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NEW DISCOVERIES IN THE TOMB OF KHETY II AT ASYUT*
Mahmoud El-Khadragy U n i v e r s i t y o f Sohag, E g y p t Since September 2003, the " A s y u t Project", a j o i n t E g y p t i a n - G e r m a n m i s s i o n o f S o h a g University ( E g y p t ) , M a i n z U n i v e r s i t y ( G e r m a n y ) and M ü n s t e r U n i v e r s i t y ( G e r m a n y ) , has conducted three successive seasons o f f i e l d w o r k and surveying in the cemetery at A s y u t , a i m i n g at d o c u m e n t i n g the architectural features and decorations o f the First Intermediate Period and M i d d l e K i n g d o m tombs. 1 D ü r i n g these seasons, the cliffs bordering the Western Desert w e r e m a p p e d and the g e o l o g i c a l features studied, p r o v i d i n g the clearest picture o f the m o u n t a i n to date (Figure l ) . 2 In the south and the north, the mountain is cut b y small w a d i s and consists o f eleven layers o f limestone. R o c k t o m b s were h e w n into each layer, but s o m e chronological preferences became o b v i o u s : the nomarchs o f the First Intermediate Period and the early M i d d l e K i n g d o m chose layer no. 6 (about t w o thirds o f the w a y up the m o u n t a i n ) for constructing their tombs, w h i l e the nomarchs o f t h e 12th D y n a s t y preferred layer no. 2, nearly at the foot o f the gebel. D ü r i n g the First Intermediate Period and the M i d d l e K i n g d o m , stones w e r e quarried in the south o f t h e mountain ( 0 1 7 . 1 ) , 3 thus not v i o l a t i n g the necropolis. D ü r i n g the N e w K i n g d o m , h o w e v e r , stones w e r e h e w n f r o m the necropolis o f the First Intermediate Period and the M i d d l e K i n g d o m ( O l 5 . 1 ) , sometimes in the nomarchs' t o m b s themselves ( N 1 2 . 2 , N 1 3 . 2 , see b e l o w ) . T h e t o m b o f K h e t y II 4 ( T o m b I V ; N12.2) 5 is located between the t o m b o f Itiibi ( T o m b III; N 1 2 . 1 ) , his probable father, to the south and that o f K h e t y I ( T o m b V ; M l 1.1), w h i c h is thought to be the earliest o f the three, to the north. 6 K h e t y II governed as a nomarch o f the 13th U p p e r Egyptian n o m e during the lOth D y n a s t y and served under the Herakleopolitan king Merikare. 7 T h e t o m b w a s first recorded b y the savants o f the French expedition to E g y p t in 1799. T h e tomb's autobiographical inscriptions are crucial for establishing the history o f the country during the First Intermediate Period; as a result scholars h a v e focussed on them since the 19th Century. 9 T h e m a i n epigraphic documentation w as produced b y Francis L l e w e l l y n Griffith in 1889, 10 and a revised Version o f his w o r k w a s published later in 1935 b y Pierre M o n t e t . " Since then, n o m a j o r archaeological investigation has been conducted there w i t h the exception o f the short visits b y D i a n a Magee 1 2 in 1986 and D o n a l d Spanel 1 3 in 1987. B e f o r e the A s y u t Project began its w o r k , the tomb's architectural features had never
o w n e r is not stated. T h e northern pillar o f the eastern pair is broken a w a y . 80 . 18 A hkrfrieze is incised also a b o v e this scene. Further along. and n o systematic e x c a v a t i o n had ever been conducted there. Description of the t o m b The Courtyard and Hall (Plates 1 . the south w a l l is decorated in sunk-relief with marching soldiers armed with battle-axes and shields in three r o w s . an alcove was cut into the south wall at a level higher than floor level o f the hall. Into the eastern end o f the south wall.10 m w i d e x m a x . 10. the hall is broader than in the m i d d l e and the rear parts. T h e text is a c c o m p a n i e d b y figures o f the t o m b . 3. o f w h i c h the third r o w is u n f m i s h e d (Plate 3). T h i s configuration is also a characteristic feature o f T o m b III 1 6 and the NorthernSoldiers T o m b ( M l l .80 m long x m a x . Figure 2 ) w i t h a floor space o f about 147 m 2 .o w n e r and a priestess o f Hathor n a m e d Iti-ibi.B A C E 17(2006) been adequately documented. T h e ceiling is supported b y t w o pairs o f rock-cut pillars. w h i c h are the f o c a l point o f this article. Furthermore. T w o rectangular niches w e r e cut into the same south w a l l underneath the relief. 1 7 The Decoration T h e north wall. T h e western end o f the t o m b w a s not cut completely and w a s left unlevelled and rough. 1 4 T h e facade o f K h e t y II's t o m b w a s destroyed in the first quarter o f the 19th Century (Plate l). l ) . T h e recent w o r k in the t o m b o f K h e t y II has y i e l d e d interesting results concerning the tomb's architectural features and its history. O n e o f t h e m is still Standing. is decorated w i t h a l o n g autobiographical text in incised hieroglyphs filled w i t h blue paint.2 ) A comparison w i t h the neighbouring T o m b III suggests the existence o f a forecourt. w h i c h has so far not been excavated. A t s o m e later point in time. w h i l e the other pillar became a v i c t i m o f later quarrying activities (see b e l o w ) . A n incised hkr-ineze f o r m s the top border o f the relief and text. in its eastern part. b e y o n d a narrow projecting Shoulder. In the eastern (front) third o f the t o m b . 18. T h e hall itself is more or less rectangular ( m a x .90 m h i g h ) (Plate 2 . w h o s e relationship to the t o m b . T h e western pair o f pillars is u n f m i s h e d and o n l y r o u g h l y executed. a passage w a s cut at a later p e r i o d to connect this t o m b w i t h the a d j o i n i n g T o m b III. 1 5 T h e central a x i s o f the hall is perpendicular to the lost entrance w a l l . w h i l e the suspended upper part o f the other (south) pillar is preserved s h o w i n g remains o f incised hieroglyphs surmounted b y an incised hkr-frieze decoration. n o facsimile drawings are published as yet.
B A C E 17 (2006) 81 .
82 . Plate 2. Tomb of Khety II: chapel. Facades of the tombs of Khety II (right) and Iti-ibi (left).B A C E 17 (2006) Plate 1.
Shaft 1 • Fragments o f w o o d e n m o d e l s (S05/st 1239. there is s o m e evidence that the construction o f both shafts w a s already c o m p l e t e d at the end o f the First Intermediate Period. t w o shafts so far u n k n o w n c a m e to light. Shaft 2 w a s cut to the east o f the south-west pillar. fragments o f w o o d e n m o d e l s and bricks o f sizes typical for the First Intermediate Period and M i d d l e K i n g d o m f o u n d in front o f the burial Chamber o f Shaft 1 are clear indications. B o t h shafts were already plundered in antiquity. E v e n i f the existence o f the several Chambers in Shaft 2 points to a later reuse as a t o m b . 21 Shaft 1 is situated east o f the south-eastern pillar. 1 9 T h i s indicates that most o f the levelling inside the chapel t o o k place before the plaster layer w a s applied and the b e n c h w a s installed. the fill. It has been suggested.70 m ( E . S05/st 1311.00 m . w a s removed. as w a s evident b y the positions o f the finds.30 m ( N . 2 2 • Fragment o f an offering tray m a d e o f clay ( S 0 5 / 1 2 8 ) comparable to those f o u n d b y Petrie at D e i r R i f e h in M i d d l e K i n g d o m tombs. R e m a i n s o f a b e n c h made o f m u d bricks are visible o n top o f the l i m e plaster. in s o m e layers m i x e d w i t h N i l e silt and/or remains o f bones. It gives access to three burial Chambers cut into its south side and t w o burial Chambers cut into the northern side. reed.40 m ( E . T h e fill w a s once c o v e r e d b y a layer o f m u d plaster.S ) x 1. Pottery. bandages and other small objects. 20 T h i s is c o n f i r m e d b y chisel m a r k s detected o n the northern face o f the north-west pillar (see b e l o w ) . Its m o u t h measures 3. w h i c h f o r m e d a nearly horizontal surface in the large inner hall. It leads to a burial Chamber cut into its south side. 2 3 83 . T h e thickness o f this deposit ranged f r o m 50 to 100 c m . W h e n the fill w a s r e m o v e d .40 m ( N .S ) x 1.W ) and it has a m a x i m u m depth o f 9 . w h i c h w a s in turn covered b y a layer o f l i m e plaster (Figure 3). N E W D I S C O V E R I E S IN THE T O M B OF K H E T Y A T A S Y U T N e w Discoveries (Seasons 2004 and 2005) D ü r i n g the seasons 2004 and 2005. w h i c h suggest a burial before the end o f the M i d d l e K i n g d o m . ranging f r o m artefacts w h i c h might belong to the original inventory to remnants o f later burials and the reuse o f the t o m b .K H A D R A G Y . B o t h shafts produced m a n y objects dating to different periods. 4 0 m .E L . T h e fill consisted o f limestone chips in different sizes.W ) and it has a m a x i m u m depth o f 5. S05/st 1354). B o t h layers o n l y survived in parts in the south-east corner o f the hall in front o f the later passage leading to T o m b III. p o s s i b l y pointing towards the habitation o f the t o m b in later periods similar to the Situation f o u n d in T o m b III. that this later f l o o r w a s a C o p t i c installation. Several objects might h a v e belonged to the original burials. Its o p e n i n g measures 3.
have been placed there w h e n the shaft w a s plundered later. 2 7 • Fragments o f w o o d e n m o d e l s (S05/10. 2 6 T h e lower index o f the cup in T o m b I V suggests that the i n d e x number decreased in the latter part o f the First Intermediate Period and the M i d d l e K i n g d o m . T h e context in w h i c h papers. Ushebtis were not used as grave g o o d s before the middle o f the 12th Dynasty.5 c m x height 5. notes and pencil inscriptions were f o u n d suggests that they 84 . Its index is 228 (diameter 13. • Islamic pottery (interior: y e l l o w glazed with black pattern) (S05/132). S05/26. painted y e l l o w and inscribed in black (S05/52). Other objects are the remains o f a later reuse o f the shafts. presumably o f p l a y i n g cards ( S 0 5 / s t l 3 8 1 ) . T h e fill in the inner hall contained objects f r o m later periods: In s o m e o f the niches.9cm) 2 5 and this figure fits well w i t h the index o f cups f r o m the earlier t o m b ( T o m b III) ranging between 2 7 0 and 250. Shaft 1 • T h e base o f a small limestone statue (S05/140: 6. Wepwawet-hetep".9 x 4 x 2 . Shaft 2 • A c o m p l e t e l y preserved hemispherical cup ( S 0 5 / 2 8 ) (Plate 4). artefacts f r o m diverse periods were found. • Green and y e l l o w glazed Islamic pottery (S05/st 757). • B l u e glazed faience ushebti fragment (17/09/05). although it is used for n sporadically f r o m early in the 12th Dynasty. 2 9 • Feather c r o w n m a d e o f w o o d ( S 0 5 / 1 3 1 ) (Figure 4). T h e i r size corresponds to those o f the First Intermediate Period/ M i d d l e K i n g d o m . 2 8 it is not c o m m o n l y f o u n d until the late M i d d l e Kingdom. S05/64). T h e non-enclitic particle jn is written here with the red c r o w n I V (S3 in Gardiner's sign-list).B A C E 17(2006) • M u d bricks f o u n d on the bottom o f the shaft in front o f the burial Chamber. jn zi-s scnh rn^s r hrtjw ntr Wp-wlwt-htp "it is her son w h o perpetuates her n a m e more than the stone-masons. h o w e v e r . • Copperblade(S05/139). w h i c h can be dated to the First Intermediate Period. Shaft 2 • Headless w o o d e n ushebti. 1 c m ) w i t h an incised inscription on three sides o f the base (Plate 5). 2 4 T h e bricks might. • Fragment o f paper. • Green and y e l l o w glazed Islamic pottery (S05/st 1227).
N E W DISCOVERIES IN THE T O M B OF K H E T Y AT A S Y U T .E L .K H A D R A G Y .
B A C E 17 (2006) .
87 .K H A D R A O Y . N E W DISCOVERIES IN THE T O M B OF K H E T Y AT A S Y U T Plate 5.E L . T o m b o f K h e t y II: w o o d e n feather c r o w n ( S 0 5 / 1 3 1 ) f r o m Shaft 1. Figure 4. • t 1 cm Figure 5. T o m b o f K h e t y II: w o o d e n falcon (S05/99) f r o m southern w a l l alcove. T o m b o f K h e t y II: base o f Statuette ( S 0 5 / 1 4 0 ) f r o m Shaft 1.
several Steps are h e w n into the rock. O n e o f the niches especially. 3 7 S o far. 31 s o m e o f these falcons were found o n top o f canopic chests or ushebti chests. These chisel marks f o r m the fishbone pattern and long parallel marks (with a length o f 2 0 c m ) . in the western part o f T o m b I V 88 . for e x a m p l e . 30 cm).5 c m thickness) (S04/174).B A C E 17(2006) were deposited there b y earlier excavators. It also included some C o p t i c and early A r a b i c artifacts. Patterns o f copper chisels that leave very short and not parallel marks. T h e chisel marks and the d i m e n s i o n s o f the stone quarried a w a y differ f r o m those dating to the original t o m b architecture. scholars have only thought o f the possibility that the blocks for this temple came f r o m A m a r n a and were reused later at Asyut. written in pencil o n the falcon. although none are documented yet. w h i c h also points to quarrying activities. • A w o o d e n phallic figure comparable to those f o u n d in Elephantine and A f t e r the complete removal o f the fill.5 c m x 0. 3 2 T h i s falcon is clear evidence that later t o m b s were cut into the mountain. w h i c h are identical to those recognizable in the quarries o f the 18th D y n a s t y and the R a m e s s i d e era/Late Period respectively. 3 5 T h e height o f the blocks cut out o f this floor area resembles that o f the talatat f r o m the A m a r n a Period (height ca. Similar falcons are k n o w n f r o m the Late and Ptolemaic Periods. contained m a n y objects dated to the late Eighteenth D y n a s t y and the R a m e s s i d e Period. 3 8 In addition. 36 w h i c h means that talatat might have been quarried here. it became apparent that the bedrock fl o o r o f the hall w a s not a flat surface but a rather irregulär one (Plate 2).3 c m thickness) (S04/214). T h e R o m a n numeral X V I I . m a n y hammers m a d e o f hard limestone were f o u n d in the debris. Interpreted as a representation o f the g o d Sokar. presumably refers to Hogarth's t o m b X V I I where he f o u n d a w o o d e n falcon. It has been suggested that these objects were deposited there either b y the British archaeologist D a v i d Hogarth or the French Egyptologist Charles Palanque.l a m p (diameter 5. 3 3 • A headless blue glazed faience ushebti fragment (S04/33). 3 0 • A w o o d e n f a l c o n was f o u n d deposited in the later niche o f the chapel's south w a l l ( S 0 5 / 9 9 ) (Figure 5). w h i c h are typical for the O l d and M i d d l e K i n g d o m s . • C l a y o i l . Early N e w K i n g d o m chisel marks are visible on the middle part o f the northern wall.2 c m x 7. • B r o n z e coin (diameter 3. chisel marks are also recognizable in several other places in the hall. and especially around the shafts. 4 0 can be recognized. w h i l e others were f o u n d on top o f coffins. It also asserts that s o m e o f the early excavators inhabited this tomb and used it as a tentative magazine. possibly for the temple assigned to A m e n o p h i s I V at A s y u t . 39 Apart from this o b v i o u s quarry area.
T h e pillars have a smoothed architrave. at least. w h i c h presents us with a g o o d e x a m p l e to reconstruct the process o f t o m b . since during the latter period. where the mountain has the best quality o f stone. and was therefore ideal for constructing a t o m b . T h i s fact seems to be c o n f i r m e d b y the regulär arrangement o f the pillars and the still visible architectural plan. Perhaps the intention was to turn the tomb chapel into a sacred space. 41 and they can best be observed on the north side o f northwest pillar.b u i l d i n g during the First Intermediate Period. T h i s suggests that the w o r k in the t o m b progressed f r o m front to back and f r o m top to bottom. T h e western part. Use and reuse of the tomb T h e original r o c k . the rear part w a s left unfinished in the f o r m o f a tunnel (Figure 2). presumably because o f a crack in the pillar. is smoothed and decorated. T h e m i d d l e part is smoothed. w h i c h might have appeared during the w o r k . Probably the t o m b w a s plundered between the end o f the First Intermediate Period and the A m a r n a Period. L e v e l 6. There are signs o f an attempt to turn the rough rectangular pillar into a round c o l u m n . the o n l y one still standing. w a s not c o m p l e t e l y cut. But the t o m b w a s not completed. T h e y are 2. B u t this w o r k came to a halt. or. w h i l e their lower parts were left rough. the t o m b w a s left unfinished.o w n e r s K h e t i and Iti-ibi. including the inner pair o f pillars.t o m b w a s planned at the end o f the First Intermediate Period. there are also chisel marks datable to the C o p t i c Period. 42 T h e left and right sides o f the front part o f the tunnel were then cut in order to create the planned rectangular design. there were quarrying activities in the t o m b for w h i c h the fishbone pattern o f chisels o n the walls and the "steps" cut around the shafts in the dimensions o f lalatat are evidence. 89 . were buried there. that everything w a s prepared for their burial and that after the burials had taken place.K H A D R A G Y . In addition. K h e t y II chose the same area as his predecessor Iti-ibi. N E W D I S C O V E R I E S IN THE T O M B OF K H E T Y A T A S Y U T in the lower. E v i d e n c e f r o m the inner hall suggests that a horizontal tunnel w a s first cut into the mountain using the same technique as in stone quarries. not yet smoothed parts o f the south wall.E L . w h i c h w o u l d mean that all four pillars probably still existed during this period.5 c m w i d e and on average 4 c m long. but its decoration w a s left unfinished (Plate 2). S o m e pottery and fragments o f w o o d e n m o d e l s indicate that the t o m b . represented o n the northern w a l l . T h e eastern part. including the front pair o f pillars.
and in the south Thebes aggressively expanded north and south. General C o m m e n t a r y A f t e r the Eighth D y n a s t y . but with the support o f the Herakleopolitan king Merikare he managed to push back the Theban aggressors and to regain possession o f his territory. and the T h e b a n forces. T h e front part o f the ceiling has a painted decoration w h i c h appears to be o f C o p t i c style (Plate 2b) a n d the tomb w a s probably used as a sacred space b y the Copts. T h e autobiographical text on the northern w a l l o f K h e t y II's tomb chapel gives rieh information about the fight for A s y u t between K i n g Merikare o f Herakleopolis allied with Kheti II. w h i c h seems to suggest that some architectural changes took place or were at least intended at that time. bones. A b o v e this layer. 4 3 In 1903. the floor surface w a s levelled with a layer 5 0 . the essential points are clear. 4 7 T h i s rivalry culminated in a war. so that the space c o u l d be reused again. T h e y were afraid o f an attack b y antiquities dealers. and basketry (all perhaps material f r o m burials outside the tomb). and this level plastered over. thus b e c o m i n g a threat to the northern Herakleopolitan kingdom. linen. Later again. since the Siutian magnates were the closest allies o f Herakleopolis. on the o n e hand. a plaster o f red colour was detected in the north-eastern part o f T o m b I V . on the other hand.1 0 0 c m thick o f limestone chips. In the north Herakleopolis 4 6 continued the O l d K i n g d o m tradition. H e states in his autobiographical inscription: 90 . the centralized government definitely lost its power and the country broke up into several regions governed b y local rulers. Hogarth probably also occupied T o m b I V and presumably built his c a m p here and spent the nights inside during the c o l d winter days in 1906/07. the French Egyptologists Chassinat and Palanque seem to have used T o m b I V as a m a g a z i n e and installed an iron gate in front o f it (Plate 1). w h i c h lasted for at least 60 years. A s y u t was o b v i o u s l y the last bastion o f the Herakleopolitan k i n g d o m and the stage for the decisive struggle. ropes. A final phase o f w o r k at the site occurred during the earlyl9th Century: drill holes around today's tomb entrance point to the destruction o f the facade with the aid o f dynamite. E v e n i f s o m e details o f the inscription are uncertain. O b j e c t s found in the rectangular niche in the northern w a l l o f T o m b I V might have been deposited there either b y Palanque or b y Hogarth.B A C E 17(2006) T h e chisel marks o f 4 c m length on the rough rectangular pillar are typical for the C o p t i c era. K h e t y II seems to have been driven out o f A s y u t . 44 T h e British archaeologist D a v i d G . but gradually t w o nuclei o f p o w e r emerged.
Papyrus feil on the water. the counts of Middle Egypt. Herakleopolis was landing. He buried his oldpeople. "Welcome". their large sizes suggest that they belong to s o m e u n k n o w n nomarchs. 5 3 Perhaps one o f these t o m b . T h e existence o f the t w o finished shafts in the t o m b o f K h e t y provides new evidence c o n c e m i n g the end o f the First Intermediate Period.50 T h i s might explain the unfinished State o f the t o m b . K h e t y II continued the fight against Thebes. All people winced (all people were in terror) the villages in panic (?). The work conducted in the 2004 and 2005 seasons was financed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. women together with men.o w n e r s was the last Siutian nomarch before the reunification b y Mentuhotep Nebhepetre. the whole land was with him. He brought back the refugees into their homes. the fieldwork 91 . The head of the jleet extended to Shutb.. fear entered into their limbs . 2 ) . T h e fact that K h e t y II w a s driven out o f A s y u t for some indefinite period and resumed the war after his return might have been responsible for this Situation. A l t h o u g h a n o n y m o u s .. w h i c h is reported in the autobiographical inscription in his father's t o m b ( T o m b III). Later. 1 2 . The land burned in its (Herakleopolis1) flame . n o w undecorated.49 Heaven was blowing the north wind. it is still uncertain whether he was really the last Siutian nomarch before the reunification b y Mentuhotep Nebhepetre. h o w e v e r . T h e fact that his t o m b has t w o shafts demonstrates that his defeat w a s not so sudden.. The land trembled. 1 . the T h e b a n s seized A s y u t . Upper Egypt bailed water (its ships sank). the heaven was cleared for him. the son of a ruler. Nevertheless. decorated with wrestlers and s o m e pastoral scenes. O n e o f these is T o m b M .E L . T h e other t o m b ( 0 1 4 .. N E W D I S C O V E R I E S IN THE T O M B OF K H E T Y A T A S Y U T You (King Merikare) did convey him (Khety llfrom Asyut) upriver. The ruler's son (Khety II) reached his town. This financial support is acknowledged with gratitude. Managed by Professor Dr Ursula Verhoeven. situated in the upper level o f the mountain. is located near Deir el-Meitin.4* and its end to ww hrj. He entered his father's (Iti-ibi) territory. and the great ones of Herakleopolis. Large t o m b chapels with roofs supported b y pillars and s h o w i n g the projected Shoulders characteristic o f the First Intermediate Period t o m b s at A s y u t 5 2 are k n o w n . the town (Asyut) criedjubilantly to its ruler.K H A D R A G Y . The district of the Queen of the land came to repel the evil-doer (the Theban ruler).
"Zwischen Memphis und Theben: Die Gräber politischer Drahtzieher in Assiut/ Mittelägypten" in: Natur und Geist. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts. 14— 17. M r Magdy Shaker. Mr Yasser Mahmoud. J. Mr Hani Sadek (former Director General o f Asyut). Kahl / M . The photographs were taken by Professor Dr Jochem Kahl. M s Christiane Dorstewitz and Mrs Diana Kleiber. forthcoming. Moss. M s Monika Zöller. we would like to express our sincere thanks to Professor Dr Zahi Hawass. E . El-Khadragy / U. 159-67. Das Forschungsmagazin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (2004). Verhoeven. "The 92 . "The Northern SoldiersT o m b at A s y u t " in: SAK 35 (2007). Verhoeven-van Eisbergen. El-Khadragy. in Assiut: ein Rekonstruktionsversuch" in: J. Mr O m a r A b u Zaid. Chairman o f the S C A .2 is according to our survey o f the necropolis which demands a more flexible terminology for the tombs (Kahl / El-Khadragy / Verhoeven. The expedition received füll Cooperation and support from the Egyptian Supreme Council o f Antiquities and the Inspectorate o f Antiquities at Asyut. Kahl. in print). while the other drawings were prepared by Dr E v a . "The Asyut Project: Third Season o f Fieldwork" in: SAK 34 (2006). "The First Intermediate Period T o m b s at Asyut Revisited" in: SAK 32 (2004). 233^13. J. 1934).B A C E 17(2006) was directed by both Professor Dr Jochem Kahl and the author. For the numbers enclosed between brackets here and elsewhere in the text. Kahl. see n.A z i z (Head o f the Archaeology Sector). Mr Magdy El-Ghandour (Head o f the Foreign and Egyptian Missions Affairs and Permanent Committee). M r John Iskandar. "Die Grabanlage Djefaihapis I. A modern designation o f the tomb is Kahfel Asäkir "cave o f the soldiers" owing to the subject o f the relief within it (F. The mission was assisted by a number o f individuals w h o deserve all our thanks and appreciation: D r E v a .M .4 9 . in: SAK 34 (2006). Popielska-Grzybowska: Proceedings of the Third Central European Conference of Young Egyptologists (Warsaw. Reliefs. B. . T o m b I V is according to the terminology o f Griffith (see below). 241-42). M . M s Meike Becker. Dr Sameh Shafik. 4 below. and PaintingslV (Oxford. W e are grateful to Rosemarie and Dietrich K l e m m for their five-day visit and their valuable comments on the geological structure o f the mountain. Mr Hassan Fathy (Director o f Antiquities at Asyut) and to our accompanying Inspector. M r Sabry A b d e l .6 4 (hereafter PM). Mr Samir A n i s (Director General o f Antiquities for Middle Egypt). In this respect. El-Khadragy / U. For reports o f the "Asyut Project" see: M . LI. 2 4 1 . M r Omar Nour el-Din. Dr Ulrike Fauerbach. The map o f the Asyut necropolis and the architectural plan were produced b y Dr Ulrike Fauerbach. "The A s y u t Project: Fieldwork Season 2004" in: SAK 33 (2005). Engel / J.M a r i a Engel (Figures 3^1) and D r Sameh Shafik (Figure 5). El-Khadragy / J. Porter / R. U. while N12. Griffith. Kahl / M . Verhoeven. 2 6 3 .M a r i a Engel.
in: SAK 33 (2005). Tooley. J. fig. pl. pl. M.-11. El-Khadragy. I V ). 9 9 . Die Inschriften der Grabfronten der Siut-Gräber in Mittelägypten aus der Herakleopolitenzeit: Eine Wiederherstellung nach den Zeichnungen der Description de l'Egypte. 49 [1^4].Herakleopolis .K H A D R A G Y .3 5 . Memphis . 46 [ 1 . Die epigraphischen Zeugnisse der 7.8 ] . forthcoming. I V . flg. in: Orientalia 58 (1989). 125-157. 67-156. 8 . "Les Tombeaux de Siout et de Deir Rifeh" in: Kemi 3 (1930-35). 1984). in: SAK 32 (2004). Shire Egyptology 22 (Princes Risborough. Bourriau. 2. Commission des monuments d'Egypte. D. pls. Kahl / El-Khadragy /Verhoeven. in: SAK 35 (2007). 14. 2 7 . see: F. 1817).1 0 0 . in: SAK 33 (2005). Abhandlungen der Rheinisch-Westfälischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 71 (Opladen. Kahl / El-Khadragy / Verhoeven. "The Herakleopolitan T o m b s o f Kheti I. Gomaä. 1988). Montet. 1937). 93 . see: Kahl / El-Khadragy / Verhoeven. The Inscriptions of Siüt and Der Rifeh [London.j)jb(. II. Brunner. 1. 8 2 . T A V O Beiheft B/27 (Wiesbaden.1 8 . 9. 177. pl. W . 304. see: Description de l'Egypte I V . Description de l'Egypte ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont ete faites en Egypte pendant l'expedition de l'armee francaise. in: SAK 34 (2006). J. For the ground plan o f T o m b III. in: Orientalia 58 (1989). in: SAK 33 (2005). 10 11 Griffith. Magee. El-Khadragy / Kahl. Ägyptologische Abhandlungen 12 (Wiesbaden. Antiquites. see: H. Griffith. Spanel.8 9 . 46 . Ägyptologische Forschungen 5 (Glückstadt. 308-09. 10-15. 243-44. 1889]. Egyptian Models and Scenes. Spanel. and Kheti II at Asyut". 11. in: The Babylonian and Oriental Record 3 (1889). 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Kahl / El-Khadragy / Verhoeven. 6 For the succession o f the three nomarchs. 98-106.Theben.j). A . LI. 2. 11. Jt(. Edel. 163. Die Texte aus den Gräbern der Herakleopolitenzeit von Siut mit Übersetzungen und Erläuterungen. Antiquites: Plates (Paris. See also Kahl / El-Khadragy / Verhoeven. For this scene. pls. 261-262. Griffith. 163. 20 [upper]. 1818). P. Schenkel. N E W D I S C O V E R I E S IN THE T O M B OF K H E T Y A T A S Y U T Inscriptions o f Siüt and Der Rifeh" in: The Babylonian and Oriental Record 3 . Asyüt to the Endof the Middle Kingdom: A Historical and Cultural Study.E L . 1980). D. 48 [3-5]. Ägypten während der Ersten Zwischenzeit. 13-14. 1995). Siüt. 7 8 9 For those scholars. E. 175). 1965). fig. in: SAK 33 (2005). P h D thesis: microfilm (Oxford. The name o f Merikare is mentioned in the tomb's inscriptions (F. figs. "Patterns o f change in burial customs during the Middle K i n g d o m " in: Middle Kingdom Studies (New Maiden. For the translations. see: PM I V . Dynastie Ägyptens. 2. Antiquites: Descriptions (Paris. 1991).
in: SAK 34 (2006). Excavations of David George Hogarth at Asyut. Lexikon der ägyptischen Baukunst (Zürich. 2. 4 7 1 . I. Kahl / El-Khadragy / Verhoeven. R. Arnold. Brick Architecture in Ancient Egypt (Warminster. 4. 1981).6 2 . K l e m m flint tools were used for quarrying softer stones (Die Steine der Pharaonen. 1995). Akhenaten. 13 . See n. 3 7 . " U n temple d'Amenophis I V a Assiout" in: CdE 12 (July 1931). diameter height 26 27 Kahl / El-Khadragy / Verhoeven. 59. K l e m m / K l e m m . 163. 1996). Ägyptische Sammlung: Schlossmuseum Gotha (Gotha. J. Quack.). 1907). According to R. 163-64. 81-90. pl. 94 . Ryan. 237^*3. 41. 3 7 . see: D . Die Steine der Pharaonen (München. compare D . Bourriau.B A C E 17(2006) 23 24 25 W . Bietak. C M . Spencer. J. 1992). E. 36). 59. M . G o v i / S. 28 29 30 A . British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt (London. Chassinat/ Palanque. and D . Egypt (Cincinnati. 1-2. The Archaeological Excavations of David George Hogarth at Asyut. P.J. Pernigotti. 1994). See also D . 33 34 35 36 Ryan.3 8 . Seidlmayer. Shaw / P. M I F A O 24 (Cairo. Une campagne des fouilles dans la necropole d'Assiout. Excavations of David George Hogarth at Asyut. Redford. Ryan. 103. D. 37-38. 79. M . in: SAK 33 (2005). For the talatat. S. 98-113. 6 0 . K l e m m / K l e m m . Palanque. Fouilles dans la Necropole d'Assiout. 136. F. pl. Göttinger Orientforschungen IV/23 (Wiesbaden. pl. 1957). "Keramikbearbeitung in Dahschur 1976-1981" in: MDAIK 38 (1982). S. 1911). 36. 6 3 . Studien zur Lehre für Merikare. 1988). Kahl / El-Khadragy / Verhoeven. Petrie. 1984). Gizeh and Rifeh. 27 n. 15 above. p. 3rd edition (Oxford. 2 4 3 ^ 4 . "Problems o f Middle Bronze A g e Chronology: N e w Evidence from Egypt" in: American Journal of Archaeology 88 (1984). 1979). in: SAK 33 (2005). 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 See also Magee. Die Steine der Pharaonen. Asyüt I. U. K l e m m / D . 14. Chassinat / Ch.F.8 5 . Nicholson (eds. Gabra. Wallenstein. "Zwei Anmerkungen zur Dynastie der Herakleopoliten" in: GM 157 (1997).7 1 . K l e m m . 1994). 16. Museo Civico Archeologico di Bologna: La Collezione Egiziana (Bologna. Arnold. Egyptian Grammar.3 8 . A . in: Middle Kingdom Studies. Die Steine der Pharaonen. 282. The index represents the relation o f the height to the diameter and is calculated by the formula index = 100 x max. 1. the Heretic King (Princeton. 12-13. B S A E 13 (London. Gardiner.
Siut I V . Meinardus. For this unknown place. see: O .E L . 1961). See notes 16 and 17 above. F . 282-283.K H A D R A G Y . A . Griffith. see: P. Montet. N E W D I S C O V E R I E S IN THE T O M B OF K H E T Y A T A S Y U T For this town. Geographie de l'Egypte II. For Deir el-Meitin. 95 . 91. Erste Zwischenzeit. [16-40]. 125. see: Montet. Siut III. situated 6 k m to the south o f Asyut. 1965). Griffith. [10-18]. Gomaä. Christian Egypt: Ancient and Modern (Cairo. 139. Geographie de l'Egypte ancienne II (Paris.
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