.

. Demonstrative. GRAMMAR (pagCS 87-96). . How The The The the English Potential and Subjunctive expressed in Arabic 5.. .. Qur'an (Koran). .. . Relative. Participles . . Weights and Measures Postal Rates ... position of Infinitive Adverbs .. 2.. iv.. Interjections .. The Railway The Hotel Meals Correspondence. Telegrams. 9-13) ... . 2. Moods are 7. . Adverbs.N'VERSATIONAIi PhBASES AND SENTENCES (pages 97-124). "III. with the Turkish equivalents . The Verb in Syntax EXEKCISES ON THE 1. ... Interrogative : Numeral Adjectives II. The Preterite Tense The Aorist Tense The Imperative Mood 4. : Translation 'The Lord's Prayer' (Matt.. 3. ch.... . . Distributive ThbVeeb The Paeticles : Prepositions. .. I. Post. with idiomatic translation Monet Turkish Government Currency used in Syria. Conjunctions.. .. verse 169. Ordinal. . . Cardinal. Mood Co..— 6 — ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT Outline ow Gbammar (pages 67-79).. 6. . etc Shopping An Excursion Passages op Aradic with Pronunciation and interlined 1. : vi. Useful and Necessary Expressions Simple and Practical Phrases (grouped alphabetically) Arrival . ... Syntax (pages 80-6).. The Nottn Pronouns : Personal.. with the English and American equivalents English and American Money. .

to the left. — . will at the do well. its Each consonant assumes position at the beginning. will enable any English-speaking person to pronounce the words correct ly 2. or joined only to the letter preceding When connected wiih the preceding and following letters. When at the beginning of a word. or joined only to the totally at the letter following. so simple that these letters will pre«ent difficulty to the student. d. therefore. t. or end of the word. The Arabic alphabet from the right hand is composed of twenty-eight con-^ sonants. each character On the next twa pages the various forms are placed in separate columns and show is how written respectively When When unconnected with any other letter end of a word. to give careful outset. ARABIC SELF-TAtJGHT. (7) .. is of pxonunciation the key to the correct reading of the Arabio words throughout the work. The key to all these sounds. The method 8. The Alphabet and The following scheme and the student attention lo it Pronunciation. as in most Eastern languages. h. all of which are written. of distinguishing the hard consonants. given in the footlines on each page of the Vocabularies and Conversational Sentences. is and at sight. no and the vowel sounds and diphthongs are equally easy to master. until the eye and the mind be'come so familiar with them that the character immediately suggests the sound. repeatedly copying each its character together with phonetic transcription. a different form according to middle.

The Forms

of the Letters.



Pronunciation of the Arabic Lr-iters.

Alif has no sound of


own, but


pronounced as




accordino- to the vowel above or below


not vowelled


only a sign lengthening the prt

ceding vowel.
t—j aJ>


like the



like the




T>^a like the


th in


it is

often pre


like in









hai-d like g in.'




always a strong aspirate with friction.
a guttural aspirate like ch in the German ich or th kh alwaj's represents one sounc loch



Scotch word
like the




o Dhdl like

th in




always one sound.


like r in


always sounded.

j Zd,

or zain like the English

Seen like





^J^ Sheen like sh in




like a

hard hissing hnrd

s as






like a

d, as




like a hard

as iu




like a dental


a guttural, peculiur to the Semitic languages, wliic can only be learned by ear it sounds like the bleatin of a goat (iiidd). When it begins a syllable we sha denote it by a spiritus asper {') before a vowel,

when silent ufter a vowel. iGhain a hard guttural prQduced;as

in the efifort of garglir

^ Fd

and sounds similar
like the

to ghr.


^ makes the long vowel a long vowel I father '). and has the sound of t when followed by a word beginning with vowel sound. represents i in ' '. e-g- ^5l/^ (in). \ represents «« in 'put'. e. e. and - VowEi.g. ^^ JSToon like the English «.g. Meem I» English m. .g. (us i Silent (_? after -^ miikes the in.. . or of making the diphthongs au and ai respectively. ' machine ' '). u or /. produced as in imitating the cawing of k. * ^a like if A in 'house used as a grammatical termination it has two dots over it (l). CScJ J Lam JTd/like the English like the like the English /.s AND Orthographic Signs. namely (^^) Fatha. e. Silent • after j_ makes the long vowel u makes the diphthong ou (as u in rule ').— J Qd/like a broad a crow. Silent J after e.-i> s/iai (thing). or of u in ' put '. U nid (water). (— ) {J-. ' . k. J lau (if). they are then only signs of lengthening the preceding vowel. an oblique ' line over the consonant. represents a in hat hit '. ^ (as oto in 'cow'). an oblique line under the consonant. ^ Yd sounds like y in ' yard '. ' } Waiv has the sound of the w in water '.g.) Kasrn. which are placed either above or below the consonants. (as a in ' Silent after . Damma. ji> d/iu (possessor). When } i_? are not vowelled. The Arabs use thiee signs to express shorfr vowels. Silent iJ after ^' makes the diphthong aj (as ai in ' aisle ').

like the sound of a in hat d long . If attention is paid as to whether a vowel is long or short. 10 difficulty will present itself in placing the stress on the 'ight syllable in a I word of more than one is syllable. . signifies doubling a letter. if any. or three short syllables. Maddah. the irst of the consonants is pronounced after the first vowel. it is a sounded guttural —transcribed i [N. placed over \ to denote that it forms one syllable with the preceding consonant. iVhen a double consonant occurs between two vowels. newspaper or book very few. all are pronounced squally and no stress placed on any of them.B. placed oyer a has no vowel. The other reading ±- signs used in Arabic are letter that Jazmah. he broke to pieces. )ut the second before the second vowel ' e. It is not usual to mark all the vowels or signs in writing Arabic. Shaddah.. JZ^ kassara kaa-sa-ra).' a short. ' — £ :t. — before the AKAbsiu stur- I AUUn after. .g.] in Rules for the Pronunciation of the Vowels. placed over the consonant 1 where '. are marked. *- Ramznh. a sign of prolongation over the Waslah. I The Vowel is always sounded it is never consonant with which written. When word has two short.

the. . Jl al.] The World and Nature.VOCABULAEIES. [The Arabic language has only one ' defiaite article.* which has purposely been omitted in the Arabic column.



Metals. et . Minerals.16 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT.
























: 20 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. Bays of the week Ehqush. January February March April May June July August September October November December Mohammedan names of the months V^s^l Al-Muljarram : jA^ Safar <Ji^^ f-r^j Eabi'-l-awwal . Ababio. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Months of the year . Times and Seasons.

(late) masa lull moon badr sa ah. . Their first year began on July 16. sa at nisf sa lour half an hour ah eap year Banat kabis unar months nidday. afternoon age.d.-haiiiatiiei. PnoinmciATioH. an asr qarn.. Dotted consonants. badri al-intiha 3vening (early) . month of fasting) DiuHiijjali The Mohammedans count according to lunar years of 354 days.. UNQrjBH. the daily- al-ibtida yaumi yaum. the shuhur qamariyah al-zuhr al-wasat ^owel sounds . jll beginning. f. ba d ghad fjM^ before yesterday awwal ams every day kuU yaum al-fajr 3awn early 3nd. put. Sha ban I < 21 Shauwal Eamaclan {the Dhulqa dah. aisle. $. pi. so that _ thirty-four lunar years are equal to ahout thirty-three solar. au=owiiicow. h.VOCABULARIES. ^ AlUBIO. noon Diddle. 622 a. the ^j Si bakir. maghrib isha. d. bit.«nr. j>Z. machine. t. . rule. hard. day daybreak aiyam tulQ -l-nahar daytime nahar day after to-morrow .






ihn-1-akh, ibn-

ibnat-l-akh, ibnat-


















slave (female)



uncle (maternal)






youth, a



The Human Body.





hat, father, bit, machine, put, rule, aisle ;

au = ow in co^^

Dotted consonants, h, d,

9, t, j,


beard .BNGlilSH.

ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT.26 Ekglish. kidneys knee .

Physical and Mental Powers. Qualities. etc. 27 . ElNQUSB.VOCABULARIES.



faintness ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. fever fracture gout headache indigestion inflammation illness jaundice lame measles plague . etc. AIUBIO. . smallpox sore throat toothache wound apron boot button cap cloth (cotton) „ coat collar (wool) collar of coat.30 Ekgush.



VOCABULARIES. Ehoush. carpet 33 „ (large) .

Ababic. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. quilt roof room sofa stable staircase table tenant towel -wall wardrobe water-closet well window .34 English.


36 Engubh. ARABIC SELl=^-TAUGHT. .





VOCABULARIES. 41 . Bngubh.



Akabio. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT.44 ENGIilSH. Bervant slioeniaker soldier surgeon tailor teacher watclimaker watchman .

AB^13I0. 45 Europe France Frenchman German. a Germany Greece Greek. a Eome Russia Russian. an Italy Jerusalem Jew Jordan. a India Italian. a Smyrna Spain Spaniard Syria Turk Turkey Venice . the London Paris Persia Persian.VOCABULARIES. ENGXiIBB.

camel . arrival bridle wusul lijam ibl. h. au = OW in cow. Travelling. aisle . 9. d.45 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. z. Enomsh.piece) package huzmah : Vowd sounds hat. machine. put. bit. t. faras hidha 'afsh luggage money to change darahim money sarf darahim mule muleteer baghl mukari iTrah f aransawlyah Napoleon (20 fr. rule. Arabic. jamal driver saddle jammal rahl qafilah bisat „ caravan carpet carriage arabiyah donkey donkey. hard. zunnar rasan al-darb-1-sultani >J halter highway horsa horseshoe hisan. . father..driver excursion J himar J hammar siyaha qasiiah expenses fowling-piece girth masruf ^'^^V barudah hizam. PEONtTKOIATlON. Dotted consoiiants.





Enolish. ^ 51 .VOCABULARIES.



. aisle . mut-akhkijJr late kaslan lazy- nahif lean al-aqal3 least 3i\ less aqall naiyir light (bright) light (not heavy) little (small) khafif saghir tawil long loose (not tight) loose (unbound) rakhu mahlul 'ali loud (shrill) low wati mad many- majnun kathirta merry narrow- farhan daiyiq tabi i natural new nice old old jadld zarif qadim man shaikh open patient maftuh §abur anis pleasant (ma-n^ polite adib poor maskln. machine. h. t. A. Dotted consonants. 9. father. PBOIfONOIATIOU.EABIO. faqir Voivd eounda : hat. ^. hard. au = o-w in covr. bit. d. rule.64 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. put.




au =ow in cow. PEOinniOIATION. bit. tiara.) boil {intrans. t.) ^} inghala iqtarad borrow kasar break kassar break to pieces jab. Yomd rule aisle sounds : hat.68 ENSIilSH. imjp.urbut bind (to bite tie) add boil {trans. jib bring bana bnild haraq[ bnrn dafan bury ishtara buy nada call hamal carry masak catcb ghaiyar change cbange money * *• saraf ghashsh ikhtar cheat choose nazzaf clean climb tasallaq ja'a come come in consent consult IB dakhal qabil W shawar . h. machine put Potted ccmsonants. ?. d. father. imp. . ibtada begin gaddaq believe rabat. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. Akabio. ?.



?. shaf.) oppose order qawam amar paek hazam dafa t .VOCABULARIES.) harrak ) move obey {intrans CJ:sr taharrak ata i object oblige (favour^ tarad amil nal ma ruf obtain offend offer A'X! agbdab qaddam tarak omit open open (trans. father.) fatah infatah (inirans. §. Dotted eonsoncmis. alone down nam look nazar make meet a mil mend mention t' ' sallah dhakar khalat mix move (trans. put. aisle . au = ow in cow. t. machine. d. rule. 61 Peoncnoiation. bit. . - pay perspire ariq Vowel sounds : hat. ENQIiIBH. Ababic. hard. leap natt ta allam learn lend let lie aqrad khalla raqad. h.

9. PBOKDHOIATIOli play C^ la ib pour prepare sabb haddar prevent proceed mana taqaddam promise wa ad pronounce prosper pull pusli lafaz najah jarr dafa hatt (it) put rains raise tamtur rafa read receive qara istalam reckon hasib recommend refuse wagsa ala rafad reign rejoice relate malak farih haddatb baqi remain remember remind repair J tadhakkar dhakkar t rammam.62 Ensush. aisle. au = owi. rule. bit. put. h. machine. d. aufa karrar § repay repeat Vowel eounds : hat. ABABIO. father. t. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. hard. . Dotted consonants. ^.



ENSI/ISH. translate travel tread try tui* round understand use wait walk want warm warn wash waste (lavish) watch water wear (^ut on) weigH wet whip whisper whistle win wipe wish work worship .WV^HESUUAmtS.

au = ow in coi MARLBOROUGH'S SELE -TAUGHT SERIES. Maulhorouoti & Co. d. Dotted consonants. 6/-).G. similar! the double Volumes of Tamil and Japanese respectively can be obtained cloth at 7/6 each. hard.and (2/- and Japane and 2/6) .. bound Of all Boolcsellem nl home or abroad. Greek (Modern) Self. . t.. In red cloth. cloth 5/- .. and other visitors to the traveUei this Seri Near East will find the following Volumes in of the greatest service. 2/. Japanese Grammar SeU-Taught. PBOHUNOCLTiON wound wrap write jarah laff katab yawn yield (produce) yield (surrender) tathawab antaj kbada Vowel sounds : hat. Egyptian (Arabic) Self-Xanght. In ihie ivrapper. Burmese (6/. afield there are In Hue wrapper. bit. rule. z. The two Volumes of Hindustani are also hound in one. and Tamil (each 8/. are separate Yolumes of Grammar : . and other Oriental languages are in course of preparation. fatlier. viz.. E. an outline of the Grammar of tl Most language of the books in the Series contain . Cat aloc/ue free from the Publishers- E. London. h. 2/. ^. 51 Old Bailet. Turkish Self-Taught.each.and 2/6). the following. Hindustani Grammar Self-Taught. 2/6 each. aisle . 5/- . For those going further corresponding Manuals of Persia. — ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. 2/6 Tamil Grammar Self-Taught.— 66 Fnghsh. however. s.. — Tourists. 5/. Hindustani. .. red cloth..Taught. . 4/4/- „ . put. . machine.

of speech i^y^ al-ism.'* *-)! ism jamid. *»j) istn-1-isharah. the seienoe of the formation of sentences. includes the following seven forms : •i.» (JjtsJl al-fl 1. Arabic grammar treats of al-sarf. I. the . 6. derived noun (from verbs or nouns). the adjective. to which the article Jl never prefixed^ ' See page 76. III. al-damir. («) or auxilictry. (_J. the tioun.-* t. i__J»>i2ll of words. ism mujarrad../srul al-nahu. II. proper noun. . noun of root-letters ism mazid. 3. the verb. the personal pronoun. only. the soienoe of the formation Etymology.^ii-j^^ . 7< ism-1-istifham.Ji\ al-ism. and Syntax.— — — — OUTLINE OF GEAMMAE.*^.J\ ^yJij.t.J\ JJ-s. : The Arabs [a) (i) ("«) classify nouns as follows A-»l:». the interrogative pronoun. 4. THE NOUN. the particle. primitive noun. . ijy^y^W *^11 al-ism-1-mausul. ' The 1. t)^l *. 1.ol ism-l-'adad. *\.^1 al-harf.«flJl noun or substantive.ism-l-§ifah. the j. the relative pronoun. The Arabs have only three parts I. the numeral adjective.*-j^ 5. al is Ail *-ii ism 'alam. *i«a!i *>jl. noun which servile * {d) •^^'f* *~j1 is augmented by one or more letters. ism musEtaqq. noun.lill demonstrative pronoun.

he su See page 76. of agent or active participh '—jj^ 3. he played. whicli may be eifher object. quince. A derivative noun is one which is constructed from a verb letti noun-root by the addition of one or more of the ten servile as jX-^ Islam from *Lj salima (A« is free from defect).X!e « *-j1 ism ma na. key. noun denoting an abstract idea. is one w has a pure root-form and rajul.. <>! ili suhii from iJf^S: be at ease. noun as L_J^)-a^ of object or pasBiTe partiei madrub.— 68 ism — ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. broom. as (_ darb._ la iba. and ma. ra%or.<s daraba. from 'JCi fataha AXLi. noun of instrument. he siruch sahula.^. JiUIl ^\ ism-l-fa 11. strildng. from iLj'^ daraba.^ safp/jal. one who »«j) is beaten. i^Ujji^ (_^LC^I ism-1-makan wal-zaman. A Js»- primitive noun. from . from jpf he I . *-sl (/) ij'^s>- jins. . one who from iJi/. to . J^ a-jI ism ain. Primitive Noun. ill I *^1 ism alah. from ' ^J^ kanasa. from^. as J'iU mibrad. J^*i^i *^1 ism-1-maf'ul. noun of action or infinitive. ^liii^ miftah. noun of place time. i5>^» « musa. filed. whicli is is always a substantive.«i^ mal'ab. miknasah. darib. J. not derived from any verbal -a-j roo' man. noun denoting concrete or . 4. 3. as forgiveness. he beat. 2. ease. he ashed forgiveness. Derivative Noun. as t_-. noun beats. vommon noun.or adjective. There are fourteen derive nouns 1. place or time of play. jIajCUjI istighfar. either substantive .4Jl Mui\ ism-1-masdar. jiX«3.iAx»:i istaghfara.

from 4^-c ghaflr. he rode. handsome . a dog. master. ahmar. he strwh.. 1.i shams. ^g^^\ jSta^\ al-ma?dar-l-mimi. J-.=^. noun of excess (to expreaa ..^\ al-ism-1-mansub. *=^=r j^r'^t. J-i^J^ ingliz.rfiiJl *«j1 ism-1-tafdil. as i^. English. or of object. and manner. as (jla-^ mantiq. ^« *•«?«(?. J5"0 rasul. noun of action with m.~^lli kulaib. as ii-.lai ghaffar. one 7. which expresses the It. as who pardons much. solar. (J**ij Jyts fa ul wa fa'il. diminutive noun. t_--^ rakiba. f *^1 («*»1 ismrl-nau . from 8.i shamsl. pardoner./>&1 hasan. noun of superioi'ity for the (jj"*j»-^ commore parative and superlative degrees. noun of kind . ^.£U!l A-ib di^2. hasuna. 10.iiJl iR. as noun 4. man. as L. becomes C£\JiSj\ inglizi. either noun of agent. he C4. wounded. is doing of an action once. handsome.i sabur.^1 al-ahsan. from t_J^ daraba. he spohe. adjective resembling noun is of agent. speaking. as ahsan. 2. from i_-TJi kalb. which ij^ formed by affixing becomes to the noun. red. as J^i rajul.*)t>aJl *-)! ism-l-ta?ghlr. is t-Jj**. handsome.OUTLINE OF GRAMMAR.^\ al-sifat-1-mushabbahat bism-1-fa'il. J. 'if%Jl 69 *^1 ism-1-marrah. ^^. a Utile dog. 9. patient. ^^/^.ij^ darbah. ^« is ?•«(?. becomes i%»ii.&. manner of riding. 6. from jl^' sada. sun. {j^_j-^ marid. j.. rikbah. manly . both hasan. The two forms may be. from jJi-o saiyid. English (adjective). Mow. from ^^i>~ <UlL*ll *-:! ism-1-mubalaghah. from ^jlaj nataqa. noun of unity. as ^^i. relative adjective. from . as i.%^s>. most handsome. apostle. rJ^j rajuli.^' *w. handsome. side. 3. formed from triliteral verbs. . one intensity).

Sing. Sing.. Pltjr. . U . Personal Pronouns.^\. . st pers.— 70 - ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. fem. masc. Sing. masc. Pluk. to both c. 3rd pers. . 2nd pers. fern. masc. Dual. fern. <d«aj. The Sept Personal Pronouns. have the folio-wing formi JSToMiNATivE Case. 1 Dual.^^ .. 3rd pers.ii fem. lLT . masc. Personal pronouns are either separate or suffixed. Dual. 1st pers. 2nd pers. masc. u ( ( when attached noun or preposition denote the genitive but when attached to a verb they denote the accusative They have the following forms noun . ^^ Accusative Case. masc.. .> 3rd pers. . . fem. fern.. ^— _) to verb . 1st pers. to . The Suffixed ov to a Annexed Personal Pronouns. . <d„ii«^l^^U-. 2nd pers.

masc. lU CJ none . 3rd pers. to the noun l—i\:^ (book). 3rd pers. 3rd pers ExSmpU of Personal Pronouns attached SiNO. ^a \^ is : The English of the above Sing. Ist pers. Dual. li 1st pers iZJ . 2nd pers. Pluu. . .. 1st pers. fem. . masc. our boolc Pluk. Sing. 2nd pers.j.— OUTLINE OF GRAMMAR The Annexed Personal Fronouns which are 71 attached to verbs : only have the following forms and denote the nominative case Sing. . masc. denoting the Accusative Case. \j Plur. . masc. Dual. Pluk. Dual. 2nd pers. .<tf fem. our look are my look (when two '. Dual. . 6 U^ ir^ . fem. 1st "pers. (when three and more are speaking) and Example oj Personal Pronouns attached to the verb t_^-^ (he struck). fern. speaking)' so forth. fem. masc.

masc.. masc. is the sign of fem. etc. maso. understood CJ The English 1st pers. 1)CAL. . 2nd pers. 2nd pers. Dual. (pron. etc. The English 1st pars. .^ c-v-^ i^^ is the (pron. Dual. fem.-a (he struc demoting the Nominative Case.. from me from us from us . 'us he struck me he struck he struck us and so forth. SiKG. 1st pers. 3rcl pers.. • Pluk. 3rd pers.: . 1st pers. Dual. Pluk. Dual. of the above is : Sing. Pluh. etc. "' o - PC masc. . The English 1st pers etc. Vlvr. fem.) sign of fen of the above struck is SiNO. . . Example of Personal Pronouns annexed to the vefh i V. '^-^{r" \ii. of the above is : SiNO. Pluu. '' . / have we have struck we have struck Example of Personal Pronouns attached to the preposition ^ (froi S1N8. understood) u. fem. t2 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. fem.

. ^ ..'-^'' nom gen. Afi. t!XJ. Sing Plur. tlsJj . Demonstrative Pronouns. Dual ( ' ^<.5i/\ or dSi!\ lL^}}\ or iL'S^l Relative Pronouns. Fem. i^J. which. fVho. .. ace.OUTLINE OF GRAMMAR. Sing ( IvSiA l/^* '^ ) /i^ nom gen. Maso. £'em. 73 This (the near object). Maso. Sing I s/J>^'l ^^ ^i^-w\ iji..!'^-^' Plur (^iA^\ ^P\ or J^'r^^ or * ill for both masc. Sing ( It> ^. . and fem.. prefixed to it. ^^. aoc 1. ^^ij ^^^J Plur J)'i or 41 ^j4 or *l'^ \si>. thai. This simple demonstrative pronoun I may have as : the particle or oftener the defective J^. . Maso. ^^j ^^A *^|a Plur 77iai! ^fyS» (the middle and distant object). i-'^J Dual ( . l!31? lLJ. Fsm. ij.lj' . (Jj\j. ace ^^itX-AJl \ (j^. liyij.)^ j"-*! LL)^ . iJ nom gen.. . . Maso. Fism. U. .

she whosoever \Xj\ that which. ^^V he who. whatsoever. what ther how much f Numeral Adjectives.«. The Cardinal Numbers. form v gender.74 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. Interrogative Pronouns. . . whoever. the objects 10 they take the fem.i he or she who . 3 to to 10 have the following f( and are declinable. Other relative pronouns are : ^. 1. she who. numbered are masc. ^ ''A who? iSt (iJ\ fem.) whof U what? (and wten ijl. form when the objects numbered are fem. and conversely masc.) he who. jo with the demonstrative lo becomes stronger. 1 The cardinal numbers from Sxova. U thflt wh ^\ (A*T fem.

OUTLINE OF GRAMMAR. 75 13 (ir) . Mabc.

giving the above thi-ee tenses .« mudari'. including imperative. tl -root-forms have only three letters quadriliteral verbs but there are also a good m. jjLi t^jli (masc). 1. past tense. imperative {a) Triliteral verbs (. imperfect or aorist tense. Distributive Numerals : have the following forms two.).i <»» Jy <m. 2.^v-j J 3." you say JjL/»jJ ^«~j IS* ^.s. two. through the addition to root-form of one. c .ilji. I^j^Uj you have asked All increase in verbs and nouns is effected by me of these letters. letters tl (/LcU . jJAjj Aj. or three servile letters (which are ten number and together form the word about them). THE VERB. ^J^ or ^lij twc c^iiJi or i^Sij three by three. etc.&-1 om« ly one. "J))j). These three tenses are |_5-«t» madi.d. etc. which European grammarians perfect or preterite tense. i.— 76 11 — ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. whichjbhey call a tense. Arab grammarians have only three tenses.-^^^ (fern.. whose root-forms have four Both have many derived forms.a.* JI.). which Europ grammarians 3. ( Most of the Arabic verbs are triliteral verbs . II.e.L.. ^j^ or cIjJ /owr %/ or 'ti. j^\ amr. For " in the seventh year a. tense. present call or future tense.^ihW JJ.'^l) have the following : measures. '.


Prepositions. < > in. Jijti^ ^3l^^ jii."^\ jjii^ none (c) d¥^\ ^1^\ 1 ''^ i}i^l JVil. '^ '^\^ JS^V'l J^l only one ( The quadriliteral verb (^^-V/^ "v ^^'^ foi • ^^^ ((?) Jisdi.. like. ^.rii^ J^H jji. at.i. iy 'in an oath). CJ J^ . for.^ I]\i3. 1.78 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. MsJ " Jiki Jl^^ (/^U^. as. as J i to. alllj' CL> hy (in an oath). hi/.. J^iill:. THE PARTICLES.jl Joj^l) h The derived : quadriliteral verbs three forms juk. jM[ jiixM j^^l cM**j Z^i^l III.^ jiiil4 i!)^" ^"^ jii.k.

ju and I . 'i. 2. Jj L5 . t and t—i and.Jj I nay. Conjunctions.? OUTLINE OF GRAMWIAR. 79 Adverbs. j-'ii j»*i when ye«.. Etc. 3. i-j )sA3 only. hut. J "jl certainly. bJ lefore (past tense\ now andlJl lo! liii or lIXJ Ai likeioise. yes. etc. ijl certainly. there.'iri to express the future of the verb in the aorist tense. . particle of interrogation.

) came. signs of the declensions for the four cases are either vc or letters. SYNTAX The (ysi}\). as ij^-'j^^i ^:>-jl\ the two men strik . as <_ljli^^\ believers (fern. Cjy^£^^ lL^£s-'. cuAs^ id) in IS the present-future tense of the verb.Jl ^J-«i) (this strikes or will strike being really the indici mood). as cLXjI CJ^ ij-^^ JUjJ. in the regular feminine plural. thy father-in-law and thy mouth spoke. when not the annexed to its last letter. The Nominative Case has four signs— 1. 1 in the dual nouns. as (J^^^\ *l^ men came. when the pers pronoun of either the dual. ^'^ owner.^^l >l?. as (_^. iky father and the ownt and. as (Jsj. (a) in the singular of the noun... I.the two believers camt 4. i%i mouth. ^1 bro y^b~ father-in-law. as J-f^^\ ^\^ the the man i (5) in (c) the irrogular plural. as ^jL. 2 J (a) in the regular masculine plural. 3. or the plural. or singular of the second person feminine is annexe the verb. and thy brother wealth.80 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT.<»/«Jl ^\s^ helievers came. ^ in the present-future tense of the verb.v. S. (i) in the following five nouns: t_ji JatJier.

.!l masculine dual the and plural nouns. in Suppression of the (^ of the declension the five verbs ^'^i<=^ ^_j^. as LLilii-l "-i^^Jj 8. will strike. Observe" a super- fluous alif is added to the third and fourth. The Accusative Case has five signs 1.). become Usj-. ^1. ^^i^»/»]i i-l^jji / saw 5. as Jl=r^M '^^-» I struck the men. Qy^^^ jW"j!' '^'* "'«** strilce \^)i^''' I**'' V^ strike or will strike.li cJJl) or the separating however.J uV.lJ / saw ttvo men. in the present-future tense of the verb.Jl lU*-Ij^ women came riding."^-''b^.) strikest or w?/^ strike. II. ij in the regular ^«lr»-. ^A(?y W.' J — \ in the regular feminine plural. /J^-waj' iju-jl thou (fern. I saw thy Iroth&r.-aJ. 4. etc. called the alif guarding (ii^UJl alif (<). and when it is by a word which governs the accusative. V/^' ^°*^ u?'>'*^'' ' ^^ J <wo ««. the irregular plural. is when nothing influenced annexed to its last letter._il Ji^. as the C^'L^l. and ^ratioSelf-TaagM never pronounced.. as Ui^. 2. as Cj^.-AJ ^^b'>-l.^!l the tioo loomen strike or or will strih. as Jr^Jl ui-J^-i I struck the man. he will never strike. — («) in (b) in (c) the singular noun. will strde. ^ . the helievers. is i-jilill). disappears when a pronoun is annexed.— OUTLINE OF GRAMMAR.«/? never return. which.*^. in the five nouns (<—j1.-'. ^L.y=^ (bi-j-^' ' ^^^ H'-^^-j-^'' ^ry^-'j ^i^. 81 ^^.

5). as j^-. 8. as Ij- do not (ye two) strike.:^Xi I said Ahmad. to the believers (fern. ^1. Suppression of weak letters. as Sa. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT.C\ 4 CJ / read ib) in in the book. (e) in the plural regular noim. as ^y. as lL^!o^ CUj I passed thy father. to an expressed pronoun in case. etc. in the imperfectly declined noup.82 Ill. as cpU^.).'t.. -^ ^^^ ""^ Suppression of ^ in the five verbs (see above.^.s^'^ <. as <_jii.-:-{a) in the declinable singular noun. in the present-future tense of the verbs ending with letters Btr( (when not joined to expressed (*' pronouns in strike.). 3. ov verbs following the apooopntive .'\. in the dual noun. o W (b) in tlie five nouns (i__. II.-* / jBffs IV..ci-*. ^Yhen verbs end in such and not joined.U c:to tlte / said ic) men. -1. The Apocopative or Jussive Case 1 ( ^:>-) has three signi .A)u . in the regular plural feminine noun.i.iKW: i-^jj-^ unbelievers.. as JU-_. as tl-V*^ 2.-tU c:- l said 2. nominative case). I passed the '. as (Jodditional j_/t-»J' the nominal i-ll did you not toalkf partii ' and imiierative moods. the declinable irregular plural noun. The Genitive Case has three signs— \.

as Sjj ^l^ Zaid came. . (_. ^^ or an emphatic ^.!!).C the pupil writes the lesson. as 2\i Sj j Zaid is 3. \ The following are in the accusative case 1.j-^ he struck me (the annexed personal pronoun being the objective complement). as L.wj«l( object of the transitive verb (^J J^. as 5. ITouns or adjectives in apposition to nominatives ^^\y CjUjij. as l£^\j ^S)\ ^1 coming. The substitute for the agent ULt^. is no man The present-future tense when not governed by particles nor followed (Jiu.e. : Noun of action as absolute he struoh a striking. as UUa.S^\ iJ-t}^ *^" the generous man came. 1. The predicate of ^] and its sisters. and is of J (the absolute (j\jl>j\ i! negative). 2. 6. subject of a passive verb. of i. The Nominative Case this case : (^J^^- The following are in 1. ^c^. as i_l. J^/tA-wl).-*. 5 2.» JlfJl ^Ji the day was dark. The predicate of the sentence (j^^s'l). as ilv jj Ly^\ sleep is pleasant. The Accusative Case (i —^^).-i' he rode the horse.i thre 7.-i (Jxlill i_^'b). object (^lk*!l he assuredly struck. 4. 5jj Zaid loas beaten.»\!l by a fem. as v)>ij ^jl^ Noun 2.— — 88 OUTLINE OF GRAMMAR. The subject of i^\i and its sisters. fj'. as jk^^^Ul l^-. The agent of the sentence ( J^lill). The subject of the sentence (1 jiii43l). 8.ti^l). verily Zaid riding.

as 1. or into his presence. 10. as JJiUll i. ( t hys. !c\c. fjM.^ Zaid was standing.yj I saw Zaid the teise. as Ifl ii.:. ii.^3l I of adjectives in apposition to accusatives c:_.^]\).l. except Zaid.ix. as ^i-^lj IIj: verily 12.-«.i-il he hought a pound of br "JS Zaid is honourable as regards (^<3U/».he Jled from fright. as C b»ri.l . Adverbial noun of time and place as if (i^ J^xi-*!'). (c'*""' (t^\ *^^ ^« oame he the judge.-Jl) is always a common n explaining something that relation of a thing. lil^ as SSij % i^ll\ « lli the peoples The predicate of ^ and of its sisters. it is not it takes the accusative. Adjectival noun of state or condition ( Jlsll). uncertain as regards the substanci .i . ^5-f. 5.. ^J^. as f J^ls . ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. it 6. .. 8. 11. U-^SJa i_?. b man / Noun of action of cause or reason Jixi^l).!1) Ms father. Noun of object as following • having the meaning of came t (*iX 9.S. Vocative noun when is a proper nc : singular.15 U j. of li The subject Nouns the absolute negative.:^\). l. riding. .^^i. 84 3. standing at the end of sentence. as l^^. j-^^^i '\i^ the prince came riding. The subject Zaid is of j?. which n always be indefinite and derived. 4. Noun of specification is (t«-. as 1?(td .'^s}\'^ J^^l *U>. as JiJ u Za but when 7.the prince loith the ar The noun which is excepted (^ili^AJl) by means of . with in.| and of its sisters. meaning it were preceded by the preposition iS l^-L^ ^\:>- he came in the morning. then it is put in the nominative case.

»-lax)' J 1 although it is understood. ^-il:>- ^ j^ ^* ^^"^ out the home. ^j. CLJ prefixed to It is limited to the present verb when preceded by the emphatic . as Jiil The present-future tense (aorist) has always one of the four it.e. follow each other.e. case. or.) It is always in raf nominative case. as we should say. dJ^ the look of the first man.) also indeclinable kill. as ^L^d^ he writes. 3.4' ^-j.^^1 (4-Jto the look of the great man.1 noun never takes the article 3. or the (^11 and to the future when preceded by Jw for the near future. the negative U .5f-Jl i. a 1 Genitive by prepositions whenever noun is preceded by : any of the following prepositions it is put in the genitive case . and the second depends on the is the . over the last letter. and has always The past tense (preterite) is indeclinable fatha 2._5^ > J^. J. as lLs-^^ he struck. is' The imperative tense (-i. Nouns in apposition to genitives take the genitive (J. OUTLINE OF GRAMMAR. The Verb 1. V' ^' as jiikll J'i. or he will virite. takes kusra (— ) as Jsfj tL>Vi> man. indicative mood . (_£. first. 85 The Genitivk Case : {j4^).. . in Syntax. 2. servile letters \. Note that in such a construction or annexation the .*'Jl'^^f> ^_5'**-) . or < i'^ for the remote future. i. ^*' 77 '^-^^ "^^^ ^^> from ^•^1 ^^^. second put in the genitive the look of a case. (_?.iy. J . When two nouns are in construction (or annexation). {^) over the last letter. and has always jasm 3. except when .

reading. the negative and the <-j. . of forbidding ^r^Lff.^\. ^i . ^V. ^}. the book. poetry. IJl .J To the Student. repeating each sentence aloud. J\. 97-124. ^t. with the aid of phonetic transcription in the third column. bi. or. ll3I .. E way be mastered in turn. and the ear has it can be spo to the sou grown accustomed Copying the sentences out will greatly section should in this facilitate learning.86 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. ^^. and entreaty. a great amount of us( practice will be obtained in speaking. UL^.. or (b) when the aorisi influenced particles. the verb the protasis. After learning a section or group of the Eng words should be written down and the Arabic equivalents ad from memory. and writing Ara whilst at the same time much conversational matter of a praot and valuable character -will be acquired. UJ . influenced by (a) one o£ the ton accusative particles preceding which are: j_jSi£. and this app eq^ually to the conversational sentences on pp. exercises to In order to turn the following advantage. until readily and easily. U^ and l3V c/\. [In a conditional sentence of tTTo clauses.) preceded by one of the apocopat : which are il O . the J of command i entreaty. ^^\. and that of the sec( the )o first is called )sJMi\ Jjti JilS t__>U^. it is the greai tl recommended that the student should learn by heart.I .ijl. . 0\.j. the l. as in the subjunctive (t^^^ s when the we should when it is mood . the J of ^^. by jasm i±. sentences. j:. The result can then be checked by reference By following the above method. when preceding the apodosis tense takes the accusative case. the apodosis. UH.

(87) . put. ASABIO. d. rule. bit.EXERCISES ON THE GEAMMAR. 7.cImo He lost his watch cU^I 6 ada a sa atuh a tahii lyaha sahibi His friend gave it to him You were not diligent ma kuata mujtahidE You have been drinking again I • udta ila-1-shurb was about to begin hamamtu bian bisafrati abc my journey [horse He did not bring the lam yuhdir-il-hisan He has not long left us ma ghab anna mu( dah awilah I was very late ana kuntu mnt'akliiran jiddan You did not know of iaa kan lak ilm biwi [ban his arrival v[abrsent ? sulihi How long wSs he to kam come labath aghay He promised in an wa ada an yahdar ba d sa ah a-nasiya- hour [promise ? Has he forgotten his She was always punctual wa dahu ? i- ^ly c^\^ ^y> hiya ka. t. hard. li.nat tura 1-mT ad dayiman Vowel sounds: hat. 9. Dotted cmsonambs. aisle. I Have reeeived a letter wasalni maktiib ^'^. au =ow in cow. Preterite Tense. Pbonunoiahon. The EHGIilSH. father. machine.

rule. h.^l ^/i |J lam yakun il-d [bi f home [garden fil-bait His wife was in the kanat zaujatu Did you tell her to as ? a-kult laha an tu il-tabib send the doctor halam! soon as he returns Tes. Pbonunciatios. $. father. aisle . bit. 4. We lived in a house. and she gave this medicine yarja' ? me na am waa tatni hadha-1-dawa well fa alta hasanan You have done What have you done to-day ? madha amilt-al? yaum . put. The bishop preached wa az-al-mutran an eloquent sermon wa zah fasilia^ The collection amounted to ten pounds balaghat-il-lammi asharat iTrat ishtaru bil - With the sum they bought a bell for the church mab jarasan lil-kanl. Dotted consonants. ^. Ababic. The doctor was not at 4 L_. hard. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT..L^ kull iqamathum ^y* i>\A qurb mini-l-ma{ 'udta ilas-sirqah You have heen stealing again 1 <iuyJl went to (the) church this dhahabtu ila-l-ka morning ? sah hadha-s-sab AVho was there man kan hunak ? idicj i^rJa-fll lac. machlue. Vowd aoimda hat.88 English. sakanna baitan not in a tent khaimatan j-iilU They have always resided near the city A^^lil <^'tX/*jl . t. au = ow in c .

Ababio. aisle . bit. hard. d.EXERCISES ON THE GRAMMAR. t.\^-j sayakun lahum al- tO'day yaum matar huwa yatbukh jaiyi urid kas He I cooks well want a glass of water to drink ma Do you wish _ tXJ t_JjS*j Jay I a-turid tashrab qadi a glass of wine ? nabidh ? Vmoel sounds : hatj father. like our breakfast nahnu nuhibb-ulfutur fil-khala in the open You will never foHow anta la tattabi hati abadan na my advice I never ride donkeys ana la arkabu-l-han aslan [kadi She hates lies hiya tabghudu-1- They will have rainy weiaither >\Sls '-X . put. Peohunoiation.J-li J^b ^ huwa yakul qalll the evening jiddan fil-masa JJ^J9 SlX^ She sleeps long *Uj ^Ji hiya tanam mudc tawllah [naum fi He waUcs in his sleep huwa yamshi We . rule. Doited consonaiUs. au = o w in cow . h. machine. ana uhibb-ul-ruku' anta tufaddil-ul-ma You prefer walking He eats very little in 4 1^*. English. §. ^. hi t bida'ati kulla I sold all my goods it ? Has he paid you for I u haldafa lakhaqqa have heard a strange story to-day ana samitu-1-ya from the qu§|ah gharibah muleteer min -il-mukari The I like riding Aorist Tense.

t. Ababic. h. hard. 9. father. aisle. put.-^ IJOl liT* seven waken me She has not finished her dinner yet It is ma faraghat min gbada'iha ba d ^y^\ 'J time to go to had Ju sar waqt-ul-naum (time of sleep) Tou She are strong is ill is anta qawi hiya maridah England country a great bilad-ul-ingliz ms lakah azTifiah like The Arabs English the aulad-ul-'arab yahubbun-al-ing Vowel sounds: hat. machine.. She prefers a cup cofEee of hiya tufaddil fir [now qahwah la yaridii [i They will not dine just yatghai I shall not employ him ' la astakhdimhu f any more Will you not help to pitch the tent ? ba'd abadan mc ^^ J. bit. Dotted conaonants. au = ow in cot . ?. 90 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. rule. d.J1 J\ <Ji> halla tusa idni fl nasb-il-khaimah He -win go to the huwa yadhhab il market next -week suq al-jum a-l-qad We respect others Why will you not come with me ? nahu riukrim-ul-g] la limadha taji turld [you ma i? ala They are laughing at hum yadhaku ana atba ak I will follow you L-pI'VD She will remain hehind When the ^ iU hiya tatkhallaf hin taduq-iil-sa ah sab an sahhini clock strikes iUUl J^'c. Pbokdnciation.

91 The camel is the al-jamal huwa-1- V favourite animal in Arabia . Engush. Aeabio. The Imperative Mood.h haiwan-ul-mahhub fi arahistan ila The road to Jericho dangerous is ^'^ L^^ (JiJ^^ al-tarlq ariha sIls:* mukhtirah You are right He is L_>^«^ (JfJ _ l^\ al-haqq ma'ak ^ty-^ in the wrong d-^^ al-haqq 'alaih 3.EXERCISES ON THE GRAMMAR. Do not sit . PBONtrNOIATlON.


Doited consonants. father. h. au = ow in cow. ?. put. .EXERCISES ON THE GRAMMAR. Ensush. machine. la m nakhruj We oannot go out to- naqdar day on account of the : al-yaum bisabab-il- heavy rain Can you milk ? matar-il-qawi sour drink ^'-r'^A yatara taqdar tashral laban like it ? You may rubbama tuhibbuh to He may go with me the It yumkinhu yurafiqni Mosque rain of Omar ila-1-hai'am-ish-shai may V come rubbama tamtur hiyatastati antasbui She can wait Could I have told ? a-qadartu an ajT when I him I lamma quit ' laht would not inni la ajT ? They might reject advice my rubbama j'arfudu nasihati You should learn alaik al- an tat allaa Arabic It arabiyah might help yon rubbama tanfa ak kaif tuhmil hadhi-1 Whyshouldyouneglect this opportunity ? fursah hal ? Can he have told you the truth ? min-il-mumfeii innahu qal laka-1 haqq? She cannot have seen ghairmumkin ra'athu innalii him He might have a little eaten kan yumkiu lahu ai more ya'kul akthar qalila: Vowel sounds : hat. t. rule. aisle . d. hard. bit. Pbonunoiation. s.

1 - not only hlsan faqatt la kicks.^-. him he in adribhu yashkuni will complain of to the me ila-1-Cunsul Consul Unless you work better I ^ J in lam tashtagil ahsan will dismiss service you ^^ cJ^M fa-arfudak min from my khidmati The Neglecting exercise. a ba'd an akhadh lira- he bought tain ishtara badlah new suit of clothes la:j!) jadiduh Grasping my. but also shies J-*=^ J-' iaJiJ yarfus bal yajfal ai(Jan He She rides remarkably U cT"" . PEONtTNCIATION.i-^ biqabdihi ala yadi violently hazzaha bishiddah The Have you Jerusalem ever ? position of Adverbs Li (juujjil seen hal zurtum-ul-kuds qatt? a - Has she never eaten pomegranates before ? This horse lam takul rum- manan aslan? hadha l«ajl . hand. rule. put. -< •> huwa yarkab alisan well is Ui-^ ma yakun [qatan truly grateful (UiJisi- ^j-Cii ^Jb hiya sbakurah haql- V<nvel sounds: hat.94 Ehcush. bi-ihmalihilil-riyadaji take he hecame ill sara maridan Having received two pounds. au = ow in cow. to Participles. . he shook it ^jo i^Lc f. aisle. If I strike ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. machine. Arabic. bit.. father.

EXERCISES ON THE GRAMMAR. English. The Infinitive Mood. Ahabic. ? ^juK-JJl '' 95 Pronunciation. Bo I read plainly hal aqra bibayan ti ? She dresses beautifully Jus? |jJ!> hiya tujid fll-libs He writes fast huwa yak tub bisur ah yauzuruni kull yaum yadrus bi-ijtihad TKey see me daily He studies diligently 7. I intended to see you .

put.LO.96 ENGIjISH. holidayetc. teachers of languages. Of E. so that wherever the tourist includes most of the may go. aisle. Mablbohough & Co. etc. . au = owin cow. rule. hard. through the heart of the Continent. 51 Old Bailisy. To drink beer heat is in the shurbu-l-bira fil-harr injurious to mudirr bil-sihhah health He She ought to have paid dues u' i! . and they are of the greatest service to tourists. business men.. MARLBOROUGH'S SELF-TATTGHT SERIES languages of Europe. all Booksellers. these manuals are guides to the spoken languages of to-day. d. Dotted consonants.j ar •wasiyat-ul-lahi is Grod's command : Voioel hat. Catalogite free from the Publishers — E. students. with the aid of one or other of the volumes in the Series he can readily make himself understood amongst the various peoples with whom he comes in contact.. or round the western and northern countries. Pbonunciatios.^. kan yanbaghi" lahu me my is an yufini haqqi to supposed yuzan fiha annaha know how to cut out to ta raf-il-taf sil . down the Mediterranean. father. h. cyclists. LoxDo>f. z. Thus. makers. motorists. Ababio. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. bit. photographers. travellers.<U\ He claims have in ^ uXj yadda'i annahu ta'allam al-inglizi learned six English months -yah fi sittat shuhur To frighten strangers is takhwTf-ul-ghuraba very wrong steal is sin khata azim To ^yJl al-sirc[ah haram To love one's neighbour mahabbat-ul.G. t. machine.1^ Ls*. s.

*See 'N. kliushsh anta sami anta arif . 12. Allow me ? ismah li Are you hungry anta jau an ? At last! akhlran a'ti ! Be careful balak ! Begone Begone! (out with you!) imshi itla barra By all means ala la kuU I al Certainly budd ma lum na am huna Come back Come here irja' ta al Come in U^^ ? udkhul. d. ArabtoSeV-Taught Dotted consonants.'. Do you hear ? Do you know " It ? ? anta ta raf ? la Uxouse Forgive me me tuwakhidhni samihni From here Go away Good-bye Good-bye (answer) min huna ruh min huna bikhatirkum ma a-s-salamah Vowd soumda : hat. bit. 9. h. aisle . father. machine. t. p.B. Ababio. ?. hard.! ! CONVERSATIONAL PHEASES AND SENTENCES* Useful and Necessary Expressions. put. ow (97) a . rule. au = in cow. Pbonunoiation.





au = ow in cow. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. $. d. li. t. ^. put. Dotted consonants. rule. . father.! 102 ENGI.ISH. possible for me I assure you I have not I 1 I I am am angry with you cold za al ma ak ana bardan ana jau an am hungry am not hungry ana mush jau an Vowd sounds : hat. hard. bit. machine. aisle . ikhras kaif halat ? kaif khatirak ? do you do j> )' ? How many piastres ? How much do you sell this for ? kam AJli \i qirsh ? bikam tabi hadha ? How must we go to — ? How foolish he is ! ma hfi-1-tariq ila — ? ma ahmaquh ana mut ajjib u\ ana rayih I I I am astonished am am going t:'j not ahle (it is ma not to) aqdarsh I cannot ma yumkinni ana uhaqqiq lak -ma indi ana fi. He He He is is is a clever fellow hu jada shatir a liar huwa kadhdhab huwa sakran drunk under He He He He He is is my orders huwa taM amri huwa huwa za'lan kathir ~~ very angry is ill aiyan learned Englisli told at allam ingllzi me huwa qal li HoH your toilgue How >> uskut. PBONUHCIiTION.

machine. put. ana sakin — I never sarw ma shuftush abadan aviz J want I I I I biddi.? J:lL ^ la tail tahtahu Vowel sounds: hat. ?. 103 Pbonunoiation. d.Si\ U ma aqdarsh JM^ ^^J^ la ubali la not kn6w a rif not speak Arabic learn Arabic ma atkallam arabi I cannot" if ma aqdar at'allam you speak English arabi idha kunt tu- to me kallimni bil-inglizi I have no appetite ma ma UjI li qabliyah lil-akl I have no passport I live at 'indi tadhkara fl — him ^J.yJJ:^ I. §. bit. iiard.CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES English. t. . Akaeio. father. ain not able I do not care I do I do Ut> . ' au = ow in cow. aisle. I J I I am tired [to it ana ta ban ana malish 'adah flh al-haqq alaiya am not accustomed am wrong am right • al-haqq ma i I cannot. rule. Dotted'-conaonants. want to buy biddi ashtari am not willing ana mush radi ana ghaltan altamis ilaika hi ardak am mistaken pray you ti - tj If you please min fadlak. in shi'ta Is it true ? ahadha sahlh ? I believe not I think it probable ma azinn azunnahu muhtamalan It is of no consequence | <fc=. h.


It is close at hand Just as usual adah Keep to the right ^AX t. father. au = ow in cow.CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. Dotted eoTisonants. . I will make shift with- ana astaghni 'annu la I beg your pardon tuwakhidhni (excuse I • me) beg your pardon ^\ al- afu * (forgive me) / qarlbil-ihtimal o£E It is very likely It is a long way masafah ba'idah bilqurb hasabi-1_$si. machine. ij. have heard none time to go rather cloudy- ma i. ?. 4. . put. I AnABIO.l>-i^ khallik ala yaminak Knock at the door Lend Let Let duqq-1-bab aslifni me alone me me khallini khallini help you u Tnak Lift the latch irfa'i-1-suq'qatah Light the candle walli ish-sham ah Vowd sounds: hat. English. 105 Pbonunciation. h. t. aisle. hard. bit.»«iJ . sami tu shaian It is It is It is ana-1-dhahab al-sama mughimah a pleasure hadha wajib tamsi ala khair sa-a'ud arak ghadan I wish you good-night I will see you again "^ tomorrow I hope so in sha-allah la yagluhi lishai la ubali it It is good for nothing ^ I don't oare It is so. really Lout hadha hakadhahaqq'in i^£. rule.

106 English. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. .


t. $.fi darar zai ba da< They are all alike j*^ kuUuhum hum This annoys me very ^^ . aisle. I am satisfied ana iktafait We We can by no means it la naqdar in nadhin ' permit bihi-1-battah have not any ma lana min illat ^ cause to complain lil-shakwa Vowd sounds: hat. au = ow in cow.! ! 108 Engush. h. PEONtlNOIATION. put. friend to you > dear marhaba fik ! my marhabafikya sadiqi- J^J^^ 1-azTz taiyib. bass There is no haj-m L5 (_Si jU ma. ^. father. i^.j^y. . machine. Well. d. rule. iiard. Aeabio. \i>^ hadha yuza kathJr ilni much They say so is yakulun hakadha dark al-lail The night The moon The muzlim shines al-qamar zahir ar-rih baxidah -wind is cool Take a cloak That is khudh burnus hadha-1-haqq kullu al-dubban mukaddir the whole truth are trouble- The flies Wait here [some usbur buna. That's enough ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. bit.. Dotted consonants. Jj'^'*^ yikfi. istanna huna "Wait until he comes usbur hatta yaji imshi ala mahlak Walk slowly We will eat biddana nakul ahlan wasahlan ! Welcome Welcome Welcome.



Tou come with me You are too young Tou must dress well You must be quick You are ready now . EHeiilSH.CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. 111 Akabic.

put. bit..attal yas-al anha inquire ahout I quite forgot it. id-dunya shaub wal'afsh thaqil because it is hot and is the luggage heavy ? Is the luggage correct yatara-l.112 Engmbh. machine.. father.1 iks^l lSj' yatara al-mahatta | ba Ida ? « No .af sh tamam? Eleven pieces ihda shar razma in thc' Tou left one khallait wahida fll- steamer markab send the You must porter to it lazim tursilu-1. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. i . masafat rub sa al'i hour's distance only faqat .| Vowei sowiuU: hat.^ la . .attal And the is how kam ? He entitled to ask piastres. Is the station far ? HS^je. sir nasaituha bit-tamal ya sidi lillah. aisle au = owiii cow. Thank goodness one is ! some al-hamdu bringing it now wahad jayibha alan The Railway. rule. haqqu qirshain watalib bakhshish. How mucli is the fare kam -l-ujrah c" hntta ? lilma- to the station ? Each person four piastres kul ? shakhs arba at [much porter qurush wal. Aeabio. Pbonunciation. a quarter of an kJii (LcLj t^J Aj. lian- two and is asking for baqshish.

it is al-haqq ma ak huwa only old I bass qadim to would like ask ahubb as-al at-tur the interpreter I juman There I is no need to from (J*:i~!^ ma fish luzum - will ascertain ma dhalik urid asta him all the same • lim minhu au = ow in cow. h.darahim ahi tamam bad of your ? One piastre is life Jlkj ^ij j:>ji qirsh wa^id battal [(By the wahayat abuk huwa taiyib father) I swear. drabic Self-Tcntghl . hard.CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. Doited cpneonanis. Vowd samida hat. I father. 113 Wlen does the train go ? In hall an hour ttOW. Ababic. bit. start it mata yusafiru-1-qitar? ba d nu?s sa ah will not the ala kull hal ma hefore yaqum l-b5sta la qabl in taji- mails come not hurry We need [Please luzum lil-'ajalah go and get the min fsyilak ruh I I tickets wajibi-1-tadhakir flrst-class want four ayiz arba darajaula mahallat K There is a ticket short naqisa tadhkara wahida Never mind ! ! I will ma alaish ajib lak bring you another : wahida thaniyah it And the money right"? is wad . t. j. machine. Enoubh. d. 9. PBONTOiaiATlON. rule. aisle. it is good You are right. put.

al- Pbonunciation. au =0W in cow. rule. waiting y aiy am n antazir sahib for a friend lana It is' not enough. ? kam sar lakum ? fi been in Egypt barr Masr We arrived only to Are you going ? day tjij AiJl liLffi wasalna-l-yaum faqat yatara to ji up . you ma yakfish yalzamatain require two or three kum jum au weeks at least is thalatha 'alal-aqall to see Our intention qasduna nashuf kull shai qabl everything before we ma narja' go back to England ila biladi-1-ingilz Good see . d. <-jI) rayihin ilal- Jerusalem u^ there quds? We shdl stay iM '." ashufkum tarja lanima Bait- return from u min lehem Please ruhm ! God a!J1 'L insha-Allah Vowd sounds: hat. hard. 5. The luggage goes without extra charge afsh yaruh balash No ! I haTe paid 15 : la. 9. machine. bit. put.! 114 Ehqush. aisle. Dotted consonants^ h. insha.Allah you when you Beth- Uj *jCs5^\ i:. perhaps I shall aiyib j' . t. Ababio. .\i\ '\. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. . ••:. father. ana dafa t khamsa: piastres here is the ta shar qirsh ha receipt huwa-1-wasl I wish journey you a good ma as-salamah bihif z- il-lah You are travellers hadratkum musafirin How long have you.J' >r nuqim fiha arba'at four days.


. 116 Bhgmsh. aisle.. z. put.. Dotted consonants. • dinner at wal asha assa ah . father. What times Lunch. alghada assa ah <ul. There is no fixed time ma fl waqt muqarrar ? And breakfast ? in wal-futur Can I dine my ayumkinni atghadda fl room? audati? Where I is the w. and . machine. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. 34. . . i . s. Ababio.c.. Peontiuoiation. ? fain bait-l-rahah ? want a warm hath ayiz hammam sabun sukhun Give me a piece of soap Grive a'tini shaqfat " 1 me is a towel a tmi minshafah fain-l-jaras ? Where I the bell ? want a candle ayiz sham ah I think of leaving to- anwi-1-dhahab bukrah morrow Call me early in the salihini badri fis - morning Call sabah my servant to the station Take me i_r"^^ <iLs^ jlj 1-?' nadi khadimi L5^ Jk^ khudhni lil-mahLi^tah Meals. bit. rule.JI . (For Vocabulary. . are ? is the meal- ma hi sa'at-1-akl ? at . . see p. t. h. au^owin cow. d. .) Please bring tea and cakes min fadlak jib shaii i waqa q ^j-Jy jib Bring bread and butter khubz wa-zibdah : Vnwd nounda: hat. hard. . .


i^^:. put. Give me a little.1 - ma musafEa Is it good for drinking ? ^il^.1 - nabidh Have you English beer? Lj-LOi \j^ LLiAii^ fi indak blra inglizi- yah? bottle ? Open the iftah-il-qannmah yatara Is this water filtered hadha ? . please a tmi shuwaiyah min fadlak Will you pass the min fadlak khardal nawilni-1- mustard ? Pass me the sauce nawilni-l-maraqah ya-sufraji Waiter. hard. Ababio. | . 4. bit. sir? will you ai nabidh tashrab ya- sidi? list Show me the wine warrini qayimat . father. au = OW in cow. aisle . t. see p. Dotted conaonante. Telegrams.118 Ehgush.i ^J: I la ma ja shai He yajib an al-an yakun huna by now I neara notmng have heard nothing Vowel sounds : hat. some bread shuwaiyat khubz What wine take. rule..) etc. 47. Pbondhoiatios. Have no for 'No. letters come ma ia-at li makatib? me ? none have come ought to be here ^Ji\ U^ Lb ujl» ^. f. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. > hal yaslah lil-shurb ? ghaiyir sahni Change my plate Correspondence^ Post.^xa^ \^ U ma sami t shai snai i machine. (For Vocabulary.. 9. h.

V(Md sounds : au = ow in cow. ^. . . Please weigh this letter IJJS ^jj\ min fadlak uzan hadha-1-maktub Howmuch is the postage . ^. Arabio.i£a ruh washuf <U3~1>J' fi in kanat- in il-bos^a wa?alat Are there any letters for I makatib IT ? me ? [letters have not received any ma istalamt makatib Please letters forward to . father. machine. z. bit. my . kam ujrat bSstat ? on these letters ? hadhi-1-makatib Can you lend me a pen? taqdar tusullifni qalam ? Have you a lead pencil ? ^js^j Jj_lLSjc£ Jjo hal indak qalam risas ? I want some note-paper ayiz waraq kitabah a tini zarf fain-il-hibr ? Give ine an envelope Where Lend : is the ink a ? me piece of sallifni -warakat hlotting-paper nashshafah a'tmi ba bosta (J Give me some stamps tawabi Tell [ him to wait qui luh yantazir reply ursil-ul-jawab will later send a ba dain hat. 119 PBONnUOIATION. . aisle . min fadlak irsil makatlbi ila . English. rule. hard. . h. t. put. J. Dotted conaanants. Has the mail steamer arrived ? yatara wasal waburr ul-bosta ? Go aad see is if the mail w lai:-Js. USB) i(k-jij !SjS>-\ J.CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES.

h. address are . want a postal order s ayiz hawalat hosta The payee name and . . -l^KiS wa. aisle Dotted consonante. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT Akabio. put. 7. . am the sender ana-l-mnrsil Please cash this order money min fadlak a tini sarf hadhi-1-ha walah is This letter registered to he hadha-1-m aktub lil-tasjtl Registered letter > it ^ -J maktub mnsaukar a tini bihi wasl Give me a receipt for Shopping. bit. ba d kuf uf : hat. Can I send a telegram ? yatara yumkinniursil teleghraf ? I have received . PEONOTIOIATrON. ism-ul-muwadda ilaih . .anwannh huma I . . wasalni teleghraf telegram from I min . hard. . . d. rule. t. a . au = ow in cow. . father. . I want some silk is silk ayiz shuwayat fcanr This very dear hadha-1-harir ghali kathir This material wears well I will guarantee it I don't guarantee it hadha-l-q[umash yadum zaman ana aijmanuh ^awil ana la admanuh Please show gloves Vowel sounds me some min ala fadlak farrijni . . $. machine. .120 Engush.

I 121 want a cross made .CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. ENausH.

12i ENQI/ISH. Ababio. sir . but any- how we shall' take food with us Tes. sir? An Wake me morning early in the Excursion. I can't let you have tliem for less . We the are going to see Mount of Olives to-morrow Do you want me to get the donkeys ready ? Perhaps we shall go in a carriage. everything will be all right You must take the necessaries for tea . I will buy these How do you like ttese ? I don't like any of these Do you want anything else? i I iyJ (JjSi Send the things hotel to my What name. ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT.

\. Enqijbh. . kuU shakbs kawiyah and ? e:_^l yatara-1-sit can she also go up U.J^^. and every- wal-kabrit.i nashtari and melons on the i' u"^} burtuqan wabattikh way Good . thing must be wakull shai lazim wrapped I in paper yaltaff bil-waraq have wrapped up it J '^ j^ <-^s laffait kiill shai wa- everything and put into the basket hattaitu fis-salla We can buy oranges -:fj UL». Peohtokjiation. yumkinna ''ff'. au = o w in cow. ya fl not difficult. put.xs ifAJI) hadhi druriyah It will cost two piastres J^. machine.. father. sir. ibriqu-sh sbiritu. h. but u khawaja su uba.Uj_lk>-_ wataqdar tatla [once kaman ? Get the tea ready at fl^^liJl yds>- haddiri-sh-shai halan Vowel sounde : hat. DQttii contowants. - shai wal- matches. the spirit. 123 The teapot. rule. aisle . ma it tires one walakini-1- insan yat ab I will bring a permit for ajib rukhsa likullikiim you is all to go up l_yJi^ •:j-5.CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES. bit. Arabio. ij. % hard. . 4. air ^./iJl ai wanahnu taiyib la fl^-tariq do not' forget J>-wJl \J^ tansa-1- the wine nabidh to go We want up the narid natla lifauqi-1- minaret Just as you wish.s thamanha an qirshain each Is the lady strong. litatla u This necessary . ?. it is ma-dhana ala khatirak .

K~-.sittat ta banat shuwaiyah Vowel sounds : hat. (Jub J*^. piastres spent liras. ladies tired LiiJ liiJ ^~^1 IS satratna faqalji - . . you. 9. father. darahim taha? saraf- have spent I ? have Turkish mejidis.. and is uW'j '^j'^. t.}- s . U al-hi?an ya ruj wata - very tired is ban kathir The driver beatinfr u iX) al i. are i. hard. bit. I hope ladies. rule.1 - qasira. put. The horse is goinglame. au = ow in cow. d. aisle . machine. the i f^' asa in hadratkucn ya sTdi was-sittat and the othoi- wal- gentlemen have enjoyed yourselves to- khawajatu-ththaniyln inbasat- day tum-l-yaum all We enjoyed only a our the little kuUuna inbasatna jl:uJ\ ij fi excursion.124 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. h.)l"ASI - arhaji ammal the horse without any yadrubu-1-hisan bidiin sabab reason He knows his business ya rif shughlu qasi He is not cruel huwa mush I will J' Another time al-m arra-th-th aniy a take some one else akhudh wahad ghairu They are all alike kuUuhum mithl ba dahumi-1-ba d Have you made an \^j^ hal amilt hisaba-dilli account of what you ^\ ^\j^ £L' iJi\Ats. Dotted conscmarUs. .A£iu*. three J saraft thalathat lirat four fifteen t^jb uthmaniyah waarba majidiyat wa- and .sr* khamsat asharqirsh sir. PnOirtJNOIATION.

vi. "The Lokd's Pkater" (Matt.>j'>^i-^ Ui kama mashi'atuka as Thy will li-Ui :Ui litakun cij'uJ liya'ti malakutuka the heaven in be done Thy kingdom come Irlkil a'tina [jy^ khubzana us j>p\ -1-ardi Ju 'ala kafafana sufficient for kadhalika so -^-^ give us our bread the earth upem ^^ we ^sfi ^ forgive ur Ui as boy J dhtinubana .}^ lianna for that .Passages of Arabic with Pronunciation and Translation interlined.SiiliJ cyl..!!! -s-samawafc fi . ITJ w us J^^y waghflr II l«. kL>^i^] . 9-13)..:. 1..]W SS- -sh-shimri the evil one mina from najjina deliver us lakin tajribatin but temptation ri^-^ wal-majda wal-quwata -l-mulka the kingdom to laka and the glory and the power Thee helongeth arnin -1-abadi ila the eternity to (125) .sT\ -l-ladhi -s-muka liyataqaddasi abana Thy name hallowed sUl! -s-sama'i fi be the heavens in which" art our Father ij. nahnu naghfiru kama lana -1-yauma to-day our trespasses and forgive Uli^-iJ —-' — 'J • * tudkhilna lead us wn-la ilaina asa'a liman to into and not against us trespassed them who ^.

Believe and say not " a Trinity ''. proceeding God and His apostles. . ya in commit extravagance not of the book people -l-haqqa the truth ilia -1-llahi 'ala taqulu wa-la dlnikumyour religion except y—'C^ God f O of speak and not top ^ L5" rasiilu is the Maryama apostle of Mary -bnu the son 'isa -1-Masihu the Christ innama for verily Jesus Maryama Mary ila alqaha -which He' conveyed vva-talimatuhu -1-llahi into and his Word of Grod bil-llahi in fa - aminu believe minhu from Himself wa ruhun - Grod therefore and a Spirit ^ji thalathatun a Trinity tuqiilu wa-la -wa-rusulihi say and not and His apostles Idiomaiio translation of the above — in people of the Book ! commit no extravagance truth. J fi _ \p taghlu ^ la L^^l -1-kitabi Jut ahla ^. God. the apostle of For verily Christ Jesus. chap. ir. 2. verse 169. and speak not of God except the is the son of Mary. your religion . Qur'an (Koean). and His "Word -which He conveyed into Mary.: 126 ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT. from Himself. and a therefore in Spirit.

money with the Turkish equivalents. 10 and o paraa = 1 piastre. . . ^ . 20 10 about 7 0-87 Nusf Majidi . £ 60 25 10 5 s. = Amebtcan..) N. AH Government taxes and dues are paid according to tbis fixed standard.B.. = SiiTJCE Coins. i i lira lira Also in circulation Lira IngUziyah ' . s. 2i lira Lira 'Uthmaniyali English. . Gold Coihs.. 0-25 0-19 ol' Franc 10 (40 paras In addition niciel coins of 20 and 10 paras and bronze coins are current. ' Fiastres. . — = = = = = 250 100 SO about 2 5 Dollars. d. . for all other payments. about d. with the English and American equivalents. -- . 9^ 1 0-43 0-26 0-21 Rub' Majidi 2 piastres Piastre ' . English and American English. . Majidi Zihrawi .— MONEY.^ 0-08 0-04 id circii 2i 1 Also in Sbilling lation ' 20 . Credit notes can be cashed in English gold. . Turkish Government Currency used in Syria. but the value of tbe above in piastres varies greatly in the different provinces. Fiastres. d. 102 4i Pnrns. This applies also to raUway fares.. 10-91 IS 9 4 = = 4-36 2-18 1-09 25 110 1 = = 4-85 3-88 Lira Faransawiyali * . Dollars.

128 English. . ARABIC SELF-TAUGHT.

4)lrIij(Pi:iiicip»lS'»iio^M»ater Oity. London. S.DlTiaibn of Worda iiitd SyUablf a. STUPlf » 'crown gYo. Ke-nttten and anla>ge<. IML'IiA VBCCIIIA. orownSTo.» : "'/. Motoring. He^olotli.Notei6ii ArticleB.. ^^^^% .. with UluBtration > ol.Frenab Coihag*.Tc.. Uotoring and Oycling Tstma.SEJfcF-TJltljfCM'i'.TlisNaialHaaDd. By E. biu wrapper..^^^^-^—^^^. the Apostroiihe. Gonversatioiial Phrases and KenCiinoes. TzaT«l 'TtCSk. tjqnntity. MARI30R0U6H_ 4_ Co^. Ac.' Ked oloVB. and Irregular Verbs. the Double Consonants.^^^. Market Beports with Phrases. KEY with to Italian Grammiiir Self-JTa nght. Three botika bomid in one volume. CmuTeTHatloiial. II. .ItO^MRKOContaining Model Phri -es OtFers of Goods. fil. Shipping Correspondence^ Agencies. For the STUDY OF ITALIAN. Photography. Enlarged and Kevised by 1). O. bi»w»pp«. . the NMal. and Kay. BIu. Vonrtl) aMtlcB.. . Oontalliliiig Alphabe<<aiidFiptaaiiciatlon. om. Key to BeadinR Bzerolaeii. Gender .«»o. ' era: •«. J. t (Thimm'f Syifam) On.Ac. For the ''"-. AuxUlaty Varbsj Bynoptical Table of tka lour CoiijuKiitioiia. Trading. ByM.otLaudc>ii£icJip61). Uoney.LAB?'^WBiB. Boadlng Exeroiaea Witt tuterliueil Pbonelio ProDuiKtiatlon.wjtjves and Proiioiins. and BeTised by ' ' fJBJBNCH By tbo I . three bboks.°«Ty»j»v. »>euoh Uaatw City or Lonilon Hchoolt. »•« COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE. bim.. Containing Alphabet and Pronnnciation. (Principal Of the London School of Italian).i..8. Regular. Cycling. ContaInlirg'Alphab«t. (Hftrlboron^h'a Serlei of Foreign Commercial Corraipondenga.. (Vendor. Tables of Moneys with English and American Values. Synoptiual Table of the Three Conjngations. the Oonaonante.i.„ Claulfled Voejibdlarin.NET. B. Verba. : PRICES-. Classified Vocabularies. Brbnnuefation.-'-/. Vocabulary. Enqnlriea relating to Goods.^ I Bioa wmpnei. Tables of Money with English and American "• Equivalents. . Banded ^ : Uontalu^ French BeU-TaOKht.' Travel Talk. Naval and Military Terms. Accenta and Blgna. baiided together. Old Bailoy. Musical [Terms.I. . "j^^fViith: if. fixnroiaea..) TOOBSCO and W.... .'Weigbto and UeasnreB.aa B) the natural method. ». Acceut. STUDY OF FRENCH.T*. e™.. -'/ rt"""*-'' »7»iM>.'''gPJ*'. Contaiumg Alphabet.! PROt>rUNC:iATION MADE ' EASY.' < . Td.ed Kulidial'Hethoci. the Use of the Articles .> KEY to Frencb Grammar SelC-Tauifbt. OBEVOBrMAUBICE.^^'^'. the Substantive. Orders and their Execution.-*ii''Ii. London :— E. ' -'rlv-. Conimaroial. Notes on Articlua. with Phonetic Fronnodatlon. AlphabeticiU. . A'. Idiomatic ExpteBBions. < ^ FRENCH . with'Photratlfiit^onnnclBtioii. Accent. Grammar. FRENCH B y HOME STUDY. Mendvi.. ITALIAN By GRAMMAR PANAGULLI SELF-TAUGHT.UnlMof Qrammarrx«nipUaeilwltl]Moael Henteuaeti. ftc. Bin* wrappei. Qrammar and Key to the Bzerclaaa. . Mlishers. ItEBKK'r. Commei'Cial Terms and Abbreviations. orSS'ioth?. A.Ii. FRENCH SELF-TAUGHT and CKAMMAR with KEY. &c. Financial Oreditj Insurance of ijuculs. JB. Weights and Measures. . the Definite Article.. Commercial.. Weights and Measures. Finance.m. Olom»M. Rhlee on Proper Nonna. Announcements.*Eiilari.>*o.. Alpnabatioal voaa'buliKy. Letters of IntrodnotioQ. Containing the Vowel Sonada. PRICES NET. 'Iiideflnlto Adj.?i!!3rA -.. la. — 1 tliijellier. Ainnsements. Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers. / Oin. Situations. piuawrappn. ' FHtENCH ' ByiJ. * ITALIAN B Y HOME . Marlhorongha ITALIAN AND ENGLISH _. at. Accuni. Aniiliary. ITALIAN SELF-TAUGHT. the Adjective. and Letters.Ftanui and Smt^DceH.. . and illustration of Italian Coinage. ITALIAN SELF-TAUGHT and GRAMMAR KEY.: Italian Selt-Xan^U. .'Aec^nt^Ijiiai9on. Re^idine Lessons. Three bookkbonnd In pne Tolnma. .. avo. Irregular CKAMMAR SELF-TAUGHT(Fiioc{pa( «"••»•• '"• LAFFITTB. wrapper.

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