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By Anita Kalia Origiin IP Solutions, Bangalore
The main purpose of this presentation is to provide basic information on patent drafting skills and train candidates for the Indian Patent Agent Examination.
The presentation provides basic understanding of various parts of a specification solely from the examination point of view.
“He who wants to get a patent, must have made a breakthrough Invention... "
This prejudice is heard again and again - but it is wrong.
Introduction Patent protection is not only for the “big ideas” but for small developments as well. EXAMPLES: Paper clips Pencils Ball pen Toothbrush Post-it notes Shaving blades Toys 4 .
• Where do inventions come from? – Single inventors alone or in cooperation – Product and service based companies of all sizes – Private and public research laboratories – University research laboratories • Where do inventions go to? – Disclosed to at least one patent office in order to apply for exclusive patent protection – Kept as secret (sometimes best strategy) – Enter the market as new products without patent protection – “down the drain“ (published too early or abandoned) 5 .
Signing NDA Invention disclosure Prior art search Drafting and filing of a patent application Prosecution of the patent application Grant of the patent Commercialization Success? Failure? 6 .
inventive ? Prior art/prior disclosure ? • • Oral disclosure ? Prior printed publication available to the public ? • Prior public use ? 7 . Is invention patentable ? Is invention novel.
how competitors could avoid the claimed invention while taking advantage of its teachings (foreseeing the future) 8 . Understand the invention Find the gist of the invention Find various aspects of the invention Find the right words. terminology to describe the invention Anticipate.
Background of the invention Prior Art and Problem to be solved 4. Objects of the invention Various object to be achieved by the invention 4.1. Technical Field of the invention 3. Summary of the invention Various aspects of the invention and the principles on which it is based 9 . Title 2.
Abstract Within 150 words and shall commence with the title of the invention. Detailed description of the invention A few Industrial Applications. Claims Extent of protection 8.5. 10 .at the end 7. Brief description of the Drawings 6.
◦ fancy words. ◦ the abbreviation “etc”.1. 4. Title Gives a fair indication of the art or industry to which the invention belongs to Brief and free from fancy expressions Free from ambiguity As precise and definite as possible Normally within 15 words. ◦ the word ‘Patent’. 2. e. BED SHEET TENSIONER DRAFTING TABLE WRIST EXERCISER ENGINE EXHAUST HEAT RECOVERY APPARATUS MECHANISM FOR UTILIZING WASTE HEAT FROM AN ENGINE EXAMPLE: 11 . The followings are not allowable in the title: ◦ Inventor’s name. 3. ◦ words in other languages. 5.g. “Washwell Soap” ◦ Universal Rest Easy Patent Chair” 1.
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION 12 .
This invention relates to a drafting table of the type wherein a table plate is borne by a stand having two vertical supporting columns. each including an outer bar and an inner bar telescoped therein.2. This invention relates to devices commonly referred to as wrist exercisers. It should be defined in general terms and may also be described with particularity by giving specific examples. Starts with sentences like ‘The present invention relates to …………………’ This invention relates to improvement in device for tensioning of bed sheets. Technical Field of the invention Begins with a short general statement of the invention so as to show its scope and the area of technology to which it belongs to. EXAMPLE: 13 . and having an outrigger associated with each of the columns for determining the base plane of the table.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 14 .
the introduction to the subject matter on which the invention is based. Should further indicate the status of the technology in the field of invention.3. Background of the invention First. Desperate need for a solution to the existing problems. Patents and pending patent applications in the specific art (optional). Problems associated with the existing systems/technologies Experiments going on in the field. .
3. Background of the invention Extract novel features and advantages of your invention Compare your invention with prior art Find out disadvantages of prior art compared to your invention Highlight disadvantages of prior art 16 .
but these have all required that one fitting or other be provided on the bed sheet on which to fasten some form of retaining strap. Background of the invention EXAMPLE (Bed sheet tensioner) For many people the lack of smoothness in the lower sheet on a bed causes discomfort which can result into many problems related to lack of sleep and comfort. 17 . There have been many proposals to tension a bed sheet.3. For example one previous device proposes buttonholes or similar apertures along the length of the sheet and an elastic strap having a button at each end to fasten underneath the mattress to keep the bed sheet tensioned.
Background of the invention EXAMPLE (Drafting Table) A drafting table or architect's table is a kind of multipurpose desk which can be used for any kind of drawing.3. The known drafting tables generally consist of a rigid stand and a movable table plate. writing or impromptu sketching on a large sheet of paper or for reading a large format book or other oversized document or for drafting precise technical illustrations. This means that they require excess expenditure for packing material and incur increased transportation costs. 18 . The disadvantage of such tables is that they take up a great deal of space during transportation.
EXAMPLE (Drafting table) − Hence. by simple manipulation. can be folded together in such a way that it takes up a minimum of space for packing and transportation. Some examples: EXAMPLE (Bed sheet tensioner) − Hence what is needed is a device that can fasten the bed sheet to the mattress without any modification being made on the bed sheet as such.3. Background of the invention The final paragraph of the background section should be a punch line that summarizes the need for the invention. 19 . what is needed is drafting table which.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION 20 .
Objects of the invention Clearly brings out the necessity of the invention Clearly describes the technical problems associated with the existing technology and the solution for that Brings out the obvious differences between the claimed invention and the prior art EXAMPLE: .A further object of the invention is …………. .. 21 .4.It is another object of the invention to provide …………… .It is still another object of the invention is …………….Accordingly it is an object of the invention to provide a ………… .
22 . Objects of the invention EXAMPLE (Bed sheet tensioner) Hence it is an object of the invention to provide a bed sheet tensioning device that doesn’t require modifications in the bed sheet. can be folded together in such a way that it takes up a minimum of space for packing and transportation. by simple manipulation.4. EXAMPLE (Drafting Table) It is an object of the invention to provide a drafting table which.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 23 .
OPENING PARAGRAPH Should specify the solution to the problems described in the background section. Achievement of objects Subject matter of broadest claim 24 . Summary of the invention 1. Whatever need was described in the last paragraph of the background is described as being satisfied.4. at the beginning of the summary section.
25 .4. a bed sheet tensioning device having a resilient strap is provided that can be fixed to the cloth material of a bed sheet by gripping the cloth material without any part of the fasteners being included on the cloth material. EXAMPLE (Drafting table) To achieve the foregoing and other objects of the present invention a drafting table is provided in which each outrigger is pivotable about the inner bar of the supporting column with which it is associated. Summary of the invention EXAMPLE (Bed sheet tensioner) To achieve the foregoing and other objects of the present invention.
Summary of the invention 2 CONTENTS List of preferred and optional features (various embodiments/aspects) Independent and dependant claims can be summarized. Identifies advantages and how the invention solves the problems described in the background section. 26 .4.
a bed sheet tensioning device… 27 . A bed sheet tensioning device comprising a resilient strap with releasable fasteners at each end thereof. or According to one aspect of the invention. each of the releasable fasteners being adapted to fasten the strap to the cloth material of a bed sheet by gripping the cloth material without any part of the fasteners being included on the cloth material. A suitable summary for this is: In one embodiment of the invention. a bed sheet tensioning device is provided that is comprised of a resilient strap with releasable fasteners at each end thereof. each of the releasable fasteners being adapted to fasten the strap to the cloth material of a bed sheet by gripping the cloth material without any part of the fasteners being included on the cloth material. Summary of the invention Claim 1 1.4.
then a supporting statement should be provided EXAMPLE A bed sheet tensioning device substantially as herein described and illustrated in the figures of the accompanying drawings.4. Only in case omnibus claims are added at the claims. Summary of the invention Statement of the invention Summary of the invention and verbatim to the claim. 28 .
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS 29 .
exploded or rear) view of the invention in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. each briefly describing a respective figure of your drawing – For example: FIG 1 is a prospective (or plan.5. side. DON’TS No reference numerals. Brief Description of Drawings Provide just a brief overall description of drawings Provides a series of separate paragraphs. FIG 2 is a side view of the system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. specific parts or any other details .
5. FIG. Brief Description of Drawings EXAMPLE (Bed sheet tensioner) This invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings. through out which like reference letters indicate corresponding parts in the various figures.2 shows the method of application of the bed sheet tensioning device to a corner of a mattress. FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 . FIG. 1 shows a bed sheet tensioning device according one embodiment of the invention.
5. 3 is a vertical section taken on the line III--III of FIG. and FIG. . 1 is a perspective view of the drafting table set up for use. Brief Description of Drawings EXAMPLE (Drafting table) FIG. FIG. 1 through a supporting column of the drafting table. 2 is a perspective view of the drafting table when folded.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION 33 .
Sufficient detail so as to give a complete information of the invention Reference to the drawings should be specific Overview of the main elements of the invention and how they cooperate together Hierarchical approach: Description proceeds from the more general to specific parts. 34 . Should disclose best method/example of working of the invention. Name for each part should be used consistently throughout the description as well as claims. First broad description then each element is described in detail.6. Detailed Description of the invention Should have enough detail so that an individual with an average understanding of the field could use or reproduce the invention.
Detailed Description of the invention EXAMPLE Referring now to FIG. (More description of each part) Referring now to FIG.6. The loops 2 and 3 are formed by sewing at 4 and 5 respectively. after an elongate slot 6 and 7 respectively has had the loop passed there through. and at one corner the bed sheet tensioning device is fastened at one end to a bed sheet portion 22 at one side underneath a mattress and to a bed sheet portion 23 on the adjacent side around the corner of the mattress. 1 that shows a bed sheet tensioning device according to the present invention comprising an elongated resilient strap 1 comprised of an elasticized cloth strap having loops 2 and 3 at each end thereof. 2 that shows the bed sheet tensioning device in operation. It can be seen that a mattress 20 has a bed sheet 21 over it. (More description of each part) 35 .
Detailed Description of the invention Use of ‘A’. said legs being attached to the underside of said table top. ‘The’. ◦ ‘Said’ refers to a part already mentioned or introduced.. write it as: . 36 . Ex: if claim has already recited a table top comprising a flat sheet and four elongated legs..6. use ‘a’ ◦ Ex: The device has a handle 10 connected to an a liver 20 While referring again to something already introduced. and ‘said’ While introducing an element first time. use ‘the’ ◦ Ex: The handle 10 and the liver 20 are made of plastic In claims ◦ The same rules apply except that ‘the’ refers to a part not been expressly mentioned but is implied.
Detailed Description of the invention ADVANTAGES and INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION Keeping the needs mentioned in background as a guide. corresponding advantages/industrial applications should be described with respect to the structure of the invention. the drafting table can be converted from its position of use into its transport position very quickly and without any special tools being required for that purpose. 37 . the sheet may be tensioned at four corners of the bed. rumpling of the sheet will be prevented. Furthermore.6. and the bed will be more comfortable. The sheet as a whole will then be held firmly in position. Example (bedsheet tensioner) By the use of four bed sheet tensioning devices of this type. Example(drafting table) A significant advantage of the drafting table according to the present invention is that the table plate can easily be adjusted in height and fixed in the desired position by means of a simple manipulation.
CLAIMS 38 .
39 . the probability of a restriction requirement (an objection that more than one invention has been claimed) Clearly define the boundaries and scope of the invention so that others may know the exact boundaries of the area of protection in which they should not trespass. Claims PURPOSE OF CLAIMS To define novel and non-obvious features of the invention.7. to be protected by the patent The only part of the invention that gets legal protection Determines the area of examiner’s search.
“strong”. Claims Single sentence. If the words like “thin”. 40 . “when required” or “any” are used. or to a group of inventions linked so as to form a single inventive concept. “such as”.7. then it forces the reader to make a subjective judgment and not an objective. non-redundant Starts from: I claim/We claim/What is claimed is: Starts from a new page Serially numbered Extra fee for claims in excess of 10 Relate to a single invention. “a major part”. clear.
that form the part of the claims must be fully explained in the description. on references to the description or drawings. rely.. in respect of the technical features of the invention. Claims shall not. This means that all the characteristics of the invention.7." or "as illustrated in figure .. they shall not rely on such references as: "as described in part . Claims Claims must be supported by the description (fairly based on the description)... In particular. of the description. of the drawings." 41 . except where absolutely necessary.
– Body of the claim: Specific legal description of the exact invention. which is sought to be protected. Claims A claim usually consists of three parts : – Introductory phrase (preamble): identifies the category of the invention and sometimes the purpose (For example. Introductory phrase and the body of the claims. a machine for waxing paper. The link consists of words and phrases such as : – Comprises open – Including – Containing close – Consisting of – Consisting essentially of intermediate 42 . – Link: Joins the two segments. a composition for fertilizing soil).7.
C and D will infringe this claim. C and D will not infringe this claim. . Covers more elements than it recites. Open claims: ◦ Comprising ◦ Including ◦ Containing Inclusion of steps or constituents not explicitly recited may amount to literal infringement of the claim. B. Limited to the elements it specifically recites. B. B and C A machine with A. EX: ◦ Closed claims (rarely used): ◦ Consisting of ◦ Composed of Means that the presence or addition of something other than that which is explicitly recited in the claim will not amount to literal infringement.7. Claims EX: Said machine comprising A. B and C ◦ A machine with A. Said machine consisting of A.
.7." ◦ Thus. ◦ It is part open and part closed. a claim to a combination consisting essentially of A + B would cover a combination of A + B + C if C is not vitally important to the combination and doesn’t effect the interrelationship between A and B. Claims Intermediate scope claims: Consisting essentially of: Means that the claim covers not only the recited constituents but also any additional ones so long as the latter do not significantly interfere with the primary function of the constituents recited. It is mainly used in chemical and metallurgical composition inventions and is a shorthand way of saying "excluding additional unspecified ingredients which would affect the basic and novel characteristics of the product defined in the balance of the claim.
ethyl. such etherifying groups containing 5 or 6 carbon atoms. hexyl. isobutyl. pentyl. propyl. heptyl and octyl esters of 3-ethoxypropionic acid. What is claimed is: A non-toxic. Claims 1. (c) about 0-10% by weight of a viscosifying agent selected from the group consisting of cellulose ether thickeners containing an etherifying group selected from hydroxyalkyl groups and groups derived therefrom.7. wherein the active ingredient consists essentially of the combination of: (a) at least 30-90% by weight of a five membered ring lactam. biodegradable and ambient temperature non-volatile liquid paint stripping composition. butyl. cationic or amphoteric surface active agent. (b) at least 10-70% by weight of an oxygenated aliphatic solvent selected from the group consisting of the methyl. anionic. . isopropyl. and (e) about 0-1% by weight of a dye. (d) about 0-5% by weight of a nonionic.
Types of Claims:
On the basis of DRAFTING • Independent claim • Dependent claim • Omnibus claim On the basis of INVENTION • Product claim • Process or Method claim • Apparatus claim On the basis of FIELD • Jepson claim • Markush claim
Independent Claim ◦ This is the first claim which is also called the ‘Principal Claim’ should clearly define the essential novel features of the most preferred embodiment of the process, apparatus, device or the product
Should be properly characterized with respect to the ‘prior art’, defining all the technical features essential to the invention or inventive concept.
This should include the core integers as well as sufficient details of interrelationship, operation or utility to establish that the invention achieves the intended objectives.
Example (Bedsheet tensioner) (1) A tensioning device for bedsheets or the like comprising an elongated resilient member provided with releasable fastening means at opposing ends, each releasable fastening means being adapted to releasably fasten the elongated resilient member to the material of a bedsheet by gripping the bedsheet material, characterised in that no part of the releasable fastening means is included in or on the bedsheet.
transverse means rigidly interconnecting upper ends of the first posts in relative. Claims Example (drafting table) 1. upwardly protruding first and second support posts. An adjustable drafting table adapted to be stored in a collapsed. substantially vertical position and a second position that is inclined from the vertical. means securing a table plate to the supports for pivotal movement of the plate relative to the supports about a horizontal axis between a first. – – – 49 . essentially planar configuration. spaced apart positions. generally U-shaped table supports. comprising: – first and second.7. connecting the upper ends of the first posts with corresponding lower ends of the first posts. and adjustment means disposed within the first posts. each support including a generally horizontally disposed base member and a pair of spaced apart.
and all dependent claims referring back to several previous claims. shall be grouped together to the extent and in the most practical way possible. A reference is made to the other claim or claims and then additional features are claimed. All dependent claims referring back to a single previous claim... as claimed in (or as defined by. or according to) claim 1 or claim 2.” A claim which includes all the features of one or more other claims.7. 50 .. If the dependent claim is a multiple dependent claim. all the limitations contained in the particular claim in relation to which it is considered.. Claims Dependent Claim: Claims that refer to previous claims using wording such as “.
The bed sheet tensioning device of claim 1 wherein the resilient strap is made of rubber.7. Example #02 2. A drafting table according to claim 1 including spring means disposed within the inner tubular members and biasing the transverse means away from the base members. Claims Example #01 2. 51 .
S. The omnibus claim is usually used as a 'catch-all' or 'just to be safe' claim. 52 . second paragraph.7. in order to ensure that nothing that has been mentioned in the description and drawings has been left out of the claims. 112. Claims set out the boundaries of what is being claimed as the invention.C. the omnibus claim extends those boundaries to include the parts of the invention mentioned in the specification and drawings but not expressly mentioned in the claims. EXAMPL A bed sheet tensioning device substantially as herein described and illustrated in the figures of the accompanying drawings. Claims Omnibus Claim: Last claim to get an integral protection of what is described in the specification and drawings. because it is indefinite in that it fails to point out what is included or excluded by the claim language. Allowed only if the statement of invention is incorporated in the specification. NOTE: These types of claims are rejected under 35 U.
and the patent applicant admits that those elements exist in the prior art. EXAMPLE An instrument marker pen body including an ink reservoir and means for receiving a writing tip. Claims Jepson Claim A Jepson claim is a claim to an improvement on a product that already exists. 53 . The Jepson format includes a recitation of the preexisting components in the preamble and the improvements in the body of the claim.7. the improvement comprising a pen arm holding means consisting of an integrally moulded hinged member adapted to fold against a surface of the pen body and to be locked against said surface by engageable locking means. The elements recited in the preamble are claim limitations.
it is often possible to use many substituents in a given structure. One can have a few to hundreds of possible formulations Example: A sugar selected from a group consisting of sucrose. Claims Markush Claim Mainly used in chemical and biological inventions. 54 . and lactose. fructose. Used when there is no generic term that conveniently describes the desired claim element. a group of constituents (Markush Groups) that are considered equivalent for the purposes of the invention With chemical structures. In claims that recite components of compositions. a Markush claim or structure is a claim with multiple ‘functionally equivalent’ chemical entities allowed in one or more parts of the compound. as alternatives. it is sometimes important to claim.7.
such group of compounds are allowable when supported by a single and definitive process. So one can claim the basic structure along with substituents like halogens. However. EXAMPLE The process for the manufacture of dyes which comprise coupling with a halogen substituted pyrazolone. Claims Markush Claim (contd) For example. alcohols. when a new organic compound.S. in the 1920s. the first inventor to use them successfully in a U. hydrocarbons. a di-azotized unsulphonated material selected from the group consisting of aniline. homologues of aniline and halogen substitution products of aniline The Markush claims were named after Eugene Markush. patent. . one can effectively group these possible substituents in a Markush type of claims. that has a novel structure never obtained before. is invented and can have many possible substituents that could be used.7. etc.
ethyl.7. isopropyl. hexyl. (c) about 0-10% by weight of a viscosifying agent selected from the group consisting of cellulose ether thickeners containing an etherifying group selected from hydroxyalkyl groups and groups derived therefrom. wherein the active ingredient consists essentially of the combinationof: (a) at least 30-90% by weight of a five membered ring lactam. (b) at least 10-70% by weight of an oxygenated aliphatic solvent selected from the group consisting of the methyl. butyl. propyl. A non-toxic. Claims What is claimed is: 1. . biodegradable and ambient temperature non-volatile liquid paint stripping composition. heptyl and octyl esters of 3ethoxypropionic acid. isobutyl. such etherifying groups containing 5 or 6 carbon atoms. pentyl.
spaced from each edge of the tear-tape. 2. 57 . having a tear-tape united to its outer surface.7. Claims Indian Specification No. the perforations facilitating tearing of the wrapper to remove the portion bounded to the tear-tape. A wrapper for a package. is united to a narrow area of the wrapper defined on each side by a line of perforations which are covered by the outer portions of the tear-tape. the area of the wrapper to which the tear-type is united encircling the package and being bounded along at least one edge by perforations. 39285 Title – Wrapper for a package and method of preparing the same What is claimed is :1. The wrapper as claimed in Claim I in which a narrow area of the tear tape.
thermoplastic material and a filler consisting of non-fibrous natural mineral material. A gramophone record in which the surface of the record containing the record grooves comprises 12 to 15 per cent of amorphous carbon. The gramophone record according to Claim I. wherein the percentage of filler employed in the record is from 1 to 70 per cent.7. wherein the percentage of thermoplastic material is 20 to 60 per cent. The gramophone record as in claim 2. Claims Indian Patent Specification No. 3.38069 Title – Improvements in or relating to gramophone records. 58 . We claim :1. 2.
Claims Indian Patent Specification No. 2. A tool according to Claim I. and further means on the spindle for preventing the distortion of the spindle during and opening operation. which means also serves to facilitate the removal of the waste metal coiled around the spindle. means on spindle for guiding the tool during an opening operation. We claim. means for rotating the spindle. A tool for opening metal containers. 34515 Title. 1. wherein the means for guiding the tool and facilitating the removal of the waste metal and the means for preventing the distortion of the spindle comprise 59 .“Improvements in or relating to tin Openers”. the tool comprising a spindle spit throughout its length.7.
EX: “ A mould for casting an article. 60 . Claims Important points to remember about Claims A single inventive concept may be recognized between independent claims of different categories as in the following examples: a) a claim for a product and claim for a process specially adapted for manufacture of the product. a method of making that mould.7. Unity between product and process claims requires that the process inherently results in the product when the novel product is obtained by the claimed process. a process of casting the article by using the said mould and the article”.
Claims b) a claim for a process and an apparatus or means specifically designed for carrying out the process. Apparatus used for making said spray bottle. but without excluding any other possible use. or at least a step of the process. The spray bottle itself (a product) ii. Unity between process and apparatus or means requires that the apparatus or means have been specifically designed for carrying the process. 61 . Method of making the spray bottle (a process) iii.7. EXAMPLE: If one has invented a new kind of spray bottle. the invention can be claimed in the same application for : i.
the above criteria can not be generalized and there may be occasions where all such claims may not be allowed in a single application based on the circumstances of the case 62 . Claims c) a claim for a product.7. However. claim for a process specially adapted for manufacture of the product and claim for an apparatus or means specifically designed for carrying out the process.
ABSTRACT 63 .
50 to 150 words 64 . Abstract Purpose: ◦ The purpose is to enable third persons to quickly determine the nature and gist of the technical disclosure while searching or studying. to which the invention belongs. not necessarily the claims A concise statement of technical disclosure Single paragraph.8. technical problem and solution to the problem through the invention and principal uses of the invention. Separate sheet Immediately after claims Starts with the title Directed to what is claimed. ◦ One should understand the technical field.
By using this device at each corner of the bed sheet is held firmly in place.8. The device is an elastic strap with a clip on each end. The clips are arranged to grip the edge of a bed sheet on the underside a mattress. Abstract EXAMPLE A device is useful for holding a bed sheet firmly in place on a mattress is disclosed. 65 .
DRAWINGS 66 .
Total number of sheets and consequential sheet number should be mentioned at the right hand top corner of each sheet. Drawing should be preferably drawn in black Indian indelible ink or durable paper with margin of 2. in upright position with respect to top & bottom position of the sheet. At left-hand top corner of the sheet the name of the applicant should be mentioned.5 cm on each side. 67 .DRAWINGS Drawing should be filed on a standard A4 size sheet in duplicate.
the signature of the applicant/agent should be given along with the name of signatory there under. 68 .DRAWINGS At the right-hand bottom.
69 . etc. No descriptive matter should appear on drawings. The same letters or numerals should be used in different figures for the same parts.DRAWINGS A reference letter/numerals as used in the description should also be used in denoting the corresponding component/part in the figure (s). chemical and other reaction. In complicated drawings or when there is no room to write the reference letters in their proper places. the letters should be shown outside the figures and connected by fine lines with the parts to which they refer. such as. except under certain cases. flow chart.
Rule 9. any signature which is not legible or which is written in a script other than Hindi or English shall be accompanied by a transcription of the name either in Hindi or in English in block letters: Provided that any document including drawing.4 cm on the top and left hand part . Size. of documents (1) All documents and copies of documents: . etc.7 centimetres by 21 centimetres a margin of at least .. if any. may also be filed in electronic form along with a copy of it on white paper: Provided further that in case the application for patent discloses sequence listing of nucleotides and/or amino acids. the same shall be filed in electronic form.shall be written or typewritten or printed either in Hindi or in English language in large and legible characters with deep indelible ink lines widely spaced one side only of strong white paper of a size A4 of approximately 29. 70 .3cm on the bottom and right hand part thereof.
Section 10. the application shall be completed by depositing the material to an international depository authority under the Budapest Treaty 71 . Contents of specifications (4) Every complete specification shall— (a) fully and particularly describe the invention and its operation or use and the method by which it is to be performed. (i) the Controller may amend the abstract for providing better information to third parties. (b) disclose the best method of performing the invention which is known to the applicant an (c) end with a claim or claims defining the scope of the invention for which protection is claimed. and (ii) if the applicant mentions a biological material in the specification which may not be described in such a way as to satisfy clauses (a) and (b). (d) be accompanied by an abstract to provide technical information on the invention: Provided that. and if such material is not available to the public.
1947/DEL/2010. 1947/MUM/2010 National Phase Application 2056/CHENP/2010. 2056/KOLNP/2010. 2056/DELNP/2010 2056/MUMNP/2010 Date and time of reception Fee receipt 72 .NUMBERING Ordinary Application 1947/CHE/2010. 1947/KOL/2010.
73 . f) I claim a new method of making silk waterproof. e) I claim a mechanism for converting heat into electrical energy without any loss of efficiency.Statements that are not claims a) I claim that this device is better and cheaper and more effectual than anything known. b) I claim that my process or machine will do such and such things. c) I claim the following advantages. d) I claim an improved sewing machine.
delusions. Background of the invention: Currently. anorexia. synthetic drugs are being used. hot flushes numerous dyskinesias & psychiatric symptoms such as agitations. disease. Though the synthetic formulations are effective in relieving the symptoms of disease. 74 . there are very expensive and have inherent side effects. nightmares. weight gain. hallucinations.CASE STUDY # 01 Title A PROCESS OF PREPARING PLANT BASED AYARVEDIC FORMULATION FOR TREATMENT OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE. orthostatic hypotension. Technical field of invention: This invention relates to a process of preparing plant based Ayurvedic formulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. At present there is no specific and proven Ayurvedic medicine available for the treatment of Parkinson's. such as gastro intestinal side effects like nausea. cardiac irregularities. for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
hallucinations. nightmares. numerous dyskinesias & psychiatric symptoms such as agitations. Another object of this invention is to provide a plant based Ayurvedic formulation which is readily soluble in water. delusions. delicious and flavorous. 75 . orthostatic hypotension. hot flushes. Another object of this invention is to provide a plant based Ayurvedic formulation which can also be effectively used as geriatric tonic. weight gain.CASE STUDY # 01 Summary of the invention The main object of this invention is to provide a plant based Ayurvedic formulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and the like which is cheaper in comparison to the existing drugs and therapeutically active and clinically efficacious and at the same time drastically reducing the side effects such as gastro intestinal side effects like nausea. cardiac irregularities. anorexia.
CASE STUDY # 01 Detailed description of the invention According to this invention. Stabilizers such as gums polysaccharide and other known ingredients such as flavorous and taste enhancer may also be mixed in a known manner to made the formulation delicious and palatable. 76 . The seeds thus selected are pulverized in a pulverized/mixer The powder thus farmed is mixed with antioxidant such as Vitamin C Vitamin E. it comprises selection of active ingredients of mucuna pruriens plants which is preferably well ripened dry seeds of the plant having at least three percent alkaloid.
5% to 7.5% of the total formulation. Antioxidant : 0.1% to 0. 1O% by weight of the total formulation. more preferably.5% Stabiliser : 1% to 3% Flavour and Fragnances : 2% to 5% Taste enhancer : 1. Active ingredients : 85% to 90%.) The active ingredient powder is taken 8O% to 90% by weight of the total formulation while the other constituents are 20% to. 77 .CASE STUDY # 01 Detailed description of the invention (contd.
arthostatic hypotension. 78 . it significantly lowers incidents of gastro intestinal side effect like nausea. weight gain. hot flushes numerous. hallucinations delusions. nightmares. dyskinesias & psychiatric symptoms such as agitations. There are also significant improvement in the symptoms of Mentation behaviour and mood leading to sense of well being.CASE STUDY # 01 Detailed description of the invention (contd. show that the Ayurvedic formulation is as effective as synthetic drugs for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. anoxexia. Besides. Cardiac irregularities.) Extensive clinical trials carried out to assess the clinical efficacy of the plant based Ayurvedic formulation according to this invention. and the like.
c) Mixing antioxidant stabiliser with the said powder of step (b). 2) Process of preparing plant base Ayurvedic formulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease as claimed in Claim (1) wherein the said active ingredients of mucuna pruriens bak plants are ripened seeds. 79 .CASE STUDY # 01 Claims: What is claimed is: 1) A process of preparing/ plant based Ayurvedic formulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease comprising the following steps : a) Selecting the active ingredient from mucuna pruriens bak (Atmaqupta) plant. b) Pulverizing the said active ingredient of mucuna pruriens bak into fine powder.
CASE STUDY # 01 Claims (contd): 3) A process for preparing plant based Ayurvedic formulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease as claimed in 1 to 2 wherein flavoured fragrance and taste enhancer are also added in a known manner to make the formulation delicious. 4) A process of preparing plant based Ayurvedic formulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease as claimed in claim 1 to 3 wherein the said powder of mucuna pruriens bak active ingredient is at least 80% to 90% by weight of the total Ayurvedic formulation and the other constituents are 2O% to 10% by weight of the total formulation. 80 . flavorous and tasty.
1% to 0. as claimed in claim wherein mucuna 1 to 4 pruriens bak active ingredient powder Antioxidant85% to 90%. 7) A process of preparing plant based Ayurvedic formulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. 6) A process of preparing plant based Ayurvedic formulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease as claimed in claim 1 to 5 wherein the said antioxidant are vitamin C. vitamin E. (Name & Signature of applicant) Or Patent Agent (with regn no) 81 .5% Flavourous fragnance 1% to 3% Taste enhancer 2% to 5% By weight of the total Ayurvedic Formulation.CASE STUDY # 01 Claims (contd): 5) A process of preparing plant base Ayurvedic formulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. wherein the said stabilizer are gum polysacharine. as claimed in claim 1 to 6. Dated this 17th day of Dec 2010. stabilier 0.
comprising: . 82 .a handle. and . comprising: . and .a blade connected to said handle. An even better version of claim for the hypothetical shovel would be: (1) A shovel. comprising: .a handle.a blade connected to said first end of said handle. and .a blade having a point thereon.Iteratively drafting and debugging claims (1) A shovel. A better version of claim for our hypothetical shovel would be: (1) A shovel.a handle.
a blade connected to said first end of said handle.a handle having a first end and a second end. and .Iteratively drafting and debugging claims (1) A shovel. 83 . comprising: .
2.FORMS Provisional Form-1. 5. 26 Fee Complete Form-1. 3. 2. 26 Fee (if provisional not filed) 84 .
• Provisional Application The following specification describes the invention • Complete specification The following specification particularly describes the nature of this invention and the manner in which it is to be performed 85 .
Bangalore. 87 .The Patents Act 1970 Complete Specification (See Section 10. Title: Drafting table Applicant’s name: ABC Address: XYZ street. rule13). Nationality: Indian The following specification particularly describes the nature of this invention and the manner in which it is to be performed.
Background of the invention The known drafting tables generally consist of a rigid stand and a movable table plate. each including an outer bar and an inner bar telescoped therein.Technical field of the invention This invention relates to a drafting table of the type wherein a table plate is borne by a stand having two vertical supporting columns. can be folded together in such a way that it takes up a minimum of space for packing and transportation. by simple manipulation. This means that they require excess expenditure for packing material and incur increased transportation costs. Objects of the invention It is an object of this invention to provide a drafting table which. and having an outrigger associated with each of the columns for determining the base plane of the table. The disadvantage of such tables is that they take up a great deal of space during transportation. 88 . A further object of this invention is to provide a drafting table which also lends itself for use in smaller workplaces where it can quickly be put into a spacesaving form and set aside when not in use.
and FIG. 1 through a supporting column of the drafting table. 2 is a perspective view of the drafting table when folded. 1 is a perspective view of the drafting table set up for use. FIG.Summary of the invention To achieve the foregoing and other objects of the present invention a drafting table is provided in which each outrigger is pivotable about the inner bar of the supporting column with which it is associated. in which: FIG. 89 . 3 is a vertical section taken on the line III--III of FIG. Brief description of drawings A preferred embodiment of the invention will now be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
g. two supporting columns 2. In order to convert the drafting table from the position for use shown in FIG. Within each column 2 is a gas pressure spring 9 which exerts vertical pressure upon inner telescoping bar 2c.Detailed description of invention The drafting table illustrated in FIGS. it suffices to remove bracing plate 13. Vertical supporting columns 2 are respectively rigidly secured to legs 1a of outriggers 1. a ball-bearing bushing 2b with balls 8 (FIG. braces may also be disposed between horizontal legs 1a of outriggers 1. and a table plate 7. If the drafting table is to take up even less space in shipping position. 1 and 2 is made up essentially of two outriggers 1. 1 to the transportation or storage position shown in FIG. and an inner telescoping bar 2c. Each supporting column 2 comprises an outer telescoping bar 2a. and fold table plate 7 into a vertical position. 2. If the drafting table is to serve as a desk. 3). table plate 7 can be taken off entirely. Outriggers 1 each comprise a horizontal leg 1a and a vertical leg 1b. e. for example. by welding. table plate 7 may be supported in a horizontal position upon the top end faces of vertical legs 1b. If the stability of the drawing table is to be still further increased.. 90 . pivot outer bars 2a together with horizontal legs 1a laterally through about 90°.
A drafting table according to claim 2 including means for activating the spring means to vary the distance between the transverse means and the base members.CLAIMS What is claimed is: 1. each support including a generally horizontally disposed base member and a pair of spaced apart. An adjustable drafting table adapted to be stored in a collapsed. substantially vertical position and a second position that is inclined from the vertical. and .transverse means rigidly interconnecting upper ends of the first posts in relative. essentially planar configuration.first and second. generally U-shaped table supports. A drafting table according to claim 1 including spring means disposed within the inner tubular members and biasing the transverse means away from the base members. 3. comprising: .adjustment means disposed within the first posts. upwardly protruding first and second support posts. 91 . . . connecting the upper ends of the first posts with corresponding lower ends of the first posts. spaced apart positions. 2.means securing a table plate to the supports for pivotal movement of the plate relative to the supports about a horizontal axis between a first.
and a table plate. The supporting columns are each composed of two telescoped bars. 92 . The table comprises two outriggers. or storage.ABSTRACT A drafting table which can be folded together by simple manipulation so as to occupy very little space during packing. and the outriggers are respectively pivotable about the inner of these bars. transportation. two supporting columns.
2. each feature (with words and drawings) in such a way that the reader skilled in the field to which the invention belongs could copy and make use of the invention Writing the abstract using the reference numerals Drafting the claims 8. 4. 93 . Describing in detail.1. 7. Spotting the invention Figure out each feature (new and promising) of the invention Finding the right words to define each novel feature Drawing one or more figures showing the invention Arranging the figures of the drawing in a sequence Deciding on the terminology to describe the invention Drafting the detailed description (reference numerals). 6. 3. 9. 5.
TEAPOT Spotting and Generalizing the Invention What is the invention?
1. 2. What is the difference between the closest prior art and the invention? (Novelty?) What are the disadvantages/shortcomings of the prior art?
What technical problem was solved by the invention?
How does the invention solve that problem? Due to what technical feature the problem underlying the invention is solved?
7. 8. 9.
What are the technical effects caused by the invention?
What are the advantages of the invention in the light of the prior art? What are the important and/or critical features of the invention? Need for an efficient and time saving teapot…
A well drafted application decides the fate of an invention 97 .
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