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Whether you work in a business organization or an educational institution or you are a student, it is essential that you possess good speaking skills. The ability to make effective and memorable oral presentation is one of the most important qualities you need to develop for a successful career. Constant practice is the key to acquiring this skill. Defining Purpose:
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The purpose of your presentation not only decides the content and style but also affects the amount of audience interaction. For e.g. : when your purpose is to provide information or to analyze a situation, generally there is a less interaction. Suppose you want present implementation of new policies then they may ask questions or give suggestions. But, when your purpose is to influence people to take a particular action or solve a problem or make a decision the interaction would be more. Depending on your purpose- to inform, to analyze or to persuade- you should be flexible enough to adjust to new input and unexpected audience reactions
Know your audience: • • • • • What are their interest, likes/dislikes, education? Are they familiar with the topic? Is their attitude towards learning is hostile or friendly? What’s the size of the group? Age/ Gender/ Religion
Analyzing the Audience: • The audience is always at the receiving end of your communication. The nature of your presentation has a direct impact on the strategy you devise for your presentation. Therefore it is necessary to have some prior knowledge about them. Mostly the audience is a mixture of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Therefore those are less conversant in English would appreciate slow speech and visual aids which help their understanding. Structure your presentation and adapt your style to help them feel comfortable. Then you will not be discouraged by their reactions.
Arrange the contents of your presentation into three major parts namely. • • • • • • • • Always begin with a smile and greet them pleasantly. small story or a statement. it will irritate them instead of creating a good impression. try to catch their attention by giving it a personal tinge to which they can easily relate. This comprises the opening statement. take your time to arrange the notes. What do I want them to know by the end of my talk? PREPARATION for the presentation: In the beginning of your presentation make eye contact with the audience. If you are very nervous then memorize first few sentences of the presentation. Make your points crystal clear and easy to understand. What do they know about the topic? 2. Anecdotes can work wonders for their wandering attention. Organizing CONTENT • • • • • When you face an audience you should expect to feel a little nervous. figure out out their experience and knowledge of the subject matter. 1. main body and conclusions. as this will help you feel confident. instruct or entertain. . Speak with confidence and conviction.• • We communicate to inform. the aim. Encourage the listeners to ask questions/ share the doubts Work to achieve effectiveness in your communication by responding to their feedback. You can start by giving any particular situation that took place in the past. Even though they are well educated don’t go for confusing words. Introduction • • • • • A good introduction is a vehicle to lead the audience into the main body of the presentation. This catches the attention of your audience and prepares them to listen to the rest of your presentation. Always prepare more material than required. It can be a question. and the layout. Take couple of silent deep breaths before speaking. Tell them the purpose/objective of your presentation. Whatever maybe the purpose give the impression to your audience that you want to share your views with them. When you get on the stage . introduction. [use simple and effective language] If you feel the audience is not interested in your presentation.
the discussion or the text part follows the introduction and supports your aim or specific purpose. overhead projector.handouts. as soon as they come out from your mouth. charts. Cause and Effect. on the contrary. Categorical. You can help the audience by summarizing the main points as you go along. The major points you highlighted in your opening will be expanded upon here. Main Part The main body. Don’t let anyone monopolize the question time. apart from that. remind the audience briefly about the purpose of your presentation. etc. Give a signal such as to sum up. In this section. Restrict yourself to four or five points.divide into topic and sub topics 3. Therefore preparing for the questions is very important. Problem-Solution • • Resist the temptation to add too many points. clear and appropriate to its purpose and audience it will deliver its message more accurately and quickly than a verbal explanation The audience likes to hear as well as see information. Conclusions You can conclude your presentation by reviewing the main points. Following are the following patterns that you can choose: 1. in addition to. next. presentations often need strong visual support. It should be smooth transition. because. slides. Plan how you will go from one to another point. 2. If a picture is simple. Mostly. It is also important that you learn how to quickly divert irrelevant questions. which could be either to persuade them or to inform them Avoid the temptation to wrap in haste or add something new in this part of your speech. to conclude and to review.‘impact of internet amongst children’. This provides with vital feedback about the ideas that you have put forth in your presentation. Visual Aids Spoken words evaporate.• Then state clearly the precisely the purpose of your presentation and the presentation by giving an overview or road map of your presentation. chalk boards. Make use of words like: therefore. • • • • • • • • • • • . as to avoid wasting everybody’s time. presentations are followed by a question period. Because of this limitation. etc. Chronological – in order in which the events occur. You have to learn to handle that too by indicating that each questioner has to be given a fair chance. As you conclude. 4.
Familiarize yourself with the operation of the overhead projector. Write in large letters. Power Point Presentations • • • • • Check the computer system/equipment before loading. Keep contents which you may want to refer again. your perfectly timed pauses. Show only the required information. There are four Nuances [modes] of delivery which can be used for making presentation: Your manner of presentation. Don’t face the board while talking to the audience. Divide the board into columns and write legibly. . your voice inflections. Be ready with your notes in case of power failure. Keep a printed copy of the slides. Blackboard or Whiteboard • • • • • • Clean the board well before starting and check the condition of markers. Separate the transparencies using sheets of paper. All these are part of an expert delivery. Wait for the audience to grasp the contents before turning pages. Be familiar with the operation of the slide show.OVERHEAD TRANSPARENCIES • • • • • • • • Use larger fonts. Write in large letters. Avoid decorative fonts. Flip Charts Use different colored markers. your facial expressions. Rehearse your presentation. whereas a really interesting topic may appear to be dull because of poor delivery. Familiarize yourself with the operation of the slides. Do not add too many colors. and your gestures. Use only one side of the chart. Stand to the side as you write. Even a dull and drab topic will turn out to be more interesting if presented well. Keep transparencies orderly.
There is no need to learn every word by rote. . you work hard on the theme/central idea. Your delivery sounds natural to them as it allows to establish a rapport through eye contact. material is written out and you are supposed to read it aloud. You can overcome this by going through the material several times till you become familiar with the material. you can get lost and find yourself uncomfortable. It enables you to move freely. you are speaking while thinking. You are not supposed to memorize the speech and recollect it. you should be remember that should not attempt to read a speech until you are a proficient reader. ADVANTAGES As you have enough time to prepare for the presentation. • Since you are reading you cannot talk to them. This makes it dull and uninteresting. • There is no chance of tampering with the facts and figures. • The material is organized systematically • Language gets polished because you can write and rewrite until you are satisfied. If you rely too much on the note cards and start reading from them for reference. Unfortunately good speakers are not necessarily good readers. The supporting material helps to present your points clearly and also adds weight to your agreement . Adaptation is also possible because no written text binds you. then your speech will lose its spontaneity. DISADVANTAGES • Since you are reading from the manuscript you get less time for making proper eye contact. Extemporaneous: This is by far the most popular and effective method when carefully prepared. This is the result of thorough planning and practice where you collect the material and organize it with care. Manuscript: In this presentation. Thorough preparation on your part makes you feel secure and you carry out your responsibility with great aplomb. When speaking extempore you must prepare the notes beforehand and rehearse your presentation. with ease. But.1. You should know what is written where. which is essential to feel the pulse of the audience. 2. ADVANTAGES • It’s permanent and accurate record of what you are going to say. DISADVANTAGES If preparation is inadequate. Your presentation will sound quite spontaneous to the audience as after thorough preparation. Cannot use non-verbal communication.
Chances of rambling are very high.• • Cannot adapt if need arises. then committed to memory and finally delivered from memory. 3. 4. ADVANTAGES • It is easy for such speakers to maintain eye contact. • The speaker gets flustered if he forgets any word or sentence . Be as brief as possible during impromptu presentations. • It is possible to finish the speech in the allotted time. DISADVANTAGES The presentation lacks organization of ideas because of the shortage of time. Don’t panic and babble something in an unmethodical way. and punctuation marks. DISADVANTAGES • Memorization requires too much of time. If you are not an effective reader then you can fumble with words. Instead calmly state your topic and then preview the points you are to make. not what you have to say. Impromptu: The word itself suggests that a speech delivered informally without any preparation. • No flexibility or adaptation is possible. You are spontaneous as you feel what you say. The presentation may turn out to be failure if you have inadequate proficiency in the language. This type of delivery stands somewhere between extemporaneous and manuscript presentation. lose pace. ADVANTAGES You sound very natural because you do not get enough time to make any elaborate preparation. • Even your mnemonic skills fail you if you have not rehearsed enough. they can also use nonverbal communication to add extra value to the speech. • There are chances of making it dull because you cannot include new ideas which you get at the moment. Speech is written beforehand. or quotes you can recall at that time. Support your points with whatever examples. Memorization: This method of presentation is very difficult for most of us.
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