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Technology & Training
Training
to
Reduce
Unscheduled
Events
I
~ y ..
AMOCO
~ · ~
Training to Reduce Unscheduled Events
was compiled by the
Amoco EPTG Drilling Technology Teams
© 1994, 1995, 1996 Amoco Production Company
Third Edition
,,
~ y ~
AMOCO
~ · ~
The materials were prepared by Amoco Production Company.
Neither Amoco Production Company, employees of Amoco
Production Company, nor any person acting on behalf of either:
a. Makes any warranty or representation, express or implied
with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness
of the information, contained in these materials, or that the
use of any information, apparatus, method, or process
disclosed in this report may not infringe third party rights: or
b. Assumes any liability with respect to the use of, or for any
and all damages resulting from the use of, any information,
apparatus, method, or process in these materials.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TEAM BUILDING PRINCIPLES
• TEAM BUILDING PRINCIPLES .. ... ......................................................... 1
• BASIC GEOLOGY .................................................. ................. 2
• CASING PROGRAM ........ ................ .......... .. ................. ........... 9
• DRILLING FLUIDS .................................................................. 15
• HYDRAULICS PLANNING ...................................................... 20
.,- . • ' .. • • -. I ; . •
- .. -... . . .
.. ~ : - -- ,.. - ·- .
• HOLE PACK-OFF I BRIDGE ..................... ................ ................ 22
• DIFFERENTIAL STICKING ................ ...................................... 44
• WELLBORE GEOMETRY .................................................. ..... 47
• STUCK PIPE FREEING ................... ............ ............. ................ 53
LOST CIRCULATION
• LOST CIRCULATION MECHANISMS ............. .. ...................... 56
• SEEPAGE LOSS SOLUTIONS ............................................ .. .. 60
• PARTIAL LOSS SOLUTIONS ................................................. 61
• TOTAL LOSS SOLUTIONS ............ ......................................... 61
• PILL SPOTTING GUIDELINES ... ............................................ 63
RIO REPAIR
• IMPACT OF UNSCHEDULED RIG REPAIR ............................. 66
• INTERGRATING PMP WITH WELL PLAN ............................... 68
• DRILLING SYSTEM EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ............... 69

TOOL FAILURE CAUSES ........................................................ 70

FACTORS INFLUENCING TOOL SELECTION ....................... 71

RIG-SITE TOOL SELECTION /INSPECTION CHECK LIST. ... 72
DRILL STRING FAILURE

DRILL PIPE FAILURE PREVENTION PLANNING .............. 73

DRILL PIPE TUBE FATIGUE FAILURE .................................... 74

BHA CONNECTION FATIGUE FAILURE ......................... ...... 77

BHA CONNECTION STRESS RELIEF /BSR .......................... 78

DRILL CREW FIVE SECOND CHECKS .................................. 79

DRILL STRING CARE I HANDLING PRACTICES ................... 80
























TABLE OF CONTENTS
DRILLING JARS
BASIC JAR OPERATIONS........................................................ 81
PUMP OPEN FORCE .......... ................................... ................. 82
COCKING I TRIPPING THE JAR ............................................ 83
DRILLING ACCELERATOR ...... .............................................. 86
JAR RULES I PLACEMENT GUIDELINES .............................. 87
PRIMARY WELL CONTROL .......... ......... .... .... ........................ .. 91
SWAB I SURGE PRESSURE ................................. .................. 92
SECONDARY WELL CONTROL .... .. .... .. .. . .... .... .... ................... 95
KICK DETECTION TEAM . ........ ............ ...... .•. . ............ .............. 97
TERTIARY WELL CONTROL .................................................. 111
OBM KICK DETECTION I GAS BEHAVIOR ............................ 115
WELL CONTROL KILL SHEET ................................................ 117
CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS ........................................... 119
STANDARD EQUIPMENT ................................................. ........ 121
EQUIPMENT I WELLBORE PREPARATIONS ........... ............. 122
CASING PRE JOB CHECKLIST ........................ ................... 125
RUNNING CASING GUIDELINES ........................................... 126
CEMENTING PRE JOB CHECKLIST ...................................... 127
TROUBLE SHOOTING CEMENTING PROBLEMS ... .. ... ...... . .
WHY DRILL HORIZONTAL WELLS ......................................... 131
HORIZONTAL WELL PROFI LES .................. ........................... 132
HORIZONTAL DRILLING BHA ..................•.............................. 133
HORIZONTAL WELL PLANNING ............................................ 134
HORIZONTAL WELL CONTROL KILL SHEET ........................ 136
• DRILLER HANDOVER NOTES ................................................ 138
• SHAKER HANDOVER NOTES ..................................... ........... 139
• TIGHT HOLE I STUCK PIPE REPORT FORM ......................... 140
• LOST CIRCULATION REPORT FORM .................................... 141
• EQUIPMENT SELECTION /INSPECTION FORM .................. 142
• DOWN HOLE TOOL FAILURE REPORT FORM ........ ........ .. .. .. 143
• DRILL STRING FAILURE REPORT FORM ............................. 144
• WELL CONTROL REPORT FORM ......................................... 145
TEAM BUILDING PRINCIPLES
TEAMS
WHAT ARE TEAMS
• Two or more people worl<ing together
• Work teams have a common goal
• Team members develop "earned trust" through accountability
• Teams are self·motivated
• Teams are performance motivated
MULTI-FUNCTIONAL
TEAMS REQUIRE A MIXTURE OF SKILLS
• Technical expertise
• Functional experienoe
• Problem solving capability
• Decision making skills
• Inter ·personal skills
PROBLEM SOLVING
HOW DO TEAMS SOLVE PROBLEMS

Define the problem

Identify primary cause(s)

Develop alternative solution(s)

Implement action plans

Evaluate the effectiveness of the plan
WORKING STYLES
TEAM DECISION MAKING STYLES
• COMMAND Decision is made by leader

CONSULTATIVE Decision is made by leader With team input

CONSENSUS Decision is made as a team

DELEGATION Decision is delegated down the chain of command
RESULTS
WHAT TEAMS DO
• IMPROVE WORK QUALITY • More expertise/skills are available
• FLEXIBLE - Respond quickly to change
• CREATIVE. Conbnously improve wort< processes
• DEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT ACTION PLANS -Better communications
• REDUCE PROJECT COST
Page 1
WELL PLAN
An extensive depression in the e a r t h ~ s surface
An estimated 90% of the wortds drilllngs occurs In offshore and inland
basins
A laterally continuous sequence of sediments that is recognizably distinct
and mappable
Land mass elevated above sea level Is weathered and broken down to
small fragments (clastics):
Mechanically by water, wind and temperature
Chemically by soluble minerals dissolving into the water
Rock fragments (sand. silt. clay) and dissolved chemical compounds
(silicates, calcite, iron, etc.) are transported to the basin by gravity,
flowing water and wind
The fragments are swept into the basin Where they settle to the ftOOf of
the basin and form water saturated beds or sand and clay
The weight of each successive sediment layer (overburden) compacts the
sediments below. Compaction squeezes the water out of the sediments and
back to the sea
As the water is squeezed out. the dissolved chemical compounds left
cements the fragments together to form sedimentary rock
Page 2
WELL PLAN
BASIC GEOLOGY
-- -- ------ - -------
CLAYSTONE Lesslhan
Rocl<s formed from an accumulation of
& SHALE 4 microns
day mine<als and silt size partldes
MARL Mrl
Less than Rocks formed from an accumulation of
4 microns clay minerals and calcite (calcium carbonate)
SILTSTONE SLst
4to60
microns
Rocks formed from an accumulation of
mineral grains (quartz)
SANDSTONE Sst
60 llliCtOI\S
to2mm
Sandstone comp<esslve sttenglh. +/- 9000 psi
CONGLOMERATE Cgl
Greater than Rocks formed from an accumulation of primarily
2mm granule. pebble and boulder size particles
LIMESTONE Ls
Rocks formed from large deposijs of primarily
calcite (calcium carbonate) and dolomite (calcium
magnesium)
DOLOMITE& Chemical
CHALK Rocks
Comp<essive sltengths Limestone. +/- 20.000 psi.
Dolomite. +/- 24.000 psi. Chert. +/- 83,000 psi;
CHERT
Chalk. +/- 6000 psi:
Gypsum&
Rocks composed of minerals that p<ecipitated
Anhydrite
from solution during the evaporation of water
Evaporates
SALT Sa
Compressive strenglh· Anhydrite +/- 6000 psi
BASEMENT Bm
Igneous
Rock fonned from the cooling of molten magma
rock
VOLCANICS Vole
FAULT FH
A fracture in the rock caused by natural forces
resulting in failure and displacement of the
formation along the fault plane
OIL 0 L•quid hydrocarbon (5.0 to 7.1 ppg)
Native
GAS G
formation
Aulds
Gaseous hydrocarbon (2 3 ppg average)
WATER
water (8.3 to 11.7 ppg)
- - - ------ - ------
- ~ ---
Pagel
BASIC GEOLOGY
..
WELL PLAN
0
TYPICAL POROSITY REDUCTION BY
SEDIMENT COMPACTION AND CEMENTATION
/
/ NOTE: Deviations rrom the
, average porosity can occur

0 20 30
POROSITY%
The ability of a rock to flow fluids measured in units of darcies
A rock that is porous does not indicate that it is permeable
(i.e .• shale with 10% porosity may exhibit only micro permeability.
1o-6 to 1()·12 Clarey)
0
Page4
TYPICAL PERMEABILITY REDUCTION BY
SEDIMENT COMPACTION AND CEMENTATION
PERMEABILITY (Oarcies)
0
SIDE
VIEW
WELL PLAN
BASIC GEOLOGY
A force Imposed to the rocK matrix measured in pounds of force per square inch
of area (psi)
Natural sources of rock stress originate from overburden stress. tectonic stress
and formation nuld pressure
The stress produced by lhe combined weight of the rocKs and formation fl uids
overlaying a depth of interest
.,
TYPICAL OVERBURDEN
STRESS VERSUS DEPTH
·,. L--"'·"" · --,,.., --,.--'"""....l..--:.
OVERBURDEN STRESS ppg
The stress produced by lateral (side to side) forces in the formati on
Tectonic stresses are usually very high in mountainous regions
Page 5
BASIC GEOLOGY
WELL PLAN
-- - - - - --
SHALE
LIMESTONE/
DOLOMITE
SOFT
(Ductile)
HARD
(Brittle)
CON·
SOU DATED
SOFT
(Chalk)
HARD
(Brittle)
Generally occurs in deeper depth (10,000' +)
Hard and britUe due to low water content
Fracture pressure higher than injection pressure
Brittle texture prevents fracture from "healing"
Associated with hole pack-off/bridge
Generally occurs in the shallower depth(< 5,000')
High porosity (25% +)
High permeability (2 darcies +)
Associated with lost circulation, hole wash-out,
hole pack-off
Generally occurs In mid to deep depths (4000' +)
Porosity range (25% • 1 %)
Permeability range (2 darcies • 10 milidarcles)
Associated with differential sticking, underguage hole
Low compressive strength
High porosity(+/- 40%)
Permeability range (2 darcies- 10 milidarcies)
\Mil dissolve In fresh water muds
High compressive strength, usually fractured
High porosity (20 - 40%). High permeability
Associated with lost differential
Page6
. . . .... .
WELL PLAN
BASIC GEOLOGY
14-....:...--...L, IUIIHOfUIIAL,
.
.

\

\

- ~ - - - - - ~ · ~ - - - ~ - -
FORMATlOH PMAUM (10M IMJ)
~ . . ..... .. , . . _ , , , ~ · · · · · · · · - ~ ·
pore fluid Is squeezed out of the ahele to the adJacent
Formation prossijre lesslhan the normal pressijre expected for the depth of
interest
Lower-than-normal formation pressijre may exist in offshore basins dije to
production depletion, however. narumlly occurring subnormal pressure Is
rare. In Inland basins. native subnormal pressure is a common occurrence
- ---------- - - -
Page7
BASIC GEOLOGY
WELL PLAN
The bed of sediments in which the oil and gas was produced (shale,
limestone). Compaction squeezes the oil and gas to the reservoir rock
(primary migration)
The permeable formation which receives and stores the oil and gas volume
of primary migration
The elevation in reservoir rock to which the oil and gas accumulates
(secondary migration)
Traps formed as a result of uplifting, folding and/or faulting of the formation
layers
PageS
WELL PLAN
..
.
..
Drive or Structural
Casing
Liner Tie Back - -----;:,.,..::,-,...,"::r
Casing
.........
. . . . . . .
. . . . ' .
. •' .... .
. . ' . .. .
. . , •.
·:. Production liner
or Casing
Page9
·. ·.:·:.·· . .-.:·· .. ·· . .-.:·· ..
. ·. · ... ··. ·.'
. .· ..
FUNCTIONS:
* PROVIDE HYDRAIAJC
WGRflY
. cmtacloo
* PROTECT THE WELLBORE
• High f01111111on ,_,.

PROTECT T1tE fORMATION
' lnc-Ciblt WtUboft
flllds
• l'loduction Zoot llolllioo
CASING PROGRAM
WELL PLAN
Shoe suength must support the hydrostatic. circulating and surge pressures and
PfOVide a sufficient kick tolerance for well control safety
In some instances. the only solution to a drilling problem may be to run
casing before the planned shoe depth is reached. This could be the next
planned casing string or a contingency liner
Casing may be set before or deeper than its planned depth to protect
potential production zones
Consolidated. Naturally cemented rock to avoid wash out and/or
hole collapse during cementing
As homogeneous as possible. Interbedded layers of dillerent
formation types weaken the rock and introduce the possibility of
permeability
fmpennuble. Water loss from the cement slurry can in
nash·setting of the cement before it is in place
If permeability Is present, the tme leak·off pressure or the wellbore
is difficult to establish
Lowest Rock Strength: Initial fracture gradient assumptions are
based on the weakest rock type
Clean shale is the ideal casing seat formation. tn the field, however, the formation selected for
the seat Is usually the best compromise between the Ideal and what is possible
DATA:
PIPE SIZES
9-6/8"- 38"
DRIVE PIPE
(Ortven to A:efusal)
STRUCTURAL CASING
(Orill.cl •nd
SHUT·IN NOT
RECOMM£NOEO
Page 10
FUNCTIONS:
• Prevent Rig FOundation
Wa•hout
• Recycling •
• Olverter ayatem
• Vertleal Pilot
• Structural Support
conductor caalng
WELL PLAN
Planned sening depth determined by anticipated hole instability, lost
circulation problems and to protect fresh water sands (land based)
Surface casing must provide sufficient fracture strength to allow drilling the
next hole interval with a sufficient kick tolerance
The casing is pressure tested and the shoe Is tested to a m a ~ i m u m anticipated pressure or to leak-off
Page 11
DATA:
PIPE SIZE
5" ·ll-311"
• CEIIENTED BACK
TO PREDETERIIINED
DEPTII
• CASING PRESSURE
TESTED
• SHOE PRESSURE
TESTED
WELL PLAN
FUNCTIONS:
• PROVIDE WE.LL
CONTROL CAPABILITY
• SOLUTION FOR
DRILliNG PROBLEMS:
• lolt ~ u l a t l o o
• Oillt,..,tlat Sticking
• PROTECT FORMATIONS:
' LowiHigh Wtllbolt
Prttsure
' lncompotlblt Wtllbore
Fluids
• Prod uctloo Zone ls4latlon
• SHUT ~ N RECOMMENDED
(Stlln P*'ure
Trensition Shalt!
DATA:
' PIPE SIZE
s· -t t-314"
. .
CEMENTED BACK
TO UNER HANGER
' LINER PRESSURE
TESTED
WELL PLAN
CASING PROGRAM
Planned setting depth determined by minimum desired kick tolerance,
anticipated hole instability, lost circulation problems or protecting
production zones
If the liner is contingent on drilling problems, occurrence of the problem
determines the setting depth
FUNCTIONS:
' PROVIDE WE.L.L
CONTROL CAPABIUTY
• SOLUTION FOR SPECIFIC
DRILLING PROBLEMS:
• LO$t circulation
• Formation Instability
' Dlfforentlal Slicking
• Low/High Wellbore
Pressure
• Incompatible Wollbore
Fluids
• Production Zone Isolation
SHUT ~ N RECOMMENDED
The liner Is pressure tested and the shoe and liner top tested to a maximum anticipated pressure or to
leak-off
Page 13
DATA:
PIPE SIZE
s· . 9-518"
• CEMENTED BACK
TO PREDETERMINED
DEPTH
• UNER I CASING I TIE·
BACK CASING
PRESSURE TESTED
WELL PLAN
Planned setting depth determined by total depth of the well (TO)
Page 14
FUNCTIONS:
• PROVIDE WELL
CONTROL CAPABILITY
• PROVIDE A STABLE
WELLBORE:
• WeiiTosting
• Production Operations
• Protects Intermediate
casings
' PRODUCTION ZONE
ISOLATION:
' Selective Testing
• Dual Completions
. .
.

WELL CONTROL
HOLE STABILITY
HOLE CLEANING
TRANSMIT HYDRAULIC
HORSEPOWER TO BIT
FORMATION EVALUATION
DRY AIR /GAS
MIST
FOAM
AERATED MUD
NATIVE GEL
BENTONITE
BENTONITE/CHEMICAL
LIGNITE/
LIGNOSULFONATE
(DISPERSED)
INHIBITIVE (SALTS)
POLYMERS
DIESEL OIL
SYNTHETIC OIL
WELL PLAN
DRILLING FLUIDS
A ftuid used to perform various functions during a drilling
operation
.... .... ., .. : "
,,
. '
.. •.
'
.
, <P:h. .
'

' t .... • ...... ·,
Fluid weight
Chemically- Mud Inhibition
Mechanically - Fluid Weight
Yield Point (YP)
Gel Strength
Mud weight
Base fl uid of the mud
Mud system type
and properties
Drilling hard dry formations
Drilling lost circulation zone
Low cost spud mud
Non-weighted system
Base lor more sophisticated
systems.
Filtration control
Tolerance to contaminants
Applicable at all mud weights
Drilling water sensitive shales
Drilling water sensitive shales
Drilling water soluble formations
·Reduce stuck pipe potential
Corrosive environment
High bottom hole temperature
Page 15
Primary control or formation fl uid flow
into the well bore
Minimize formation reaction
Prevents hole cave-in/collapse
Suspend and carry cuttings/cavings from
the wellbore and release the solids at
surface
Remove cuttings from below bit
race to improve penetration rate
Gather and interpret data
Provide early wamlng signs of problems
lnaease penetration rate
Minimum !ormation damage
Continuous gas/oil detection
Most versatile system
Products readily available
Basic system
Easily maintained
Reduced penetration rate
chemical reaction or shales
Improved penettatlon rate
Completely inhibited system
Improved penetration rate
Formation stability
Torque & drag reduction
Environmental concerns
High cost
Logging! cementing concerns
DRILLING FLUIDS
WELL PLAN
The selected drilling fluid is usually the best compromise of the available choices
WELL TYPE
Seismic data
An "overl<ill" mud system Is generally
(Exploratory I
Offset data
selected for exploratory welts
Development)
Field experience
Mud company records
The optimum mud system Is
selected on development wells
ENVIRONMENTAL
Regulatory requirements
May l i m ~ the choice of mud systems
WELL CONTROL Seismic data evaluations The mud system must be capable of
REQUIREMENTS Offset well data minimum to maximum mud weight
Foeld experience requirements
Mud company records
HOLE STABILITY Seismic data evaluations
An inhibited system is selected to
Chemical/ Mechanical Offset well data
avoid chemical reaction with water
Field experience
sensitive shales and water soluble
Mud company records
formations (salt, anhydrite)
The mud system must be capable of
minimum to maximum mud weight
requirements
TEMPERATURE/
Offset well data The mud system must tolerate
CHEMICAL STABILITY Foeld experience formation temperatures w1thout chemical
OF THE MUD Mud company records breakdown
Must tolerate contamination from
formation fluids. minerals and solids
OPTIMUM DRILLING Offset welt data The mud system should provide an
AND ECONOMIC Field experience acceptable penetration rate w ~ h
PERFORMANCE Mud company records formation damage at the lowest cost
Bit company records
BASE FLUID I MUD
Offset welt data
May limit the choice of mud systems
PRODUCT AVAILABILITY
Mud company records
in remote areas
RIG EQUIPMENT Contractor Inventory
May l i m ~ the choice of mud systems
Field experience
in remote areas
Page16
DRILL SOLIDS
EVAPORITE SALTS
WATER FLOWS
ACID GASES
HYDROCARBONS
TEMPERATURE
WEL!.PLAN
DRILLING FLUIDS
Active solids • Clays
Inactive solids - Silt. sand. limestone. chert, etc.
Sodium chloride. NaCI
Potassium chloride, KCI
Calcium chloride. cac1
2
Magnesium chloride, MgCI
2
Anhydrite. CaS0
4
Mixed satt s at various concentrations
Carbon dioxide, co
2
Hydrogen sulfide, ¥
Light or heavy oils
Ugnne
Coal
Degradation of mud products
• .'··C• ·'?iT'?'" •
£"' ... ·: ..: ' '_: . ..:. :, . : ,'- ,;..__·-· .• '··'. : .... •
•r, ./-• • j'• ,.,.,.,,.,_ '•';'1·•·.•'-<'V="-· ·t"-''';"11111{
•• =- •.•• ' • J. .... ,,ll.t;.e1: . r"'
COARSE
Greater than 2 000 microns
INTERMEDIATE Between 250 and 2,000 microns
MEDIUM Between 74 and 250 microns
FINE Between 44 and 7 4 microns
ULTRA-FINE
Between 2 and 44 microns
COLLOIDAL Less than 2 microns
•"0W, .., .........
• · .. ,:. :-. .. --" 'il...''o.'' .... __.. .. ::: .
._., ..
,. ·,I ,_ • ',d."
,,1 • -: .:.r
·r, •,;· < '· .. • •. .
_•...J.i • .-L- __ .'.A...J-,
SHALE SHAKERS
Down to 150 microns with 200 mesh screens
DESANDER Down to 50 to 70 miaons (cone size dependent)
DESILTER
Down to 20 to 40 miaons (cone size dependent)
MUD CLEANER Down to 7 4 microns
CENTRIFUGE Colloidal solids up to 5 microns
Page 17
WELL PLAN

- -'
INCREASE
Crill solids Increase, Heavy spot from barite sag, Over
treatment during weight-up
MUD WEIGHT -
DECREASE
Formation fl utd influx, Ught spot from barite sag.
Excessive water additions
Reactive shale dnlled. Crill solids increase. low water
INCREASE
contenL Calcium contamination from cement,
FUNNEL
Anhydrite formation drilled
VISCOSITY
DECREASE
Formabon water ... nux. Excessive water content
Unconsolidated sand drilled, Drill sollds increase.
PLASTIC
INCREASE
low water content
VISCOSITY
Formati on water Influx. Excessive water additions.
DECREASE
Solids content decrease
INCREASE
Reactive shale drilled, Anhydrite formation drilled. Low
water content, Calcium contamination from cement.
YIELD POINT
Formation water influx, Excessive water
DECREASE
Oeaease in low solids. Additions of chemical
th1Mers
Reactive shale dnlled, Low watet content, CalCium
INCREASE contamonatoon lrom cement. or anhydrite formation drilled
GEL STRENGTH
Formation water influx, Excessive water
DECREASE
additions, Additions of chemical thinners
API/ HPHT INCREASE
Low gravity sOlids Increase. Flocculation from
cement, chloride. calcium contamination. Low gel content
FLUID LOSS
DECREASE Mud treatment taking affect
INCREASE
Addition of pH oontrol Calcium
pH
contamination
DECREASE
Addotion of mud products, Anhydrite formation drilled
INCREASE
formation is drilled. Pressure transition shale is
CHLORIDE
drilled, Formation water influx
DECREASE Water addrtions
-
TOTAL
INCREASE Salt or calcium formation is drined, Formation water ... nux
HARDNESS
DECREASE
Addotion of lresh water, Chemical
CATION
INCREASE
Reactive shale Is drilled, Addition of bentonite
EXCHANGE
CAPACITY
(CEC) DECREASE Water additions. Solids removal equipment
Page 18
WELL PLAN
DRILLING FLUIDS
Page 19
HYDRAULICS PLANNING
WELL PLAN

\... 'lp>,............. . ) ' - , ; , ~ •. · .• .
. .. ' ..
- ~ ·- - . - . - . ~ -·..:i·-* ' .&<=-· - •
• GEOLOGY
• OPTIMIZE MUD TYPE AND PROPERTIES
• OPTIMIZE BIT SELECTION
• OPTIMIZE BIT HYDRAULICS
• OPTIMIZE BIT WEIGHT AND RPM
• DEFINE RIG EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS /CAPABILITY
• DEVELOP ACTION PLANS FOR WELL
MAXIMIZE

RATE OF PENETRATION
(ROP)
MAXIMIZE
.
HOLE CLEANING

ANNULUS
FRICTION PRESSURE

HYDRAULIC EROSION

BIT PLUGGING
The calculated balance of the hydraulic components that will
sufficiently clean the bit and well bore with minimum horsepower
,_,...,r •

' ..
.
~ . ,
In medium to hard formations, ma.ximize hydraulic
horsepower to increase penetration rate
In soft formations and high angfe holes, maximi ze ftow rate
for hole cleaning.
In small a.nd/or deep holes. limit flow rate to minimize annulus
friction pressure and reduce the potential for.
Lost Circulation; Differential Sticl<lng; Hole Instability
In soft, unconsolidated formations. limit flow rate to mini mize
turbulence in the annulus if hole wash-out is a problem
Larger j et sizes may be required If there is potential for lost
circulation
. ..rr- ' " •. , •
.
PUMP PRESSURE I VOLUME OUTPUT
DRILL STRING ID, OD, LENGTH
DOWN HOLE EQUIPMENT RESTRICTIONS
BIT TYPE I JETS
Page 20
DEPTH I HOLE SIZE I MUD TYPE
MUD WEIGHT I RHEOLOGY
ANNULUS FRICTION PRESSURE
HOLE PROBLEM POTENTIAL
-
WELL PLAN
HYDRAULICS PLANNING
• Do not violate the flow rate rule to get more horsepower, jet velocity
• Too low a How rate wilt "ball" the and reduce effective hole cleaning
• Too high a flow rate increases ECD and erodes soft or unconsolidatecr zones
• Slow drilling with mud requires a minimum of 30 GPM per inch of bit diameter
• Fast drilling with low mud weights requires 50+ GPM per inch of bit cliameter
• Hydrolic horsepower is basecl on hole size/ROP. l arge bi ts require more HHP!In'
• Fast drilling requires the maximum even above 5 HHP/trl
• Maximum HHP!In' should be consi clered when pump horsepower is
available
• Do not waste fuel a ncr wear on tile pumps excessive pressure
• Many rigs do not have enough horsepower to provide the recommended HHP/In
2
• Nozzle velocity (ftlsec) • The velocity of the fl uid exiting the bit jets
• 35% to 50% of pump pressure is lost through the clrill string a ncr annulus. Hydraulic
calculations are requlreclto determine these losses
• If the total of drill string and annular pressure loss is greater than 50% of the
available pump pressure. Jet Velocity optimization is required. However, do
not operate below 30 GPM per inch of bit ella meter
• Impact Force • The product of fluicl j et velocity and fluid weight. Impact
is the force the drilling nuicl exerts to the formation toasslst bottom hole cleaning
• Jet velocity will influence chip·holcl·down and penetration rate
• Do not operate with a jet below 250 ftlsec
• For small holes (9· 112" and smaller) and slow drlllin, consider running 2 jets versus 3
to improve bottom hole cleaning and penetration rate. Two large j ets are less likely to
plug than 3 small j ets (same total flow area, TFA)
• tr a long hole section is plannecl for the next consider running 3 j ets and dropping
a diverting ball in the lower part of the hole section to maintain jet velocity
• Asymetrical jets are often run to improve penetration rate versus using two jets
Page 21
HOLE PROBLEMS STUCK PIPE
Planned operations are suspended when down hole force(s) prevent pulling l.he siring
oul oflhe hole
Down hole force( a) reelncl siring movement above normal operaling condilions
(a usual warning indicator of a stuck pipe evenl)
MECHANISMS
.....
' . '
·-- ...
SETTLED CUTIINGS DIFFERENTIAL FORCE STIFF ASSEMBLY
SHALE INSTABILITY KEY SEAT
UNCONSOLIDATED
MICRO DOGLEGS
FORMATIONS
FRACTURED
LEDGES
FORMATIONS
CEMENT RELATED MOBILE FORMATIONS
JUNK UNDERGAUGE HOLE
CAUSES
HOLE PACK-OFF: Foonafion solids (cultlngs. cavings) sellle around lhe dnll s1nng and pack oil
lhe annulus resulbng on sluck pipe
BRIDGE:
Medium 10 large poeces of hard formation. cement or junk falls inlo the wellbore
and jams the drill string resulting in stuck pipe

Wk •, • '.;11-....___.,:... • •.rJ__ ....._:--.- • ..,. ; -" .
SETTLED CUTTINGS
SHALE INSTABILITY SHALE INSTABILITY
REACTIVE SHALE
GEO-PRESSURED SHALE
HYDRO-PRESSURED SHALE
OVER BURDEN STRESS OVER BURDEN STRESS
TECTONIC STRESS
TECTONIC STRESS
UNCONSOLIDATED FORMATIONS
UNCONSOLIDATED FORMATIONS
-
FRACTURED FORMATIONS FRACTURED FORMATIONS
SOFT CEMENT CEMENT BLOCKS
JUNK
Page 22
HOLE PACK.QFF
CIRCULATING TIME
STUCK PIPE HOLE PROBLEMS
DRILLED CUTTINGS ARE NOT TRANSPORTED
OUT OF THE HOLE DUE TO LOW ANNULAR
VELOCITY AND/OR POOR MUD PROPERTIES
WHEN CIRCULATION IS STOPPED. THE
CUTTINGS FALL BACK DOWN THE HOLE AND
PACK.OFF THE DRILL STRING
HIGH ROP, LOW PUMP RATE, LlffiE TO NO
CIRCULATING TIME AT CONNECTIONS
TORQUE. DRAG AND PUMP PRESSURE
INCREASE
OVER PULL OFF SLIPS, PUMP SURGE TO
BREAK CIRCULATION
FILL ON BOTTOM
LIKELY TO OCCUR ON CONNECTIONS,
POSSIBLE DURI NG TRIP
CIRCULATION RESTRICTED OR IMPOSSIBLE
FIRST ACTION:
APPLY LOW PUMP PRESSURE (200 - 400 psi)
APPLY TORQUE AND JAR DOWN WITH
MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD
CIRCULATE CLEAN TO AVOID RECUR.RENCE
PREVENTTVE ACnON:
CONTROL ROP, MAXIMIZE ANNULAR VELOCITY
MAINTAIN SUFFICIENT GEL STRENGTH AND YP
CIRCULATE 5 TO 10 MINUTES BEFORE
CONNECTIONS
CIRCULATE HOLE CLEAN BEFORE POOH
Page 23
STUCK PIPE
CAUSE:
DRILL CUTTINGS SETTLE ON THE LOW SIDE
OF THE HOLE AND FORMS A CUTTINGS BED
THE CUTTINGS BED BUILDS AND SLIDES
DOWN HOLE PACKING OFF THE DRILL
STRING
WHILE POOH, THE CUTTINGS BED IS
DRAGGED UPWARD BY THE BHA AND PACKS
OFF THE DRILL STRING
WARNING:
HOLE ANGLE GREATER THAN 35°
DRILLING WITH A DOWN HOLE MOTOR
HIGH ROP. LOW PUMP RATE. INCREASE
TORQUE & DRAG, INCREASING PUMP
PRESSURE
INDICATIONS:
LIKELY TO OCCUR WHILE POOH, POSSIBLE
WHILE DRILLING
INCREASE OVERPULL ON TRIPS
CIRCULATING PRESSURE RESTRICTED OR
IMPOSSIBLE
FIRST ACnON:
APPLY LOW PUMP PRESSURE (100- 400 psi)
JAR DOWN WITH MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD, APPLY
TORQUE WITH CAUTION
TO AVOID RECURRENCE
PREVENTIVE ACTION:
RECORD TREND INDICATORS FOR
INADEQUATE HOLE CLEANING
CONTROL ROP. MAINTAIN MUD PROPERTIES,
CIRCULATE AT MAXIMUM RATE, MAXIMIZE
STRING ROTATION
CIRCULATE HOLE CLEAN BEFORE POOH,
ESTABLISH AN OVERPULL LIMIT
Page 24
HOLE PACK-OFF
DRILLING
CONNECTION
TRIPPING
OUT
TRIPPING
IN
BACK
REAMING
PUMPING
OUT
DRAG
Increasing, erratic
Overpull off slips
Increasing, erratic
Overpull off slips
Increasing set down
weight
Overpull off slips
Overpull off slips
Erratic overpull
Overpull off slips
Increasing, erratic
STUCK PIPE
TORQUE
Increasing,
erratic
Increasing,
erratic
PRESSURE
Increasing
Surge to start
circulations
Increasing
Increasing
E2_: .
-ti'EMII!IDIQ4110NI
HOLE PROBLEMS
OTHER
Pressure surges
Gradual decrease in ROP
Back pressure before
breaking connection
Back now
Swabbing
Begins with BHA below
depths ol35°hole angle
Surge to start circulation
String pistoning
Loss of ftuid possible
Surge to start circulation
String pistoning,
Loss of Ouid possible
SHAKER
Low cuttings return rate tor penetration rate, Erratic cuttings returns, No cuttings
TRENDS
retum. High cuttings retum on fine shaker screen and desilter I mud cleaner
LOGGER
Rounded, reground cuttings
TRENDS
MUD
Increasing plastic viscosity and yield point. Increase in low gravity s<>l ids, Possible
TRENDS mud weight increase
PREVEN1IVE ACTION
• Maintain the required mud properties
• Circulate at maximum recommended GPM for hole size
• Place more emphases on annular when designing the hyc!raul ics for 12-114" and larger hole
sizes. Consider using a riser booster line when drilling 8-112" and smaller hole sizes
• Do not allow I he penetration rate to exceed the ability to clean the hole
• Record torque and drag trends for symptoms of Inadequate hole cleaning
• Consider a wiper trip after drilling a long section with a clown hole motor
• Wipe the hole at full circulating rate as low as possible (5 - 10 min) before connections. Rotate
at maximum RPM when possible
• Maximize string motion when circulating the hole clean. Use maximum practical RPM. raise the drill
string slowly (5 minl std) and slack-off at a safe but fast rate (1 minlstd)
• Consider pumping high-vis sweeps in low angle wells (<35''). Consider low-vis I high-vis sweeps
in higher angle wells (>3sj
0
DO NOT STOP CIRCUlATING UNTIL ALL SWEEPS RETURN
• Circulate until the hole is clean. If the last sweep brings up excessive amounts of cutlings, continue
with hole cleaning operations, Several circulations may be necessary
Page 25
HOLE PROBLEMS
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PACK-OFF
MINIMUMGPM
'7i!T
r-;;. • - ' 'I I t.!i .... 't-: -·
HOLE SIZE 26" 17-1/2"- 16" 12-1/4"
I
8-1/2"
ANGLE INTERVAL
0°- 35' 700 GPM 500GPM 400 GPM 300GPM
35'- 55'
1250 GPM 950GPM 650 GPM 450GPM
55'+ 1100GPM 750 GPM 500GPM
Minimum flow rate (GPM) for any gwen hole SIZe and angle Is greatl y dependent on mud weight. mud
rheology and annulus geometry Maximum recommended flowrate is SO GPM per inch of bit diameter
MAXIMUMROP
r·A'OPI VERSUS HOLE SIZE AND-. OLE
HOLE SIZE 26'' 17-1/2"-16" 12-1/4" 8-1/2"
ANGLE INTERVAL
0°- 35 °
60
110 155 240
-
35"- 55°
40
75 85
125
55°+
60 75 100
Penetration rate guodelines are based on adequate mud properties
MINIMUM STROKES

,s·
S.FACl OR fCSF\ TO CLEAN HOLE
HOLE SIZE 26" 17-1/2"- 16" 12-1/4"
8-1/2"
ANGLE INTERVAL
0°-35 °
-
1-
-
2 1 7 1.4 1.4
55 °
2.5 25 1.8 1.6
55°+ 3
-'--
2 1.7
PROCEDURE:
1. Separate the wellbore into sectoons by hole angle from intetvals above.
2. Multiply each hole section length (Sect. lth) by CSF and total the adjusted measured depth (MD).
Adjusted MD= (Sect. Llh X CSF) +(Sect Lth X CSF) +(Sec/. Lth X CSF)
3. Calculate the minimum circulating strokes to clean the hate.
M1mmum C1rc Stks =
Total Ad£usted MD x Bottoms-Ue, Stks
lJepl1i
Page 26
HOLE PACK-OFF
ADJUSTED MD
MIN CIR STKS
STUCK PIPE
= (SECT LTH ~ CSF) + (SECT LTH x CSF) +(SECT LTH x CSF)
= (4500x 1.4) + (2000 x 1.8) + (6500x2)
= 6300 + 3600 + 13,000
22.900 TOTAL ADJUSTED MD
= TOTAL ADJUSTED MD x BOTTOMS-UP STKS *
MEASURED DEPTH
22900 X 15 000
13,000
= 26.423 STROKE$
Page 27
HOLE PROBLEMS
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PACK-OFF
Maintain sufficient mud weight to stabilize the wellbore as hole angle and/or formation pressure
tncreases
Use proper low-End-Rheology for hole siZe and angle to maxim1ze hole cleaning
Circulate at maximum rate for hole size and hole angle
Limit the ROP to the maximum rewmmended for hole size and hole angle
Back ream each stand (or 1/2 stand) drilled with a down-hole motor
0
Rotate at high RPM (160+). Raise the dnll string slowly (i.e., 5 min/stand). l ower the drill string
at a safe but fast rate (i.e., 1 min/stand)
• Continue back reaming if hole conditions dictate
• Consider a wiper trip after drilling a long section wi th a down hole motOf to mechanically agitate
and remove cuHings bed
Pump a sweep (p1ll) if hole conditions do not improve. Consider low-vis I high-density tandem sweeps.
Optimize sweep type. volume and frequency pumped
Consider reducing ROP or stop dnlling and circulate unbl hole conditions improve
Start and stop drill stnng slowly. Ensure adequate back reaming at full circulation rate prior to
connect1ons
Prepare crew and equipment to minim1ze connection time
Rewrd free rotating weight, pick-up weight. slack-off weight. off-boHom torque. and circulating pressure
for trend indications of inadequate hole cleaning
Pull t h ~ slips and slovvty rotate the drill string first, then increase pump speed slowly. Carefully lower the
drill string to bottom
C11culate 1 to 3 joints off bottom while cleaning the hole to avoid dropping bottom hole angle. Consider
sweeps (pills) to ai d hole cleaning
Rotate at high RPM (160+) while cleaning the hole. Raise the drill sUing slowly (o.e .• 5 min/stand). lower
the drill sUing at a safe but fast rate (i.e .. 1 min/stand)
Ensure recommended min1mum circulat1on strokes for-hole size and angle are pumped, 2 to 4 times
normal bottoms.up may be required Circulate until the shakers are dean
Consider pumping a sweep (pill) to determi ne if additional circulation time is required
Inform the Droller ol the measured depth and stand count when the top of the BHA reaches the deepest
anticipated cuttings bed Maximum cuttings bed thickness is hkely between 45• and 65' hole angle
Determine an overpull tlm1t pnor to pulling out of the hole (the lesser of 112 BHA weight or 30.000 lbs)
If overpull limit occurs. run in 1 stand and repeat hole cleaning guidelines from present bit depth. When
the shakers are clean. continue pulling out of the hole. If the overpulllimit is again reached. repeat
procedure
CAUTIOUSLY BACKREAM OR PUMP-OUT STANDS WHEN A CUTTINGS BED IS PRESENT!!
Be patient. several hole cteamng cycles may be required to safely pull the drill sting out of the hole
Record depths and stand count of high pick-up weights during the IJip. Compare these to the drilling
pick-up weights for the same depths to determi ne value of overpull
Page 28
HOLE PACK-OFF
REACTIVE SHALE
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PROBLEMS
GEO-PRESSURED SHALE HYDRO--PRESSURED SHALE
OVERBURDEN
STRESS
TECTONIC
STRESS
WATER SENSITIVE SHALE DRILLED WITH UTILE
OR NO MUD INHIBITION
SHALE ABSORBS WATER AND SWELLS INTO
THE WELLBORE
REACTION IS TIME DEPENDENT
FUNNEL VISCOSITY, PV. YP. CEC INCREASE
TORQUE & DRAG INCREASE
PUMP PRESSURE INCREASE
CLAY BALLS AND/OR SOFT "MUSHY" CUTIINGS
AT SHAKER
OAY!I 1 OVER PULL & SWABBING
..
BHA BALLING (MUD RINGS)
GENERALLY OCCURS WHILE POOH. POSSIBLE
WHILE DRILLING
CIRCULATION IMPOSSIBLE OR HIGHLY
RESTRICTED
FIRST ACTION:
APPLY LOW PUMP PRESSURE (200 • 400 PSI)
IF POOH. TORQUE UP AND JAR DOWN WITH
MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD
EXPOSURE I IF RIH, JAR UP WITH MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD, DO
NOT APPLY TORQUE
PREVENTIVE ACTION:
USE AN INHIBITED MUD
MAINTAIN MUD PROPERTIES
PLAN WIPER TRIPS
MINIMIZE HOLE EXPOSURE TIME
Page 29
. '
HOLE PROBLEMS
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PACK-OFF
DRILLER
I OF .
. ....,.
DRAG
TORQUE PRESSURE OTHER
Increasing Increasing, Increasing
Pressure surges
DRILLING Smooth Smooth
Gradual decrease in ROP
Mud loss possible
Overpull off slips Surge to start
Back pressure before
CONNECTION
connection
circulation
Back flow
TRIPPING Increasing, Smooth
Swabbing
OUT
Overpull off slips
TRIPPING
Increasing set down Begins at depth of
weight problem formation
IN Overpull off slips Mud loss possible
BACK Overpull off slips
Increasing, Increasing
Surge to start circulation
REAMING
Smooth
String plstoning
Loss of mud
PUMPING Increasing, Smooth
Increasing
Surge to start circulation
OUT
Overpull off slips
String pistoning,
l oss of mud
_,_ . :
RIG TEAM INDICA TIONa.
SHAKER
Soft clay balls. Wet "mushy" clay (gumbo). Flow line plugging
TRENDS
LOGGER
Large quanty of hydrated shale cuttings. High value on shale swelling test
TRENDS
MUD
High funnel vis. & YP. Increasing PV. tow gravity solids & CEC. Possible mud weight
TRENDS increase. Low inhibitor content
~ - - PREVEN'fiVE ACTIQN
• Addition of various salts (potassium, sodium, calcium, etc.) to reduce the chemical attraction of
water to the shale
• Addition of various encapsulating (coating) polymers to reduce water contact
with the shale
• Use of oil and synthetic base muds to exclude water contact with the shale
• Minimize open hole time
• Plan regular wiper I reaming trips based on time, footage drilled or the warning signs of reactive shale
• Ensure adequate hydraulics for bit and hole cleaning
• Maintain required mud properties and minimize low gravity solids
Page 30
STUCK PIPE
DRILLING PRESSURED SHALE WITH
INSUFFICIENT MUD WEIGHT.
THE STRESSED SHALE FRACTURES AND
CAVES INTO THE WELLBORE
SIGNS BEGIN TO OCCUR AS SHALE IS DRILLED
MUD LOGGER TRENDS INDICATE INCREASING
PORE PRESSURE
ROP INCREASE WHEN FIRST DRILLED
TORQUE INCREASE & DRAG ON CONNECTIONS
HOLE FILL ON CONNECTIONS. BRIDGES ON
TRIPS. SPLINTERY SHALE CAVING$
POSSIBLE BACKGROUND GAS INCREASE
LIKELY TO OCCUR WHILE TRIPPING. POSSIBLE
WHILE DRILLING
COMPLETE PACK-OFF LIKELY. HOLE BRIDGING
POSSIBLE
CIRCULATION RESTRICTED OR IMPOSSIBLE
FIRST ACTION:
APPLY LOW PUMP PRESSURE (200 • 400 psi)
APPLY TORQUE. JAR DOWN WITH MAXIMUM
TRIP LOAD
ADJUST MUD WEIGHT BEFORE DRILLING
KNOWN PRESSURED SHALE
SLOWLY INCREASE MUD WEIGHT TO
STABILIZE SHALE
MINIMIZE SWAB I SURGE PRESSURES
Page 31
HOLE PROBLEMS
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PACK-OFF
• CAUSE:
OVER TIME, SHALE PORE PRESSURE BECOMES
CHARGED BY HYDROSTATIC OVER BALANCE
DRILLSTRING MOTION AND WELL BORE
PRESSURE SURGES STRESS-CRACKS THE
UNSTABILIZED SHALE
THE SHALE FALLS INTO THE WELLBORE AND
. JAMS THE STRING
WARNING:
GENERALLY FOLLOWS A MUD WEIGHT
· .REDUCTION
TORQUE & DRAG INCREASE
POSSIBLE WHILE DRILLING OR TRIPPING
HOLE BRIDGING OR COMPLETE PACK-OFF
POSSIBLE
CIRCULATION RESTRICTED OR IMPOSSIBLE
APPLY LOW PUMP PRESSURE (200 • 400 psi)
, APPLY TORQUE. JAR DOWN W!TH MAXIMUM
TRIP LOAD
- - - ~ - - ~ ~
CIRCULATION AT MAXIMUM RATE ONCE
• • • • • CIRCULATION IS ESTABLISHED
• 0 0
0 ~ - ; - - - - · - - . - · ~ - - - . - - - - ~ - -
PREVENTIVE ACTION:
USE OBM. SBM OR GLYCOL BASE MUD IF
PROBLEM IS SUSPECTED
IF A WEIGHT REDUCTION IS NECESSARY,
REDUCE GRADUALLY OVER SEVERAL
CIRCULATIONS
MINIMIZE WELLBORE PRESSURE SURGES
• 0 0 • 0 0 • 0 0 • 0 0
Page 32
HOLE PACK-OFF
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PROBLEMS
MUD WEIGHT IS INSUFFICIENT TO SUPPORT
THE OVER BURDEN
MUD WEIGHT IS NOT ADJUSTED AS HOLE
ANGLE INCREASES
STRESSED SHALE FRACTURES AND FALLS
INTO THE WELLBORE
HOLE CLEANING PROBLEMS
INCREASE TORQUE & DRAG
CAN OCCUR WHILE DRILLING OR TRIPPING
HOLE BRIDGING OR PACK-OFF POSSIBLE
RESTRICTED CIRCULATION OR NO
CIRCULATION POSSIBLE
APPLY LOW PUMP PRESSURE (200 - 400 psi)
APPLY TORQUE, JAR DOWN WITH MAXIMUM
TRIP LOAD
USE MUD WEIGHT NEEDED TO STABILIZE THE
OVER BURDEN
INCREASE MUD WEIGHT AS HOLE ANGLE
INCREASES
Page 33
HOLE PACK-OFF
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PROBLEMS
CAUSE:
NATURALLY OCCURRING LATERAL FORCES
IN THE FORMATIONS
STRESSED SHALE FRACTURES, FALLS INTO
THE WELLBORE AND JAMS THE DRILLSTRING
• SANDSTONE SQUEEZES IN CAUSING UNDER
GAUGE HOLE
MOUNTAINOUS LOCATION
PROGNOSEO TECTONICS
,.:, ERRATIC TORQUE & DRAG
.: . . ·
· BLOCKY SHALE CAVINGS
PREVENTIVE ACTION:
INCREASE MUD WEIGHT IF POSSIBLE
CIRCULATE HIGH DENSITY SWEEPS
MINIMIZE WELLBORE PRESSURE SURGES
Page 34
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PROBLEMS HOLE PACK-OFF
.. • • Jl .. • •Jt Ia
....._-1---' D,_RAG
lncreas1ng, errat1 c
DRILLING
TORQUE
lncreas1ng,
erratic
PRESSURE OTHER
I ncreasing
Increase ROP followed
by gradual decrease.
Pressure surges
-
CONNECTION Overpull off slips
Surge to start
circulation
Hole fill
l
I
TRIPPING
OUT
TRIPPING
IN
BACK
REAMING
Increasing, erratic
Overpull off slips
Increasing set down
weight
Overpull off slips
Swabbing
-
Beg1ns at depth of
problem formation
Hole fi ll on bottom
lncreas1ng. Increasing
Surge to stan carculahon
I
erratiC
Stnng p1stoning
Loss of ftuid possible
PUMPING
OUT
lncreasong, erratiC
Overpull olf sl•ps
lncreasJng Surge to start clfculatiOn I
String plstoning
Loss of ftu•d poss•ble
lUG TUMIMDICA110N8
SHAKER
Large, spt1ntery or blocky shale cavings. Large volume of cavlngs
TRENDS
LOGGER Large quanty of slllntery or blocky cavings with striations. Poss1ble indications of
TRENDS
increase in formation pressure Prognosed mechanically stressed shale
MUD
Poss•ble st.ght •ncrease .n mud we!Qht and plastic viscosity
TRENDS
-. .
• Consider offset well data and/or computer models Which simulate shale failure limit& when planning
the mud weight tor each hole section
• Mud weight increase with hole angle and 1VD specific to the area to maintain hole stability
• Exploration wells, consult the Mud Logger for changes in formation pressure Increase the mud
weight cautiously until symptoms are no longer observed
• If possible, increase mud weight slowly (0.1 to 0.2 ppg per day) until the desired densrty for a g1ven
depth is reached. Th1s w111 ma•nta1n an overbalance against hydrostatically sensitive shales
• AVOID MUD WEIGHT REDUCTION after 1 + day exposure to hydrostatically senSitiVe shale If mud
weight reduction is necessary, reduce the mud weight gradually over a bme frame equal to the tJme
of exposure
• Use the Shaker Handover Notes to determ•ne trends of cuttings volume, size and shape
• Maintaan mud properties to ensure hole
• Use sweeps to help clean the hole
• Stop drilling until the hole Is circulated clean
• MinlmlZe open hole exposure t1me
• Plan conti n en to case-off the problem
Page 35
HOLE PROBLEMS
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PACK-OFF BRIDGE
LIITLE OR NO FILTER CAKE
UNBONDED FORMATION (SAND, PEA GRAVEL.
ETC.) CAN NOT BE SUPPORTED BY
HYDROSTATIC OVERBALANCE
SAND/PEA GRAVEL FALLS INTO THE HOLE AND
PACKS OFF THE DRILL STRING
LIKELY TO OCCUR AS THE FORMATION IS
DRILLED
INCREASE TORQUE & DRAG, PUMP PRESSURE
FLUCTUATIONS
HOLE FILL ON CONNECTIONS & TRIPS
GENERALLY OCCURS IN SURFACE HOLE
CAN OCCUR WHI LE DRILLING OR TRIPPING
SUDDEN PACK-OFF WITHOUT WARNING
CIRCULATION IMPOSSIBLE
• APPLY LOW PUMP PRESSURE (200 • 400 psi)
- • JAR DOWN WITH MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD,
APPLY TORQUE WITH CAUTION
PREVENTIVE ACTION:
CONTROL FLUID LOSS TO PROVIDE AN
ADEQUATE FILTER CAKE
CONTROL DRILL SUSPECTED ZONE
SPOT A GEL PILL BEFORE POOH
Page 36
HOLE PACK-OFF I BRIDGE
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PROBLEMS
DRILLING
Increasing. erratic Increasing.
Increasing
erratic
CONNECTION
Overpull off slips Surge to start
circulation
TRIPPING Increasing, ettatic
OUT
Overpull off slips
TRIPPING
weight
IN
BACK Overpull off slips
Increasing, Increasing
Surge to start circulation
REAMING
erratic
Siring pistoning
Loss of fluid possible
PUMPING IncreaSing, erratic
Increasing
Surge to start circulation
OUT
Overpull off slips
String pistoning,
Loss of fl uid possible
RIG·TEAIIINDICATIOHI
_0 •
SHAKER
Large volume of sand over shakers. Sand IJ'ap and desander overload.
TRENDS
LOGGER
Large quantity of sand in samples. Prognosed unconsolidated formation.
TRENDS
MUD
Increase in mud weight and plastic viscosity. High % sand content
TRENDS
CTION
• Provide an effective filter cake lor the hydrostatic overbalance to "push againsr' and stabilize the
formation
• II possible, avoid excessive circulatmg time with the BHA opposite unconsolidated formations to
reduce hydraulic erosion
• Slow down tripping speed when the BHA is opposite unconsolidated formations to avoid mechanical
damage
• Start and stop the drill string slowly to av01d pressure surges to unconsolidated formations
• Control-drill the suspected zone to allow time for filter cake build up, minimize annulus loading and
to minimize annulus friction pressure
• Use sweeps to help keep the hole clean
• Be prepared lor shaker, desilter. desander overtoads
• Minimize seepage loss with fine lost circulation material through these intervals
Page 37
HOLE PROBLEMS
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PACK-OFF I BRIDGE
NATURALLY FRACTURED FORMATIONS
PIECES OF FORMATION FALL INTO THE
WELLBORE AND JAM THE DRILLSTRING
PROGNOSED FRACTURED LIMESTONE,
SHALE AND/OR, FAULTS
MUD LOGGER FORMATION EVALUATION
BLOCKY CAVINGS AT SHAKER
HOLE FILL ON CONNECTIONS AND TRIPS
LIKELY DURING TRIPS, POSSIBLE WHILE
DRILLING
SUDDEN AND ERRATIC TORQUE AND DRAG
LIKELY JUST BEFORE STRICKING
CIRCULATION MAY BE RESTRICTED
DO NOT APPLY TORQUE, JAR DOWN WITH
MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD
CIRCULATE HIGH DENSITY HIGH VISCOSITY
SWEEPS
SPOT ACID IF STUCK IN LIMESTONE
• CIRCULATE HOLE CLEAN BEFORE DRILLING
AHEAD
MINIMIZE SEEPAGE LOSSES
SLOW TRIP SPEED BEFORE BHA ENTERS
SUSPECTED ZONE
Page 38
HOLE PACK-OFF I BRIDGE
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PROBLEMS
DRILU!R
'ni!NDS"
DRILLING
CONNECTION
TRIPPING
OUT
TRIPPING
IN
BACK
REAMING
PUMPING
OUT
SHAKER
TRENDS
LOGGER
TRENDS
MUD
TRENDS
• ..u.J.·
•,
DRAG TORQ UE
Sudden. Increasing, Sudden.
erratic eHahc
Overpull off shps
Increasing, erratic
Overpull off shps
lncreastng set down
werght
Overpull off slips r lncreasin
erratic
errattc
g,
Overpull off shps :-1
lncreastng, errattc
PRESSURE
No change
No change
No change
r No change
RIG TEAM INDICATIONS
Blocky or angular cock fragments
OTHER
Hole fill
Begms at depth of
problem formaliOn
Hole fill on bottom
Drag decreases when
pumping
Drag when
pumprng
Same as shaker trends Possible offset well data clues. Prognosed fractured
formation
No change.
PREVENTIVE ACTION
.
-
NOTE: With fractured lormatrons, mainlarnmg a good quality filter cake can help to support the formation
in some cases. Generally, fractured format•ons requtre hme to stablltze Pnor to thts, the problem must
be controlled wrlh adequate mud propertres, sweeps and suffrcient crrculalion ltme to keep the hole clean
Other recommendations:
• Circulate the hole clean before drilling ahead
• Restrict tripping speed when BHA Is opposrte fractured rormat•ons and fault tones
• Start I stop the drrll string slowly to avord pressure surges to the wellbore
• Anticipate r eammg dunng trtps Ream fractured zone cautiously
• Be prepared lor the potential of lost cuculauon when drrlllng fractured rormattons
• Problem likely to slabrllze with lime
Page 39

STUCK PIPE
CEMENT BECOMES UNSTABLE AROUND
CASING SHOE, OPEN HOLE SQUEEZE PLUG
OR KICK-OFF PLUG
'-'- ·---' HARD CEMENT CHUNKS FALL INTO THE
WELLBORE AND JAMS THE DRILL STRING
EXCESSIVE CASING RATHOLE
CEMENT SQUEEZE JOB
CEMENT KICK-OFF PLUG
CEMENT CAVING$ AT SHAKER AND/OR IN
MUD LOGGER SAMPLES
PROBLEM CAN OCCUR ANYTIME
SUDDEN, ERRATIC TORQUE AND DRAG JUST
=·- __ .,.. BEFORE STICKING
ATTEMPT TO BREAK t;HUNK:S WITH JARRING
& TORQUE
JAR IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION OF STRING
MOVEMENT PRIOR TO STICKING
APPLY JARRING FORCE & TORQUE
GRADUALLY
CIRCULATE HIGH DENSITY, HIGH VELOCITY
SWEEPS
PREVENTIVE ACTI ON:
MINIMIZE CASING RATHOLE
ALLOW SUFFICIENT CURING TIME
REAM CASING SHOE AND OPEN HOLE PLUGS
-- ·• THOROUGHLY BEFORE DRILLING AHEAD
SPEED BEFORE BHA ENTERS
:: CASING SHOE OR PLUG DEPTH
Page 40
HOLE PACK-OFF I BRIDGE
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PROBLEMS
CIRCULATION IS ATTEMPTED WITH THE
BOTTOM OF THE DRILL STRING IN SOFT
CEMENT
PUMP PRESSURE CAUSES THE CEMENT TO
FLASH SET
HIGH PENETRATION RATE WHEN CLEANING
OUT SOFT CEMENT
TRIPPING IN HOLE AFTER SETTING AN OPEN
HOLE CEMENT PLUG OR AFTER A CEMENT
JOB
SET DOWN WEIGHT OCCURS ABOVE THE
THEORETICAL TOP OF CEMENT
BLEED TRAPPED PUMP PRESSURE
JAR WITH MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD IN THE
OPPOSITE DIRECTION OF STRING M O V E , ~ E ~ H
PRIOR TO STICKING
IF SET DOWN WEIGHT IS OBSERVED WHILE
RIH, PULL 2 STANDS BEFORE CIRCULATION
START CIRCULATING 2 STANDS ABOVE TOP
OF CEMENT
CONTROL DRILL WHEN CLEANING OUT
CEMENT
Page 41
HOLE PROBLEMS
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PACK-OFF I BRIDGE
POOR HOUSE KEEPING ON THE FLOOR, HOLE
COVER NOT INSTALLED
~ = ~ ; : ; : : J JUNK FALLS INTO WELLBORE AND JAMS THE
DRILL STRING
GENERALLY OCCURS WHEN BHA IS IN HARD
FORMATION OR INSIDE THE CASING
SUDDEN AND ERRATIC TORQUE AND DRAG
~ ~ ; . : ; LIKELY JUST BEFORE STRICKING
MISSING FLOOR TOOL OR EQUIPMENT
CIRCULATION UNRESTRICTED. DEPENDING
ON TYPE OF JUNK
FIRST ACTION:
IF MOVING UP WHEN STICKING OCCURRED,
=;....·- $ JAR DOWN WITH MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD
APPLY TORQUE IF PROGRESS IS MADE
IF MOVING DOWN. JAR UP WITH MAXIMUM
TRIP LOAD, DO NOT APPLY TORQUE
GOOD HOUSE KEEPING ON FLOOR
INSPECT HANDLING EQUIPMENT
KEEP HOLE COVERED
Page 42
STUCK PIPE
CEMENT BLOCKS
PREVENTIVE ACTION
• Limit casing rathole to minimize a source of cement blocks
• Several squeeze jobs at the casing shoe Increases the potential for cement blocks
• Allow sufficient cement curing time before dri lling out
• Ream casing ratholes and open hole cement plugs slowly and thoroughly before drilling ahead
• Maintain sufficient distance between the paths of platform wells to reduce the possibility of cement
blocks
• Reduce ttipping speed when BHA is enteri ng the casing shoe or opposite open hole cement plugs
• Start and stop the drill siting slowly to avoid pressure surges to the wellbore
FT CEMENT
N
• Know the calculated top of cement (TOC) before tripping in hole
• Do not rely on the weight indicator to find the top of the cement
• Begin washi ng dowf\ 2 stands above the theoretical top of the cement
• If set down weight is observed when tripping in hole after a cement operation, set back 2 stands
before attempting circulation
• P r e ~ t r e a t the mud system wilfh chemiCal prior to dnllino out cement
• Verify cement compressNe strength with cement company before drilling out
• Control drill when cleaning out soft cement
JUNK
ACTION
• Inspect slip and tong dies regularly
• Use good house keeping pract1ces on the rig floor
• Install drill string wiper rubber as qu1ckty as possible
• Keep hole covered when out of the hole
• Maintain rig floor equipment in good operating condition
Page 43
STUCK PIPE
A stlck.ing Ioree developed when differential pressure (overbalance) forces a stationary drill string
into the thick filter cake of a permeable zone
PERMEABLE
FORMATION
Sandstone I
fractured lime-stone
OVER
BALANCE
Wellbore pressure
greater than
formation pressure
STRING
CONTACTS
FILTER CAKE
Angled wellbore 1
unstabilized BHA
increases potential
STRING
MOTION
STOPPED
No string motion or
circulation develops
static cake
LOW
PRESSURE
AREA
Overbalance
pressure across the
contact area
determines the
differential force
Page 44
FILTER
CAKE
~ ~ ~ : T ! ! ~ ~ J ; . · A cake of mud solids
I · develops on the hole
. wall due to fluid loss
STATIC
FILTER CAKE
TIME
DEPENDENT
DI FFERENTIAL STICKING
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PROBLEMS
DIFFERENTIAL
FORCE
1,200,000 LBS
4-
CAUSE:
DRILL STRING CONTACTS A PERMEABLE ZONE
WHEN STRING MOVEMENT STOPS. A STATIC
FILTER CAKE DEVELOPS
HIGH OVERBALANCE APPLIES A DIFFERENTIAl
STICKING FORCE TO THE DRILL STRING
CONTACT AREA
WARNING:
PROGNOSED LOW PRESSURE SANDS
LONG IUNSTABILIZED BHA SECTIONS
INCREASING OVER PULL, SLACK OFF I
OR TORQUE TO START STRING MOVEMENT___j
4"
c •
200Sq In
Contact
Alta
l iND/CATIONS: I
OCCURS AFTER A PERIOD OF NO
STRING MOVEMENT
STRING CAN NOT BE ROTATED OR
MOVED
, CIRCULATION UNRESTRICTED
I FIRST ACTION: l
APPLY TORQUE AND JAR DOWN WITH
MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD
SPOT A PIPE RELEASING PILL IF TH
STRING DOES NOT JAR FREE
PREVENTIVE ACTION:
MAINTAIN MINIMUM REQUIRED MUD
WEIGHT
Page 45
KEEP STRING MOVING WHEN BHA IS
OPPOSITE SUSPECTED ZONES
MINIMIZE SEEPAGE LOSS IN LOW
PRESSURE ZONES
MINIMIZE UNSTABILIZED BHA
SECTIONS, USE SPIRAL DC's & HWDP
CONTROL DRILl SUSPECTED ZONES
HOLE PROBLEMS
STUCK PIPE
DIFFERENTIAL STICKING
·DRILLER I OF.•
TRENDS
DRAG
TORQUE PRESSURE OTHER
Possible increase
DRILLING
No change No change
Increasing overpull
No change
CONN.ECTION
off slips
TRIPPING
Increasing overpull
OUT
off slips
TRIPPING
Increasing overpull
IN
off slips
BACK
Increasing overpull No change No change
REAMING
off slips
PUMPING
Increasing overpull No change
OUT
off slips
RIG TEAll INDICATIONS
SHAKER
No change
TRENDS
LOGGER High overbalance. Permeable formation depth, Permeability data to
TRENDS
estimate stricking potentiaL
MUD
Increasing mud weight. Increasing plastic viscosity and low gravity solids. High API
TRENDS water loss. thick fiKer cake.
~ - - - · - - - - - - - - - ~~ ACnaN
• Design the casing program to minimize overbalance to shallower open hole formations
• Limit mud weight to minimum required for hole stability and well control
• Maintain Ruid loss within specifications
• Minimize BHA length when possible
• Limit the length of unstabillzed BHA. Use spiral drill collars
• KEEP THE STRING MOVING. Consider rotating the string during drilling and tripping connections
while BHA is opposite potential sticking zones
• Preplan to minimize the down time for operations that require the string remaining static (surveys,
minor repairs, et<;.).
• In zones with high sticking potential, minimize seepage loss with plugging agents
• Keep a pipe releasing pill ready at the well site when differential stricking potential is high
Page 46
STUCK PIPE
WELLBORE
Hole diameter and/or angle relative to BHA geometry and/or sliffness will not allow passage of the
drill string
STIFF ASSEMBLY
KEY SEAT MICRO DOGLEGS LEDGES
MOBI LE FORMATION UNDER GAUGE HOLE
BHA AT DIRECTION I ANGLE CHANGE DEPTH
UNRESTRICTED CIRCULATION
IF MOVING DOWN WHEN STICKING
OCCURRED, JAR UP WITH MAXIMUM TRIP
LOAD, DO NOT APPLY TORQUE
IF MOVING UP, TORQUE UP AND JAR DOWN
WITH MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD
Page 47
PREVENTIVE ACTION:
MINIMIZE BHA CHANGES, CONSIDER A
REAMING TRIP
LIMIT DOGLEG SEVERITY
SLOW TRIP SPEED BEFORE BHA
ENTERS SUSPECTED ZONE, PLAN TO
REAM
HOLE PROBLEMS
STUCK PIPE
WELLBORE GEOMETRY
DIRECTION I ANGLE CHANGE
CHANGE IN ANGLE OR
DIRECTION IN MEDIUM SOFT TO
MEDIUM HARD FORMATION
HIGH STRING TENSION AND PIPE
-. ROTATION WEARS A SLOT INTO THE
FORMATION
WHILE POOH, THE DRILL COLLARS JAM
INTO THE SLOT
HIGH ANGLE DOGLEG IN UPPER HOLE
SECTION
LONG DRILLING HOURS WITH NO
WIPER TRIPS THROUGH THE DOGLEG
SECTION
•. . ,.CYCLIC OVER PULL AT TOOL JOINT
. INTERVALS ON TRIPS
OCCURS ONLY WHILE POOH
SUDDEN OVER PULL AS BHA REACHES
DOGLEG DEPTH
UNRESTRICTED CIRCULATION
FREE STRING MOVEMENT BELOW KEY
POSSIBLE IF NOT STUCK
: ::.:.;.:.·. , ... , .•.. ·.:- APPLY TORQUE AND JAR DOWN WITH
MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD
ATIEMPT TO ROTATE WITH LOW OVER
TO WORK THROUGH DOGLEG
MINIMIZE DOGLEG SEVERITY TO 3°/100'
OR LESS
LIMIT OVERPULLS THROUGH
' SUSPECTED INTERVALS
PLAN REAMER AND/OR WIPER TRIPS IF
DOGL.EG IS PRESENT
RUN STRING REAMER OR KEY SEAT
WIPER IF SUSPECTED
Page 48
WELLBORE GEOMETRY
DIRECTION I ANGL E CHANGE
STUCK PIPE
HARD/SOFT INTERBEDDED FORMATIONS
FREQUENT CORRECTIONS IN HOLE ANGLE
OR DIRECTION
BHA BECOMES JAMMED IN THE
SUCCESSIVE MICRO DOGLEGS
· . PROGNOSED HARD/SOFT INTERBEDDED
FORMATIONS
FREQUENT ANGLE/DIRECTION CHANGES
DRILLING/SLIDING WITH DOWN HOLE
MOTOR
ERRATIC TORQUE AND DRAG ON
CONNECTION
IF MOVING UP WHEN STICKING OCCURRED,
APPLY TORQUE AND JAR DOWN WITH
MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD
IF MOVING DOWN, JAR DOWN WITH
MAXIMUM TRIP LOAD, DO NOT APPLY
MINIMIZE DIRECTION I ANGLE CHANGES
. · ·. •·.·.· .. :. BACKREAM FREQUENTLY WHEN DRILLING
HARD/SOFT FORMATIONS
SLOW TRIP SPEED BEFORE BHA ENTERS
SUSPECTED ZONE
Page 49
HOLE PROBLEMS
STUCK PIPE
WELLBORE GEOMETRY
DIRECTION I ANGLE CHANGE
INTERBEDDED FORMATIONS.
SOFT ROCKS • WASH OUT
HARD ROCKS • IN GAUGE
FRACTURED I FAULTED FORMATIONS
STABILIZER BLADES AND TOOL UPSETS
BECOME STUCK UNDER LEDGES
PROGNOSED HARD/SOFT INTERBEDDED
FORMATIONS
PROGNOSED FRACTURED/FAULTED
FORMATIONS
DIRECTION I ANGLE CHANGES
BHA CHANGES
Page 50
WELLBORE GEOMETRY
HOLE DIAMETER DECREASE
STUCK PIPE
HOLE PROBLEMS
SALT OR PLASTIC SHALE
SUIJDEoN INCREASE IN OVER PULL OR SET
WEIGHT
:>UIJIJt:N TORQUE INCREASE WITH FAST
un'""'"' PLASTIC FORMATION
GENERAicLY OCCURS WHILE POOH
POSSIBLE WHEN RIH AFTER A LONG
PERIOD OUT OF THE HOLE
POSSIBLE WHILE DRILLING IF FORMATION
MOVES FAST
STICKING OCCURS WITH BHA AT PLASTIC
ZONE DEPTH
CIRCULATION UNRESTRICTED OR SLIGHT
RESTRICTION POSSIBLE
MOVING DOWN, JAR UP WITH MAXIMUM
LOAD. DO NOT APPLY TORQUE
FRESH WATER IF IN SALT. (CONSI
CONTROL)
ECCENTRIC PDC BITS
TRIP SPEED BEFORE BHA ENTERS
SU::>PECTEcD ZONE
Page 51
STUCK PIPE
WELLBORE GEOMETRY
u"'""·'"'..., HARD ABRASIVE ROCK WEARS
GAUGE PROTECTION
i C<)REDHOLE SECTION UNDER GAUGE
GAUGE PULLED BIT AND STABILIZERS
· NEVER FORCE BIT THROUGH TIGHT SPOTS
REAM THE LAST 3 JOINTS TO BOTTOM
. BEGIN REAMING 3 JOINTS ABOVE CORE
HOLE SECTION
SLOW TRIP SPEED BEFORE BHA ENTERS
SUSPECTED ZONE
Page 52
STUCK PIPE
Problems are observed only when BHA Is moving in the hole
ECTION
Increasing, erratic Surge to start
Momentary over pull &
circulation set down
TRIPPING
Increasing, erratic Momentary over pull &
OUT
overpull wi th BHA al set down
zone
TRIPPING
lncreastng, erratic
IN
set down weight
BACK
Erratic Increasing.
No change Momentary over pull
REAMING
erratic
PUMPING Increasing, erratic
No change Momentary over pull
OUT
overpull
;._ .. - . :::·-= .. - ·.:,. " .. ' ' . ':-;:_ ·.
..... _ .. ......... .... • - L 0
_: ... ,
SHAKER
No change
TRENDS
LOGGER
No change
TRENDS
MUD
No change
TRENDS
• Optimize BHA design (run only what is required) and when possible. minimize BHA stiffness
• f' tan a reaming trip ff the new BHA is locked up andlor a note geometry problem IS suspecte<l
• Slow down trip speed before BHA enters kick off or dogleg depth, depth of micro dogleg and/or
ledges, mobile formation depth
• Minimize dogleg severity to 3°/100' or less. Minimize rotating hours below a sharp dogleg without a
wiper or reaming trip
• Consider using key seal wipers or drill string reamers if a key seat is suspected
• limit the length of casing rathole to avoid key seating the bottom of the casing. Do not start angle
building operations too close to the shoe
• Minimize sharp. frequent wellbore course changes
• Avoid prolonged circulation In suspected micro dogleg section to prevent hole wash out and forming
ledges.
• With mobile salts consider using a slightly under saturated mud system to allow a controlled washout.
If necessary. increase the mud weight to help slow down salt intrusion.
• Consider drilling mobile salts with eccentric PDC bits. Plan regular wiper trips to keep the hole
section open
• Use hard faced stabilizers and select bits with extra gauge protection if abrasive formations are drilled
• Gauge the old b1t and stabilizers as well as the bit and stabilizers picked up
• Begin reaming 1 joint above a cored hole section. As standard practice, ream the last stand or 3 joint
back to bottom on every trip
Page 53
ACnoN TO ESTABUSH CIRC:
1. Apply tow pomp ptessure (200 •
400 pst). Maintain pressure if
restricted circulation is possibl&.
2. 00 NOT JAR UP!!! APPLY
TORDUEIII Slacl< off 10
MAXIMUM set down weight. Alk>w
sufficient lime f01 a hydrau1ic jar to
ttlp (4 • 6 min for long cycle. see jar
manual) ..
3. II the string OOC-s not come free.
DO NOT JAR UPII Jar DOWN
until the string comM tree Of an
attemative decision is made.
Jarring down tor 10+ hours may be
necessary.
WHEN CIRC. IS ESTABLISNEO:
1. Sbldy i nattase pump speed 10
maximum rate. When pos.sible,
wortc the Si ring and circulate the
hote elean from bl1 depth.
2. Ream I ~ sectJon until the hole is
dean.
3. If POOH to log and I or run casing,
return to bottom and circulate the
hole clean.
STUCK PIPE
INfTIAL ACnON:
1. If sticking O<XtJrred while moving up apply torque and Jar
OOWN with maximum trip bad.
It sbeking occurred wniie
moving dOwn, do not apply torquo and jar UP with
maximum trip load.
2. Stop Of rOduce cirei.Mtion when cocking lhe jar and when
jarring down.
NOTE: Pomp Pt<> .. <Jro ..WI INCREASE lhe hydraulic jar up·
blow, DECREASE the dOWI'\o·blow.
3. Continuo Jarring until the string Is tree or an altemative
decision is made. Jarri"Q f-Qf 10+ hours may be necessary.
SECONOARY ACnON:
Spot acid if stuck in l imestone or chalk. Spot trash water
with mobile SO.It.
WHEN THE STRING COMES FREE:
\ , Increase circulation to maximum rate, rotate and work the
string.
2. Ream I backleam the hole Secl)()ll lhor·oughly.
ACnON TO ESTABLISH CIRC:
1. Appty iQw pump pressure (200·
400 ps1), Maintain pressure il
restrided circutation i s possible.
2. DO NOT JAR DOWN!!I APPLY
TOROOEIII Apply MAXIMUM
ovarpuU to &at. AlbN sufficient
time fOf a hydraulic jar to trip (4 •
8 min l or long cvcte. see jar
manual).
3, If tne ~ r i n g <IOe$ not come freG.
DO NOT JAR DOWNIII Jar up
until the string Is free or an
alternative docision is made.
Jarring up ftx 10+ hours may bG
reQuired.
WHEN CIRC. IS ESTABLISHED:
1. Slowly increase pump speed to
ma>c rate. When pos.sible. work
lho Wing 8flef circulate the hole
dean from bil d&pth.
Ream the section until the hole
4sclean.
• Continue RIH until oxoessive sel
down woight is obsotVOd,
circulate the hole dean.
2 . Wori< MAXIMUM limit torque down to
the st\Jck Cfepth and hold the torque
in the
3 . Stop or reduce pump spe&d 10
minimum.
4. SlaCk OM 10 MAXIMUM seH:town
limit!
5. Allow sufficient time tor a hydraulic
jar t-o tfip (4 • 6 min tor king cydO.
see jar manual).
6. II the stMg doeS not come free. hotd
torquo i n tl\0 string and continue
jarring down with maximum lrip toad.
SECONDARY ACnON:
If the string dOGs not como lroo aftor
S to 10 jar blows, conlinue
willie
2. Circolaua at maximum ra1e to crean
... hole.
3. Chock the proper mud spoclticatklns.
QUESTION ANSWER RESULTS
Pipe motion prior to stiO'ktng? Moving up
Pipe motion a!!er slicl<lng? Dn Impossible
Pipe rotatioo after sticking? Rot. Impossible
Circ. press. after sticking? Ci rc. Impossible
Add tlle numbers in 1he co4oums.
The three numbers 2. 0, 2 are circled i n the Movi ng Up row.
The three numbers 0. 0. 0 are ci rcled in the Down Impossible row.
The three numbers 0. 0, 0 are circled i n the ROI. Impossible row.
The three numbers 2. 0. 0 are cirded in the Circ.lmpossibl e row.
TOTALS= 4, 0, 2
The probable sticking mechanism Is the col umn with the highest total number (4) , Pack-oil/ Bridge
Page 54
LOST CIRCULATION
Measurable loss of whole mud (liquid phase and solid phase) to
LOST CIRCULATION the formatlon. Lost circulation can occur at any depth during any
operation
ADVERSE EFFECTS ON DRILLING OPERATIONS
LSURFACE HOLE INT
: U"'l 0:
PRODUCTION HOLE
Loss of drive /conductor Loss of Huld level monitoring loss of Huid level
shoe
monitori ng
loss of formation evaluation
Hole cleaning problems loss or formation evaluation
Hole cleaning problems
Hole bridge /collapse Hole cleaning problems
Hole bridge /collapse
Stuck pi pe
Extended well bore exposure time
Hole bridge /collapse
Well control event
Extended wellbore exposure
StucK pipe time
Loss otwell
Well control event Stuck pipe
Under ground blowout Well control event
Additional casing string Underground blowout
Additional casing string
Production zone damage
LOST CIRCULATION MECHANISMS
PRESSURE INDUCED Well bore pressure exceeds fracture pressure of the formation
FRACTURE
caus,ing the rock to crack ope-n (fracture)
NATURALLY EXISTING
Over balanced wellbore pressure is exposed to a formation
FRACTURES I HIGH
PERMEABILITY
with unsealed fractures or high permeability
CAUSES OF LOST CIRCULATION
PRESSURE INDUCED FRACTURES NATURAL FRACTURES I PERMEABILITY
Excessive mud weight
Unconsolidated formation
Annulus friction pressure
Fissures I fractures
Wellbore pressure surges
Unsealed fault boundary
Imposed I trapped pressure
Vugular I cavernous formation
Shut-in pressure
Low formation pressure
Page 55
HOLE PROBLEMS
LOST CIRCULATION
MECHANISMS
Page 56
PROGNOSEO LOSS ZONE
EXCESSIVE MUD WEIGHT
LOW FRACTURE STRENGTH
MAY BEGIN WITH SEEPAGE LOSS,
POSSIBLE TOTAL LOSS
PIT VOLUME LOSS
LOST CIRCULATION
Page 57
WELLBORE PRESSURE IS OVER
BAlANCED TO FORMATION PRESSURE
MUD IS LOST TO NATURAL FRACTURES
AND/OR HIGH PERMEABILITY
PROGNOSEDLOSSZONE
LOST CIRCUlATION CAN OCCUR AT ANY
TIME DURING ANY OPEN HOLE
OPERATION
MAY BEGIN WITH SEEPAGE LOSS,
TOTAL LOSS POSSIBLE
STATIC LOSSES DURING CONNECTIONS I
SURVEY
REDUCE PUMP SPEED TO 1/2
PULL DRILL STRING OFF BOTTOM, STOP
CIRCUlATION
ZERO STROKE COUNTER, FILL ANNULUS
WITH WATER OR LIGHT MUD
RECORD STROKES IF I WHEN THE
ANNULUS FILLS UP
MINIMIZE MUD WEIGHT
CONTROL PENETRATION RATE
MINIMIZE WELLBORE PRESSURE
SURGES
LOST CIRCULATION
HOLE PROBLEMS MECHANISMS
LOSS SEVERITY CLASSFICATIONS
SEEPAGE LOSS PARTIAL LOSS TOTAL LOU
(< 20 BBLSIHR) (> 20 BBLSIHR) (NO UTUIIIUIS)
GRADUAL LOSSES IMMEDIATE DROP IN FLUID RETURN FLOW STOPS
LEVEL WHEN PUMPING IS IMMEDIATELY
OPERATION NOT STOPPED
INTERRUPTED PUMP PRESSURE
SLOW TO REGAIN RETURNS DECREASE
POSSIBLE WARNING
AFTER STARTING
OF INCREASED LOSS CIRCULATION STRING WEIGHT INCREASE
SEVERITY
l
OPERATIONS USUALLY OPERATION SUSPENDED
INTERRUPTED
REMEDIAL ACTION
REMEDIAL ACTION REQUIRED REQUIRED
-
METHODS FOR LOCATING I rut.'ll DEPTH
Successful treatment of lost circulation depends greatly on locating the depth of the loss zone
SURVEY METHODS PRACTICAL IIE1'HbD8
• TEMPERATURE SURVEY
0
OFFSET WELL DATA
• ACOUSTIC LOG • GEOLOGIST I LOGGER IDENTIFIES
POTENTIAL LOSS ZONE
• RADIOACTIVE TRACER
• MONITORING FLUID LEVEL TRENDS

SPINNER SURVEY
WHILE DRILLING
• PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
• HOT WIRE SURVEY
-
FOR
0
SURVEY TOOLS NOT ALWAYS AVAILABLE
• CONSIDERABLE TIME REQUIRED TO RUN SURVEY
• SURVEYS REQUIRE LARGE VOLUME OF MUD
0
RESULTS OFTEN DIFFICULT TO INTERPRET
0
POSSIBILITY OF LOSING SURVEY TOOL IN THE HOLE
Page 58
il
LOST CIRCULATION
SOLUTION GUIDELINES
GUIDEUNES FOR LOST CIRCULATION SOLUTIONS
ACT10N RESULTS CONSIDERATIONS
Reduced wellbore pressure (the
More successful with pressure
MINIMIZE driving force pushing mud into
induced fractures
MUDWT the loss zone
Possible well control event or hole
instability problems
Reactive clays of loss zone swell with More successful with fresh water mud
FORMATION
water of WBM producing a plugging effect losl to shale formations
"HEALING
Soft shales deform with formation stress Better results will1 LCM
TIME"
helping to "hear' the fracture
Normal S. 8 hours walt time with string
in casing
Effectively bridges. mats and seals
Less effective with large fractures,
LOSSCIRC
small to medium fractures I
faults
MATERIAL
(LCM)
permeability
Ineffective with cavernous zones
Increase LCM lbslbbl with loss
severity
A plug base is pumped into the loss zone
Can be used in production zones
SPECIALTY
followed by a chemical activator
TECHNIQUES
The two materials form a soft plug
Increased risk of plugging equipment
Plug breaks down with time
Cement slurry is squeezed into the toss
Provides a "fit-to-form" solid plug at
CEMENT
zone under injection pressure
or near the stress of the surrounding
formation
The slurry cures to a solid plug
In some cases, the only practical solution Not a consideration where well control
DRILLING
is to drill without returns
potential exist
BLIND
Set casing in the forst compentent
formation
FOR SUCCESSFUL LCM RESULTS
• Locating the loss zone and accurate pill placement is vital. Position the string +/-100 feel above loss
zone, do not stop pumping until the pill clears the bit
• Insure the base mud viscosi ty will suspend the LCM volume added. Add fresh gel to a premixed LCM
pill immediately before pumping, fresh gel continues to yield after spotting
• An effective LCM pill bridges, matts and then seals the loss zone. particle size distribution and pill
formulation must satisfy these requirements Consult the LCM product guide prior to applying the pill
Use large nozzle sizes if the loss potential is high. Keep the string moving during pill spotting
• operation to avoid stuck pipe
Page 59
HOLE PROBLEMS
LOST CIRCULATION
RESTORING
CIRCULATION
LOSS CIRCULATION MATERIAL (LCM)
.. ,
"
FINE (F) A portion of the material will pass through the shaker
screens
GRADES MEDIUM (M) Majority of material will screen-out at shakers.
COARSE (C) All material will screen-out at shaker Will plug jets and
down hole tools. Recommended with open-ended pipe
FIBROUS
Non-rigid materials that form a mat on the hole wall to provide a foundation for
&
FLAKED
normal filter cake development
GRANULAR Rigid malenals that bndge and plug the permeability of the loss zone
- - · ~
LCMBLEND A combination of fibrous. flaked and granular materials in one sack
CELLULOSTIC Sized wood derived materials used to prevent seepage /partial loss
CALCIUM
Sized limestone or marble (acid soluble) used for seepage /partial loss in productior
CARBONATE
zone
- -
SIZED SALT Granulated salt (water soluble) developed for seepage /partial loss in production
zone in salt-saturated systems
SEEPAGE LOSS SOLUTIONS (< 20 BBLSIHR)
FIRSTACnoN RECOVERY

Reduce ROP to limit
Add LCM pill In 5 • 10 PPB increments, Evaluate results over 2
cuttings load
circulations before increasing to next level of LCM concentration.
Mix in 30 to 50 bbl batches dictated by hole size, Consider spotting

Minimize mud
LCM pill before POOH
rheology
-

Mtnimtze GPM
NON-PRODUCTIVE INTERVALS
WBM: OBMI SBM:

Minimize wellbore
pressure surges LCM Blend (F) 5 · 15PPB Cellulosic (F/M) 2 -25 PPB
LCM Blend (M) 5 · 15PPB

Minimize mud wt FlaKed (FIM) 10 • 20 PPB

Consider pulling into
PRODUCTION ZONE EXPOSED
casing and waiting
6 to a hours WBM: OBMISBM:
L1mestone (FIM) 5 · 30 PPB Cellulosic (FI M) 2 • 25 PPB
Limestone (F/M) 5 • 15 PPB
THE LCM MIXTURES SHOVVN HERE ARE INTENDED AS A GUIDE WHERE NO FIELD
EXPERIENCE EXIST, SOME SITUATIONS MAY REQUIRE 2 • 6 PP8 LCM
CONCENTRATION IN THE TOTAL MUD SYSTEM. CONSULT YOUR MUD COMPANY
FOR AVAILABLE PRODUCTS AND PILL FORMULATIONS BEST SUITED FOR THE AREA.
Page 60
LOST CIRCULATION
PARTIAL LOSS SOLUnONS (> 20 BBLSIHR)
FIRSTACnON RECOVERY
Add LCM pill in 5 -10 PPB incremen1s. Evaluate results over 2

Reduce ROP to
circulations before increasing to next level of LCM concentration. Mix
limit cuttings load
in 30 to 50 bbl batches dic1ated by hole size. Consider spotting LCM
pill before POOH

Minimrze mud
rheology
NON-PRODUCTIVE INTERVALS
WBM: OBM/SBM:

Reduce GPM
LCM Blend (M) 15 - 25 PPB Cellulosic (F/M) 10-25 PPB

Minimize well bore
LCM Blend (C) 15 - 25 PPB Cellulosic (C) 10 -25 PPB
walnut (M/C) 10-20 PPB walnut (M) 5 -15 PPB
pressure surges

Minimize mud wt
PRODUCTION ZONE EXPOSED

Consider pulling into
WBM: OBM /SBM:
casing and waiting LCM Blend (F) 5 - 15 PPB Cellulosic (F/M) 2-25PPB
6 to 8 hours
LCM Blend (M) 5- 15 PPB Limestone (F) 5 - 15 PPB
Cellulosic (M) 5 - 15 PPB
GUIDELINES
TOTAL LOSS SOLUTIONS
FIRST ACTION RECOVERY
• Pull off bottom, keep
Formulations for the specialty pill and cement are dictated by
conditions of each event
string moving
NON-PRODUCTIVE INTERVALS
• Ffll annulus.with water
WBM: OBM /SBM:
or light mud
40 PPB LCM Pill 30 - 40 PPB LCM Pill
Specialty Pill Specialty Pill
• Record strokes ij I
Cement Squeeze Cement Squeeze
when annulus fills up
PRODUCTION ZONE EXPOSED
• Consider pulling into
the casing
WBM: OBM/SBM:
40 PPB LCM Pill 30 - 40 PPB LCM Pill
• Minimize wellbore
Specialty Pill Specialty Pill
Cement Squeeze Cement Squeeze
pressure surges
ADDRESS RESERVOIR ADDRESS RESERVOIR
NEEDS NEEDS
THE LCM MIXTURES SH6WN' HERE ARE IN11'ENDED AS A GUIDE WHERE NO FIELD
EXPERIENCE EXIST. SOME SITUATIONS MAY REQUIRE 2 - 6 PPB I!.CM
CONCENTRATION IN THE TOTAL MUD SYSTEM. CONSUl.T YOUR MUD COMPAN'I'
FOR AVAILABLE PRODUCTS AND PILL FORMULATIONS BEST SUITED FOR THE AREA.
Page 61
Page 62
LOST CIRCULATION
SPOmNO PROCEDURES FOR LOST CIRCULAnON MATERIAL (LCM)
• Locate the loss zone
• Mix 50 - 100 barrels of mud with 25 - 30 ppb bentonite and 30 - 40 ppb LCM
• Position the drill string +/-100 feet above the loss zone
• If open-ended, pump 1/2 of the pill into the loss zone. Stop the pump, waij 15 minutes and pump the
remainder of the pill
• Jr pumping through the bit, pump the entire pill and follow with 25 barrels of mud
• If returns are not regained. repeat procedure If returns are not regained, wait 2 hours and repeat
procedure
• If returns are not regained after pumping 3 pills, consider other options to regain circulation
SPOmNO PROCEDURES FOR SPECIALTY PILL
• If possible, drill through the loss interval . Pull out of the hole and return open-ended
• Position the string +/-100 feet above the loss zone
• Clean t.he mixing pit thoroughly. Mix 50 barrels of desired specialty pill
• Pump down the drill string and place in the suspected zone. If annulus is not full . pump mud down
the annulus white pumping pill down drill string
• When annulus fills and squeeze is in place, apply 150 - 200 psi on annulus. This wilt "sofl squeeze"
the material into the loss zone
SPOmNO PROCEDURES FOR GUNK PILL
• Jr possible, drill1hrough the loss interval. Pull out of the hole and return open-ended
• Position the string +/-100 feet above the loss zone
• Mix 100 sx of cement and 100 sx of bentonite with 50 barrels of diesel (slurry 1111- 11.5 ppg, yield-
1.39 cubic feet per sack )
• Pump down the drill string, 15 barrels of water-free diesel ahead and behind the gunk slurry
• When the lead diesel spacer reaches the bit, close the BOP and pump mud down the annulus
• Pump 4 bblslmin down the string and 2 bblslmin down the annulus until the tail diesel spacer clears
the string
• Reciprocate the string slowly, do not reverse circulate
• Pull the drill string clear of the squeeze. Mix and place the squeeze with a cementing unit, n
possible
• Wait 8+ hours for the gunk to cure, repeat procedure if returns are not regained
• It may be necessary to drill out the gunk before repeating the procedure
Page 63
HOLE PROBLEMS
LOST CIRCULATION
PREVENTION
SPO I liNG PROCEDURE FOR CEIENT
The cement slurty formulation should be tested by the cement company to determine the
thickening time

If possible, drill through the entire loss circulation interval

Pull out of the hole and return with open-ended drill pipe

Position the open-ended drill pipe approximately 11)0 feet above the loss zone

Mix and pump 50 to 100 bbls of cement slurty

Follow the slurry with a volume of mud 01 water to balance the U·Tube

Wah 6 to 8 hours and attempt to fill the annulus

Repeat the procedure d returns are not rega1ned

It may be necessary to drill out the cement before repealing the procedure
LOST CIRCULATION PREVENTION GUIDEUNE8
Prevention of lost circulation must be considered i n the wen dnlling and post analysis phases
• Design the easing program to ease-off low pressure or suspected lot circulation zones
• Ma1ntain mud weight to t.he min1mum required to control known fOimation pressures.. High mud
weJQhiJs one of the major causes of lost circulation
• Pre-treat the mud system with LCM when dnU1ng through known lost corculauon Intervals
• Maintain low mud rheology values that are st1tl suffoc-t to clean the hole
• RotittJng the drill slfiny when :.lartiog drw&ation hetp5 to break the gel$ end mtmmiz:o pymp pressure
surges
• Start circulation slowly after connectiOns and periods of non-circulation
• Use minimum GPM flow rate to clean the hole when drilling known lost circulation zone
• Control drill known lost circulation zone to avoid loading the annulus with cuttings
• Reduce pipe tripping speeds to minimize swablsurge pressure
• Plan to break circulation at 2 to 3 depths white tripping in the hole
• Minimize annular re,strictions
• Consider using jet sizes 01 TFA that Will allow the use of LCM pills ( 12132"' tets +)
• Be prepared for plugging pump suctiOns. pump d1scharge seteen. dnll string screens. etc
• Be prepared for mud losses due to shaker screen plugging
Page 64
LOST CIRCULATION
HOLE PROBLEMS
DRILLING BLIND
PRECAUTIONS WHILE DRIWNG WITHOUT RETURNS
Circumstances may dictate drilling blind until 50 feet of the next competent formation is drilled.
Casing is set to solve the lost circulation problem. A blind drilling operation must have Drilling
Manager approval
• Insure an adequate water supply is available
• Use one pump to drill and the other pump to continuously add water to the annulus
• Assign a person to monitor the now line at all t1mes
• Closely monitor torque and drag to determine when to pump viscous sweeps
• Closely monitor pump pressure while drilling for indications of pack-off
• Conlrol drill (if possible) at one joint per hour
• Pick up off bottom every 15 feet (3m) drilled to ensure the hole is not packing off
• Keep the pipe mov10g at all times
• Maintain a 400 • 500 bbl reserve of v1scous mud ready to pump
• Consider spotting viscous mud on bottom prior to tripping or logg1ng
• Stop dnlhng and consider pulling to lhe shoe if pump repairs are required
• Stan and stop pipe slowly and minimize pipe speed
• Consider spotting a viscous pill above the BHA prior to each connection
• Prior to each connection, circulate and w1pe the hole thoroughly
• Do not run surveys when drilling blind
• If circulation returns. stop drilling. Raise the drill string to the shut-in position. Stop the pumps
and check the well for flow
• If flow is observed, close the BOP and observe s h u t ~ in pressures:


No pressure • Slowly circulate bottoms up through 2 open chokes
Pressure Observed • Slowly circulate the kick with the Circulation Method and present
mud weight. Be prepared for an underground blowout condition
• At all times to pump cement to the well
Page 65
RIG REPAIR
UNSCHEDULED
RIG REPAIR
An interruption in planned operations caused by a breakdown In the drilling rig
equipment. Running rig equipment to failure is not cost effective for the
Contractor. Operator. or wellbore
IMPACT OF UNSCHEDULED RIG REPAIR
DRILLING CONTRACTOR WELLBORE OPERATOR
FINANCIAL PENALTIES HIGH RISK OF OTHER INCREASED WELL COST
UNSCHEDULED EVENTS
COST OF EMERGENCY REPAIR DELAYED PRODUCTION
EXTENDED EXPOSURE
POSSIBLE PERSONNEL INJURY TIME LOSS OF PRODUCTION
EXTENSIVE EQUIPMENT LOSS OF HOLE SECTION
DAMAGE
LOSS OF WELL
LOSS OF FUTURE CONTRACTS
PRIMARY CONTRACTOR AND OPERATOR OBJECnYES
CONTRACTOR OPERATOR
NO PERSONNEL INJURY NO PERSONNEL INJURY
NO WELL CONTROL INCIDENT NO WELL CONTROL INCIDENT
OPTIMIZE EQUIPMENT LIFE OPTIMIZE DRILLING OPERATION
MINIMIZE RIG REPAIR MINIMIZE UNSCHEDULED EVENTS
CONTROL EQUIPMENT COST
CONTROL FINAL WELL COST
LONG TERM DRILLING CONTRACT
COST EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE
A program designed to schedule regular Inspection, maintenance and/or repair
of drilling equipment prior to failure
PREVENnYE
MAINTENANCE
PROGRAM
(PMP)
The historical life expectancy of rig equipment is based on the frequency of
maintenance
FOUR COMPONENTS OF A PREVENnYE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
CLOSED LOOP CREW FEED BACK RECORD KEEPING AUDITING
• Management to rig • Refining and tailoring • Equipment history • Through Inspections
the system
• Rig to management • Equipment trends • Well designed
checklists
• Roles defined • Equipment maintenance
• Clear guidelines
• Follow-up plans/
reports
Page 66
RIG REPAIR
--

COMPREHENSIVE PMP EQUIPMENT LIST
• MAIN ENGINES
0
HIGH PRESSURE MANIFOLDS I VALVES I HOSES
• GENERATORS I SCR SYSTEMS • HYDRAULIC OPERATING SYSTEMS
• MOORING I STATION KEEPING SYSTEM • COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM
0
BALLAST AND BILGE SYSTEM °CRANES
0
TENSIONING EQUIPMENT
0
PIPE HANDLING SYSTEM
• BOPE I CONTROL SYSTEM ° CIRCULATING SYSTEM
• RISER I DIVERTER SYSTEM
0
MUD PUMPS
0
HOISTING EQUIPMENT • BULK MI XING SYSTEM
• TOP DRIVE SYSTEM • SOLIDS CONTROL SYSTEM
________ I• RIG COMPUTER SYSTEMs _______ ...J
PMP FREQUENCY SCHEDULE
• HOURLY
0
BI-MONTHLY
0
EVERY TWO YEARS
0
DAILY • QUARTERLY • EVERY THREE YEARS
0
WEEKLY
0
EVERY FOUR MONTHS • EVERY FOUR YEARS
• BI-WEEKLY • SEMI -ANNUALLY
0
EVERY FIVE YEARS
0
MONTHLY • ANNUAllY • EVERY EIGHT YEARS
BENEFITS OF A SUCCESSFUL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
• Ensure equipment life .expectancy

Reduce down ti me for unscheduled rig repair
• Lower well cosl
• Reduce severity ol damage to equipment

Maintenance is less costly than emergency repair

less chance of personnel injury
• Increase contractor profit margm
• Reduce risk of stuck pipe, well control problems. other unscheduled events

Component failure frequency records defines rig and shore base spare parts inventory

Increase operator awareness of the contractor' s operational needs
• Opportunity for contractor 1nput/ involvement during well planning
EVALUATE RIG REPAIR FAILURE SEVERITY
• WHO SHOULD BE NOTIFIED
0
ARE PERSONNEL OR THE RIG IN DANGER
• WHAT IMMEDIATE ACTION IS REQUIRED
0
IS THE WELLBORE IN DANGER
• CAN NORMAL OPERATIONS CONTINUE
0
WHAT SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ARE REQUIRED
• CAN PARTIAL OPERATIONS CONTINUE °CAN THE FAILURE BE REPAIRED ON SITE
0
IS OPERATIONAL SHUT DOWN REQUIRED
0
PREVENTATIVE ACTION PLAN
Page 67
'V
..
"' •
"' ..
INTEGRATED PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM (IPMP)
RIG EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE I.IST:
• • 5e1v1C:e Man Enginelll · Se1V1ce CoruL 1\.mpt; "· Sol'llca Slalboad 22• Seo. Ma111old
1 · Service Gene«Jtcn • • 4.5.6 ••· crone n. \t::M)S
>· Soritoecentl\mpt; ,.. SorvloeMLitellocm
, • Slfi:I'CUI M tN>
11
• SoMcolop 0rt.e 1, SeMce Ft>c< IV ,.. Sorvloe forwa1d Ule
$ . SerW:;:e PQrr Oone ,, • SGtVtee 9f$1Qt'n,,. it:::llm ,.. 80atS:
•· seM:eFt>c<- 71·
•· SeMceBOPAcCU• · eo- a. \tMlo
LEGEND SEOMCE COM"""' ..... N'I'ENANCt: LIST

C£¥EW UN!J
PlANNED IAAJNTENANC£
1
5eiii!CO liOnS. #1 6- 5eiii!CO 1'\lmp # 1 .
1
eE
,. • Seo. CoruL 1\.mpt;
... 4,6,6
,, • SeMce
... -
.. SOMe& lop DIM>
...
,. SoMcellM!rtet
S>t>Mm
...
...
...
...
...
..
.,.

,, . tef 1$,
12. lnspocl""""" 17.
13. Rosuppt; uM 18.
LOW RJSK MAINTENANCE
1
2. SofVlce Engine 7. SeMce P.lonl< ·2. SeMce
3. 1 1 a lotiNoa >3. ltansrnloslon
HJGHRISK MAINTENANCE • 4, SOMe& !tons. lf.2 9 SQMeo 1'\lmp #2 14. RepjooO WIG 1loel
5 SeMce Engine 10 15. Setvlce ()pe(ala
14. 5efviC:e OP8!010r Ch<*\9.
20.
•·!HI-10-12 12 12 9·22·2pu
IPMP -
RIG ___,.
1

2
,..-10-12·29
IPMP
--
15 S5 16 19·29·38
16
36

...
...
... .
...
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...
....
21
22
23
24.
25.
OfHCA:
13
32
Days From Spud I I I I I I I I I I J I I I I
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Well HOLE 20" CSG
IIIIOC
- 17 ·112'" HOLE 13-3/S" CSG
Casing - Depth
Run Csg
woe
12·1/4 ' HOLE g..$1'8" CSO
30" 1284'
,_, _
-
woe
20" 21100'
13-318" 5080'
...... .. ..... 7" .. ........

-
9-518" 12.250'
r 14,540'
c. ::1. (J)
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RIG REPAIR
.. .
DRILUNG SYSTEM BREAK DOWN EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
If rig equipment failure shuts down a major drilling system, immediate action must be taken to protect
the personnel, rig and wellbore from associated events
DRILUNG SYSTEM INITIAL SECONDARY
ACTION PLAN
BREAKDOWN RESULT RESULT
STATION KEEPING
• Rig drifts or drives • Stuck pipe • Stop rota boo and cuwtauon
oft location
• SOP I ns.er damage • Pos.tlon tooljoint above the
1
• Dnll stnng ts sheared-off hang·off ram
• Onll stnng damage
• Upper manne ns.e.r • Ck>se hong-off tam$ $lack·
connector unlatches • Surface equ•pment off lo Pf8determl00d ......e.gru
failufe I damage
• lmtiate dnll1ng conuactO(s
f-
e-mergency procedures
RI G POWER • Loss of MattOn • R.g drlft·off • S1an emergency generator
• Loss ol • Studt pipe • lnitlat& preliminary disconnect
rotation, ciccutatioo procedure
• Well
• d(tll wing off bOttom w1lh mot•on
• Surface equipment compensator
failure I demage
• Ctrculate Wtlh cetnenting pump
• Monitor well for now
TOTAL DRilLING • Possible loss of • ng drift • c>fl • Start emergency generj tor
POWER station keep!OQ damage
• Initiate pre-Jimlnary disconnect
• lou of hoisting, • Stuck pipe procedure
rotahoo, Cfi'Cutatton
• Well control • Circulate with cemenhng pump
• If possi ble. rotJte drill string
Wllh power tongs
• Monitor wen fOf Row
TOP DRIVE SYSTEM • Pos.sii>Se lou ot • Stucj( pipe • If pos.sible, trip to casing shoe tor
(TOSl ro«ahon, hO!stlnQ, re-oalr
circulalion • Well control
• If not possib&e. set slips, tie stip
hand.'es and rotata- pipe i n slips
• If possible. to clrcu:late
• Monitor well for flow
HOISTING SYSTEM • rai&e the • Stuck pipe • Contmue circulation I rotatton
drill StrM19
• Reciprocate dril suing with
motion compennt01
ROTATING SYSTEM • Canno-1 rotate the • pipe • Reciprocate d11ll string
dtil Slt it'\lg
• Trip to casing 1hoe for repair
• If possible, rotate drill string with
power tongs
• Maintai n fllll circulation
CIRCULATING • C3nnot Ctrcul,le the • Slutk pipe • Trip to easi ng &hoe for repair
SYSTEM wellbore
• Wei oontrol • Rotate 1 lhe dnll string
if repai r Is made while in open hole
WELL CONTROL • Cannot shut·in during • Personnel l"jury • Non emergency .. &eet.Jre the well
SYSTEM k•Ck to make repairs
• Equlpmem csam8ge
• Biowout • Eme<geney • l nlti&te evacuation
• loss of well procedures
• Environment.al damage
Page 69
DOWN HOLE EQUIPMENT FAILURE
An interruption in planned operations caused by drilling /evaluation tool failures
other than drill string failures. Down hole tool selection and operation is critical in
the reduction of tool failure





Drilling engineer specifies equipment
Drilling foreman orders equipment
Toolpusher inspects/checks equipment
Driller picks up/runs equipment
Rig team post analyzes equipment
L---------------------- _________________________ _J
DOWN HOLE MOTOR Motor stops drilling

SHOCK sue Seal washout
DRIUINGJAR
MWD/LWD
LOGGING
SURVEY EQUIPMENT
SPECIALTY EQUIPMENT
PACKER I LJS I I 00LS
METAL FAnGUE
IMPROPER TOOL SELECTION
IMPROPER TOOL OPERATION
EXCEEDED DESIGN LIMITS
EXCEEDED DESIGN LIFE
TRANSPORTATION I
HANDLING DAMAGE
HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT
DESIGN I MANUFACTURING
Dump valve, software, LCM plugging
not release, i ncompatible with other
Cyclic stress reversals
Loads exceed design incompatible with other tools
Untrained personnel, inattention
Accidental llntentional over1oad
Economic based, untrained personnel
Untrained personnel
H S, CO , high temperature, corrosive mud, high
hard abrasive formations
Quality control failed
Page 70
DOWN HOLE EQUIPMENT FAILURE
Selecting the right tool for the job can significantly reduce too failure. Following a standardized tool
selection procedure ensures the right tool is selected
DOWN HOLE
ENVIRONMENT
TOOL PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES
COMPATIBILITY
OPERATIONS
FISHING
SUPPORT
QUALITY
CONTROL
COST
LIMITATIONS
• WELLBORE CONDITIONS
Temperature limitations of tools
H,S, CO,. Corrosion resistance
Oil resistant rubber goods
Hydrostatic pressure limitations
Hole angle limitations
Hole size versus tool size
• DIMENSIONS
Length, OD. ID or tool
Weight and grade
Connection type
Special make up torque requirements, thread dope
Stress rel ief features
Connections compatible with other down hole equipment
Will tool wort< with other equipment
• OPERATING PARAMETERS
Minimum J maximum flow rate
Minimum I max·imum operating pressure
Torque I tension limitations
Recommended operating hours
Is a tool operator needed I provided
Special handling tools required
Are special operating instructions required/provided
Operating manual provided
Safety Recommendations
Settings I calibration data
Maintenance requirements
• FISHING TOOL METHODS
Tool dimensions diagram provided
Required fishing tools I ease ol fishing
Fishing records available
Tool lost-in-hole consequences
Back up tools readily available I delivery time
Are spare parts needed I readily available
Transportation problems I hazardous cargo
Air transportable
Required deck space I deck toad
• RELIABILITY OF TOOL
New or rebuilt tool
Hours since last rebuilt/ inspection records
Performance record of loot on offset wells
Performance record ol tool worldwide
Operating/standby rental rates I repair agreements
Lost-in-hole charges I insurance
Success/failed performance rate
Depth I external pressure limitation
Yield strength
Drilling ftuid • Oil, LCM. Hematite
Battery packs
Page 71
DOWN HOLE EQUIPMENT FAILURE
Following a standardized check lost when !he tool amves insures the light tool has been shipped and
was not damaged in transil
PAPERWORK
PHYSICAL
CON Om ON
• Verily equipment quantities and types
• Ensure serial/ model numbers on the tool agree with the order lorm,
cargo manifest and Inspection report tool
• locate the operating manual, spec1alonstructoons (d any), settongs
and cahbratoon sheet, tool dlmensoons diagram and parts lost
• Oamaged con1a1ners may tndicate damaged tool
• MJSsing or damaged parts and spare parts
• Thread protectors Installed on tools and crossovers
• Thread and seal1ng shoulder damage
• Tool bore and other circulating ports are free of debris
• Explosive I corrosive tools and materials are clearly marked
---- 1-
COMPATIBILITY
• Correct connections size. type and BSR
• Connection stress relief features match features of the drill string
• Handling I operabng tools are compatible with rig equipment
• Plugs I wireline tools will pass through tool
• Bolt pattern, bolts. ga&kels are correct
~ - - - - - - - - - + - - ~ - - -------------
OPERATION • Functoon test values. Rappers. etc. before running tool in hole
UNFAMILIAR /NEW
TECHNOLOGY
TOOL
OPERATING
MANUAL
AWARENESS/
REFRESHERS
TOOL FAILURE
REPORT
SERVICE/
EQUIPMENT
• Cross-over subs are correct, BSR's are checked
• Identify and marl< new technology tools
Hold a pre·Job safety meeting focused on the safe and proper operation of the
tool. If an operator is provided. allow the specialis11o make the presentation
Make available to the Oriller, an operations manual for each tool that nequires
special operat1ng procedures (i.e .. jars)
Pre-tour safety meetings woth wrrtten Tour Operations Plan, Driller Hand Over
Notes with current/next operations section. Discuss operation of unfam1har I
new technology tools
When tool fail ure occurs. file a Tool Failure Report to share knowledge of the
fai lure and preventive action taken. A statistical data base can be built with this
information
Inferior service and tools provided by supply companies can account for a
substantial number of tool failures. Included In the Tool Failure Report, is a
section on supply company performance ratings, An alternative supplier should
be considered il ratings indicate high tool failure rate and/or poor service
DRIU. $TitiNG FAILURE
PLANNING
MINIMUM YIELD The minimum load (lbs/sq in of metal} at which plastic deformation of the metal
STRENGTH (MYS)
begins
METAL FATIGUE
Accumulated metal damage caused by stress reversals
Fatigue damage is a naturally occurring process that begins when the drill pipe is put into service and
accumulates w ~ h use. Stress cracks form and continue to grow which eventually results in string failure
if not detec1ed by inspec1ion
DRILL PIPE FAILURE PREVENTION PLANNING
COMPONENT DEFINITION EXAMPLE
ATIRIBUTES The dimensions and mechanical properties
Wall thickness. Yield strength,
built into the drill string components. Attributes
Toughness, Upset geometry
determine the loads that can be applied
DESIGN The designed strength of the drill sting must
Anticipated loads, Correct
exceed the loads required to drill the well.
selection and posmoning of
Operating below the design limits extends the
string components, Posting
life or the drill string
max-imum tension and torsion
limits for tile Driller
INSPECTION Examine the drill string components to ensure
Onsite visual inspection,
it meets minimum specifications. Inspections
Electronic inspection based on
detect wear before it results in a down hole fail ure
drill siring and drilling conditions
OPERATIONS Improper use, handling and storage of the drill
Correct connection make·up
string results in premature string fail ure
Calibrating gauges, Operational
use and handling practices
SURROUNDINGS The chemical and mechanical environment in
Doglegs, Buckling, Vibrations,
which the drill string is operated. If the
Corrosion, High angle wells
S-urroundings. be<»m& hostile , the ins-pection
frequency should be increased to minimize
failures
The steps taken to prevent drill string fai lures is the sum of efforts in these five components. In
some cases. efforts in one component area must be varied to minimize problems in another area
DRILL STRING FAILURE CAUSES
BELOW MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH ABOVE MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH
-
85% OF TOTAL FAILURES 15% OF TOTAL FAILURES

Drill Pipe Tube Fatigue • Tension

BHA Connec1ion Fatigue • Torsion

Connection Leak • Tension I Torsion Combination

Sulfide Stress Cracking • Collapse

S p l ~ Box • Burst

Mechanical Failure of Specialty Tools

Welding Failure
Page 73
DRILL PIPE FATIGUE
/JJl/U .. STRING FAII..URlE
DRILL PIPE TUBE FATIGUE FAILURE
POINT OF AITACK LOCATION OF FAILURE CAUSE
INTERNAL UPSET 16" to 24" from pin and box end Sharp change in wall thickness between
tootjoint and pipe tube
SLIP AREA 16" to 24" from box end
Usi ng one tong, stopping the string with
the slips, worn slips and bowl
TUBE MIDDLE Middle section between pin and Contact w ~ h abrasive formation while
box
rotating causing OD wear
TRANSITION ZONE
First 5 stands above BHA Stiffness change from BHA to drill pipe,
possibility of compressional loading with
excessive WOB
FACTORS THAT ACCELERATE DRILL PIPE TUBE FATIGUE
• Slip cuts
• No transition pipe
• Doglegs and high angle holes
• Corrosive mud, oxygen, H,S, carbon dioxide, chlorides
• Running bent pipe
• Running drill pipe in compression
• Bacl<reaming with high tension loads, torque and tension in combination
• Drill string v•bralions and vertical bouncing
• Erratic torque, slip/stick drilling condition














PREVENTIVE ACTION
Maintain hole angle changes under 3°/ 1 00'
Maintain sufficient levels of corrosion inhibitors and oxygen scavengers
Stop pipe, set slips and lower pipe slowly onto slips to prevenl slip cuts
Allow no more than 3' of pipe length above the slips if possible
Always use 2 tongs to make-up and break-out connection
Ensure tongs are at 90°angle in two planes when torquing up connections
Do not run bent pipe, pipe with deep slip cuts or corrosion pits
Go slow when bacl<reaming, minimize the overpull
Always use transition pipe (HWDP) between the drill collars and drill pipe
Move the bottom stand of drill pipe (HDWP) to the top of the drill string on each trip
Rotate the connection breaks on each trip
Use adequate BHA weight to provide bit weight
Check slip insert bowl, master bushing and rotary table for wear
Clean and inspect slip and tong dies frequently
Page 74
/
/
/
/ /
/ /
/ /
/
., _
, --
ORlU.. S
TONGS AT ANGLE IN 2 PLANES
....
CELL
DRILL PIPE FATIGUE
....
LOAD
CELL
....

DRILL PIPE I TOOLJOINT COLOR CODE IDENTIFICATION
....
z
0
....,
...J
§
.a
w
a..
0:
:;;
z
0
E
0
z
0
0
....
z
0
....,
...J
§
TOOLJOINT AND DRILL PIPE
CLASSIFICATION BANDS
CLASS 1 ... ............... ..... 1 WHITE BAND
PREMIUM CLASS ..... ... 2 WHITE BANDS
CLASS 2 .. ..... ...... .......... 1 YELLOW BAND
CLASS 3 .. ..................... 1 BLUE BAND
CLASS 4 .. ................... .. 1 GREEN BAND
SCRAP ....... ...... ..... ...... .. 1 RED BAND
TOOLJOINT CONDITION STRIPS
SHOP REPAIRABLE ..... 3 RED STRI PS
OR SCRAP
FIELD REPAIRABLE .. ... 3 GREEN STRIPS
Page 75
DRILL PIPE FATIGUE
DRILL STRING FAILURE
IDENTIFICATION MARKINGS ON TOOLJOINT
I
STANDARD WEIGHT DRILL PIPE DRILL PIPE WEIGHT
GRADES X, G & S CODE
NEAR BOTTOM! NOMINAL STD or
OFTOOWOINT
SIZE WEIGHT TIWALL CODE
\ 3-1/2" 13.30 STD 1
_../' WEIGHT
-
15.50 TW 2


4" 14.00 STD 2
'
15.75 TW 3
GAAOE
4-1/2" 16.60 STD 2
..............
COOE

20.00 TW 3
U ET

22.82 TW 4
MILLED
"'-1 SLOT
5" 19.50 STD 2
-
25.60 TW 3
THICK WALL DRILL PIPE
GRADES X, G & S 5-1/2" 21 .90 STD 2
24.70 TW 3
NEAR TOP
OFTOOWOINT
I
6-518" 25.20 STD 1
...,....,
DRILL PIPE GRADE
'r.
II
CODE
l [!J
E- E75
G - G105
INTERNAL
X - X95
\SET

S - S105

.......
IDENTIFICATION MARKINGS ON TOOWOINT
-
DRILL PIPE IDENTIFICATION CODE
AA:uss lllM_N s -p
uss - Tooljolnt manufacturer
694 - Date of tool jooning
BENCHMARK
(June, 1994)
-
#
- Tube manufacturer
: N
-::
5I
code (see RP7G)
'"
;: 3
- Drill pipe grade
;;::;;. ....=;J E
Page76
DRill STRING fA .... tiRE
BHA FATIGUE
BHA CONNECTION FATIGUE FAILURE
-
POINT OF ATIACK CAUSE

Tension from connection torque and BHA weight
PIN NECK

Bending load increases neck tension on the outer side of the bending
radius

Corrosion pitting

Bending load applies circumferential stress
BOTIOMOFTHE

Box OD wear reduces box strength
BOX

Corrosion pittlng
FACTORS THAT ACCELERATE BHA CONNECTION FATIGUE
• Over or under torquing the connection, under torquing is more common
• Doglegs I high angle holes
• Corrosion from oxygen. H,S. carbon dioxide. chlorides
• Unstabllized drill collars in compression
• Large diameter holes or washed out holes
• BHA vibrations and vertical bounclng
• High tension load or jarring on stuck pipe
• No connection stress relief features
• Damaged connection sealing surfaces
• Incorrect Bending Strength Ratio (BSR)
• Erratic torque, slip/slick drilling condaions
PREVENTIVE ACTION
• Maintain hole angle change under 3°/ 1 00'
• Maintain sufficient levels of corrosion inhibitors and oxygen scavengers
• Apply recommended make-up torque with tongs at so• angle in two planes and calibrate tong gauges
frequently
• Correct recommended make-up torque (RMUT) for dope friction factor
RMUTeo.= RMUT x Dope Friction Factor
• Minimize BHA vibration/buckling wah stabilizers. shock subs
• Inspect the BHA at recommended intervals and after severe eircumstanoes
• Cold-roll BHA connection thread roots
• Specify stress relieved pins and bore back boxes
• Maintain bending strength ratio (BSR) near value recommended for drill collar size
Page 77
BHA FATIGUE
ORILL STRING FAILURE
STRENGTH RATIO (BSR)
The r-.tio of box stifrness to pin stlfrnu• After applyong proper torque. bendong strength of
connection is balanced when the box silliness os 2.51lmes the pin stiffness
A BSR of 2.5 represents a balanced conneC1ion for the average size collar and connee110n type.
As collar 00 decreases. BSR should be reduced to compensate for a weaker pin. As collar 00
increases, BSR should be increased to compensate for a stronger pin
1 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 5 3 .0 3 .5
BENDING STR E N GTH RATI O (BSR)
--·--
Page 78
DRILL STRING I=AiLURE
CARE/HANDLING
DRILL CREW 5-SECOND CHECKS
DEVELOP A REGULAR HABIT OF DOING 5-SECOND CHECKS THESE CHECKS CAN BE MADE
0111 THE PI FIE RACK, V-OOOR. RIG FLOOR, WHILE ORi l liNG.ITRIPPING, AND LAYING DOWN THE
DRILL STRING MARK AND SET ASIDE BAD JOINTS
BOX END INSPECTION

Use a soft bristle brush and solvent to clean the threads and shoulder for a visual inspection

Caliper for minimum required OD. Inspect for cracks. eccentric wear (out-of-
roundness). severe tong cuts or unusual damage

l ook for small or missing connection bevel

Visually inspect the sealing shoulder and threads for impact damage. pitting. galled surfaces, correct
connection type, and belled boxes

Check the BHA connections for bore-back feature
TUBE INSPECTION
• Visually inspect the slip area for deep slip cuts. severe pitting, bent joint
• Visually inspect the pipe bore for debris, scale. Rabbit all drill pipe before use
• Caliper the middle of the tube for minimum required OD and eccentric wear (out-of-roundness)
• Visually inspect the tube for corrosion pits or unusual damage
• Check pipe for straightness when rolling on the pipe rack
PIN END INSPECTION
• Use a soft bristle brush and solvent to clean the threads and shoulder for a visual inspection
• Check pipe weight I grade stencils on pin neck I fl at
• Compare grooves on toojoint for pipe identification
• Caliper minimum required OD
• Inspect for eccentric wear (out-of-roundness), severe tong cuts or unusual damage
• Visually inspect the sealing shoulder and threads for impact damage. pitting. galled surfaces, correct
connection type, stretched pin
• look for small or missing connection bevel
• Check the BHA connections for stress relief groove feature
• look for abnormal connection I D' s that are not consistent with the string
Page 79
CAREIHANDUNG
DRIU FAJUJRE
DRILL STRING FAILURE WARNING SIGNS
CAUTION HIGH RISK
• When failure occurs, others may follow

Mud corrosion level is high
• Drill string history is unknown

Doglegs are present
• Pulling or jarring on stuck pipe

Abnormal torque, drag. vibration
• Picking up unfamiliar equipment

H19h angle hole
RECOMMENDED DRILLSTRING CARE AND HANDLING PRACTICES
DRILLING
• Keep the mousehote and rathole clean
• Visually inspect kelly saver sub at frequent
intervals
• Clean and inspect tong and slip diet at frequent
1ntervals
• Keep handling subs clean and free of damage
• AllOw no more than 3 feet of pipe above sl1ps
when making/breaking
• Use correct dope compound for the spectfie
connection. Dope threads and shoulder
generously
• Do not roll the pin into the box. pick up and
re-stab
• Amays use 2 tongs to make-up and break-out
connections
• Use a pipe spinner to spin-up and back-oul
connections
• Use proper make"up torque for the spec.fic
connection
• Torque connections tongs at go• angle 1n
two planes
• Correct recommended make up torque (RMUT)
for dope lriction factor
RMUT.,.,. = RMUT x Dope Friction Factor
• Use a steady pull to torque-up the connection
TRIPPING
• Alternate and record the break on eaCh trip
• Do not let the slips ride the dnll sting
• Stop the pipe, set slips, slowly set pipe weight
on slips to minimize slip cut depth
• AllOw no more than 3 feet pipe length above
slips
• AlWays use 2 tongs to make-up and break-out
connections. Use a p1pe spinner to &pln.c.tp
and back-out conneenons
• Never apply the tongs on the dnll pipe tube
• If conneebon requtrea exc•••Jve bfeak--out
torque or the connection has dry or muddy
threads on break-out:, clean and visually
inspect the pin and box for damage
• watch for these signs on trips:
• Shoulder damage • Wom or mining bevels
• Belled box • Galled or burned threads
• Stretched pin • Eccentric box/1ube wear
• Keep pipe set back area clean Rinse mud off
outside and inside of pipe, Install pipe w1per as
soon as possible
• Do not use a hammer or pipe wrenCh to move
stands on the pipe rack. use a pipe lack
• Do not roll the pin into the box. pick up and
re.stab the connection
• Monitor both make-up and break-out torque,
break-out torque should be 80 . 100% of
make-up torque
Pag e 80
DRILLING JARS
DRILLING JAR
A drilling tool designed to deliver high impact "hammef' blows to the stuck
drill string
ADVANTAGE
Higher probability of recovery with immediate and cof18cf application of j ar
blows
INNER
MANDREL-
OUTER
BARREL
LOWER
SEAL
A OPEN
8 "
I COCKE D
8"
V cLoseo
SPLINE
DRIVE
_ LATCH
MECHANISM
- WASH
PIPE
DRILLING JARS
PUMP OPEN FORCE (POF)
Force of circulatong or trapped pressure pushing the j ar to the open position
PRESSURE DROP = 2001 psi
WASHPIPE AREA = x 10 sq in
P/0 FORCE : 20,000 lbs
BOTIOMAREA
OF WASHPIPE,
10 SQ INCHES
See jar manual for POF information for your jar make, model and size
POF AFFECT ON COCKING THE JAR (MECH OR HYD)
COCKING FROM More difficult or 1mposs11>fa to cock. Slow /stop pumps or bleed trapped
OPEN POSITION
pressure before cocking
COCKING FROM
Makes the jar 9&sl6r to cock
[cLOSE POSITION
POF AFFECT ON MECHANICAL JAR BLOW
ADVANTAGE Less stnng tensoon requred for an up-jar blow
DISADVANTAGE
More set down weight required lor a down-jar blow. Slow I stop pumps or
bleed trapped pressure when janing down
POF AFFECT ON HYDRAULIC JAR BLOW
ADVANTAGE lnlensifies the up-jar blow
DISADVANTAGE
Dampens the down-jar blow. Slow /stop pumps or bleed •
trapped pressure when janing down
Page 82
DRILLING JARS
COCKING THE JAR
MINIMUM WEIGHT INDICATOR READING TO COCK THE MECH I HYD JAR
COCKING FROM CLOSED POSITION COCKING FROM OPEN POSinON
Last recorded pick-up wt = 330,000 Lbs Last recorded slack-off wt = 330,000 Lbs
- BHA wt below j ar = 30.000 Lbs - BHA wt below j ar = 30,000 Lbs
+ Internal jar friction = 10,000 Lbs - Internal jar fri ction = 10,000 Lbs
= Wt. Indicator load = 310.000 Lbs - P u m ~ O(len force = 20.000 Lbs
= W . Indicator I Ui = 270 000 Lbs
POF will ASSIST cocking the j ar
POF will OPPOSE cocking the jar, slow down or stop
the pumps or bleed trapped pump pressure to make
the jar easier to cock
The force required to move the inner mandrel through the seals
CALCULATING TRIP LOAD
MECHANICAL JAR
DOWN-JAR BLOW UP.JARBLOW
Last recorded slack-off wt = 330,000 Lbs
Last recorded pick-up wt = 330,000 Lbs
- BHA wt below jar
=
30,000 Lbs - BHA wt below jar
=
30,000 Lbs
- On-jar trip load setting = 40,000 Lbs + Up-jar trip load setting = 80,000 Lbs
- P u m ~ n force
=
20,000 Lbs - Pum(l Qi!en force
=
20,000 Lbs
= WI. Indicator load = 240,000 Lbs = Wt. Indicator load = 360,000 Lbs
Slow down or stop the pumps or bleed trapped After cocking the jar, pump pressure can be increasec
pressure to reduce the slack-off weight required to reduce pick-up weight required to trip the jar
to trip the jar
HYDRAULIC JAR
DOWN-JAR BLOW UP.JARBLOW
Last recorded slack-off wt = 330,000 Lbs
Last recorded pick-up wt = 330,000 Lbs
- BHA wt belOW jar = 30,000 Lbs - BHA wt below jar
=
30,000 Lbs
- OESIIREO• trip load
=
50,000 Lbs + DESIRED" trip load
=
80,000 Lbs
- Pumf! Of!en force = 20,000 Lbs - Pume Oe!n fgrce = 20,000 Lbs
= Wt. Indicator load = 230,000 Lbs
= Wt. Indicator load = 360,000 Lbs
Slow down or stop the pumps or bleed trapped
pressure to reduce the slack-off weight required
to trip the jar
After cocking the jar, pump pressure can be Increased
to reduce pick-up weight required to trip the jar
• DESIRED · The trip load selected by the jar operator
TRIPPING THE JAR
MECHANICAL JAR
DOWN-JAR BLOW UP.JARBLOW

After cocking the jar, slack off to the calculated

After cocking the jar. pick up to the calculated
weight indicator load weight i ndicator load

No delay time Is required, the latch will trip

No delay time is required. the latch will trip
when the preset trip load is applied to the jar when the preset trip load is applied to the j ar

If the jar does not trip. slow down or stop the

I f the jar still does not trip, increase circulating
pumps or bleed trapped pump pressure to pressure to maximum to increase the pump
reduce pump open force open force. Do not apply trapped pressure

If the jar still does not trip, slack off additional

If the jar does not trip, pick up additional
weight (10,000 to 20, 000 lbs) weight (10,000 to 20.000 lbs)
Page 83
DRILLING JARS
HYDRAUUC JAR
DOWN-JAR BLOW
• After cocking the jar, slack-off to the
calculated weight indicator load
• Lock down the brake and wait for the
jar time delay to elapse. See your jar
manual (30 · 60 sec short cycle, 2 • 8
min long cycle)
• If the jar does not trip, stop pumping or
bleed trapped pressure. Recock the jar
and apply trip load
UP..JARBLOW
• After cocking the jar, pick-up to the
calculated weight indicator load
• Lock down the brake and wait for the
jar time delay to elapse. See your jar
manual (30 • 60 sec short cycle. 2 • 8
min long cycle)
• If the jar does not trip, circulate at max
rate and allow additional time {do not
apply trapped pressure)
• If the jar still does not trip, slack-off more • If the jar still does not trip, stop pumping
weight and allow more time and recock the j ar and apply trip load
(2)
JAR
COCKS
(31
WEIGHT IS
SLACKED
Off
(4)
JAR
LATCH
TRIPS

BIIAMASSIS

/ BY
GRAVITY
(6)
IIIPACT IS
(2)
JAR
Page 84
(4)
JAR
LATCH
TRIPS

OflllSTRING
CONTRACTS
(6)
IIHA MASS IS
ACCEI.WltD
(7)
IIIPACTIS
DRILLING JARS
. l A ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
REASONS FOR JAR NOT TRIPPING
MECHANICAL JAR HYDRAULIC JAR
• Jar not cocked • Jar not cocked
• Stuck above jar •
Not waiting long enough
• Jar failure • Stuck above j ar
• Pump open force not considered • Jar fail ure
• Pick-up /slack-off weight incorrect •
Pump open force not considered
• Unknown /incorrect trip load setting • Pick-up /slack-off weight incorrect
• Excessive hole drag • Excessive hole drag
• Right-hand torque trapped in torque
sensitive jar
-
. l A ~ LIA"'"''"'"
JAR HANDLING RECOMMENDATIONS
• If a service connection is found loose, call the shop for recommended torque.
Do not use tooljoint torque on these connections
• Do not tie the chain hoist. apply the tongs or set the slips on the exposed
polished section of the inner mandrel
• A mechanical j ar is shipped in the oocked position. Run the jar in the extended
or cocked position
• Rack a mechanical jar in lhe derrick in the cocked position at any position in the stand
• A hydraulic jar is shipped with a safety clamp on the inner mandrel. The j ar
mu&t be run in the open position
• Rack a hydraulic jar in the derrick with the safety clamp at any position In the stand
DRILLING ACCELERATOR
An energy storing device designed to opti mize the drilling jar assembly for maximum up
and down jar-blow i ntensity
• Allows optimum jar placement
• Intensifies the jar blow
ADVANTAGES
• Protects the drill string and rig surface equipment from
h igh impact loads
• Compensates for insufficient d r ill string stretch in shallow
holes
• Compensates for excessive dra g in high angle holes
Page 85
INNER
MANDREL
OUTER
BARREL
NITROGEN
(2000 psi) --
LOWER
SEAL
1
WEIGHT
SLACKED
OFF
2
JAR
COCKS
DRILLING JARS
SPLIN E
DRIVE
NITORGEN
BY APPLIED
OVERPULL
WASH
PIPE
3 ~
OVERPULL
APPLIED
4
ACCELERATOR
STROKES OUT
5
JAR LATCH
TRIPS
BHA MASS
ACCELERATED
6
BHA
ACCELERATED
7
JAR BLOW
DELIVERED
DRILLING JARS
BASIC JARRING RULES
STRING STATIC When sticking occurred
~ > >
JAR DOWN
STRING MOVING UP when sticking occurred
~ > >
JAR DOWN
STRING MOVING DOWN when sticking occurred
~ > >
JAR UP
In 70% of sticking occurrences, down j arring is required. Jar /accelerator placement programs
are available through j ar service companies
DRILLING JAR ASSEMBUES (< 60 HOLE ANGLE)
JAR ASSEMBLY JAR I ACCELERATOR ASSEMBLY
WEIGHT FOR
UP AND DOWN
JAR BLOW
EQUAL TO
DOWN-TRIP
LOAD
WEIGHT
FOR DOWN
JAR BLOW
1.2+ OF
DOWN-TRIP
LOAD
Page 87
WEIGHT
FOR UP
JAR BLOW
0.2 OF UP-
TRIP LOAD
"U
..
tl2

...
...
DOWN-
JAR
STANDS:
HWOP
BELOW-
JAR
WEIGHT:
STANDS:
WOB:
DP
ACCElERATOR
UP-
JAR
STANDS
DRILLING JAR I ACCELERATOR PLACEMENT WORKSHEET ( 0 ~ - 60'
iiiiAT:
0
Hole Angle At BHA: __ BF__ X AF X 93 = Wt Factor: __ _
1. 45'< hole angle, select a mechanical jar (non-torq sensitive, highest pump-open force, longest jar stroke).
Select highest recommended trip load settings (do not exceed 60% of string over-pull limit).
Up-Trip Load: Down· Trip Load: - - - --
> 45" hole angle, select a hydraulic j ar (highest pump-open force, longest jar stroke).
Jar Make /Type: ---------------
:MECH : HYD
2. A drilling accelerator (recommended) increases jar impact by 30% • 50%. Match the jar and accelerator
00 to the 00 of the BHA section the tool is placed in.
Jar OD: ----- Accelerator OD: -----
3. Do not run stabilizers / reamers above the jar. Place the jar /accelerator above or below the neutral zone.
Neu Zone,= WOB X 1. 15 + Lbsift __ + Wt Factor = Stands from bit
Neu Zone
1
,: WOB X 0.85 + Lbs/ft __ + WI Factor = Stands from bit
1. If key seat potential is high, consider a string reamer. Do not place jar /accelerator in the neutral zone.
Place a minimum BHA weight above the jar equal to 1.2 times the down-jar trip load ( On-Jar Stds).
Dn-TripLoad X 1.2 +lbs/Ft __ +WtFactor __ = __ Dn-JarStds
2. Place a BHA weight of 0.2 times the up-trip load between the jar and accelerator (Up-Jar Stds).
Up-Trip Load X 0.2 + Lbs/Ft__ + Wt Factor__ = __ Up-Jar Stds
If an accelerator is not used, position the jar for a 70% probability of down-j arring. Place the jar (above or
below the neutral zone) with a BHA weight above the jar equal to the down-trip load.
STANDS
ABOVE JAR:
HWOP
BELOW JAR
Wt l
STANDS: __
On-Trip Load + Lbs/Ft __ + WtFactor __ = __ StdsAboveJar l wos:
DC
tl
::0
;::::
,....
~
(j)
~
::0
(/)
,
..
"'
..
CD
0
DOWN-
JAR
STANDS:
DRILLING JAR I ACCELERATOR PLACEMENT WORKSHEET(> 60u)
Hole size: RECOMMENDATIONS BHA II:
Select a hydraulic j ar (highest pump-oJ;en force. longest jar stroke). Jar Make / Model: ---------------
' · A DOUBLE-ACnNG drilling accelerator is required. Match the jar and accelerator OD to the OD of the HWDP.
Jar OD: ----- Accelerator OD: - ----
2. Place the jar at the top of the steerable assembly. Place HWDP above the j ar equal to 0.2 of the maximum down-jar trip load.
On-Trip Load X 0.2 + Lbs/Ft + 93 = Jarring Stands
3. Place the accelerator above the jarring stands. Run standard-wall drill piJ:e from the accelerator to the 60°hole angle section
(considering the bit at ir s maximum an:icipated depth).
4 . Run collars / HWDP above the so• hole angle to provide weight for down-jar trip load (plus estimated down-drag between the so•
hole angle and the accelerator).
(Dn.Jar Trip Load + Hole Drag + LbsiFt : BF : AF + 93 = ___ On-Jar Stds
[ J
s. Consult with lhe jar service company if angle build rate exceeds 6 11 oo·
Standard wall OP:
Stands
DOUBLE-ACTING
ACCELERATOR
JARRING
STANDS:
BIT AT
MAXIMUM
ANTICIPATED
DEPTH
0
::0
-r-
r-

(j')


WELL CONTROL
l . ~ The control of formation fluid flow (kick) into the wellbore
THREE PHASES OF WELL CONTROL
.
PRIMARY
First Line Of Defense
Control of kicks with hydro-
static pressure (HSP) only
SECONDARY Control of kicks with HSP
Second Line Of Defense assisted by blowout
preventer equipment
TERTIARY An underground blowout
Third Line Of Defense
Drill to total depth without
a well control event
Safely kill the kick without
the loss of circulation
Avoid a surface blowout.
Regain primary well
control
The ultimate goal of well pressure control is to prevent a surface blowout
DDIUADV
. ,. , PRIMARY WELL CONTROL
IHURG!I'iitOS_f'REIIURE The pressure developed by the height and density
I'' ~ o ; of a non-moving fluid column
PPG = Pounds per gallon fluid density
0.052 = PPG to PSI/FT conversion factor
TVD = True vertical depth (FT)
HSPPSI = MUDpPG X .052 X TV(\,T
= 10.0 X .052 X 10,000
= 5200 psi HSP
To prevent formation fluid flow into the wellbore (kick), hydrostatic pressure must
be at least equal to the highest pressured permeable zone of the open hole
PRIMARY
SWAB
MARGIN
SURGE
l
PUMP
SURGE
w
a:
~
a:
0..
WELL CONTROL
The piston affect of up-
ward string movement
causing a decrease in
wellbore pressure which
can induce a kick
overbalance
pressure (i.e., 300 - 500
psi) to compensate for
swab pressure
The piston affect of down-
ward string movement
causing an increase in
wellbore pressure which
can result in loss of
circulation
The pump pressure
required to break the
gel strength of the mud
and accelerate the mud
column
Maximum swab pressure occurs at
the bit and is equally imposed to the
bottom of the well bore
As string motion is started, additional
surge pressure is imposed to break
the gel strength of the mud and
accelerate the mud column
The hydrostatic pressure overbalance
is more often dictated by hole
instability (i.e., 800 - 2000 psi)
Maximum surge pressure occurs at
the bit and is equally imposed to the
bottom of the wellbore
As string motion is started, additional
surge pressure is imposed to break
the gel strength of the mud and
accelerate the mud column
Pump surge pressure to break
circulation may be greater than the
normal circulating annulus friction
pressure
STEADY CIRCULATION
l!!
~ STEAOY SPEED
~
<
Page 92
WELL CONTROL
PRIMARY
The mud weight equivalent to the sum of hydrostatic and annulus friction
pressures at a true vertical depth of interest
2500'
5000'
7500'
ECD • ( Ann Frlc ... , ) + MW PPII
PPII TVDFt X .062
= ( 10,:X .052 ) +
10
·
0
= 10.8ppg ECD

0 2 3 4 5 6 1
PRESSURE (1000 pal)--+
Built-in safety factor during a kick killing
operation
Safety factor if circulating near or
slightly under balance to formation
Penetration rate decreases as ECD
increases
Increases potential for lost circulation,
differential sticking, wellbore instability
Indicates the next casing depth to maintain well control safety
Input to risk analysis if decision is made to drill ahead
Page 93
PRIMARY
WELL CONTROL
Monitor the well for signs of changing
formation pressure
Ensure mud weight is correct before
drilling into known high or low pressure
zones
Ensure means of disposing of
contaminated nuids to avoid
contaminating the mud system
Ensure proper mud weight is used to fill
the hole during trips
Maintain pit valve seals to avoid
accidental dilution
Maintain degasser capacity to handle
full returns
Ensure proper hole fill during trips
Use a calibrated trip tank. Appoint a
dedicated trip tank man. Record hole
volumes during round trip
If correct fill-up is not taken (swabbing
indicated), now check the well. If not
nowing, return to bottom and circulate
bottoms up
If correct displacement volume does not
return while tripping in (lost circulation
indicated), stop tripping and observe
the well. If circulation is lost, pump fluid
down the annulus. If the well is nowing,
shut-in immediately
Maintain mud box seals, ensure drain
is plumbed to the trip tank or annulus if
filling with pump strokes
Maintain hole full during non-circulating
operations
Page 94
Driller
Mud Logger
Shaker Man
Company Rep
Mud Logger
Toolpusher
Mud Engineer
Shaker Man
Derrick Man
Shaker Man
Derrick Man
Driller
Mud Logger
Trip Tank Man
AID
Floor Men
AID
Driller
Geologist
Drilling Engineer
Company Rep
Geologist
Drilling Engineer
Driller
Toolpusher
Company Rep
Driller
Mud Engineer
Company Rep
Drilling Engineer
Toolpusher
Company Rep
Toolpusher
Company Rep
Tool pusher
WELL CONTROL
The loss of hydrostatic pressure control of formation fluid
flow into the well bore
The control of formation fluid flow by the use of hydrostatic
pressure ASSISTED by blowout preventer equipment
PERMEABLE ZONE IS DRILLED
WITH MUD WT INSUFFICIENT TO
CONTROL FORMATION
PRES§URE
PROGNOSED ABNORMAL
FORMATION PRESSURE
GEOLOGIST I MUD LOGGER
ABNORMAL PRESSURE TREND
CHANGES
TORQUE/DRAG INCREASE
DRILLING BREAK
POSITION DRILL STRING FOR
SHUT-IN
ADJUST MUD WEIGHT PRIOR TO
DRILLING KNOWN ABNORMAL
PRESSURED ZONE
Page 95
WELL CONTROL
A kick was
swabbed in &
the drill string
stripped to
bottom
CAUSE:
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE IS
REDUCED BELOW THE FORMATION
PRESSURE OF A PERMEABLE ZONE
(SWABBING. LOST CIRCULATION.
LIGHT
PROGNOSED LOSS CIRCULATION
POTENTIAL
HIGH MUD WEIGHTS INCREASE
POTENTIAL FOR SWABBING
INDICATIONS:
LOSS OF CIRCULATION DURING ANY
OPERATION
HOLE NOT TAKING CORRECT FILL-UP
DURING TRIP
WATER/GAS-CUT MUD WHILE
- --.,.j CIRCULATING
=--::::-......:=
WELL FLOWING. PIT GAIN
FIRST ACTION:
SOUND KICK ALARM
POSITION DRILL STRING FOR SHUT-
! • IN, STOP CIRCULATION
SHUT-IN THE WELL
MAINTAIN PROPER MUD WEIGHT
KEEP HOLE FULL
PROPER HOLE FILL-UP ON TRIPS
MINIMIZE LOST CIRCULATION
POTENTIAL
Page 96
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PRESSURE
PRWCTION
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CONFIRM
GEOlOGICAl
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WELL CONTROL
QRILL!NG KICKS
CAUIES'OF-ICH:KaWHLB:DRII fiND ;
UNDER BALANCE lOCK INDUCED IGCK ",
Drilling into a permeable zone with a
Lost circulation
mud weight insufficient to control
Light mud pumped down hole
formation pressure
LOGGER TRENDS
INDICATE FP
INCREASE
DRILLING BREAK
WELL FLOW
PIT VOLUME
Swabbing while worlling the string/
making connection
Core volume gas cut mud
d exponent decrease. Shale
density decrease, Splintery shale
cuttings, Connection /background
gas increase
Indicates a new formation exposed
to the well. Under balance kicks
are usually preceded by an abrupt
ROP change, increase or
Kick fluids displace mud from the
1 increasing the return flow

causing well flow with pumps off 1n o,.,;,,.,
kick fluids flow into the wellbore
volume addition is detected by
pit volume totalizer (PVT)
Lower density kick fluids decrease
annulus hydrostatic pressure
allowing the drill string mud to
U-tube into the annulus
Page 98
Driller
Mud
DRILLING KICKS
WELL CONTROL
SECONDARY
INDJ.CAIIONS
- -
INDICATIONS OF INDUCED KICKS
LOUO,-.UD WIEIGHT-
.li PUMPED, SWABBED GAS , CORE GASl
INDICA noN NOTE NOTIFY
PUMP PRESSURE
Lower density kick fluid decreases
Toolpusher
DECREASE/SPM
annulus hydrostatic pressure Driller
Derrick Man
INCREASE
allowing the drill string mud Mud Logger
Mud Eng
column to U-tube into the annulus
Kick fluids displace mud from the
Driller
Drl Crew
WELL FLOW
wellbore increasing return flow
Mud Logger
Co Rep
or causing well flow with pumps
Shaker Man
Toolpusher
off
Derrick Man
Mud Eng
As kick fluids flow into the well-
Driller Drl Crew
PIT VOLUME GAIN
bore, the voulume addition is
Mud Logger Co Rep
detected by the pit volume
Shaker Man Toolpusher
totalizer (PVT)
Derrick Man Mud Eng
LOSS OF COLUMN HEIGHT
(TOTAL LOSS OF CIRCULAnoN, NOT KEEPING HOLE FULL)
INDICA noN NOTE
SIBILITV
NOTIFY
MUD COLUMN
Loss of hydrostatic pressure may
Driller Drl Crew
LEVEL
induce a kick
Mud Logger Co Rep
DECREASE
Shaker Man Toolpusher
Derrick Man Mud Eno
FLOW CHECK GUIDE .INES WHILE DRIWNG
_SIJ
CESTACK SUB SEA STACK
• Drill 3 to 5 feet into the break, • Drill 3 to 5 feet into the break,
observe for flow observe for flow
• If flow is detected, initiate shut-in • If flow is detected, initiate shut-in
procedure procedure
• Raise the kelly /top drive to the shut- • Raise the kelly /top drive to the shut-
in position in position
• Stop circulation and observe well for • Stop circulation, line-up trip tank and
flow 5 to 10 minutes observe well for flow 5 to 10 minutes

Maintain slow rotation to prevent • Maintain slow rotation to prevent
sticking sticking

If flow is detected, initiate shut-in • If flow is detected, initiate shut-in
procedure procedure
Page 99
SECONDARY
WELL CONTROL
DRILLING KICKS

DIWRTER GUIDILINI!8 WtR.E DRilliNG
auag&-...,

Sound the kick alarm
• Sound the kick alarm
• Raise the kelly /top drive to shut-in •
Raise the kelly /top drive to shut-in
position
position

Maintain full circulation
• Maintain full circulation
• Open down-wind diverter line and
• Prepare to abandon the location
close the diverter
• Monitor the sea surface for gas. MovE

Open pump suctions to the heavy
the rig up-wind of surfacing gas
mud reserves and pump at maximum
Fill pits with sea water
rate

• Build additional heavy mud volume •
Continue pumping the heaviest fluid
available at maximum rate

Prepare to abandon the rig
Gas zone depletion may take
several hours or days
~ QUIDPI 111!8 wta.E DRill ..
--
• Sound the kick alarm
• Raise the kelly flop drive to the shut-
in position
• Stop circulation
• Open the choke line valve
• Close the upper pipe rams or
annular preventer
• Record SIDPP and SICP every 2
minutes
• If necessary, adjust annular
preventer closing pressure for
stabilized SICP
SUB 8I!A STACK
• Sound the kick alarm
• Raise the kelly /top drive to the shut-
in position
• Stop circulation
• Open the choke line valve
• Close the upper annular preventer
• Record SIDPP and SICP every 2
minutes
• If necessary, adjust annular
preventer closing pressure for
stabilized SICP
Page100
WELL CONTROL
• Occurs only while drilling
• Abnormal formation pressure produces an under
balance kick
• SIDPP is some value above standpipe hydrostatic
pressure
• Can occur during any open hole operation
INDUCED KICK • All formation pressure classifications can produce an
induced kick
• SIDPP is equal to standpipe hydrostatic pressure
WAIT & WEIGHT METHOD
WITH BALANCE KILL MUD WEIGHT
• A constant bottom hole pressure
method to prevent second kicks
• Minimizes kill pressures imposed
to the wellbore and equipment
• Kills the kick in one complete
circulation
WAIT & WEIGHT METHOD
WITH BALANCE KILL MUD WEIGHT
AT SHUT-IN
If shut-in pressures are contained
without formation fracture, the
probability of a successful kill is
greater than 90%
CIRCULATION METHOD (DRILLER'S)
WITH PRESENT MUD WEIGHT
• A constant bottom hole pressure
method to prevent second kicks
• Minimizes kill pressures imposed
to the wellbore and equipment
• Kills the kick in one bottoms up
circulation
CIRCULATION METHOD (DRILLER'S)
WITH PRESENT MUD WEIGHT
AS GAS REACHES SHOE
The depth of the influx at shut-in is
seldom known. Actual bit-to-shoe
strokes cannot be determined.
Follow Circulation Method kill
procedure
Page 101
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ASSIST MUO ENGINEER ASSIST AS NEEDED
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PUN, MECHANICAL REQUIREMENT:
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EVACUATION
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KILL METHODS
WELL CONTROL
SECONDARY






... ._... :·· -: . I
L_._ I.-!d ___ _.:_1 .t. ,___, • ._ - • '
Monitor shut-in pressures for gas migration while making preparations for the
kill operation
If observed, bleed mud from the annulus to maintain SIDPP at stabilized shut-
in value plus 50 - 100 psi safety factor
Calculate kill mud weight (KMW)
Over balance in the KMW or additional choke pressure is not recommended or
required for a safe kill operation
Construct a drill pipe pressure schedule
When preparations are complete, start the kill operation
Surface Stack - Hold casing pressure at shut-in value while increasing the
pump to kill rate
Sub Sea Stack - Hold kill line pressure at shut-in value while increasing
pump to kill rate
• Hold pump speed at kill pump rate (KPR) and adjust the choke for proper
drill pipe pressure schedule
• When KMW reaches the bit. continue holding pump at KPR and adjust the
choke for final drill pipe pressure until KMW returns
• Sub Sea Stack - Remove gas trapped in the BOP stack, displace riser with
KMW
• Open the BOP and check the well for flow. Condition the mud system,
• Monitor shut-in pressures for gas migration while making preparations for the
kill operation
• If observed, bleed mud from the annulus to maintain SIDPP at stabilized shut-
in value plus 50 - 100 psi safety factor
• An increase in the present mud weight or additional choke pressure is not
recommended for a safe kill operation
• When preparations are complete, start the kill operation




Surface Stack - Hold casing pressure at shut-in value while increasing the
pump to kill rate
Sub Sea Stack - Hold kill line pressure at shut-in value while increasing the
pump to kill rate
With pump at kill pump rate, record the observed circulating drill pipe pressure
Hold pump speed at kill pump rate and adj ust the choke to maintain the
recorded drill pipe pressure value until bottoms up strokes are pumped
Sub Sea Stack - Remove gas trapped in the BOP stack
Check the well for flow, condition the mud system
Page 103
SECONDARY
WELL CONTROL
KICKS
o Close the lower pipe rams to isolate the wellbore from the stack gas clearing
operation
o Open the kill line fail -safe valves. U-tubing pressure from kill mud weight
(KMW) in choke line will be observed if choke line fluid density is greater
o Displace the kill line with KMW pumping down the choke line and return
through the kill line
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
- Hold kill line pressure constant and increase pump to kill rate
. Record circulating pressure
• Hold pump speed constant and adjust choke to hold circulating pressure
constant until KMW returns
Displace only the choke line with water. Allow pump pressure to increase as
water is pumped
Close the kill line fail-safe valves
Open the choke line completely to allow the trapped gas to expand into the
choke line
Line up the trip tank to maintain the riser full
When expanding flow from the choke line stops, open the annular preventer
completely to allow the riser to U-tube into the choke line
When U-tubing stops, close the choke line fail-safe valves
Close the diverter and open the down-wind overboard line or flow line
degasser
Open the kill line fail-safe valves and displace the riser with KMW. Displace
choke line with KMW
Open the lower rams and check the well for flow
Page 104
TRIPPING KICKS
WELL CONTROL
SECONDARY
"'"'-':- '
CAUSES.OF KICKS WHILE TRIPPING
i<- ionty fnduced1ck:ka a.n occur during a tripping operation
Swabbing (#1 cause of kicks)
Improper hole fill procedure
Loss of circulation
Filling the hole with light fluid
Weighting material sag
. . INDICATIONS OF INDUCED KICKS
IIUicA110N NOTE

NOTIFY
The volume of steel pulled from
HOLE NOT TAKING
the hole is greater than the mud Driller
Mud Eng
CORRECT FILL-UP
volume required to fill the hole Trip Tank Man
Co Rep
Mud Logger
Toolpusher
Overpull usually associated with
swabbing
Kick fluids displace mud from
Drilling Crew
the well bore causing well flow Driller
Mud Eng
WELL FLOW
with pumps off Trip Tank Man
Co Rep
Primary well control is lost when
Mud Logger
Toolpusher
the well begins to flow
As kick fluids flow into the well-
Driller
Drilling Crew
PIT VOLUME GAIN
bore, the volume addition is
Trip Tank Man
Mud Eng
detected by the pit volume
Mud Logger
Co Rep
totalizer (PVT) Toolpusher
• Set the top toolj oint on the slips • Set the top tooljoint on the slips
• Install and close the full open safety
valve
• Observe the well for flow 5 - 1 0
minutes
• Maintain slow rotation to prevent
sticking
• If flow is detected, initiate shut-i n
procedure
• Install and close the full open safety
valve
• Line-up the trip tank and observe the
well for flow 5 - 10 minutes
• Maintain slow rotation to prevent
sticking
• If flow is detected, initi ate shut-in
procedure
Page 105
SECONDARY
WELL CONTROL
TRIPPING KICKS
DIVERTER GUIDBLINU WHILE TRPPIIIG ..
'
SURFACE STACK -.SI!AjrACK
.
• Sound the kick alarm

Sound the kick alarm
• Set the top tooljoint on the slips
• Set the top tooljoint on the slips

Install and close the full open safety

Install and close the full open safety
valve valve
• Open down wind diverter line and

Make-up top drive / kelly and pump
close the diverter the heaviest available fluid at
maximum rate
• Make-up kelly /top drive and open
safety valve
• Prepare to abandon the location
Open pump suctions to the heavy
• Monitor the sea surface for gas .

mud reserves and pump at
Move rig up wind of surfacing gas
maximum rate
• Fill pits /tanks with sea water
• Build additional heavy mud volume
• Continue pumping the heaviest fluid
• Prepare to abandon the rig
available at maximum rate
Gas zone depletion may take
several hours or days
SHUT -IN GUIDE' ltEI WilLE TRIIPING
CE STACK SUB
• Sound the kick alarm ! • Sound the kick alarm
• Set the top tooljoint on the slips • Set the top tooljoint on the slips
• Install and close the full open safety • Install and close the full open safety
valve valve
• Open the choke line valves
• Close the annular preventer with
1500 psi closing pressure
• Record SICP every 2 minutes
• Adjust annular preventer closing
pressure to stabilized SICP
• Maintain string movement to preven
• Open the upper choke line fail-safe
valves
• Close the upper annular preventer
with 1500 psi closing pressure
• Record SICP every 2 minutes
• Adjust annular preventer closing
pressure to stabilized SICP
sticking • Maintain string movement to preven
'-------'-----------! sticking
Page106
TRIPPING KICKS
WELL CONTROL
SECONDARY
EVALUATE 'fttiiE:OFF BOMOM KICK COiaTIQN
KICK
iDII.
• ... :.::: : . _ ~ .. ~ .... ...... .._
'
The weight of the drill string is greater than the hydraulic
HEAVY PIPE
force of shut-In pressure acting to push the string out of
the hole
LIGHT PIPE
The hydraulic force acting to push the string out of the
hole is greater than string weight
NO PIPE IN HOLE
The drill string is pulled out of the hole before the kick J
is detected
STRIP AND BLEED
Strip the drill string to
bottom and kill the kick
using the Circulation
Method with present mud
weight
SNUBBING
Snub the drill string into
the wellbore until string
weight is sufficient for
stripping operation
SNUBBING
Snub the drill string into
the wellbore until string
weight is sufficient for
stripping operation
IF SIIWPING OR INUB.JG. NOT POtii.LB U., anJCK......,
VOLUMETRIC METHOD VOLUMETRIC METHOD VOLUMETRIC METHOD
Allow the gas to migrate
above the bit. Kill the kick
us1ng the Circulation
Method with present mud
weight
HEAVY MUD CAP
Circulate kill mud weight
of sufficient density to kill
the casing pressure
Open the BOP and run
to bottom
Kill the kick using the
Circulation Method with
l present mud weight
Allow the gas to migrate
above the bit. Kill the kick
using the Circulation
Method with present mud
weight
Allow the gas to migrate to
surface. Kill the kick using
the Dynamic Lubricate and
Bleed procedure
IF THE GAS .. GRATES LAST RESORT OP"RRN
'IOIURMCE
LUBRICATE AND BLEED
Pump present mud weight
across the wellhead,
through the choke and
back to a small calibrated
pit
Decrease casing pressure
by PSIIBBL equivalent per
barrel of mud loss in the
pit
Page107
BULLHEAD
Use only under special
conditions
Pump present mud weight
to fracture pressure and
inject influx into formation
If shoe fractures first. an
under ground blowout will I
occur
SECONDARY
WELL CONTROL
KICKS
Calculate the maximum allowable surface pressure (MASP) to avoid formation fractur
MASP = (Fracppa • MudPPG ) X .052 X TVOshoe
• Calculate the maximum casing pressure limit (MCPL) to determine when to stop
stripping and circulate a portion of the influx out of the wellbore
MCPL = MASP x .8
• Calculate displacement volume per stand of pipe stripped into the
hole
Bblslstd =(Pipe disp + cap) X Stand Length
Route the returns from the choke manifold to the trip tank. Sub Sea Stack: If
necessary, displace the choke line with present mud weight
• Adjust the annular preventer closing pressure for stripping. Route the lubricating mud
volume to the trip tank
• Apply 100 - 200 psi safety factor. Hold the choke closed and strip 1 • 2 stands until
safety factor is reached (SICP + SF). If necessary, bleed SICP to safety factor value
Strip in a stand and alternately bleed out the bbllstd volume. SICP will return to the
safety factor value if the bit Is above the influx
SICP will increase as the BHA enters the influx and decrease as the BHA moves
below the influx.
Continue stripping to bottom. Use the Circulation Method with present mud weight to
kill the kick
11- ____________
1(}
Overbalance restored
o g. MCPL =
880
si as bit reaches bottom

>< 8 / ! ... ./j ....... 1 '
- - .... L-· ........ L.---··-- : ... ·1 ···"'j ••. •
- ' ·' I •'
· - •• .•' .. .. -. --_:._.-.----- t •••• .... •••
7- // L.,./ '\ . -- . , __ .... • ..
Ol -1 / • Bit below Influx pushed up
C .. / : .-.-·: 1'nflu.x h I b · d'
'iii 6· ..... -·· 0 e Y pipe ISp
ftl
BHA enters influx
() 5-
-
Bit on


6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Stands Stripped
If maximum casing pressure limit Is reached (MCPL). stop stripping operation. Use
the Circulation Method with present mud weight and 100 -200 psi safety factor to
circulate a portion of the influx out. Continue stripping to bottom
Page108
KICKS
WELL CONTROL
' _-'"":"'>' - r - ~ r
• • * r . ~ - - -
• Route returns from the choke manifold to the trip tank
• Calculate the maximum allowable surface pressure (MASP) to
avoid formation fracture
MASP = (Fracppg- Mudppg) X 0.052 X TVDshoe
• Calculate the required barrels to bleed (8/BBLs) before allowing
casing pressure to increase by 50 psi
B/BBLs = Bbls/Ft
0
pen hole X 50+ Mudppg+ 0.052
• Hold the choke closed and allow the migrating gas to increase
casing pressure by a 100 - 200 psi safety factor. If accessible,
drill pipe pressure will show an equal increase
• When calculated casing pressure is reached (SICP + SF), bleed
mud through the choke to maintain casing pressure
• After bleeding the calculated barrels (8/BBLs), hold the choke
closed and allow casing pressure to increase by 50 psi
• When calculated casing pressure is reached (SICP + 50 psi),
bleed mud through the choke to maintain the new casing pressure
• If shut-in off bottom, continue repeating this procedure until shut-
in pressures indicate the gas has migrated above the bit
• Use the Circulation Method with present mud weight and 100-
200 psi safety factor to circulate the gas out of the hole
• If shut-in with no pipe in the hole, continue this procedure until the
gas migrates to surface.
• Use the Lubricate & Bleed guidelines to remove the gas
11· ____ _______ ll/IA9.,P_ ; ..l.:!.Q.Q..Q§.i ______________ _
1().
.. ii 6 ·
en
c:: s •.
·= (..) 4 ·
3-
Page 109
SECONDARY
WELL CONTROL
• Line-up returns from the choke manifold to the gas buster and on to a small
calibrated pit. The cementing unit is ideal for this operation
• Line-up the pump discharge to the kill line
• Calculate the barrels of pit level decrease required before allowing the casing
pressure to decrease by 50 psi (LUB BBLs)
LUB BBLs = Bbls/Ftcsg x 50 + Mud ppg + 0.052
KICKS
• Construct a schedule for barrels lubricated into the well bore versus casing pressure
decrease. A 50 psi safety factor is recommended
When preparations are complete. zero the pit level indicator and start the kill
operati on:
- Adjust the choke to hold casing pressure at it's shut-in value while increasing the
pump speed
- Increase pump speed to 1 - 2 barrels per minute. Maintain SPM constant during
the kill procedure
• Apply a 50 psi safety factor. Adjust the choke to maintain casing pressure at it's
shut-in value until the pit level decreases by the LUB BBLs
• Continue holding the pump speed constant and allow the casing pressure to
decrease. As the lubricated mud volume increases hydrostatic pressure, casing
pressure will decrease accordingly
8-
7- ........ .
6-
~
0
0
.... 5-
)(
._.
·- 4-
1/1
Q.
Cl 3-
c:
Ill
"' 2-
0
1-
Total LUB _ .,;_
BBLs ~
' , ' /' .....
Calculated Cag ·· .....
Prenure ··········
0 - ~ ~ - - ~ ~ - - - r - - ~ ~ - - ~ - - r - ~ - - ~ - - ~ - r - - ~ ~
o 15 3o 45 60 75 90 105 1io 135 1so 165 1ao 195
LUB BBLs
, When the total barrels are lubricated into the well and casing pressure has decreased
to +/-50 psi (safety factor). stop the pump and allow casing pressure to bleed to zero
• Open the BOP and check the well for flow
-------------------------
-
Page 110
WELL CONTROL
An underground diversion of high pressure kick fluids
Methods employed to contain an underground blowout
and regain primary well control
CAUSE:
WELLBORE PRESSURE EXCEEDS
FRACTURE STRENGTH RESULTING
IN LOSS OF CIRCULATION
KI CK FLUID FLOWS UPWARD TO
PROGNOSED LOSS CIRCULATION
EXCESSIVE MUD WEIGHT
SHALLOW LOW PRESSURE ZONE
POSSIBLE WHEN SHUTTING IN FOR
A KICK OR DURING KICK KILLING
OPERATION
SICP STOPS INCREASING AND/OR
BEGINS TO DECREASE
KILL THE KICK ZONE BEFORE
ATTEMPTING TO TREAT THE LOSS
ZONE
PREVENTIVE ACTION:
MINIMIZE MUD WEIGHT
MAINTAIN SUFFICIENT KICK
TOLERANCE
Page 111
TERTIARY
WELL CONTROL
UGB
LOSS OF CIRCULATION OCCURS IN
THE LOWER SECTION OF THE OPEN
HOLE
REDUCED HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
INDUCES A KICK
PROGNOSED LOSS CIRCULATION
EXCESSIVE MUD WEIGHT
LOW OR SUBNORMAL FORMATION
PRESSURE
POSSIBLE WHEN SHUTIING IN FOR A
KICK OR DURING KILL OPERATION
PARTIAL OR TOTAL LOSS OF
RETURNS
MINIMIZE WELLBORE PRESSURE
SURGES
CASE-OFF POTENTIAL KICK ZONES
BEFORE DRILLING INTO POTENTIAL
LOSS ZONE
Page112
UGB
WELL CONTROL
TERTIARY
Shut-in pressure build up begins to
decrease
Casing pressure fluctuations during
shut-in stabilization period
Shut-in casing pressure continues
to increase while shut-in drill pipe
pressure remains constant
Partial or total loss of circulation
Shut-in pressures fall to zero psi
Total loss of circulation
Electric wireline surveys can be used
to determine if a down-flowing UGB is
occurring
Shut-in pressures are zero initially
The loss zone must be repaired before remedial action can be taken at
the kick zone
TREATING THE LOSS ZONE
Consult your Mud Engineer for the most applicable "flash setting" lost
circulation plug(s)
After pumping the LCM plug in place, start filling the annulus with the
present mud weight to control the kick "one
When the annulus fills up, stop the pump and check the well for flow
If possible, keep the hole full
If flow is observed, shut-in and record pressures
KILLING THE KICK
Use the Circulation Method (Driller's) with present mud weight to kill the
kick zone
Page 113
TERTIARY
WELL CONTROL
UGB
GUIDELINES FOR UP-FLOWING UGB
Kick zone pressure must be controlled before remedial action can be taken
at the loss zone
HEAVY PILL
• Determine the true measurement between the kick zone and loss zone

• Determine or estimate the formation pressure of the kick zone
• Determine or estimate the formation pressure of the loss zone


• Calculate the kill mud weight required to kill the kick zone (KMW PPG)

)}
KMWPPG = TVDK·Lx .052 + SAFETY FACTORPPG
If KMWppc equals the density capacity of the weighting material, refer to the
Heavy Pill /Gel Pill Guidelines.
If KMWppc is greater than the density capacity of the weighting material, refer to
the Barite Plug Guidelines
• Build KMWppc volume equal to 2 to 3 times the open hole volume. If possible,
remove the bit jets
• Pump sea water at maximum rate, 3 to 4 times the open hole volume ahead of
the heavy pill
• Pump the heavy pill at maximum rate
HEAVY PILL I GEL PILL COMBINATION
• Pump the heavy pill down the drill string at maximum rate while pumping the gel
pill down the annulus to increase injection pressure at the loss zone
• Adj ust the annulus pump speed to place the gel pill at the loss zone as the heavy
pill reaches the bit. Continue to pump the heavy pill at maximum rate
BARITE PLUG
• A barite plug works best with gas blowouts. High flow rate salt water blowouts
wash the barite into the loss zone. Bit plugging and/or stuck pipe may occur
• Consult your Cementing and/or Mud Engineer for detailed recipes and application
procedures
Page 114
WELL CONTROL
OBM
Gas that has dissolved into the base oil of oil base mud
The pressure /temperature condition that will allow gas
to break out of solution
/<
/ / •
OfTotal Expansion /' •
•.. ,.:· ...... ,., .
,./ .. /" / ..
•• .!'· •• /. ..... ... ; •• ,.: .. ,
No Expansion
Gas expansion allows kick detection Solution gas does not expand until a
well before the kick reaches surface near-surface bubble point pressure is
reached
Gas solution in OBM does not hinder detection of large volume kicks (> 5 bbls),
normal kick detection applies. After shutting in the well , normal kick killing
Page 115
~
WELL CONTROL
n Do::D'\TIONS
OPERATIONS THAT CAN MASK A KICK
.
Seepage /partial loss of circulation
.
Mud weight adjustments and transfers while drilling
.
Solids control and degassing the mud system
• Spills and leaks in surface equipment
.
Loss of volume on connections !trips
• Pump start-up and shut-down volume change
Kicks of 5 barrels or less can occur completely undetected under normal
operating conditions
INFLUX GUIDEUNES
If an influx Ia s uspected, stop the operation and circ ulate all o r part of
bottoms up strokes through the c hoke manifold
• Open the choke line valves and open one choke completely
• If the position of the gas in the annulus is not known, close the BOP and
circulate bottoms up strokes through the choke manifold

If the position of the gas in the annulus is known. circulate 80% of bottoms
up strokes, close the BOP and circulate the remaining strokes through the
choke manifold
DRILLING
Drilling operations have the greatest potential of circulating solution gas to surface
• Adjust the high /low level mud monitoring alarms as sensitive as possible

Stop drilling for mud wt adjustments, coordinate mud transfers with connections
• Use recommended procedures to circulate bottoms up after flow-checking a
suspected drilling break and for all unaccountable pit gains
_DIPPING
Tripping has the least potential of solution gas erupting at surface as solution gas will not
migrate. Use recommended procedure to circulate bottoms up after all short or round trips
ltnlllllUN GAS ATIIJRFACE
If rapidly accelerating well flow occurs, t he Dri ller must respond i mmediately
• Regardless of kelly /top drive position, stop the rotary and pumps, close the
annular preventer (Sub sea, close the diverter)
• Strip the drill string to the proper shut in position
• Use standard well control procedures to kill the kick
Page 116
"D
..
"'
..
-
-....
(A) WELL DATA
Original Mud Weight
PP9
True Vertical Oepth (TVD)
h
Kill Pump Pressure (KPP)
1'4•
Kill Pump Rate (KPR)
apm
Surface to Bit Strokes
-- .I IKI]
(B) KICK DATA
Shut-In Drillpipe Pressure (SIDPP)
pol
Shut-In Casing Pressure (SICP)
r--
pol
Pn Gatn
bbllj
(C) CALCULATIONS
Kill Mud Weight (KMW)
---,
""''l
KMW = (SIDPP + TVD + .052) + Original Mud Weight
KMW - + + 052) + ---
lmtual C•reulaung Pressure (ICP)
ICP = Kill Pump Pressure + SIDPP
ICP = • -----
Fmal C•reulat•ng Pressure tFCP)
FCP = Kill Pump Pressyre x KMW + OMW
FCP ; X ;.
(D) WAIT & WEI GHT PROCEDURE
1. Raise mud weight in pit to Kill Mud Weight value
2. Moni tor shut-tn pressures for gas migration. If
necessary, bleed mud to maintain SIDPP at initial
shut-in value.
3. When kill preparations are complete, refer to Pump
Start Up procedure and bring the well on choke.
4. Hold kHI pump rate (KPR) constant and adjust lhe
choke to matntain the Drillptpe Pressure Schedule
until Kill Mud Wetght returns.
""'
.,..
5. Stop the pump. close the choke and check shut-tn
pressures. Sub Sea Stack - Clear gas from BOP and
kill riser.
6. Open the BOP and check for flow
(E) DRILLPI PE PRESSURE
SCHEDULE
G n ~
OKES PRESSURE
0
-
l
I
I
I
( I)
(2)
.ill
(4 )
( 5)
(8)
-'-
~
( 7 )
)
StkltO -
Bit ~
INSTRUCTIONS
-
<ll tCP
I•
<II FCP
1 Record ICP, FCP and Stks to Bit In spaces
tndicated.
2 Calculate strokes u>erease per Increment
Stks to B•t ;. 10 - Slks Inc
Add Stks Inc to each oncrement unnl Stks
to 81t •• reached
3 Calculate dfltlplpe pressure decrease per
tncrement
(ICP. FCP) ;. 10 = PSI Dec
From ICP, subtract PSI Dec from each
increment until FCP is reached.
~
!=:
(")
0
<:
~
0
I""'
"U
..
tC
..
-
<:: 111 1(1)
(2)
(3)
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
CAPACITIES
I
0
I
Casing by Dr' I String
X =
X =
X =
X =
Open Ho e by Drill Stnng
I X I I =
I X I I
=
I X I I =
I X I I =
(BBLS/FT)
L J
[ -
'
0
I

I I

I I
r
Choke Line Volume (subsea only)
L=-:J X I I =
Ackl column for
Total Annulus Volume = I I
I I
LENGTHS
-fl.-
CAPACITIES
(FT) (BBLS/FT)
Ofillpipe
L
Heavyweight

-1 1+- r---
Drill Collars

DRILL STRING VOLUMe (BBL8)
- ....... )
(1) X =
(2) X =
(3) X
(4) X I I =
Add colu.mn for
Total Drill String Volume =
--- 1
Surfa.eo to Bit Strokes StkS to Bit
+ I I
Drill Sttl ng Vol BBL..SISTK
I l
B.tt to Strokes
+ :1:
Annulus Vol BBLSIST K
Add column for
PUMP 81'4l'lllT..UP PROCEDUIUES
SURFACE STACKS
(1) Open the choke slightly while
observi ng casing pressure
(2) Just as casing pressure begins to
decrease. start the kill pump
(3) Adjust the choke to maintain casi ng
pressure at shut-in value as pump
speed is slowly i ncreased to kill
pump rate
(4) When the pump reaches KPR,
adjust the choke for the proper
Drillpipe Pressure Schedule
SUB SEA STACKS
(1) Open the choke slightly whi le
observing the kill line pressure
(2) Just as kill li ne pressure begins to
decrease, start the kill pump
(3) Adjust the choke to maintain ki ll line
pressure at shut-in value as pump
speed is slowly increased to kill
pump rate
(4) When the pump reaches KPR.
adjust the choke for the proper
Drillpipe Pressure Schedule

I""
I""
0
0
<:

g
CASING / CEMENTING
CEM
API provides nine classes of cement to allow for various pressure /depth /temperature
conditions
Cl ass Depth Range (ft)
A, B&C 0 - 6000
0 6000 - 10,000
E 10,000 - 14,000
F 10,000 - 16,000
G&H 0 - 8000
J 12,000 - 16,000
Cement classes are modified with accelerators or retarders to adapt to job requirement
0
A wide range of cement slurry densities can be obtained using various additives
Page 119
CASING / CEMENTING
- - - --------
- -------- -----
IMPROPERLY
DRILLED HOLE
POOR MUD
CONDITION
LOST
CIRCULATION
ABNORMAL
PRESSURE
SUBNORMAL
PRESSURE
WATER
SENSITIVE
HIGH
TEMPERATURE
Small hole 10, doglegs, washouts /breakouts, wellbore unstable,
incorrect casing seal selection
High gel strengths and yield point, high fluid loss, thick filter cake
high solids content, loss circulation material, mud /cement
compatibility
Loss zones not sealed before cementing. Excessive circulating
annulus pressure causes cement loss. Scratchers remove
protective LCM
Complicates well planning /drilling. Heavy tubulars reduce
clearances, high density slurries require more control , pipe
movement more · liner
Di fferential sticking, cement filtrate loss, low density slurries,
reduced strength
Sands with clay sensitive to fresh water filtrate, water block in
dry gas zones
Mud gelatin, flash sets cement without retarder, casing
elongation /contraction problems, down hole tool limitations,
cement strength retrogression
Condition mud to stabilize wellbore and to achieve optimum but safe rheological
values
Continuous pipe motion during mud conditioning and cementing operations
Pump as much spacer as practical ahead of the cement
Utilize as many centralizers as practical to center the casing in the wellbore
Properly design cement slurry rheology
High displacement pump rates improve cement placement. Formati on conditions
determine the pump pressure window
Prevent cement /mud contamination
Know wellbore formation fracture pressure limitations
Shoe pressure test Tracer survey
Temperature survey Production test
Cement bond log
Page 120
CASING / CEMENTING
RUBBER PLUGS
{TOP & BOTTOM)
GUIDE SHOE
Page 121
CASING / CEMENTING
Ensure thread protectors are installed when handling casing
Ensure casing is racked safely. Use adequate stripping for each casing layer to
prevent bending /buckling. Rack casing with collars toward V-door
Grades N-80 and higher should not be handled on metal racks and catwalks
Place casing on the racks in the proper order of running in. Verify mixed weights
and grades are in the proper running order. There must be no doubt as to the
weight and grade of the casing. Unidentified joints should not be run
Ideally, the casing should be cleaned, inspected, measured and drifted before the
next layer is placed on the rack
Remove thread protectors, clean the box and pin and protectors. Clean any
debris from inside the casing . Reinstall clean pin and box protectors hand tight
Any damaged joint and those that do not drift should be marked wi th red paint
and laid aside
Four persons are required to measure casing. One person on each end of the
tape, another in the center to prevent tape sag and a fourth to visually check
each call and record the measurement
Measure, record and number all joints, crossovers and in-string components to
permit ready identification
Two or more of the heaviest weight joints should be held out to run at the top of
the casing string to serve as a gauge ring and for wear purposes
Measure several pin and threads of thread and coupled casing to determine the
average thread length
Casing should arrive on location already electronically inspected and pressure
tested
CASING / CEMENTING
Record bottom hole temperature on logging runs, trip back to bottom after logging
operations prior to running casing
Circulate hole until shaker is clean prior to pulling out of the hole to run casing
Make a wiper trip, above hole problem depths and check for cavings, tight spots.
hole fill on bottom. Circulate bottoms up checking for gas or water cut mud and
mud losses. Stabilize any losses if possible before running casing
Measure the drill string while pulling out of the hole to obtain an accurate depth
measurement
Conditi on the mud as required. This generally consists of lowering gel strengths,
plastic viscosity and yield point, removing drilled solids, lowering the fluid loss and
improving wall cake properties
If a hole problem is encountered on the trip out, the problem must be corrected
before running casing. Reaming and mud conditioning until the hole stabilizes is
the proper treatment
Record drag /set down trends on the trip out to run casing. These values will be
used to evaluate the drag /set down trends when the casing is on bottom and
reciprocation begun
Requirements for successful wellbore cementing are:
- Wellbore that has a di ameter at least 1-1/2" (preferably, 2" - 3"} larger than
casing OD
- Near gauge wellbore without washouts
- Wellbore without severe doglegs
- Stabilized wellbore without hole problems, lost circulation. gas, water flow or
well control problems
Select a competent casing shoe. Consider the casing strap and space out
accordingly
At casing point TD, condition hole with GPM rates at least as high as the expected
cementing pump rates
Page 123
CASING !CEMENTING
Install proper casing rams in the correct position in the BOP. Test the opening and
closing of the BOP
Verity rating of substructure and traveling equipment is adequate to handle casing
and cement load
Verity rating of substructure and traveling equipment is adequate to handle casing
and cement load
Ensure elevator bails are of the proper length for the job
Ensure good condition of the drill line. Ensure proper number of block lines are
strung to handle the casing hook load in air
Visually inspect dead line anchor, hook, traveling and crown blocks. Magna flux
or ultrasonic inspection should be considered for heavy hook loads
Inspect breaking system on the drawworks
Visually inspect derrick pins and bolts for wear. Plumb derrick if necessary
Ensure mud pumps and centrifugal pumps are in proper working order
Rig tongs should be checked for correct head size and new tong dies installed
if necessary
Visually inspect the slip bushing /bowl for proper operating condition
Ensure stabbing board is available and in proper operating condition
Ensure adequate size casing fill-up line with control valve is riggt!d up
If necessary, clean a mud pit for spacers or pipe releasing pill
Ensure adequate water storage available for cement job and possible loss of
circulation
Remove wear bushing before running casing
Page 124
CASING !CEMENTING
Casing cleaned, tallied and drifted
Casing joints numbered in order of running by thread type and weight
Crossover subs checked. Damaged joints laid aside
Calculate the casing strap for landing joint space out. Casing collar should be ten
feet minimum distance from casing head flange. Ideally, cementing head should
be 5- 15 feet above the rotary table.
Rathole below the casing shoe should be +/- 5 feet for surface wellheads, 15 - 20'
for sub sea wellheads and mud line suspension operations
Maximum safe tension load calculated on weakest upper casing joint /coupling
Cementing head on location. Proper thread type and function tested
Guide /float shoe. float collar on location. Proper thread type and function tested
Stage cementing or l iner hanging equipment on location. Proper thread type and
function tested
Centralizers /scratchers on location. Type /size /number /spacing determined
from electric logs /well plan
Cementing plugs on location. Type /size and rupture pressure on bottom plug
verified
Casing head /slips /hanger /ring gasket /pack-off on location. Size /type /pressure
rating verified. Flange bolts size /number checked
Casing slips /elevators on location. Size /type verified
Power /manual casing tongs on location. Heads /dies /condition checked
Stabbing boards on location, in good operating condition
Proper casing thread compound and thread locking compound on location
All snub lines checked for operational safety
Clamp-on thread protectors /size /number on location
Pipe rack area /pipe handling equipment inspected for safety
Combined casing /drill string /cement loads within rig's rating. If not. string up
additional lines or lay down set back weight
Wear bushing removed /casing rams installed
All service companies noti fied for timing sequence of events (cementing and
casing crews, inspection services, nipple-up servi ces, test companies)
Page 125
CASING / CEMENTING
Clamp-on thread protectors are recommended when picking up casing
Observe correct make-up procedures. Ensure torque gauge on tongs is accurate.
Use API thread compound
Ensure casing cementing head is properly dressed with top /bo«om plugs and
proper cross overs
Install centralizers /scratchers according to predetermined plan
Utilize a casing running schedule to monitor casing displacement trends for
losses /gains
Run surge /swab pressure calculations. Communicate the proper running speed
to the Driller. Running speeds of 0.75 - 1.5 fl/sec are typical
With conventional float equipment, break circulation after running the first 2 - 3
joints to verify proper working order
Apply thread lock compound to the pin ends of float equipment and shoe joints
Pick-up /set-down weights for casing string should be recorded for each joint for
early detection of sticking
Bring casing string to a complete stop before setting slips. Do not allow elevators
to get ahead of casing through tight spots
Ensure proper stabbing procedures are used to minimize thread damage
Fill casing every five joints minimum depending on casing size. Communicate fill -
up to casing crew
The casing should be landed no further than 20 feet form bottom
For surface wellheads, measure the last joint of casing in the hole to prevent a
casing collar being located across the wellhead
Page 126
CASING / CEMENTING
- -- --- --- --
-------------------------------
----------------- - -
Determine maximum allowable cement density to prevent formation fracturing. If
allowed, cement density should be at least 1 ppg heavier and preferably 2 - 3 ppg
heavier than the drilling fluid
Determine bottom hole cementing temperature from logs
Design cement slurry for specific job using company or industry specifications
Design preflush /spacers to be displaced in turbulent flow. Contact time at the
top of the pay zone should be a minimum of 10 minutes
Use same mix water and cement in testing that will be used on location
Check compatibility of cement slurry, drilling mud and spacers at room and
bottom hole circulating temperatures
Go to cement company bulk plant to check quality control on cement blending
operations
Batch mix all cement slurries if possible using ribbon or paddle type blenders.
Do not use conventional jet type mixers for cement slurries
On location, collect 1 gallon samples of dry cement and 2 gallon samples of mix
water. Hold until out come of job is determined
Calculate cement volume to be pumped and volume of mixing water required to
mi.x cement
Calculate time, volume and strokes to pressure equalization point after start of
displacement
Calculate time, volume and strokes to bump plug. Same calculations should be
made for stage collar cementing
Calculate the theoretical weight of the casing in 1000 feet intervals
Calculate time, volume and strokes required to displace pipe after casing is on
bottom and to circulate one complete circulation
Calculate the volume of mud required to displace cement
Estimate the annulus cement velocities anticipated during the various stages of
the job
Estimate the top of cement in the annulus
Double check all volume calculations with cement company representatives on
location prior to cementing
Page 127
CASING / CEMENTING
Drilling Forman should identify top and bottom wiper plugs. Make sure the plugs
are properly installed in the cementing head
Cementing head should be installed in the V-door if possible. All connections to
the cementing head should be in place and ready for immediate hook-up
Pressure test all lines from cementing unit to casing head to 3000 - 5000 psi
Begin reciprocation and mud conditioning immediately after the casing reaches
bottom. Casing reciprocation need not be fast. Select a stroke length between
15- 30 feet that will not position a coupling in the wellhead. Take 1 - 3 minutes
to complete a stroke cycle depending on hole conditions.
Ensure that full returns are present or rate of mud losses are consistent with
losses noted earlier
Condition mud such that gel strengths. plastic viscosity, yield point and mud
density are as low as possible without dropping out solids or creating a wellbore
stability problem
Condition hole with GPM rates equivalent to anticipated cementing pump rates
Circulate and condition mud /hole for a minimum of 100% hole volume or 1 - 1-1/2
casing volume. In-and-out mud weight should be equal and the shakers should
be clean
Monitor pick-up and slack-off drag trends while reciprocating. Stop reciprocation
with casing near bottom if drag trends indicate sticking tendency
Batch mix the spacer and cement slurries if practical. Observe mixing operation,
collect wet and dry samples. Weigh and record slurry continuously using a
pressurized balance and an in-line densitometer during the job. Observe surface
setting time and free water separation of wet samples
Record surface pressure /pump rate on a continuous recorder for the entire job.
Record total cement mixing and displacement time
A typical cement job sequence of events: pump the spacer, release the bottom
plug, pump the cement, release the top plug, clean cement from surface lines and
displace cement until the top plug bumps
As soon as all cement has been pumped, drop the top plug, Check valves I
indicators on cementing head to verify plugs did release. NEVER ALLOW THE
CEMENT IN THE ANNULUS TO STOP MOVING WHEN PLUG IS RELEASED
Observe mud returns for losses, gains, return of preflush or cement to surface
Slow the pump rate to bump the plug on the float collar. Bump the plug with the
proper pressure, 500- 1000 psi over circulating pressure or sufficient for a casing
pressure test. Hold 5 -15 minutes, release the pressure and check the floats
If floats hold, leave casing open during WOC time. A small amount of back-flow
is expected due to heat expansion
If plug does not bump at the calculated pump strokes, over displace the plug by
more than the volume between the float collar and shoe
Page 128
CASING / CEMENTING
If float fails, shut in and apply approximate pressure the plug was bumped with.
Hold pressure until initial cement strength is developed, monitor shut-in pressure.
Heat will cause pressure build-up, bleed if necessary to maintain initial pressure
Center surface casing strings in rotary immediately after plug is bumped and woe
For mud line suspension systems, land out on the mud line hanger, open wash
ports and circulate the annulus above the hanger with sea water
Casing normally should be landed with the same hook load as cemented. The
only slack-off weight should be what is necessary to set the slips or hang the
casing
For mud line suspension systems, the casing should be overpulled to a pre·
determined value prior to selling the slips to prevent buckling the landing joint
Check mud pit and BOP for cement contamination, address immediately
Ensure landing joint is compatible with slip and seal assembly, caliper casing OD
A wellhead manufacture's representative should be present for slip, packoff and
casing head installation. Test casing head prior to nippling up the BOP equipment
If temperature survey is run to locate cement top, check with cementing company
for the recommended WOC time before running
Clean casing head and flanges. Ring gasket and groove must be clean, dry and
free of burrs or nicks. Do not grease the ring gasket
All nuts and bolts should be clean and the correct size. All nuts should be
tightened evenly for a proper seal
Check all nipples, valves and lines on the wellhead and BOP stack for correct
pressure rating and proper test procedures
Cement drill-out practices should not jeopardize the integrity of the cement job
Do not impose any forces on the casing that would alter the cement bond. Do not
enter the casing until the desired cement strength is reached
Calculate the top plug depth and communicate data to the Driller before drill-out
Drill the plugs, float collar, cement and shoe with reduced weight and RPM to
avoid shock loading the casing
A formation equivalency or leak-off test in the new hole is necessary to determine
the effectiveness of the cement seal and the formation fracture gradient
Page 129
... .-, ' ..
.• '-.)" ' "
CEMENT
CHANNELING
UNSUSPECTED
WELLBORE
WASHOUT
LOST
CIRCULATION
INFLUX
CONDITION
DOWN HOLE
RESTRICTIONS
CEMENT
SLURRY
DEHYDRATION
CASING ! CEMENTING
Monitoring cement jobs by continuously measuring pump
rate, rate of returns, surface densities and pressures can
provide early detection of some cementing problems
----'
-··
• ;", - t • i ::. • j ! ' - .. .
.
Mud poorly conditioned before start of cementing operation
.
Cement free-fall period ends before anticipated due to higher
annulus pressure
.
Surface pressure higher than expected
.
Lower rate of returns through free-fall stages
.
Cement free-fall period remains longer than anticipated due to
decreased annular pressure
.
Surface pressures are lower than anticipated after free-fall
.
Reduced rate of returns when washout encountered followed
by increased returns rate in near gauge annulus
• Erratic returns after free-fall period
• Well comes out of free-fall later than expected
.
Surface pressures are lower than anticipated
.
Rate of flowline returns is lower than expected
.
Free-fall inside casing is strong due to reduced annulus hydro-
static pressure. Might be indicated by strong vacuum at
cementing head
.
Well comes out of free-fall later than anticipated
.
Surface pressures are tower than expected
.
Rate of returns are higher than anticipated during and/or after
free-fall period
• Well goes on free-fall later and comes out of free-fall sooner
than expected
.
Surface pressures higher than expected
.
Rate of returns lower than anticipated during free-fall stages
.
Erratic rate of returns. First are higher than expected during
deceleration, then level off before coming out of free-fall
.
Free-fall starts approximately when expected but ends pre-
maturely due to higher frictional pressures
.
Surface pressures are higher than expected
.
Rate of returns normal until dehydration starts then begins to
decrease
Page 130
HORIZONTAL DRILLING
HORIZONTAL WELL
A wellbore drilled parallel to the bedding planes of
a roduction zone
Page 131
LIMIT PRt::>DlJCTIONI
OF UNWANTED
FLUIDS
MAXIMIZE
PRODUCTION
PENETRATE
VERTICAL
FRACTURES
INCREASE
PRODUCTION
HORIZONTAL DRILLING
Page 132
HORIZONTAL DRILLING
Page 133
HORIZONTAL DRILLING
HCIIaON'fAL-.&.. PLAN FOCUS
PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
• Formation type

Formation pressure
GEOLOGY
• Rock strength /stress • Formation dip angle

Porosity /permeability
DRILLING FLUID "
Mud type • Rheology
• Inhibition •
Hole cleaning
• Mud weight

Drill string size • Formation type
HYDRAULI CS

Down hole tool restrictions

Pump capacity
• Over burden stress

Hole closure
WELLBORE
STABILITY

Trajectory profile • Lost circulation /Gas influx
• Washout/breakout • Cuttings bed
HORIZICIC1'AL OPI!RA110NI FOCUS
OPERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS
RIG • Top drive

Solids control equipment
• Pump capacity
• Drill pipe size
• BHAdesign

Drilling j ars
DRILL STRING
• Down hole motors

Inspection frequency

Torque /drag
• BOP equipment

Kill calculations
WELL CONTROL
• Kick detection
• Gas behavior
• MWD/ LWD
WELL LOGGING

Drill pipe conveyed /Coil tubing
• Pump down method

Casing design
CASI NG

Slotted liners
• Predicted pick-up /slack-off weights
CEMENTING

Slurry design •
Centralizers

Mud condition • Pipe movement
• Contamination
Page 134
"0
Ill
"'
..
-
"'
"'
Gas will migrate to the high side of the wellbore and become trapped. To flush out the
gas, AV must be increased to turbulent flow. When the gas enters the build-up section,
slow the pump rate to normal
:t
0
:::0
i':i
0
<:
i!
,...
0
:::0
;:::
,...
~
C')
,
II
Cl

-w
"'
(A) WELL DATA
Original Mud Weight
-
-
Vertical Depth (IVD)
-

KOP Vertical Depth (KOP""')
I_
KOP Measured Depth (KOP"
0
)
r
Kill Pressure (KPP)
- -
....
Kill Pump Rate (KPR)
. ...,
Surface to Bit Strokes
[
Strokes to KOP
c
.tk.
(B) KICK DATA
Shut-,ln Onllpipe Pressure ( SIOPP)
...
Shut-In Casing Pressure (SICP)
r-
Pit Gain
--
- 1
-
HORIZONTAL.Ym_LL CONTROL KILL SHEET
(C) CA LCULATIONS (E) DRILLPIPE PRESSURE
I
-
SCHEDULE
Kill Mud Wei ght (KMW)
-
KMW • (SIOPP + TVO + 052) + Orig.i nal Mud Weight I STROKES I PRESSURE
KMW•l + + .052) ..
Q ICP
!1_11
lnttlel Ctrculauon Pressur• ( ICP)
""
:12)
---
:131
ICP • KJII Pump Presaure + SIOPP
' 14 )
ICP • + Stka to ._.
5) i.l KCP
KOP
--
ile)
F tnel Ctrculetlng P,.aaure (FCP) PSI
ltn
• Kill Pump Pressure • KMW + OMW
ItS)
FCP •
"
+ 19)
Suc.a to ...
r. FCP
Bot
110)
KOP C11culatmg »ressure (KCP)
....
INSTRUCTIONS
KCP • ICP + (<FCP- K':J x _

1 Rec:.ord ICP. KCP, FCP, Stka to KOP and
Slks to Bit in spacea lncllc.ated
·- · {(_ -_ )x =-)-(
)
2 Calculate Strokes I ncrement to KOP
X Stk s to KOP + 5 a S tk Inc
From 0 sUes. add Stkl to each Increment
until Stks to KOP le reaehed
(D) WAIT & WEIGHT PROCEDURE
3 Calculate Strokes Increment to BIL
1. Raise mu(lweight in ph to Kill Mud Weight value
(Stks to Bit - Stks to KOP) + 5 • ___ Stk Inc
2 Monitor shut- in pressures for gas migration. If necessary,
From Stks to KOP, add thoe&e at.ks to e<Jeh
tncrement unti• Stks to Btt is reac:hed.
bleed mud to maintain StOPP at initial shut-in value.

CaJc:ularte reduction per
3 Refer to Pump Stan Up procedure, bring well on choke.
tncrement fro I P 10 KOP
(ICP - KCP) + 5 psi
4. Hold KPR constanl and adjust the choke to maintain the
From ICP. sublract the pret-aure reduction
Drillpipe Pressure Schedule unlit Kitl Mud Weight returns. from e.-ch increment vn1il KCP is reached-
5. Stop the pump, close the choke and check shut-in
5. Catculate drillpipe preasure reduction per
increment from KCP to Blt
pressures. Sub Sea Stack - Clear stack gas and kill riser.
(KCP • FCP) + 5 psi
6. Open the BOP an(! check for flow
From KCP. subtr&c-t the proaaure reduction
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Page 138
INVESTIGATION PACKAGE
• CIIT1IIGS 1Yl'E: CLAY SH.II.E (114}. WIO GAAV!L LIIESTOIE flSI SAlT ISAI. talENT fCIIT), IMI89 (RU8l.IETAL fllj
• CIIT1IIGS OESCRIPTIOii: ROtMl,fl.IT CIIT1IIGS IPliiTW CAVIHGS BI.OCKY CAVIHGS ClAY lAW fCL8Lj.IMIII CLAY fiiSH)
Page 139
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WELL:
fl811'HOLifmiCKJIIIEI REPORT DATE·
REPORT#

RIG: LOCATION: EVINT tev!RITY:cnGHT HOLE IJinJCK Pill
I!VENT DEPrH: DATE: TillE: I!VINT CAUSE: DRILLING REPORT t:
WELL DATA: (when event occurred) Shoe Test: STRING DATA: OKelly OTop Orivo ORotatlng O Mud Motor
Csg Size: MD: TVD: Shoe Anglo· ___ Bit N: Type: Size: BHA: C!Bultd C!Hold ODrop
Hole Size: MD: TVD: Last Trip MD: DC Size: Length: DC Size· Length:
#1 KOPMD: Deg/100' • ___ 112 KOP MD: Deg/100'·-- Jar Size: ___ CHyd. OMeeh. Trip Setting.: UP Down.
KOP Bottom #1 MD· KOP Bottom #2 MD: AngleCTD __ Jar PosittOn (from bit): O Tenalon C:X::ompre•slon Neutral Point
Types & Depths of Problem FO«nation(a) : Aec:eterator Position (from J&t) . HWOP Size· Length:
DP ODIWt/Gr. !___) Ft DP ODIWt/Gr. I I Ft:
MUD DATA: ( report ACTUAL mud propenles) OPERATIONAL DATA : (directly before event occurred)
Mud Type: 11\/t' Auld Loss Rotaung WL PIUIM Sf() 11\/t'
I'll:
--
YP. __ Gets ___J___J __ pH· --- OM/ Ratoo Drag Trend:
Inhibitor Type: Concentrahon CEC RPM· Off/B Tq: \'1108 On/B Tq·
Other. Trend:
Shaker Evidence· GPM: Cir Press Press Trend:
Other-
INDICATIONS: STICKING MECHANISM:
Operation When Event Occurred. Q HOLE: PACK.OFFJ9RtDOE STICKING D we:LL80RE GEOMETRY
Pipe Motion Prior To Event ORotating O Up O Oown O Stalic
SUSPECTED CAUSE(S):
Pipe Motion After Stlcklng· CIDown Poaaible OOown Restricted OOown lmpoa.alble
0 Settled Cuttings 0 Unconsolidated Form. 0 Stiff Assembly
Pipe Rotation After Sticking: 0 Rot Pouible 0 Rot. Restricted 0 Rot tmpoulble
0 Reactive Shale 0 Fractured/Faulted Form. 0 Key Seat
Cir, Pressure After Sticking CJProas. Nonnal O Pre.s.s. Res-tricted 0 Ct . lmpolliblo 0 Gao-Pressured Shale 0 Cement Blocks 0 Micro Doglegs
SPM· Circulating Preuure:
D Hydro-Pressured Shale 0 Soli Cement 0 Ledges
0 0/Burden Stress O Junk 0 U/Gauge hole
WiUTheJarTrip?O YM O No II "No", why nol: 0 Tectonic Stress
Other.
FREEING TECHNIOUE: OSucceu:ful DESCRIBE ACnON TAKEN:
PRE\IENTTVE SUGGESnOH:
(when event occurred)
DRILLER: TOOLPUSHER. COMPANY REP:

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WELL:
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LOST CIRCUlA110N
I REPORT DATE: REPORT#
RIG: LOCATION: LOSS SEVERITY: OSEEPAGE DPARTIAL DTOTAL
LOSS DEPTH: DATE: nME: CAUSE OF LOSS: MUD REPORT t:
WEL.L DATA: (when event occurred) Shoe Test STRING DATA: O Kelly O Top O(ive O RotatJng O Mud Motor Hole Size: ---
Csg Size: MD: TVD: DC Si:e; Length: DC Size: Lel\gth:
Hole Size: MD: TVD: Last Trip MD: Stal:>ilizer Positions: HWDP SiZe: Length:
Types & Depths of Loss Zone(s)! DP ODMit. ___) __ Ft: DP ODM/t: __ I __ Ft:
Other:
MUD DATA: (report ACTUAL mud properttes) OPERATIONAL DATA: (when event oaurred)
Mud Type: Wt: Fluid Loss: Operation; Depth Loss Started:
PV: __ YP: __ Gets: __ / _ __ / __ pH: ---0/W Ratio:
GPM: Cir Press: ECD@ Lou Zone.
Inhibitor Type: Concentratjon: CEC. Slip-To-Slip Pipe Speed: Fl/Se<o Max Csg Press Before Loss:
System LCM; __ Lbslbbl Polymer _ __ LbslbbL __ Gel: _ _Lb&ibbt
Other:
Other.
CLASSIFICATIONS OF LOSS. D PRESSURE INDUCED FRACTURES D NATURALLY EXISTING FRACTURES/PERMEABILITY OTHER:
CAUSE(S): D Welt Control Oper. DGes Migration O Excessive Mud Wt 0 Excessive Cuttings Load ClHigh EC.O D High Surge Pressure D lmposed Pump Pressure
OOepleted Zone OUnconsolidate<l Form. Q.Fractured Form . t:Faulted Zone DVugular Form O Cavemous Zone CHote In Csg. Other:
MUD LOSS DATA: SEEPAGE • < 20 SblsJHr PartlaJ = > 20 BblsJHr Total= No Rotum.s
Depth: BblsJHr: ___ @ ___ GPM Static Loss: ___ Bbls/Hr Depth: Sbls/Hr, ___ @ GPM Statie Loss: ___ Bbl.s/Hr
Depth: Bbl s./Hr, @ GPM Static Loss: Sbi&IH' Depth: Sbls/Hr: @ GPM Static Loss; Bbls/Hr
Pill# 1: O WBM O OSM Wt'
Vol: Gel Content: Lb&/Bbl
- --
SPOTTING RESULTS: 0 Successful O Partialty Successful o unsuccessful
Pill Type: O LCM OCement o:;onk[JSpeciatty Pill Other. Bbls Spoued: Depth:
MD ___ TVO Wait Time: ___
Material: n FineO MedO Cor Lbs/Bbl: ___ SQUEEZE RESULTS: OSuccessful 0 Partially Suecessful 0 u nsucces.sful
Material: IIFfneO Med O Cor Lbs/Bbl: ___ Bbls Squeezed: __ Depth: MD TVD Press Held: ___
Material: OFine O Med OCor lbs/Bbt: W&it Time: Notes;
Pill# 2: D WBM D OBM Wt: Vol; Gel Content: _ __ Lbs/Sbl SPOTTING RESULTS: 0 Successful CJ Parti aUy Successfvl O Unsuccessful
Pill Type:DLCM D Cement OOunk CSpecia1ty Pill Other: Bbl s Spone<l· ___ Depth: MD TVD wait Tima:
---
Material: OFine O Med OCor Lbs/Bbl: _ _ _ SQUEEZE RESULTS: OSuccessful 0 Partially Successful 0 Unsuccessful
Material: OF;ne O Med OCor Lbs/Bbt: ___ Bbl s Squeezed: __ Depth: MD TVD Press Held : ___
Material: OFine OMed OCor lb&IBbl. wai tnme: No-tes:
TOOLPUSHER: MUD ENG: COMPANY REP:
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DIMENSIONS I PROPERnES I REPORTS: PAPER WORK:
l ength : 00; 10: VVVFt: Grade; - -- LOCATE: 0 Ca rgo Manifest O Supply Co Paper \Nork O Operat'ons Manual
Conn Size 1 Type: Stres.s ReHef: yes no Bore Restrictions: 0 Inspection Report OFishing Dimensions Sheet 0 Settfng Calibrations Sheet
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2
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2
R&&istant : yes no Oil Resistant yes no Temp Limit: __ Batl l tfe: -- MATCH SERIAUMODEL #ON TOOL WITH ALL PAPER WORK
Inspection Report: yes no Settings & Ca.librati ons: 0 CORRECT TOOL 0 INCORRECT TOOL
Othe-r:
OPERATIONS:
Special Handling I Operations I Maintenance:
Saf ety R&eommendations: ----------------------
Make-Up Tq: FVLbs Thread Compound: ------------
Commen ts:
CHECK: O Damaged Container O Exptosi ve/CO«osives Matked D Battery pack
O Hazardous Material Secured 0 Pres sured Vessets Seeured Other.: -----
INSPECT TOOL FOR: 0 Thread Protectors 0 Thread Damage O lmpact damage
0 Bent I Mashed Tube 0 Water Damage Other. ------------
VERIFY WITH Q Back-Up Tool O Spare Part(s) 0 Handling Tool(&)
0 Operati"g Tools OCros.sovers Other. ---------------
0 /Pull Limit: Tq Limit Pump Press Limit------
GPM ___ Max: ___ Hydro Press Limit: -----
Mex Rotating Hrs: Other. Angle limit: --
Ft&hing Tools R.equlred: -----------------------
Tools included w/shipment: yes no Available In Area: -------------
Fishing Records Available: yes no Fi-shing Dimension Sheet Shipped: yes no
OPERATIONS:
INSPECT: OTool Bore O Aocess Ports O Safety Clamps 0 Tool Conn Size/Type
FUNCTION TESl': OVatves 0 Other· ------- -------
SUPPLY COMPANY RAnNG:
Rep. Helpful ness: 1 2 3 4 5 6
Rep. Availability: ·1 2 3 4 5 6+ ' Tool Arrival Condition· 1 2 3 4 5 e
Knowledge Of Tool: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Spare Parts Condttion: 1 2 3 4 5 6
Tool Operating Condition: 1 2 3 4 5 G
Tool Operator Knowtedge: 1 2 3 4 s 6
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WELL DATA: (when failure occurred) S TRING DATA: 0 Kelty O Top Dnve 0 Rotatmg O Mud Motor O Shock Sub
Csg Size: MD: TVD: Shoe Angle: __ _ Bit it. --- Type: BHA OBuild 0 Hold 0 Drop
Hole Size: MD: TVO: Angle@ TO. ---- DC Size: ---- Length:---- DC Size· Length: -----
Dogleg MD From: To: Deg/100' : ---- Jar Position (from bit): Accelerator Posi tion (from j ar)· -------
Hole Wa.shollt %: ___ MD From: To: ----- Neutral Poi nt : (from bit) HWOP Size. Length: ------
omec _________________________ __
OP ODMitJGr ---' ---'--- FL DP 00/Wt.JGr ___ 1 ___ 1_ FL
Other.
OPERATIONAL DATA: (when event occurred) RECOVERY:

Sack-Up Tool: OOn·Site O Avaflable Oehvery rime: -----------
Rot_at_ing VVt: ------- P/U WI: ----------- S/0 WI. - ----
Spare Parts: CJ On-S1te () Available
Delivery T!rne: -----------
Drag Trend· -------------------------
Oown-Time Hours: ___ Supply Co Response Rat •ng : 1 2 3 4 5 6 ONot Apphcabl e
RPM: ___ _
01!/B Tq: WOB: -------- On/B Tq· -----
Other. _____________________ ________ __
Torque Trend: 1------------------------------
GPM: C1r Press: Pre-ss Trend :
FAILURE DESCRIPTION:
Failed Tool: ----------------------- Failed ------------------------------
OescribeFailure: _______________________________________________________________ ___
Cause(s): __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __
'llfM!JI7M lfJ.-rJCIMI:
TOOLPUSHER: TOOL OPERATOR:


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DRILL STRING
I REPORT DATE:
FAILURE REPORT FORM
REPORT#
RIG: LOCATION: FAILURE SEVERITY:OPARTED OTWIST -OFF DCRACKED DWASHOUT
FAILURE LOCATION: 0 DP IJHWDP DOC TDMD: FAILURE DATE: TIME: DRILLING REPORT t:
WELL DATA : (when failure occurred) STRING DATA: 0 Kelly OTopOrlve 0 Rotating 0 Mud MOtOf O Shoc.k Sub
Csg Size: MD; TVD: Shoe Angle: Bit #: --- Type; Size: BHA: OBuild 0 Hold 0 Drop
Hole Size.: MD: TVD: Aogle@TO: DC OD/ID: _. -'-- U>s/Ft: __ Conn Type: Length:
#1 KOP/Dogleg MD From: To: Deg/100': DC U>s/FI: __ Conn Type: Lenglh:
#2 KOP/Dogleg MO From: To: Deg/100': Jar P ' ton (frotn bit): Accelerator Position (from j ar):
Hole Washout%: ___ M D From; To: Neut al Point: ---HWOP Size: __ Conn Type: Length:
Other: DP OD/Wt/Gr. __}__/ __ Ft: DP OD/Wt/Gr. __/ __ /_ Ft: ---
Ot.her:
OPERATIONAL DATA : (when failure occurred) MUD DATA: (record A CTUAL mud properti es)
Operation: Mud Type: MudWe+ght: Sand: %
l
Rotati ng vvt: PIU IM: SIOIM:
pH : __ Corr. lnhtbitor Type: Lbs./Bbl! ___ Corr. Rate
Dreg Trend: O Smooth O Erratic Oxy PPM; --- H S PPM: CO PPM; BIHC>Ie Temp; ___
RPM: OH/8 Tq: WOB: On/B Tq:
Seavenger Type: Lbs./Bbl:
TOtque Trend: 0 Smooth 0 Erratic
Other,

t
GPM: Cir Press: Press Trend:
0/PuULimit: Set Down Limit TqLimn:
Wt lnd Reading @ Failure: Tq @ Failure: Pre.s.s @ Failure:
FAILURE DESCRIPTION:
TYPE OF FAILURE; O OP Tube FCltigue D BHA Conn Fatigue OConnection Leak 0 Sulfide Stress Crack Box O Tension O Torsioo
0 Combination Tenston/Torsion OCollapse D Burst 0 \Neld Failure 0 Mechanical Failure Of String Equipment (Jar, MfMotor. Etc.):
Othttr:
OP Tube Failure: __ Inches From 0 Bo:x OPln Shoulder serial II: Last Insp. Date! Insp. Repott #: Rotating Hrs:
BHA Conn Failure" _ _ Ft From Bit 0 Comp 0 Tension Serial #s Of Jcints: PinN: Box# La.st Insp. Oate{s): ___ RotatJng Hrs: ___
Conn Leak: O OP O HWDP D OC Serial #$ Of Joints.: Pin# Bo>d# t..ast Insp. Oate(s) : Rotating Hrs:
PREVENTIVE SUGGESTIONS:
DRILLLER (on tour): TOOLPUSHER: COMPANY REP:


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_:jREPORT DATE: WELL:
..
REPORT#
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LOCATION: we .. ,"[J. 'ii1.01.. .... 0 .. 411MIIIICiill: ClnduniiiCiilf rua•a OUI
iGCKDATE: -.: ORIG.IIW:
.
1C11J. liiW: . • • ' · • . · .. DRILLING ltEPORflc
WELL DATA: (when event occuHed) Shoe Test: STRING DATA: O Kelly Q Top Dri ve QRotatlng OMud Motor O DS Fl oet Velvo
Cs.g Size: MD; TVO
Shoe Angle . ___
DC 00110 . I Ft · DC 00110. _ __ / __ Ft:
HoloSiz.e_ MO· TVO.
Angle@ TO --- Lbs/Ft. ---
Ft
Kick TOlerance· ___ Shallowe&1 Abnormal FP (>9.0 PPGE): TVO
0 OOMII. ---'-- Ft. OP 00/Wt ---'--Ft
Fonn. Press @ TO· Other
SS Choke Ltne ro . __ Ft Presaure loss.
@SPM. __
Otner
OPERATIONAL DATA: (When event occum!d)
Operation: 0 O""<ng Q T1'19 Out ·Tnpln Coring = logg'ng WCementtnt O.her
Mud Type: :::WSM O OSMIS8M 111/t In--- 1Ait Slip-. To-Sbp Trip Speed Out. ___ Mtn In M1n Other.
Ki ck Warning Signs: Break OVV.U F·tow O PftGain C Cir Preaaure Loss 0 Incorrect Hole Fill Volume 0 Total loa& Of Cir O Gas@ Sea Surface
Other
Cause Of Kick: O Drilled Hi'Qh Prell Zone O light Mud Wt Pumped 0 Total LOll Or Cir O Cut Mud Wt (water.oil, gas) O Swabblng CJ Improper Hole Fdl Procedure
Other:
SHUT-IN DATA: Tlmo Of Ki c k: Drill String: CJ On Bottom 0 Off Bottom Bit MO; D OutOf Hole
Shut .. fn Procedure: t 15oft 1Herd CJFast BOP Clostng Pressure: SIOPP· SICP· Prt Gain
Type: O Under Salanoo Kick (Ji nduced Kick Kick Fluid O Wator C1011l)Gaa O Unk nown TVO Of Kick : Gas Migration Observed: Cyes Ono
Other::
KILl. OPERATION DATA: p,.. .. KIII Operation: o snubln Stnp In 0 Heavy Mud Cap Other
Kill Procedure: wait & we.ghl Me1.hod 0 Circulation Method O VOiumotnc Method O BuJihead Other.
KiU MW·
- --
K .. Pump Rate -- SPM S&fety any), Added MW --- Added Back Press· Other
String During Kin: None Hung-Off 0 Rocate 0 Rec«proc.ate
8nefly Describe Kill Operatoon
DRILLLER (on tour): TOOLPUSHER: COMPANY REP:
----- --
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