Vibration Fundamentals

Topics to be covered • Fundamentals of Vibration • Transducer operation and Selection • Machinery Protection and Management systems • Right Practices for Rotating Machineries

Vibration

What is vibration? Why care about vibration? What causes vibration? How do we measure vibration? Measuring vibration

Vibration What is vibration? When an object moves back and forth repeatedly Vibration can be fast or slow Vibration movement can be large or small Why care about vibration??? .

Machinery Vibration .

What Causes Vibration? Centrifugal Force = A force on an object when it swings in a circle Bucket of water Weight on a string .

Centrifugal Force Other objects that demonstrate rotating unbalance Car tires Ceiling fans .

Measuring Vibration We can measure vibration movement Amplitude = How far a vibrating object moves back and forth. .

Machinery That Rotates .

Vibrating Machinery .

Vibrating Machinery .

MACHINE DATA Direct Measurements Vibration and Position Rotor Speed Bearing Temperature Indirect Data Process Data Performance Data .

Slow Roll D. Stopped Constant Machine Speed Process or Load Change Start Up Shut Down . Steady State : B.Operating Modes A. Transient : C.

TRANSDUCER SYSTEMS .

Transducer Operation Three Parameter normally measured are : Displacement Velocity Acceleration .

Acceleration Acceleromitor Transducer . Velomitor Velocity Tx.Transducer Operation Types of Transducers Eddy Current Proximity Type Traditional Velocity Tx .

Transducer Operation Proximity Transducer .

Transducer Operation Proximity Transducer Measures distance between the target and the probe tip using eddy current principle. . Generates a high frequency localized magnetic field around transducer tip The field causes Eddy current to flow out of the transducer Shaft movement is detected by the power loss occurs which converted in to DC voltage.

Transducer Operation Velocity Transducer Measures time rate change of Displacement The construction is made of fixed magnet and coil assembly. Relative motion between coil an magnet creates current to flow proportional to the relative velocity between them. .

Transducer Operation Velocity Transducer Disadvantages of Traditional Velocity Transducer Checking requires Shaker Table Poor Reliability : More moving parts Sensitive to Mounting Arrangement No slow roll information Cross Axis Sensitivity .

.Transducer Operation Velomitor Transducer Basically measures acceleration and integrates to velocity. Velomitor has no moving parts so more reliable than traditional velocity transducer A signal is generated by ceramic peizo electric crystal clamped between two masses.

.Transducer Operation Velomitor Transducer This signal passes through the integral circuitry which conditions and integrates the signal that is proportional to the vibration velocity. Very good reliability. Simple Bearing Housing Installations Good mid frequency response High Temperature ranges available.

Force on peizo electric crystal directly gets converted into proportional acceleration signal.Transducer Operation Accelerometer Transducer Works on the same principle of peizo electric charge. Reliable design Easy bearing housing installation Broad frequency response High temperature models available .

Transducer Selection You know the application but what about the proper Transducer Selection ?? .

Transducer Selection Criteria Malfunction Based Machine Construction Based .

Transducer Selection Criteria Machine Construction Based .

1.1: Two radially oriented probes shall be provided for each bearing. The two probes located at each bearing shall be coplanar.API 670 Guidelines For Radial Shaft Vibration Probes : (Clause 4. 90 degrees (+ or – 5 degrees ) apart and perpendicular to the shaft axis ( + or – 5 degrees ).1. The probes shall be located 45 degrees from each side from the vertical center.1. .1) As per API 670 clause 4.

Condition Monitoring .

Condition Monitoring .

Why Shaft Relative Measurement? Vibration measurement Proximity Probes .

Radial Proximity Probes .

Shaft Displacement & Bearing Absolute Transducer Installation .

2.API 670 Guidelines For Axial Position Probes:( Clause 4. Both probes shall sense the shaft itself or an integral axial surface installed within an axial distance of 300 mm from the thrust bearing or bearings.1.1 : Two axially oriented probes shall be supplied for the thrust bearing end of each casing.2) As per API 670 clause 4. . the standard optional arrangement shall be one probe sensing the shaft end and one probe sensing an integral thrust collar. When specified.1.

Dual Thrust Proximity Probes .

.

Axial Position Measurements AXIAL (THRUST) POSITION Thrust Collar 12” Max 12” Max DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION .

API 670 Guidelines For Phase Reference Transducers : (Clause 4.1.3) As per API 670 Clause 4.1.3.1 : A one – event – per revolution mark and a corresponding phase reference transducer shall be provided on the driver for each machinery train.

HOW TO MAKE PHASE MEASUREMENTS

Deflection Shape

“A”

“B”

Once Per Turn Reference Pulse 0° -V ONE REVOLUTION 0° ONE REVOLUTION -V Video Clip .

Process Parameters .

V H V H D D H V D V H H V D H V D H V D H BRG 2 BRG 3 BRG 4 BRG 5 BRG 6 BRG 7 VERT 270° D HOR D VERT HOR VERT V HOR BRG 1-7 SHAFT Displ. COUPLINGS Mode Ident.KEYPHASOR® SP . CE . 3 .CASE EXPANSION D .DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION BRDRC ECC . V H D V D EXC.Advanced TSI transducers installation on Turbine-Generator .SPEED Fig.THRUST SP/A CE KØ™ (Dual) ECC SP/B THRUST BRG 1 KØ™ ECC 0° 90° 180° V V V D H V V V V H V V H V V H H V V H DE H V V H HP/IP H V D V D LP H D GEN.DISPLACEMENT DE . BRG 1-7 BEARING Vel.ECCENTRICITY KØ™ .

W M IdentificationProbes ith ode 23 XX 45 XX 7 6 XX An example of the application of Mode Identification Probes 7 1 X 0° 90° 270° 2 1 X XX 4 XX XX W ithout M IdentificationProbes ode 180° .

VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS Overall Vibration Position Frequency nX Amplitude and Phase Shape or Form You must have access to this information to properly manage your machine .

Phase Angle Measurement Application Shaft Balancing Shaft Crack Detection Shaft / Structural Resonance Detection Shaft Mode Shape Direction of Precession Location of Fluid-Induced Instability Source .

It is very important to appreciate that application may demand use of both Proximity and Siesmic transducers.Condition Monitoring Correct VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS Bearing Pedestal Vibrations alone do not provide sufficient information on large machines with sleeve / journal bearings. . This must not be assumed to be ‘duplication’ of measurements.

Condition Monitoring of TGs Few more IMPORTANT & Correct MEASUREMENTS Thrust Position Measurements must be Dual Redundant. Redundant Phase measurement (Keyphasor R probes) Redundant Overspeed Detection Monitors. . Case Expansion measurements must be made on both sides of the casing.

HOW TO INTERPRET STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN PLOTS .

Phase. and Frequency of Resonance Synchronous Amplification Factor (API Method) High / Heavy Spot Relationship Structural and Split Resonance Rotor Mode Shape / Deflection Shape Preload Identification Frequency Relationships .INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM TRANSIENT RESPONSE PLOTS Slow Roll Speed Slow Roll Runout Vector Amplitude.

Orbit Plot Can Show Preloads (Misalignment) (No Resonance Near Twice Rotative Speed) Rare Common Rare .

Shaft Centerline Plot Can Show Misalignment Turbine Generator .

nX Amplitude 1X. . 0. 2X. 1.25. 2. 2X. etc. .Machine Characteristics Overall Amplitude Spectrum 1X. Density. nX Phase Not 1X Gap Voltage Vibration Shape Temperature Pressure Load pp Amplitude Smax Vibration Transmitter Overall Amplitude ? How can you MANAGE your machine without complete information? Machinery Management Uses All Of The Tools Correlated Machine Information Other (Gram Mole Weight. Such as Bently Nevada’s DM2000 system . . Flow.) n = 0. 3.5.

.MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS Systems that shutdown a machine or return it to a safe or nondestructive mode of operation without human intervention.

” .INTRODUCTION TO MACHINERY MANAGEMENT Bently Nevada’s mission is to help you protect and manage your machinery. This Course Focuses on Machinery Management. Supported by the effective use of “Diagnostic Principals and Practices.

and assess the condition of their machinery.MACHINERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Use of systems that provide data and information that is interpreted and applied by people to correctly operate. . maintain.

MACHINERY MANAGEMENT Machinery Management requires information! .

Overview of Machinery Protection and Management System 1 Single Platform for all your Management Needs !! .

Machinery Monitoring Monitoring System Sensors Sensors .

Machinery Monitoring .

Machinery Protection Distributed Control System Control System Sensors Protection System Level 1 Sensors .

Machinery Protection Trigger relay if all four channels indicate “Danger” .

Reduced Spares * Programmable Relays * Software Configurable .3500 SERIES MONITORING SYSTEM Basic Features * Dual Redundant Power Supply * Flexible Cards . Cost. * Redundant Gateway * More data for better analysis. Inputs 28 Vibration / Axial Inputs 2 speed inputs Two 7200 Racks included in the same rack of 3500.Less Installation & Maint. LCD DISPLAY FOR 3500 SERIES SYSTEM .

Enhanced Operator Interface Improved Operator Information Set ♦ The Informative Data Set Overall Amplitude Probe Gap Voltage 1X Amplitude and Phase 2X Amplitude and Phase Not 1X Amplitude ♦ Alarm Event List ♦ System Event List Windows™ Based Operator Display Software .

REMOTE DISPLAY .Enhanced Operator Interface Data Where you need it BENTLY NEVADA SCREENS X Station OPERATOR Plant DCS Modbus Gateway TCP / IP XProtocol RS 232 / RS 422 LINK OPERATOR DISPLAY SOFTWARE MODBUS LINK PLANTWIDE ETHERNET Net DDE TCP / IP 3500 SYSTEM 10 10 0 0 0 0 PLANT MGR MAINT. MGR MACHINE SPEC.

Vibration Data at the Machine Skid COMMUNICATION GATEWAY 3500 SYSTEM MODBUS LINK 10 10 0 0 MACHINE REMOTE DISPLAY .

3500 Ethernet Communication PLANTWIDE ETHERNET OPERATOR DISPLAY SOFTWARE RS 232 / RS 422 LINK TCP / IP Net DDE 3500 SYSTEM OPERATOR DISPLAY SOFTWARE PLANT MGR MAINT. MGR MACHINE SPEC. .

Don’t Forget Data for The Maintenance People TDM2 RS232 MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL TDIX STATIC & DYNAMIC DATA DDIX MACHINE 3500 SYSTEM .

Reduced Installation & Maintenance Costs Lower Cabling Costs Mount at the Machine Downward Compatibility Easy to Configure Reduced Spare Parts .

Machinery Data Analysis Data Review Level 2 Data Acquisition and Display Remote Access Protection System Control System Sensors Level 1 Sensors .

System 1 MMS System .

.

Machinery Management Level 3 Level 2 Decision Support Data Acquisition and Display Protection System Sensors Remote Access Control System Level 1 Sensors .

.Where Where Data Available? Data Available? Summary Supporting Evidence Details Notes How Serious? How Serious? About What is it? What is it? Audit Result Information .10F(5C) B) Increase the oil supply pressure 10 psi C) If there are no improvements from steps A and B. Close What do IIdo? What do do? Audit Results Display from Machinery Management System .Fluid Induced Instability .Whip Severity: Malfunction: Location: Date/Time: Fluid Induced Instability .. the Unit should be removed from service Print.LP! .Whip Steam Turbine Generator 2 .Bearing 6 12-Aug-97 2:09:22 PM Audit performed with sufficient data When When Note: Bently Nevada Corporation Recommended Actions: A) Increase or decrease oil supply temperature +/.

Review Machinery monitoring Machinery protection Machinery data analysis Machinery management .

Windows Displays Data Display and Automatedon Notification Win95 or NT and advisories available both Local and Process Variables Remote Plant Information Network (PIN) Advisories/Data Plant DCS Remote Display and Notification BNC Serve r System 1 Expert System Ethernet (Dedicated or PIN) Server TDXnet Comm Processor (s) BNC Monitor Rack(s) Proximitors .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful