The user's guide

Radar level measurement

Radar level measurement - The users guide
Peter Devine

written by Peter Devine additional information Karl Grießbaum type setting and layout Liz Moakes final drawings and diagrams Evi Brucker

© VEGA Controls / P Devine / 2000 All rights reseved. No part of this book may reproduced in any way, or by any means, without prior permissio in writing from the publisher: VEGA Controls Ltd, Kendal House, Victoria Way, Burgess Hill, West Sussex, RH 15 9NF England. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Devine, Peter Radar level measurement - The user´s guide 1. Radar 2. Title 621.3´848 ISBN 0-9538920-0-X Cover by LinkDesign, Schramberg. Printed in Great Britain at VIP print, Heathfield, Sussex.

Contents
Foreword Acknowledgement Introduction Part I 1. History of radar 2. Physics of radar 3. Types of radar 1. CW-radar 2. FM - CW 3. Pulse radar Part II 4. Radar level measurement 1. FM - CW 2. PULSE radar 3. Choice of frequency 4. Accuracy 5. Power 5. Radar antennas 1. Horn antennas 2. Dielectric rod antennas 3. Measuring tube antennas 4. Parabolic dish antennas 5. Planar array antennas Antenna energy patterns 6. Installation A. Mechanical installation 1. Horn antenna (liquids) 2. Rod antenna (liquids) 3. General consideration (liquids) 4. Stand pipes & measuring tubes 5. Platic tank tops and windows 6. Horn antenna (solids) B. Radar level installation cont. 1. safe area applications 2. Hazardous area applications ix xi xiii

1 13 33 33 36 39

47 48 54 62 68 74 77 81 92 101 106 108 110 115 115 115 117 120 127 134 139 141 141 144

and to show that by applying some simple guidelines. and that is to explain some of the principles involved. or some greater depth of knowledge if you have some experience. powders and solids are all considered.this is no longer the case. in my opinion. what is obviously a sophisti-cated technology can be simple and reliably used in an enormously wide range of industrial and process applications. We make no apology for including a chapter on Vega specific products. for not just conventional but extreme process conditions applications for the vast majority of substances in vessels of virtually any size or complexity.Foreword To suggest that any one type of level transmitter technology could be regarded as 'universal' would be unrealistic and potentially irresponsible due to the variation and complexity of available applications when liquids. In that time nothing has. and hope this guide stimulates a radar user. whereas only a very short time ago it was regarded as expensive and specialised . the rate at which radar based level transmitters have established themselves over the last couple of years would tend to suggest that this technology is closer to that definition that any principle has ever been. However. come close to matching the significance of radar in terms of its overall suitability. sales and marketing of level transmitters. applications. I have personally been involved in the development. ix . This unique principle combined with current reflections processing software. materials of construction. The purpose of this publication is quite specific. controllers and indicators of most types over the last twenty years. Mel Henry Managing Director Vega Controls Ltd. simplicity of installation and transmitter digital communications allows this to be considered as a day to day 'first consideration' for level. we look forward to hearing from you.

Paal Kvam of Hyptech in Norway. Finally. the most important contributors to this book are all VEGA radar users world wide without whom our high level of expertise in process radar measurement applications would not be possible. and Juergen Skowaisa and Roger Ramsden from VEGA Germany.CW radar and the drawings to accompany the explanations.the user´s guide' is a reflection of the wealth of product knowledge of radar level application experience in the VEGA group of companies and our agents and distributors world wide. Thank also to the VEGA marketing department in Germany and the UK for their assistance in producing and collating pictures and photographs. Particular thanks must go to Karl Griessbaum for his lucid explanations of the 'secrets' of pulse radar. Dough Groh and his colleagues at Ohmart VEGA in the USA. his insight into the workings of FM . Peter Devine Technical manager Vega Controls Ltd. Thanks also to Juergen Skowaisa and Juergen Motzer for their technical contributions to the book. xi . This in-cludes Doug Anderson.Acknowledgements In writing and compiling this book I had the invaluable assistance of several colleagues from VEGA in Schiltach both in the developing department and within the product management. Dave Blenkiron. Chris Brennan. Graeme Cross and John Hulme in the UK. The publication of 'radar level measurement . This experience has accelerated since the advent of the VEGAPULS 50 series two wire. I would like to thank all those who contributed to the section on radar applications. Thank to all the other unnamed contributors. loop powered radar.

in the summer of 1997. Radar level measurement has come of age. the measurement accuracy is unaffected by changes in density. We compare it closely with all of the other process level techniques and give many examples of the myriad applications of radar across all industries. produced an unprecedented boom in the use of non-contact microwave radar transmitters for liquid and solids process level application. physics and techniques are presented as well as descriptions of types of ra-dar antenna and mechanical and electrical installations.the user´s guide' is offered as a reference book for all those interested in the technology. 'Radar level measurement . More than anything. Radar provides a non-contact sensor that is virtually unaffected by changes in process temperature. Now radar is an affordable option for process level measurement. We cover many practical process level applications rather than the closed niche market of custody transfer measurement. conductivity and dielectric constant of the product being measured or by air movement above the product. the application. Peter Devine Technical manager Vega Controls Ltd xiii . We hope that this book will be invaluable in helping you to see the potential of this latest and almost universal level measurement technology. pressure or the gas and vapour composition within a vessel. two wire loop powered radar level transmitters. high performance. These benefits have become more significant to the process industry since the advent of low costs. This breakthrough. Radar history. we hope that you enjoy delving into the pages of this book.Introduction The technical benefits of radar as a level measurement technique are clear. In addition. and the practical installation of radar level sen-sors.

T) 1 .2 . Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. 1. The first practical form of radar was produced by a German engineer. diffraction. polarization and interference in the same way as light. An addition to the patent in the same year described ‘Improvements in Hertzian wave projecting and receiving James Clerk Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves in his theory of electromagnetism (Pic.1 . He used a spark gap transmitter producing bursts of high frequency electromagnetic waves at about 455 MHz. In addition to their reflective properties. History of radar James Clerk Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves in his theory of electromagnetism as long ago as 1864. Hertz confirmed that these electromagnetic radio waves had the same velocity as light and could be reflected by metallic and dielectric bodies. Christian Hülsmeyer.F) Heinrich Hertz Hertz confirmed by experiment that electromagnetic radio waves have the same velocity as light and can be reflected by metallic and dielectric bodies (Pic.C. 1.J.N.000 kilometres per second. Patented in various countries in 1904 as the ‘Telemobiloscope’. He showed mathematically that all electromagnetic waves travel at the same velocity in free space.66 metres.I. or a wavelength of 0. the speed of light. independent of their wavelength.1. verified Maxwell’s theory by experiments carried out in 1886-87 at Karlsruhe Polytechnic. Hülsmeyer’s apparatus was described as ‘A Hertzian wave projecting and receiving apparatus adapted to indicate or give warning of the presence of a metallic body. This velocity is of the order of 300.M. These early experiments in reflecting radio waves off metal plates were the first manifestations of radar as we know it today. such as a ship or a train. in the line of projection of such waves’. Hertz demonstrated that radio waves exhibit refraction.

D. a patent was granted to Taylor. Robert Watson-Watt presented a paper on ‘The detection and location of aircraft by radio methods’ to the Tizard Committee for the Scientific Survey of Air Defence. British scientist. However. In 1922 Marconi had also recognised the potential of using short wave radio for the detection of metallic objects. the United States. including Britain. the telemobiloscope was considered to be limited and was not a commercial success.M. Marconi envisaged the use of radio for ship to ship detection at night or in fog.3 . he did not appear to receive the support or have the resources to carry these ideas further at the time.GEC Marconi) . France and the Soviet Union. and also to the German navy. Guglielmo Marconi. Young and Hyland for a ‘System for detecting objects by radio’. Christian Hülsmeyer produced the first practical radar patented in 1904 (Pic.4 . 1. In 1934. Italy. following a series of experiments at the Naval Research Laboratory in the United States. 1.Prior to World War II. However. radar was being developed independently in a number of different countries. A successful demonstration of the telemobiloscope was made at the International Shipping Congress in Rotterdam in 1904. In February 1935. Germany. is famous for pioneering trans-Atlantic radio communications. 2 Guglielmo Marconi recognised the potential of using short wave radio for the detection of metallic objects in 1922 (Pic.M) apparatus for locating the position of distant metal objects’.

a continuous single frequency was transmitted from one point and detected by a receiver at a separate location. The interference between the frequency of the direct signal and reflected signals at a slightly different frequency indicated the presence of the target object. If you are unfortunate enough to live on an airport flight path. the long range CH radar transmitters were blind to low flying aircraft and therefore they were supplemented by CHL (Chain Home Low) radar transmitters which had a shorter range and covered the lower altitudes that were overlooked by the main CH 3 . The British.M) Subsequently.1.Watt was a senior figure in the development of British radar in the 1930’s & 40’s (Pic. a separate radio receiver connected to an oscilloscope was used to detect the presence of a Handley Page Heyford aircraft as it flew between the transmitter and receiver. It was clear that pulse radar would be needed to provide the required distance and direction information essential for a defensive radio detection system.5 . Both the American system and Watson-Watt’s Daventry experiment were types of continuous wave (CW) radar.W. However. 1.I. As an aircraft approaches. Called CW wave-interference radar or bistatic CW radar. you may have witnessed this effect on your television screen. They had a power of 200 kilowatts and a range of up to 190 kilometres. a practical demonstration was carried out using a BBC radio transmitter at Daventry. The receiver also detects doppler shifted echoes from the target object. under the direction of Watson-Watt developed a defensive system of CH (Chain Home) radar stations which eventually covered all of the coastal approaches to Britain. The standard chain home radars had a relatively low frequency of between 22 & 30 MHz (wavelength 10 to 13. After Daventry. History of radar Sir Robert Watson . It could detect the presence but not the position of the target.5 metres). Although it proved a point at Daventry. the picture on the screen may flicker with regular horizontal bands scrolling vertically on the screen. About five and a half miles (9 km) away. CW wave-interference radar was not a practical device. These diminish when the aircraft is directly overhead and then continue as the aircraft moves away. the British effort continued at Orford Ness and then nearby Bawdsey Manor on the Suffolk coast.

Companies involved in German naval research produced a range of ship 4 mounted sea search radar transmitters called Seetakt.5 metres). German Naval developments also produced the Freya range of search radars operating on 125 MHz (wavelength 2. The four ‘posts’ of the bed consisted of a Freya early warning radar. The standard Würzburgs were generally used for directing searchlights and flak batteries and the Würzburg Riese for tracking individual intruders and directing night fighters to intercept them. they could not provide altitude information.4 metres). Other German radars in wide use were the parabolic antenna Würzburg and Würzburg Riese (Giant Würzburg) transmitters. Army and Luftwaffe. It is well documented that the CH and CHL network of radar stations were a crucial factor during the Battle of Britain in the summer of 1940. They operated on a frequency of 200 MHz (wavelength 1. in Germany separate radar developments were carried out for the Navy. These were found to be effective for tracking aircraft at long range. It enabled the fighters of the Royal Air Force to be deployed when and where they were needed and rested when the threat receded.6 . Bismarck and Graf Spee. In a similar fashion to the British Chain Home system. The literal translation of Himmelbett is four poster bed. This defensive radar system became known by the British as the ‘Kammhuber Line’ after the German general in charge of night fighters. the Germans built a defensive network of ‘Himmelbett’ radar stations.British Chain Home Radar aerials Radar was instrumental in the defence of Britain during the second world war (Pic. and were subsequently supplied to the Luftwaffe for early warning. However. a Würzburg radar to guide the night fighter to the intruder and a Seeburg plotting table (Seeburgtisch) to monitor the interception. These were delivered as early as 1938 with a frequency of 366 MHz (wavelength 82 cm) and were installed on many vessels including the famous battleships. German radar research was also conducted in secret in the late 1930’s. a Würzburg radar for tracking the intruding aircraft. . Whereas the development effort in Britain was focused on air defence.W.I. 1. The limited resources in men and machines were not wasted in long standing patrols.M) transmitters.

1. 1.8 .I.7 .M) Right . History of radar Above . This image alerted the British to the presence and advanced state of German defensive radar which led to a commando action in which components from the radar were taken back to Britain for analysis (Pic.W.P.The famous aerial reconnaissance photograph of a German Würzburg radar antenna at Bruneval in northern France.D) 5 .The German Würzberg radar was used for directing searchlights and flak batteries and for tracking individual targets and directing interceptors to them (Pic.1.

the external aerial radar caused significant aerodynamic drag (Pic. 1. The first practical British Airborne Interception radar was the AI Mark IV which was first tested in August 1940.I. 1. British airborne radar trials started in 1937 with the production AI Mark 1 taking to the air in May 1939.W. In Germany the Lichtenstein airborne radar was available in mid 1941.W.Both Britain and Germany developed airborne radar for fighter interception by night. This would enable a more focused airborne radar that would not suffer from the ground returns that restricted capabilities of the first airborne radars.M) 6 . The higher frequency could be used for a ground mapping radar unit to locate towns and other geographic features. The characteristic external radar aerial array of the Lichtenstein caused significant aerodynamic drag. British Airborne Radar .AI Mark IV developed for fighter interception by night in 1940 (Pic. The problem was how to find a method of generating sufficient power at the desired wavelength of 10 centimetres.9 . This could reduce the aircraft speed by as much as 40 kilometres per hour. It became clear to radar researchers that a shorter ‘centimetric’ wavelength would be more useful for a number of applications.I. By 1943 the range had been extended to 6000 metres.10 .M) German Airborne Radar ‘Lichtenstein’ available in mid 1941 .

The heart of this cavity magnetron was a simple solid copper block with six cavities machined into it. Cavity Magnetron the world changing invention by John Randall and Harry Boot invented in 1940 (Pic.13 .H. The theoretical calculations of the prototype cavity magnetron were correct. When a strong magnetic field and high voltage was applied between the copper block and the cathode.GEC) Production of cavity magnetrons followed very quickly and the power output was significantly increased.87 centimetres and the all important power of the prototype was 400 Watts. The Cavity Magnetron was used in centrimetric ‘microwave’ airborne radar and duced a quantum leap in performance. when they tested their world changing invention the Cavity Magnetron. The radar dish was protected inside a plastic nose assembly (Pic. History of radar In late February 1940. 1. researchers at the University of Birmingham. Britain developed microwave airborne interception AI radar sets for night fighters which had a vastly improved long and near range.12 & 1.R. The British microwave airborne interception radar was the AI Mark VII which was introduced in mid 1942. 1. The frequency of oscillation was calculated to be about 3 GHz (10 centimetre wavelength).A) pro- 7 . the stream of electrons resonated in unison within the cavities instead of passing directly to the copper block anode. The improved AI Mark VIII was mass produced and in wide use by early 1943. In the centre was the cathode. an historic breakthrough was made by John Randall and Harry Boot.11 . The actual wavelength was found to be 9.1.

In Britain. RADAR or RAdio Detection And Ranging. Viewed from Earth. translated as decimetric telegraphy It was the Americans who introduced the now universally used palindrome. Measures and counter measures were taken in the radar war.D) 8 . Multiple targets can be detected at extreme range (Pic. the early chain home radar was called RDF after the existing Radio Direction Finding systems in the hope that it would mislead their real function. 1. The history of the development of radar during the course of the Second World War is a huge subject in itself. The American SCR-720 (known as AI Mark X in Britain) was first delivered to the USAAF by late 1942. From the work carried out at MIT. The basic designs were developed and enlarged and can be seen at the well known Jodrell Bank Observatory near Manchester which has a dish diameter of 75 metres. Since 1945. the planet Venus Modern radar systems are exemplified by this ‘AWAC’ airborne early warning aircraft.Britain also used the cavity magnetron in the development of a ground mapping radar called H2S. Britain shared this secret microwave technology with the United States where additional development took place at the Radiation Laboratory within the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The giant Würzburg parabolic radar transmitters of the Second World War became post war radio telescopes. In the same way in Germany. War time secrecy meant that radio detection devices were given coded names. further airborne interception radars and gun laying radars were mass produced and delivered to the allied forces. radar has been used for an increasing number of peaceful applications.P. This device enabled aircraft to be accurately navigated to their destinations without the aid of ground based beacons or beams. radar was disguised as ‘Dezimeter Telegraphie’ or ‘De-Te’.14 . Many devices were developed. This radar unit became a standard device long after the war had finished.

Huge sums of money have been spent reducing the radar signature of the F117 stealth fighter (Pic.15 . 1. Doppler shift measurements from the surface were used to calculate the rate of rotation of the shrouded planet.D) Detection by radar is not always desirable. The surface of Venus is shrouded in dense clouds of vapour including carbon dioxide gas at pressures of 90 bar and an average temperature of 750 K.P.D) 9 .P. However. radar mapping of the planet’s surface by space probe uncovered surface features such as craters. History of radar is one of the brightest celestial bodies. Jodrell Bank . 1. During the 1970’s. the mysteries of our close neighbour in the Solar System were only uncovered with the assistance of radar. The Venus ‘day’ was found to be 243 Earth days.1.16 . Earth bound pulse radar measurements over an extended period of time were used to calculate the radius of the orbit of Venus.the observatory near Manchester which has a 75 metre dish diameter (Pic.

CW radar transmitters became available for the process industry.17 . VEGA produced the world’s first two wire. The availability of suitable crystals and solid state components such as GaAs FET oscillators enabled cost effective radar level transmitters to enter the market. Further developments of FM . For the first time low cost. In the 1970’s. It is likely that these advances will continue into the new millennium and that radar level transmitters will become a commodity item in the same way as differential pressure transmitters. loop powered. Radar altimeters developed in the 1930’s use a form of radar called FM .Vega) 10 . high accuracy systems for fiscal measurement of petroleum products.CW or Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave radar. In 1997 a significant improvement in the specification of radar level transmitters was achieved. Other well known civilian radar applications include air traffic control. the same FM . Later.CW level transmitters led to their use on shore based storage tanks in the mid 1980’s. pulse radar level transmitters were developed for process measurement applications. intrinsically safe radar level transmitter.Radar technology is part of our everyday lives.CW measurement technique was used in the production of the first radar level tank gauge. Initially these radar level transmitters were used to measure petroleum products in supertankers. In the field of radar level measurement. shipping and weather radar. In the late 1980’s. Originally these were expensive. The cavity magnetron is used in microwave ovens. high specification radar level transmitters became available. Continuous wave (CW) radars are used in automatic door detection and vehicle speed measurement. 1. technological advances have resulted in two wire. lower accuracy FM . intrinsically safe transmitters (Pic.

I.W.1.Vega) 11 .21 . 1. 1. History of radar Comparing the old with the new A raw oscilloscope echo trace had to be interpreted by skilled operators using the British war time Chain Home Low radar (Pic. 1.20 .M) Comprehensive information is available on the PC echo trace of the latest two wire loop powered radar level transmitters (Pic.Vega Pic.19 .18 & 1.

Planar array antennas Antenna energy patterns 6. General consideration (liquids) 4. Horn antennas 2. Parabolic dish antennas 5. Accuracy 5. Dielectric rod antennas 3.CW 3. Horn antenna (solids) B. Horn antenna (liquids) 2. Installation A. Rod antenna (liquids) 3. 1. Radar antennas 1.CW 2.Inhalt Foreword Acknowledgement Introduction Part I 1. Hazardous area applications ix xi xiii 1 13 33 33 36 39 47 48 54 62 68 74 77 81 92 101 106 108 110 115 115 115 117 120 127 134 139 141 141 144 . Radar level measurement 1. Physics of radar 3. Power 5. History of radar 2. Choice of frequency 4. CW-radar 2. Mechanical installation 1. safe area applications 2. Pulse radar Part II 4. Platic tank tops and windows 6. Radar level installation cont. FM . PULSE radar 3. Measuring tube antennas 4. Types of radar 1. FM . Stand pipes & measuring tubes 5.

2] velocity of electromagnetic waves in metres / second frequency of wave in second -1 wavelength in metres co = 1 (µ o x εo) The original cavity magnetron had a wavelength of 9.792. direction of wave [Eq.1 13 . infrared.87 centimetres. 2. microwaves. visible and ultraviolet light plus X-rays and Gamma rays. Maxwell showed that the velocity of light in a vacuum in free space is given by the expression : Examples :- The velocity of an electromagnetic wave is the product of the frequency and the wavelength. 2. The electromagnetic waves have an electrical vector E and a magnetic vector B that are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of the wave. The wavelength is 1. we will call it 300. but who is timing? For the purposes of the calculations in this book. The electrical vector has the major influence on radar applications.854 x 10 -12 farad / metre) λ amplitude Fig 2.1] co µo εo velocity of electromagntic wave in a vacuum in metres / second the permeability of free space (4 π x 10 -7 henry / metre) the permittivity of free space (8. These show that all forms of electromagnetic radiation travel at the speed of light in free space. This will be discussed and illustrated further in the section on polarization.0374 GHz). The frequency of a pulse radar level transmitter may be 26 GHz or 26 x 108 metres per second. Physics of radar Electromagnetic waves Th e velocity of light in free space is 299. c = c f λ f xλ [Eq.2.458 metres per second. This corresponds to a frequency of 3037. Maxwell’s theories of electromagnetism were confirmed by the experiments of Heinrich Hertz.000 kilometres per second or 3 x 108 metres per second.4 MHz (3.15 centimetres. This applies equally to long wave radio transmissions.

3 m 1 GHz 3 cm 10 GHz 3 mm 100 GHz The microwave frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum.The Electromagnetic spectrum 10 8 10 7 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0 10 -1 10 -2 10 -3 10 -4 infra electric waves 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 radio waves 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 10 10 11 10 12 3m 100 MHz 0.5mm) 14 .8 GHz (5. Radar level transmitters range between 5.2cm) and 26 GHz (11.

2 Electromagnetic spectrum.2. This spectrum shows the range of frequencies and wavelengths from electric waves to gamma rays 15 . Physics of radar 10 -5 red 10 13 10 -6 10 -7 10 -8 10 -9 X rays 10 -10 10 -11 10 -12 10 -13 10 -14 10 -15 10 -16 gamma rays 10 19 10 20 10 21 10 22 10 23 10 24 m ultra violet 10 14 10 15 10 16 10 17 10 18 Hz Fig 2. All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light in free space.

For the non-magnetic gases above the product being measured. the velocity and wavelength can change depending on the electrical properties of the medium in which they are travelling.854 x 10-12 farad / metre. this influence is negligible when considering the velocity in gases and vapours which are non-magnetic.Permittivity In electrostatics. Permeability µ and relative permeability µr The magnetic vector. The value of the permittivity of free space (in a vacuum) εo. velocity and wavelength As we have already stated. the force between two charges depends upon the magnitude and separation of the charges and the composition of the medium between the charges. However. in some circumstances. the value of the relative permeability. 2. (Dielectric constant is also widely known as DK. B. it can create a measurement problem.3. However. The speed of propagation can be calculated using equation 2. at 20° C the relative permittivity of air is close to that of a vaccum and is only about 1.0005 whereas the relative permittivity of water at 20° C is about 80. the frequency (f). The relative permeability of the product being measured has no significant effect on the reflected signal when compared with the effects of the relative permittivity or dielectric constant. The ratio of the permittivity of a medium to the permittivity of free space is a dimensionless property called ‘relative permittivity’ or ‘dielectric constant’. The frequency remains uninfluenced by changes in the propagation medium.3] c co µr εr velocity of electromagnetic wave in the medium in metres/second velocity of electromagnetic waves in free space the relative permeability (µ medium / µo) the relative permittivity 16 . of an electromagnetic wave also has an influence on the velocity of electromagnetic waves. Relative permittivity or dielectric constant εr Frequency. µr = 1.) The value of the dielectric constant of the product being measured is very important in the application of radar to level measurement. velocity (c) and wavelength (λ) of the electromagnetic waves are related by the equation c = f x λ. For example. This feature of microwaves can be used to advantage or. In non-conductive products. Permittivity ε is the property of the medium that effects the magnitude of the force. is calculated indirectly and empirically to be: 8. c = co (µ x ε ) r r [Eq. The higher the value of the permittivity. the lower the force between the charges. some of the microwave energy will pass through the product and the rest will be reflected off the surface.

a radar level transmitter may see a larger echo from the vessel bottom than from the product. polypropylene and PTFE. The velocity of the microwaves within the liquid is slower than in the vapour space above. low dielectric constant liquids may absorb more power than they reflect from the surface. pressure and gas composition have a small effect on the running time of microwaves because the dielectric constant of the propagation medium is altered to a greater or lesser extent. The echo from the vessel bottom appears further away because the running time of the microwaves in solvent is slower solvent echo Fig 2. This is discussed in detail later.2.3 and the half wavelength at a frequency of 5. non-conductive. if there is about 0. Changes in temperature. For this reason. This large echo will appear to be further away than it really is because the running time within the solvent is slower. Radar level transmitters can be used to measure conductive liquids through low dielectric ‘windows’ such as glass.5 metres of solvent in the bottom of a metallic vessel. polypropylene has a dielectric constant εr of 2. For example. The optimum thickness of the low dielectric window is a half wavelength or multiple of half wavelength. It follows that the speed of Empty vessel: large echo from metal bottom microwaves in polypropylene is about two thirds of the speed in air. Physics of radar Changes in the wavelength and velocity of microwaves are apparent in certain radar level applications.8 GHz is 17 mm compared with a half wavelength of about 26 mm in a vacuum. For example. As with low dielectric windows. special considerations must be made within the echo processing software to ensure that the radar follows the solvent level and does not follow the vessel bottom as it apparently moves away! As the vessel fills with solvent two echoes are received.Effect of dielectric constant on the running time of a microwave radar 17 .3 .

The dielectric constant or relative permittivity can be calculated as follows : εr = 1 + (εrN . as a measurement technique. they are virtually unaffected by process temperature. The running time of microwaves in oil is slower than in air Effects on the propagation speed of microwaves Microwave radar level transmitters can be applied almost universally because. temperature under normal conditions. 273 Kelvin pressure under normal conditions. vacuum and normal pressure variations. temperature gradient.4] calculated dielectric constant (relative permittivity) dielectric constant of gas/vapour under normal conditions (temperature 273 K. pressure and the gas composition of the vapour space all have an effect on the dielectric constant of the propagation medium through which the microwaves must travel. Note that the water echo has a reduced amplitude and appears to be further away. reference echo (water without oil) oil echo water echo Fig 2. This in turn affects the propagation speed or running time of the instrument. However. 1 bar absolute process temperature in Kelvin process pressure in bar absolute 18 . pressure 1 bar absolute) Calculating the propagation speed of microwaves The temperature. 2.The same effect can be experienced when looking at interface detection using guided microwave level transmitters to detect oil and water or solvent and aqueous based liquids.1) x θN x P εr εrN θN PN θ P θ x PN [Eq.4 Oil/water interface detection using a guided microwave level transmitter. gas or vapour composition and movement of the propagation medium. changes in these process conditions do cause slight variations in the propagation speed because the dielectric constant of the propagation medium is altered.

2. Physics of radar

From equation 2.4 and equation 2.3, we can calculate the percentage error caused by variations in the dielectric constant of different gases and vapours and the relative effects of changes in process temperature and pressure.

differ but they have only a very small effect on the accuracy of radar. Radar level transmitters are usually calibrated in air. For this reason, the following tables show 1. Dielectric constant of different gases at normal temperature and pressure (273K, 1 Bar A) 2. Percent error in the running time in the gases compared with air

Gases and vapours
By definition, the dielectric constant in a vacuum is equal to 1.0. The dielectric constants of the gases and vapours that may be present above the product

Table 2.1 The dielectric constants under normal conditions, εrN and the error caused by the dielectric constant of typical process gases under normal conditions

Gas / Vapour Vacuum Air Argon Ammonia / NH 3 Hydrogen Bromide HBr Hydrogen Chloride HCl Carbon Monoxide / CO Carbon Dioxide / C0 2 Ethane / C 2 H6 Ethylene / C 2H4 Helium Hydrogen / H 2 Methane / CH 4 Nitrogen / N 2 Oxygen / O 2

ε rN (dielectric constant at normal conditions) 1.0000 1.000633 1.000551 1.006976 1.002994 1.004078 1.000692 1.000985 1.001503 1.001449 1.000072
1.000275 1.000878 1.000576 1.000530

% Error from air (at normal temperature and pressure) + 0.0316 0.0 + 0.0041 + 0.3154 - 0.1178 - 0.1717 - 0.00295 - 0.0176 - 0.0434 - 0.0407 + 0.0280 + 0.0179 - 0.0122 + 0.00285 + 0.0052

19

Temperature
High temperature or large temperature gradients have very little effect on the transit time of microwaves within an air or vapour space. At a temperature of 2000° C the variation is only 0.026% from the measurement value at 0° C. Radar level transmitters with air or nitrogen gas cooling are used on molten iron and steel applications.

0.03 0.025 0.02 % error 0.015 0.01 0.005 0.0 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000

Temperature in ° C Fig 2.5 Temperature effect on radar measurement of air at a constant pressure of 1 BarA

20

2. Physics of radar
Pressure
Pressure does have a small but more significant influence on the velocity of electromagnetic waves. At a pressure of 30 Bar, the error is only 0.84%. However this becomes more significant and at a pressure of 100 Bar there is a velocity change of 2.8%. If the pressure is varying constantly between atmospheric pressure and 100 Bar, the velocity variations can be compensated using a pressure transmitter.

10 8 % error 6 4 2 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Pressure in Bar (absolute) Fig 2.6 The influence of pressure on radar measurement in air at a constant temperature of 273 K

21

the value of the dielectric constant (relative permittivity εr) becomes more important. The theoretical amount of reflection at a dielectric layer can be calculated using equation 2. This is particularly true when microwave radar level transmitters are fitted inside bypass tubes or stilling tubes or when a horn antenna is fitted with a waveguide extension. Heinrich Hertz demonstrated that electromagnetic waves could be reflected off metallic objects and objects with a relatively high dielectric constant. The waveguide effect can be compensated during calibration and the use of stilling tubes and bypass tubes can be beneficial in some level applications.5 22 . we have assumed that the microwaves are travelling in ‘free space’ in a vacuum.Waveguides. When microwaves are propagating within a metallic tube the running time appears to slow down because the microwaves travel further bouncing off the inside wall of the tube and currents are set up on the inside surface of the tube. However. The resultant current in the conductive product causes the microwaves to be re-transmitted or reflected from the surface.8 GHz and 26GHz are readily reflected off a conductive surface producing relatively large echoes. radar can easily measure conductive aqueous liquids such as acids and caustic and other conductive products ranging from molten metal to saturated spent grain in the brewing process. Non-conductive products If a liquid or solid is non-conductive. In the same way. · · · Reflection Polarization Diffraction · · Refraction Interference Reflection of electromagnetic waves Conductive products Using a spark gap transmitter. stilling tubes & bypass tubes In the preceding equations. Electromagnetic waves exhibit the same properties as light. This effect is discussed in more detail in the chapters on antennas and mechanical installations. When microwaves from a radar hit a conductive surface the electrical field E is short circuited. in practice the proximity of metallic vessel walls and other structures will have an influence on the propagation velocity of the microwaves. Radar level transmitters have no problem in measuring conductive liquids and solids because the microwaves with frequencies between 5.

4 Acetone Solvent with a dielectric constant.5] Typical examples are as follows: Toluene Solvent with a low dielectric consta t n. Π = 1- 4 x εr (1 + ε ) r 2 Π = W2 W1 [Eq.2. εr = 20 Π = 1- 4x (2.7 Reflected radar power depends upon the dielectric constant of the product being measured 23 . Physics of radar W1 Transmitted power: W2 Reflected power: Dielectric constant: εr Then the percentage of reflected power at the dielectric layer.4)) 2 (1 + Π = 1- 4x ( 20 ) (20) (1 + ) 2 4.46% power is reflected 40 % power is reflected 100 Π x 100% power reflected 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Dielectric constant. 2.4) (2. εr Fig 2. εr = 2.

20 Π x 100% power reflected 15 10 5 0 1.0 2. Stilling tubes can be used to concentrate the microwaves for lower dielectric constant products.0 3. dB .10 Loss L.5 2.5 2.0 4.5 2. This graph shows the critical region where care must be taken over choice of radar antenna 0 .20 . 24 .60 3. εr 4.5 can be measured using microwave radar level transmitters.0 3.5 Dielectric constant.0 4.In radar level measurement the reflected energy from a product surface becomes more critical at a dielectric constant (εr) of less than 5. The following graph shows this important region. εr Fig 2.40 .5 3.9 Reflection loss in dB: loss L = 10 log Π 1.0 1.5 5.8 Reflected radar power depends upon the dielectric constant of the product being measured.0 Fig 2.5 Dielectric constant.0 1.0 Most electrically conductive products or products with a dielectric constant of more than 1.5 5.0 4.

E direction of wave B Fig 2. The direction of the linear polarization is set by the orientation of the signal coupler from the microwave module. The direction of propagation of the waves is perpendicular to the electrical and magnetic vectors as shown in the diagram below.2. In television and microwave communications. Physics of radar Polarization Electromagnetic waves have an electrical vector E and magnetic vector B that are in phase but perpendicular to each other. the magnetic vector B and the direction of propagation of the microwaves 25 .10 Diagram showing linear polarization and the relative orientation of the electric vector E. The properties of the polarization of microwaves can be important in the application of radar to level measurement. linear polarization is also referred to as horizontal or vertical polarization depending on the relative orientation of the aerials or antennas. Most process radar level transmitters exhibit linear polarization as in the diagram. Polarization defines the orientation of the electromagnetic waves and refers to the direction of the electrical vector E.

With circular polarization it is possible to use the reversal of polarization to distinguish between a direct echo and an echo that has made two reflections. λ Fig 2. when a linear or circular polarized signal is reflected the direction of polarization is reversed.11 Circular polarization involves rotation of the electrical and magnetic vectors through 360° within a wavelength 26 . Circular polarization can also be used in search radars to separate the reflections from aircraft or ships from interference echoes from rain. The almost spherical shape of the rain drops causes a definite reversal of polarization which can be easily rejected by the receiving antenna. However. the scattered reflections from the ship or aircraft provide roughly equal amounts of reversed and un-reversed energy that enables detection.Another form of polarization is elliptical polarization. A specific form of elliptical polarization is circular polarization where the electrical vector E and magnetic vector B rotate through 360° within the space of a single wavelength.

the effect of false echoes within a vessel can be significantly reduced by rotating the radar in the connection flange or boss.12 If a metallic or high dielectric object is orientated in the same plane as the electrical vector of the polarized microwaves. agitators and baffles. Physics of radar The linear polarization that is common with process radar level transmitters can be used to minimise the effects of false echo returns from the internal structure of a process vessel. In some applications.2.13 If the same object is orientated at right angles to the plane of the electrical vector. the received echo will have a smaller amplitude 27 . the radar level transmitter will receive a large amplitude echo E Direction of wave Small echo B Fig 2. The principle is illustrated below and detailed in the section on mechanical installations in Chapter 6. These false echoes could be reflected from probes. welds. Polarization can be used to reduce the amplitude of false echoes E Direction of wave B Large echo Fig 2.

a radar antenna radiates some energy in all directions. In addition to this. by diffraction. although they are designed to produce a directed beam. microwaves are refracted when they encounter a change in dielectric. Unfortunately this is not the case. This phenomenon is caused. In practice. destructive interference causes the null points or notches that form the characteristic side lobes. main lobe Fig 2. This could be a low dielectric window (PTFE/glass/polypropylene) or a nonconductive low dielectric liquid such as a solvent. As well as the main lobe side lobes antenna which accounts for most of the radiated power. This can give the impression that the radar antenna can direct a finely focused beam towards the target.Diffraction Beam angle is often discussed in relation to radar transmitters. side lobes and types of antennas. It is possible to utilise the refractive properties of electromagnetic waves to construct a dielectric lens that will focus microwaves.14 The lobe structure of antenna beams is caused by diffraction and destructive interference Refraction In the same way as light is refracted at an air/glass or air/water interface.15 Refraction & reflection dielectric window / product refracted energy B 28 . Chapter 5 provides a detailed explanation of beam angles. in part. reflected energy a a microwave interface Fig 2. there are also weaker side lobes of energy. The angle of refraction depends on the angle of the incident wave and also on the ratio of the dielectric constants at the interface.

Physics of radar Interference .2.17 Illustration of constructive and destructive interference 29 .16 In this illustration both of the sine waves have an identical frequency and amplitude but the second wave has a 45° phase lag Interference can be ‘constructive’ where in-phase signals produce a signal with a higher amplitude or it can be destructive where signals that are 180° out of phase effectively cancel each other out. Phase angle 45° Fig 2. signals in-phase constructive interference 180° out of phase destructive interference Fig 2.Phase Problematic interference effects are caused primarily by the inadvertent mixing of signals that are out of phase. The microwave signals have a sinusoidal waveform.

The wrong choice of antenna. the phase may be altered by 180° when compared with the direct reflection A B C.Interference Microwaves can manifest interference effects in exactly the same way as light. With indirect reflection A B’ B’’ C.18 Interference caused by positioning an antenna too close to the vessel wall. The chapter on mechanical installation should help a radar level user to avoid this potential problem. installation of an antenna up a nozzle. positioning transmitters too close to vessel walls or other obstructions can all lead to interference of the signal. A + C B’ = B B” Fig 2. Potentially this can cause measurement problems. If a radar level transmitter is installed too close to the vessel wall it is possible that interference will occur. However. For this reason the microwaves may partially cancel out due to destructive interference 30 . we use destructive interference to our advantage when we apply pulse radar level measurement through a low dielectric ‘window’ to measure conductive or high dielectric liquids. The causes of interference should be understood and avoided by design and installation considerations.

2. The reflection from the top surface and the reflection from the internal second surface cancel each other if the thickness is a half wavelength 31 . there is destructive interference between the reflection off the top surface of the window and the reflection off the internal second surface of the window. This type of installation is explained more fully in Chapter 6 on the mechanical installations of radar level transmitters together with a table showing the optimum thickness of most important plastics and glasses which are suitable for penetration with radar sensors.19 Destructive interference is a benefit when using pulse radar to measure through a low dielectric window. Physics of radar The thickness of the dielectric window must be a half wavelength of the window material. When the half wavelength is used. emitted wave reflection with phase shift from top surface reflection without phase shift from internal surface plastic vessel ceiling D emitted wave reflection with phase shift off top surface of window reflection without phase shift off internal face of window Fig 2. There is a 180° phase shift between these reflections and they cancel each other out.

Installation A. Choice of frequency 4. Dielectric rod antennas 3. Horn antenna (liquids) 2. Power 5. Stand pipes & measuring tubes 5. FM . CW-radar 2. General consideration (liquids) 4.Contents Foreword Acknowledgement Introduction Part I 1. safe area applications 2. Horn antennas 2. Radar level measurement 1. FM . 1.CW 2. Physics of radar 3. PULSE radar 3. Accuracy 5. Radar level installation cont. Horn antenna (solids) B. Parabolic dish antennas 5. Types of radar 1. Radar antennas 1.CW 3. Mechanical installation 1. History of radar 2. Hazardous area applications ix xi xiii 1 13 33 33 36 39 47 48 54 62 68 74 77 81 92 101 106 108 110 115 115 115 117 120 127 134 139 141 141 144 . Planar array antennas Antenna energy patterns 6. Platic tank tops and windows 6. Measuring tube antennas 4. Rod antenna (liquids) 3. Pulse radar Part II 4.

CW. lengt hλ Fig 3. However. Types of radar 1a.3. the frequency of the return signal from a moving object is changed depending on the speed and direction of the object. The echo frequency will be lower if the object is moving away. a continuous unmodulated frequency is transmitted and echoes are received from the target object. continuous wave radar In continuous wave or CW Radar. This is the well known ‘doppler effect’. If the target object is stationary. when an object that has been illuminated by a CW Radar approaches the transmitter. The doppler effect is also used by astronomers to monitor the expansion of the Universe. The range of the object cannot be measured. rece requ ived f f + f dp ency t tv targe elocit yv m trans itted freq ave yf w uenc t. the frequency of the return echoes will be the same as the transmitted frequency. In the same way. The pitch of the siren note is higher as it approaches the listener and lower as it recedes.1 CW radar uses doppler shift to derive speed measurement 33 . the frequency of the return signal will be higher than the transmitted frequency. The doppler effect is apparent when the siren note of an emergency vehicle changes as it speeds past a pedestrian. By measuring the ‘red shift’ of the spectrum of distant stars and galaxies the rate of expansion can be measured and the age of distant objects can be estimated.

as already explained. With microwave frequencies this means that the useful measuring range would be very limited. this technique is limited to measurement of a single target. Although the presence of the object is detected. Multiple frequency CW radar . However.1. The sign of fdp depends upon whether the target is closing or receding 1b. In this case. the transmitter and receiver were separated by a considerable distance. would be ambiguous. However. CW radar could be used to detect a change in position of up to half wavelength (λ/2) of the transmitted wave by measuring the phase shift of the echo signal. Therefore the received frequency is higher than the transmitted frequency and the sign of fdp is positive.1] c v ft fdp ft+fdp is the velocity of microwaves is the target velocity is the frequency of the transmitted signal is the doppler beat frequency which is proportional to velocity is received frequency. This provides a usable distance measurement device.1 v = λ x fdp 2 = c x fdp 2 x ft [Eq.Watt and his colleagues. Applications include surveying and automobile obstacle detection. If the starting position of the object is known. In essence.fdp. the aircraft is travelling towards the CW radar. the position and speed cannot be calculated. 3.2. there will be a phase shift between the transmitted signal and the return signal. 1c. the received frequency would be ft . this is what happens when a low flying aircraft interferes with the picture on a television screen. the range 34 quency received directly from the transmitter and the doppler shifted frequency reflected off the target object.In Fig 3. See Fig 3. If the aircraft was travelling away from the radar at the same speed. the distance to a stationary object can not be calculated. The velocity of the target in the direction of the radar is calculated by equation 3. A moving object was detected by the receiver because there was interference between the freStandard continuous wave radar is used for speed measurement and. If the phase shifts of two slightly different CW frequencies are measured the unambiguous range is equal to the half wavelength (λ/2) of the difference frequency. Although further movement could be detected. CW wave-interference radar or bistatic CW radar We have already mentioned that CW radar was used in early radar detection experiments such as the famous Daventry experiment carried out by Robert Watson .

2 The effect of low flying aircraft on television reception is similar to the method of detection by CW wave-interference radar 35 . Types of radar Fig 3.target transmitted signal indirect reflected signal (doppler shift) transmitted signal direct transmitter television interference 3.

3 that if we know the linear rate of change of the transmitted signal and measure the difference between the transmitted and received frequency fd. 3. frequency tra ns m itte df r u eq en cy ∆t fd re c e eiv df re e qu nc y ∆t = 2xR c time Fig 3. ∆t = 2xR c [Eq.2. then the time taken for the return journey is:- Single frequency CW radar cannot be used for distance measurement because there is no time reference mark to gauge the delay in the return echo from the target.CW radar 36 . the difference between the transmitting frequency and the frequency of the returned signal will be proportional to the distance to the target. and c is the speed of light. frequency modulated continuous wave radar If the distance to the target is R. 3. FM-CW. A time reference mark can be achieved by modulating the frequency in a known manner. then we can calculate the time ∆t and hence derive the distance R. If we consider the frequency of the transmitted signal ramping up in a linear fashion.3 The principle of FM .2] We can see from Fig.

4 Sine wave time 4.5 Triangular wave Used on FM .CW radar transmitter takes different forms. the FM .4GHz Fig 3.2GHz Commonly used on aircraft radio altimeters between 4. transmitted frequency received frequency frequency 4.2 GHz and 4.CW signal has to be cyclic between two different frequencies. The cyclic modulation of FM .4 GHz. Radio altimeters modulate between 4.6 Saw tooth wave 9 GHz time Most commonly used on most FM .CW radar transmitters time frequency 10 GHz Fig 3.3.2 and 4. Types of radar In practice.4 GHz frequency Fig 3. saw tooth or triangular wave forms.CW wave forms 24 GHz and 26 GHz.CW process radar level transmitters 37 . Radar level transmitters typically modulate between about 9 GHz and 10 GHz or FM . These are sinusoidal.

If the target is moving. The diagram below makes the assumption that the target distance is not changing. This has to be filtered out. there will be a doppler shift in the difference frequency.If we look at a triangular wave form we can see that there is an interruption in the output of the difference frequency . fd. frequency time difference frequency fd time Fig 3.7 & 3. In practice. The transmitted frequency is represented by the red line and the received frequency is represented by the dark blue line. the received signal is heterodyned with part of the transmitted frequency to produce the difference frequency which has a posi- tive value independent of whether the modulation is increasing or decreasing. The difference frequency is shown in light blue on the bottom graph 38 .8 The change in direction between the ramping up and down of the frequency creates a short break in the measured value of the difference frequency.

τ. If the time taken for the return journey is T. The inter pulse period t effectively defines the maximum range of the radar. The basic form of pulse radar is a pure time of flight measurement. Considering the return journey of an echo reflected off a target. In 500 microseconds. is a fraction of the inter pulse period. Short pulses. The pulse duration or pulse width. this gives a maximum theoretical range of 75 kilometres. but are in fact a short wave packet.9 Basic pulse radar 2nd pulse 1st pulse The inter pulse period (the time between successive pulses) t is the inverse of the pulse repetition frequency fr or PRF. Pulse radar a. The number of waves and length of the pulse depends upon the pulse duration and the carrier frequency that is used. The pulses of a pulse radar are not discrete monopulses with a single peak t of electromagnetic energy. Types of radar 3. τ 3rd pulse Transmitted pulses Fig 3. then the pulse repetition frequency is two thousand pulses per second. Basic pulse radar Pulse radar is and has been used widely for distance measurement since the very beginnings of radar technology. These regularly repeating pulses have a relatively long time delay between them to allow the return echo to be received before the next pulse is transmitted. Example The pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is defined as If the pulse period t is 500 microseconds. typically of millisecond or nansecond duration.3. 3. and c is the speed of light. are transmitted and the transit time to and from the target is measured.3] 39 . then the distance to the target is fr = 1 t R= Txc 2 [Eq. the radar pulses will travel 150 kilometres.

3] As well as being used to monitor civil and military aircraft movements. Similarly. 40 . whereas a pulse doppler radar has accurate speed measurement and imprecise distance measurement. If the frequency of the waves of the transmitted pulse is ft and the target is moving towards the radar with velocity v. distance and direction. In general.4] This is the same calculation as for CW radar.4: c = c x fdp λ x fdp = 2 x ft 2 [Eq. The distance to the target is calculated by the transit time of the pulse. a pulse doppler radar can be used to measure speed. where fdp is the doppler beat frequency. R = Txc 2 [Eq. the received frequency will be ft . the frequency of the return pulse will be ft + fdp . A doppler shift is measured within storm clouds which can be distinguished from general ground clutter. It is also used to measure the extreme wind velocities within a tornado or ‘twister’. There is a single frequency with no modulation on the signal for the duration of the pulse. 3. an MTI radar has accurate range measurement but imprecise speed measurement.b. equation 3.3. 3. as with the CW radar already described. This is also commonly called ‘moving target indication’ or MTI radar. Therefore. then.fdp if the target is moving away from the radar. The velocity of the target in the direction of the radar is calculated in equation 3. The ability of the pulse doppler radar to measure speed allows the system to ignore stationary targets. pulse doppler radar is used in weather forecasting. Pulse doppler radar The pulses transmitted by a standard pulse radar can be considered as a very short burst of continuous wave radar.

Pulse doppler radar ft f t + f dp R 3.10 Pulse doppler radar provides target speed. distance and direction 41 . Types of radar Fig 3.

f1 f2 time t1 t2 τ amplitude time Fig 3. a shorter pulse duration enables better target resolution and therefore higher accuracy. Essentially. Pulse compression and ‘Chirp’ radar With pulse radar. With limited peak power. However. Chirp radar is a cross between a pulse radar and an FM . Pulse compression within a ‘Chirp’ radar is a method of achieving the accuracy benefits of a short pulse radar together with the power benefits of using a longer pulse.CW radar 42 . Chirp is a cross between pulse and FM . If there is a limit to the maximum power available.CW radar.c. a short pulse will inevitably result in a reduced range. τ .11 Chirp radar wave form. a shorter pulse needs a significantly higher peak power if the range performance has to be maintained. a longer pulse duration. will provide more frequency radiated energy and therefore range but (with a standard pulse radar) at the expense of resolution and accuracy.

12 Pulse compression of chirp radar echo signal Pulse compression of chirp radar echo signal Another method of echo compression uses binary phase modulation where the transmitted signal is specially encoded with segments of the pulse either in phase or 180° out of phase. 43 . In the next chapter we look at which of these methods can be applied to the unique problems involved in measuring liquid or solid levels within process vessels and silos. the low frequency that arrives first is slowed down the most and the subsequent higher frequencies catch up producing a sharper echo signal and improved echo resolution. Types of radar Each pulse of a Chirp radar has linear frequency modulation and a constant amplitude. The echo pulse is processed through a filter that compresses the echo by creating a time lag that is inversely proportional to the frequency. The return echoes are decoded by a filter that produces a higher amplitude and compressed signal. Filter Time lag Frequency Long frequency modulated echo pulse Compressed signal Fig 3. Therefore. The above methods of radar detection are used widely in long range distance or speed measurement.3. The name ‘Chirp’ radar comes from the short rapid change in frequency of the pulse which is analogous to the chirping of a bird song.

Part II Radar level measurement Radar antennas Radar level installations 45 .

Accuracy 5. Horn antenna (liquids) 2. Power 5. Radar level installation cont. 1. Planar array antennas Antenna energy patterns 6. Installation A. Rod antenna (liquids) 3. Choice of frequency 4. History of radar 2. FM . Types of radar 1. safe area applications 2. CW-radar 2. Hazardous area applications ix xi xiii 1 13 33 33 36 39 47 48 54 62 68 74 77 81 92 101 106 108 110 115 115 115 117 120 127 134 139 141 141 144 . Pulse radar Part II 4. Parabolic dish antennas 5.CW 2. Physics of radar 3. General consideration (liquids) 4.Contents Foreword Acknowledgement Introduction Part I 1. Radar level measurement 1.CW 3. Platic tank tops and windows 6. FM . Radar antennas 1. Mechanical installation 1. Measuring tube antennas 4. PULSE radar 3. Stand pipes & measuring tubes 5. Horn antennas 2. Horn antenna (solids) B. Dielectric rod antennas 3.

We discuss accuracy and frequency considerations and explore the technical advances that have taken place in recent years and in particular two wire. Radar provides a non-contact sensor that is virtually unaffected by changes in process temperature. the measurement accuracy is unaffected by changes in density.7 nanoseconds or 0. The practical use of microwave radar for tank gauging and process vessel level measurement introduces an interesting set of technical challenges that have to be mastered. How is it possible to measure this transit time and produce accurate vessel contents information? Currently there are two measurement techniques in common use for process vessel contents measurement.000 000 006 7 seconds.4. If we consider that the speed of light is approximately 300.CW) radar and PULSE radar In this chapter we explain FM . 47 .CW and PULSE radar level measurement and compare the two techniques. They are frequency modulated continuous wave (FM . In addition. Radar level measurement The benefits of radar as a level measurement technique are clear. conductivity and dielectric constant of the product being measured or by air movement above the product. Then the time taken for a radar signal to travel one metre and back takes 6. loop powered transmitters. pressure or the gas and vapour composition within a vessel.000 kilometres per second.

The theory of FM . there are many practical problems that need to be addressed in process level applications. 9. Subsequently. This difference frequency is directly proportional to the f2 Transmitted signal fd ∆t transit time and hence the distance. More recently. fd. radar is an indirect method of distance measurement. (Examples of FM . to ramp the signal between the two transmitted frequencies.CW radar is simple. f1 and f2. VCO.CW radar measurement technique has been in use since the 1930's in military and civil aircraft radio altimeters.CW radar technique is an indirect method of level measurement. the same technique was used for custody transfer level measurement of large land based storage vessels.CW.FM-CW. FM CW transmitters have been adapted for process vessel applications.5 to 9. and the difference between the transmitted signal and the return echo signal. A linear frequency modulation is achieved either by accurate frequency measurement circuitry with closed loop regulation of the output or by careful linearisation of the VCO output including temperature compensation. is measured. frequency Received signal f1 t1 time Fig 4. An FM .3 GHz and 24 to 26 GHz). f1 and f2. frequency modulated continuous wave The FM .CW radar level transmitter requires a voltage controlled oscillator. It is critical that the frequency sweep is controlled and must be as linear as possible.9 GHz. The transmitted frequency is modulated between two known values. However. or frequency modulated continuous wave. FM . fd is proportional to ∆t which is proportional to distance 48 .CW radar level transmitters modulation frequencies are 8. In the early 1970's this method was developed for marine use measuring levels of crude oil in supertankers.1 The FM .7 to 10.

Voltage Controlled Oscillator VCO Directional Coupler f (t + Dt) f(t) Linear sweep control loop f (t + Dt) Mixer f(t) Directional Coupler V(t) Voltage Control Frequency Measurement Filter Linear ramp generator Intermediate frequency Amplifier Signal sampling and Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) Front end control function Signal Microprocessor 4.2 Typical block diagram of FM . A very accurate linear sweep is required 49 . Radar level measurement Fig 4.CW radar.

A radar must be able to cope with various false echos from agitatior blades and baffles Simple storage applications usually have a large surface area with very little agitation.2) The essential component of a frequency modulated continuous wave radar is the linear sweep control circuitry. An FM . Low amplitude signals and false echoes are common in chemical reactors where there is agitation and low dielectric liquids. A linear ramp generator feeds a voltage controller which in turn ramps up the frequency of the Voltage Controlled Oscillator. The FFT analysis produces a frequency spectrum on which the echo processing and echo decisions are made. The output frequency is measured as part of the closed loop control. Solids applications can be troublesome because of the internal structure of the silos and undulating product surfaces which creates multiple echoes. no significant false echoes from the internal structure of the tank and relatively slow product movement.CW block diagram (Fig 4. 50 .CW radar level sensor transmits and receives signals simultaneously. However. These are the ideal conditions for which FM . Pic 2 Typical glass lined agitated process vessel. in process vessels there is more going on and the problems become more challenging. A very accurate linear sweep is required. The frequency modulated signal is directed to the radar antenna and hence towards the product in the vessel.FM . The received echo frequencies are mixed with a part of the transmission frequency signal.CW radar was originally developed. These difference frequencies are filtered and amplified before Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is carried out.

CW radar level transmitters in an active process vessel In an active process vessel. The system needs to separate and identify these simultaneous signals before processing the echoes and making an echo decision. The Fast Fourier Transform requires substantial processing power and is a relatively long procedure. The relative amplitude of each frequency component in the frequency spectrum is proportional to the size of the echo and the difference frequency itself is proportional to the distance from the transmitter. -fd4.4. -fd3. This is a mathematical proce- dure which converts the jumbled array of difference frequencies in the time domain into a frequency spectrum in the frequency domain. The separation of the various received echo frequencies is achieved using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. 51 . A false echo from the end of the antenna may have a significantly higher amplitude than the real level echo.3a FM . It is only when the FFT calculations are complete that echo analysis can be carried out and an echo decision can be made between the real level echo and a number of possible false echoes. -f d2 . -fd5 f2 f1 Transmitted signal Real echo signal False echo signals t1 Fig 4. These frequency difference signals are received by the antenna at the same time. The amplitude of the real echo signals are small compared with the transmitted signal. the various echoes are received as frequency differences compared with the frequency of the transmitting signal. Radar level measurement fd1.

CW radar fd1.3b combined echo frequencies are received simultaneously Combination of mixed difference frequencies received by FM . f d2 . fd3. fd5 etc combined Signal amplitude Fig 4. fd4. are shown Signal amplitude Fig 4. fd2.Mixture of frequencies received by FM .CW radar Individual difference frequencies fd1. fd3.3c The individual frequencies must be separated from the simultaneously received jumble of frequencies 52 .

Radar level measurement Frequency spectrum echoes Each echo is within an envelope curve of frequencies amplitude frequency Fig 4. 53 .CW radar cannot identify the correct echo. As we shall see. The result is a frequency spectrum of the difference frequencies. Sometimes the amplitudes of the multiple echoes are higher than the real echo. the FM . The relative amplitude of each frequency component in the spectrum is proportional to the size of the echo and the difference frequency itself is proportional to the distance from the transmitter. The echoes are not single frequencies but a span of frequencies within an envelope curve Complex process vessels and solids applications can prove too difficult for some FM . this problem does not affect the alternative pulse radar technique. This is because a horizontal tank produces many large multiple echoes that are caused by the parabolic effect of the cylindrical tank roof. The processors that carry out the FFT analysis are swamped by different amplitude signals across the dynamic range all at the same time.CW radar transmitters.4.CW frequency spectrum after Fast Fourier transform. As a result. The Fast Fourier transform algorithm converts the signals from the time domain into the frequency domain.4 FM . Even a simple horizontal cylindrical tank can pose a serious problem.

The requirement is for a ‘slow motion’ picture of the transit time of the microwave pulses with an expanded time axis. By slow motion we mean milliseconds instead of nanoseconds. Pulse radar operates in the time domain and therefore it does not require the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis that characterizes FM CW radar. Fig 4. For this reason. the extremely fast and regular transit times can be readily transformed into an expanded time signal. Using a method of sequential sampling. As already discussed. Millions of pulses are transmitted every second and a special sampling technique is used to produce a ‘time expanded’ output signal 54 .5 Pulse radar operates purely within the time domain. a special time transformation procedure is required to enable these short time periods to be measured accurately. the running time for a distance of a few metres is measured in nanoseconds.PULSE radar level transmitters Pulse radar level transmitters provide distance measurement based on the direct measurement of the running time of microwave pulses transmitted to and reflected from the surface of the product being measured. Pulse radar has a regular and periodically repeating signal with a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF).

Fig 4. A sampling signal with a slightly longer periodic time produces a time expanded image of the entire echo curve 55 .6 The principle of sequential sampling with a sine wave as an example. The example shown is a VEGAPULS transmitter with a microwave frequency of 5. then a time expanded version of the original sine wave is produced as an output. T2. The sampling period. is very slightly longer than the signal period.7 shows how the principle of Periodic Signal (radar echoes) T1 Emission pulse Echo pulse sequential sampling is applied to pulse radar level measurement.8 GHz.7 Sequential sampling of a pulse radar echo curve. Millions of pulses per second produce a periodically repeating signal.6. It is a regular repeating signal with a period of T1. Expanded time signal Fig 4.4. The time scale of the expanded output depends on the difference between the two time periods T1 and T2. consider the sine wave signal in Fig 4. Radar level measurement To illustrate this principle. The output is a time expanded image of the original signal A common example of this principle is the use of a stroboscope to slow down the fast periodic movements of rotating or reciprocating machinery. T1. If the amplitude (voltage value) of the output of the sine wave is sampled into a memory at a time period T2 T1 Periodic Signal (sine wave) Sampling signal T2 which is slightly longer than T1. T2 Sampling signal Fig 4.

This periodically repeating signal consists of the regular emission pulse and one or more received echo pulses. 56 .8 GHz pulse of 0. The wave form of the 5.8 nanosecond) pulse at 5. The transmitted pulses and therefore the received pulses have a sine wave form depending upon the pulse duration.8. This is the same time expansion procedure by sequential sampling that has already been described for a sine wave. The factor of the time expansion is determined by T1 / (T2-T1).58 MHz Reference pulse 3.7 Hz Therefore the time expansion factor is 81920 giving a time expanded pulse repetition period of 22. A 5.8 Emission pulse (packet). VEGAPULS radar level transmitter has the following pulse repetition rates. the sampling signal repeats at period of T2 which is slightly longer in duration than T1.43. Fig 4.32961 nanoseconds T2 = 279.88 milliseconds. Instead of very rapid switch sampling. Fig 4. However.7. These would have to be very special and expensive components.8 nanoseconds Example The 5.8 GHz sine wave is to be sampled.8 GHz pulse with a pulse duration of 0.8 GHz.33302 nanoseconds The solution is to combine sequential sampling with a ‘cross correlation’ procedure. An electronic switch would need to open and close within a few picoseconds if a sufficiently short value of the 5. The period of the pulse repetition is shown as T1 in Fig 4. Period T1 is the same for the emission pulse repetition as for any echo pulse repetition as shown.8 GHz. T1 = 279.8 nanosecond duration is shown in Fig 4.9 compares sequential sampling by rapid switching with sequential sampling by cross correlation with a sample pulse. These are the level surface and any false echoes or multiple echoes. Transmit pulse 3. a sample signal of exactly the same profile is generated but with a slightly longer time period between the pulses.58 MHz . There is a practical problem in sampling the emission / echo pulse signals of a short (0.

cross correlation involves multiplying a point on the emission or echo signal by the corresponding point on the sample pulse. The final integrated value corresponds directly to the time position of the received pulse E relative to the sample pulse M. 57 .10 shows a short sequence of multiplications between the received signal (E) and the sampling pulse signal (M).4. lead to the formation of the complete multiplication signal. The pulse radar uses cross correlation with a sample pulse. Fig 4. The received signal E and sample signal M in Fig 4. This means that rapid ‘picosecond’ switching is not required Instead of taking a short voltage sample. All of these multiplication results.9 Comparison of switch sampling with ‘cross correlation’ sampling. The multiplication leads to a point on the resultant signal.10 are equivalent to the periodic signal (sine wave) and sample signal in Fig 4. one after the other. The resultant E x M curves are shown on page 58.6. The sign and amplitude of the signal on the time expanded curve depends on the sum of the area of the E x M curve above and below the zero line. The result of the integration of E x M in Fig 4.10 is directly analogous to the expanded time signal in Fig 4. Radar level measurement Emission / Echo pulse Sample signal Sampling with picosecond switching Sampling by cross correlation with a sample pulse Fig 4. Then the E x M curve is integrated and represented on the expanded curve as a dot.6.

Generating a reference signal with a slightly different periodic time. multiplying it by the echo signal and integration of the resultant product are all operations that can be handled easily within analogue circuits. The pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 3. Simple. 58 This method transforms the high frequency received signal into an accurate picture with a considerably expanded time axis. The raw value output from the microwave module is an intermediate frequency that is similar to an ultrasonic signal. but good quality components such as diode mixers for multiplication and capacitors for integration are used. The product E x M is then integrated to produce the expanded time curve.8 GHz microwave pulse becomes an intermediate frequency of 70 kHz.58 GHz becomes about 44 Hz.10 Cross correlation of the received signal E and the sampling M. .E M ExM max Integral ExM 0 min Fig 4. For example the 5. The technique builds a complete picture of the echo curve The pulse radar sampling procedure is mathematically complicated but a technically simple transformation to achieve.

This can make the difference between reliable and unreliable measurement.CW radar to function. The echoes derived from a pulse radar are discrete and separated in time. Part of the pulse radar transmission pulse is used as a reference pulse that provides automatic temperature compensation within the microwave module circuits. The averaging of the pulse technique reduces the noise curve to allow smaller echoes to be detected. This means that pulse radar is better equipped to handle multiple echoes and false echoes that are common in process vessels and solids silos. All of the pulse radar processing is dedicated to echo analysis only.12 With a pulse radar. This technique provides the pulse radar with excellent averaging which is particularly important in difficult applications where small amounts of energy are being received from low dielectric and agitated product surfaces. If the pulse radar is manufactured with well designed circuits containing good quality electronic components they can detect echoes over a wide dynamic range of about 80 dB. The return echoes from the product surface are sampled using the method described above. Radar level measurement Pulse echoes in a process vessel are separated in time amplitude t1 t 2 t3 t4 t5 time transmit pulse Fig 4. This allows multiple echoes caused by reflections from a parabolic tank roof to be easily separated and analysed Pulse radar operates entirely within the time domain and does not need the fast and expensive processors that enable the FM . all echoes (real and false) are separated in time. There are no Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithms to calculate. Pulse radar takes literally millions of ‘shots’ every second. 59 .4.

60 Fig 4.11 Block diagram of PULSE radar microwave module .

(Fig 4.58 MHz. intermediate frequency. GaAs FET oscillators are used to produce the microwave carrier frequency of the two sets of pulses. Part of the measurement pulse signal is used as a reference pulse that provides automatic temperature compensation of the microwave module electronics. time expanded.58 MHz minus 43. PULSE does not use FFT analysis. in frequency and repetition rate. Unlike FM . Pic 3 Two wire pulse radar level transmitter mounted in a process reactor vessel 61 . The second set of pulses are the sample pulses as discussed in the preceding text. A second variable oscillator and pulse former is tuned to a frequency of 3. pulse radar does not need expensive and power consuming processors.4. A fixed oscillator and pulse former generates pulses with a frequency of 3. The pulse radar microwave module generates two sets of identical pulses with very slightly different periodic times. Therefore. The first set of pulses are directed to the antenna and the product being measured. to an ultrasonic signal. Radar level measurement Pulse block diagram .11) The raw pulse output signal (intermediate frequency) from the pulse radar microwave module is similar. This pulse radar signal is derived in hardware. The echoes that return to the antenna are amplified and mixed with the sample pulses to produce the raw.7 Hz and hence a slightly longer periodic time.CW radar.

low frequency radar and every frequency radar in between. Manufacturers have chosen frequencies for different reasons ranging from licensing considerations.14 Comparison of 5. In reality. 2. no single frequency is ideally suited for every radar level measurement application.Choice of frequency Process radar level transmitters operate at microwave frequencies between 5.8 GHz radar with 26 GHz radar. If we compare 5.8 GHz Fig 4. However this is not the full picture when it comes to choosing radar frequencies 62 .8 GHz and about 26 GHz. These instruments have almost identical beam angles. There are arguments extolling the virtues of high frequency radar.6 GHz 5. we can see the relevant benefits of high frequency and low frequency radar. availability of microwave components and perceived technical advantages.8 GHz and 26 GHz radar antenna sizes.

a higher frequency gives a more focused beam 63 . this is not the complete picture. However. Focusing at different frequencies 5 GHz 10 GHz 15 GHz 20 GHz 25 GHz Fig 4.13 For a given size of antenna. Antenna gain is dependent on the square of the diameter of the antenna as well as being inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength. a 1½" (40 mm) horn antenna radar at 26 GHz has approximately the same beam angle as a 6" (150 mm) horn antenna at 5. Antenna gain is proportional to:2 diameter wavelength 2 Antenna gain also depends on the aperture efficiency of the antenna. For example. this allows smaller nozzles to be used with a more focused beam angle. Therefore the beam angle of a small antenna at a high frequency is not necessarily as efficient as the equivalent beam angle of a larger. A full explanation of antenna gain and beam angles at different frequencies is given in Chapter 5 on radar antennas.beam angle The higher the frequency of a radar level transmitter. A 4" horn antenna radar at 6 GHz gives excellent beam focusing. With horn antennas. Radar level measurement Antenna size . the more focused the beam angle for the equivalent size antenna.4. lower frequency radar.8 GHz.

such as 26 GHz. baffles. it will see more false echoes.8 GHz or 6.15 a Low frequency radar has a wider beam angle and therefore. The sharper focusing avoids this problem 64 . Fig 4.15 b High frequency radar has a much narrower beam angle for a given antenna size. the high frequency radar would have to cope with more false echoes than an equivalent lower frequency radar.2 centimetres for a 5. The wavelength of a 26 GHz radar is only 1. The narrower beam angle is important because the short wavelength of the higher frequencies. Without the focusing of the beam. if the installation is not optimum.8 GHz radar.8 GHz radar.Antenna focusing and false echoes A 26 GHz beam angle is more focused but. in some ways. and agitators.15 centimetres compared with a wavelength of 5. Low frequencies such as 5.3 GHz tend to be more forgiving when it come to false echoes from the internal structure of a vessel or silo Fig 4. it has to be. The short wavelength of the 26 GHz radar means that it will reflect off many small objects that may be effectively ignored by the 5. reflect more readily from the internal structures such as welds.

the radar electronics and echo processing software can cope with very small amplitude echo signals. such as 26 GHz. It is important that.3 GHz are not adversely affected by high levels of dust or steam.8 GHz frequency is virtually unaffected by condensation. This is due to the signal wavelength in comparison to the size of the surface disturbance. These frequencies have been very successful in applications ranging from cement.8 GHz radar is not as adversely affected by agitated liquid surfaces.8 GHz radar when the liquid surface is agitated. A 6" horn antenna with 5. whatever the frequency. higher frequency radar will suffer from increased signal attenuation. This is due to the signal wavelength in comparison to the size of the surface disturbance.4. It is important that radar electronics and echo processing software can cope with very small amplitude echo signals. flyash and blast furnace levels to steam boiler level measurement.8 GHz and 6. The lower frequency transmitters are less affected by agitated surfaces. Also. In steamy and dusty environments. Steam and dust Lower frequencies such as 5. Also. By comparison. The high frequency radar will receive considerably less signal than an equivalent 5.16 High frequency radar transmitters are susceptible to signal scatter from agitated surfaces. pulse radar has an advantage in this area no matter what the frequency. Fig 4. There is more signal attenuation at the higher frequencies. Lower frequency radar is generally better suited to solid level applications Condensation and build up High frequency radar level transmitters are more susceptible to condensation and product build up on the antenna. it is more forgiving of product build up. As discussed. 5. 65 . the same level of coating or condensation on a smaller antenna naturally has a greater effect on the performance. Radar level measurement Agitated liquids and solid measurement High frequency radar transmitters are susceptible to signal scatter from agitated surfaces.

However. Minimum distance Higher frequency radar sensors have a reduced minimum distance when compared with the lower frequencies. . it is important to provide the radar manufacturer with as much information as possible on the application.8 GHz radar signal will see through this type of foam and continue to see the liquid surface as the foam thickness increases to 150 mm or even 250 mm. It depends a great deal on the type of foam including the foam density. Summary of the effects of radar frequency Better focusing at higher emitting frequency means: . However.Foam The effect of foam on radar signals is a grey area. When foam is present. A 5. a 26 GHz radar signal will be totally attenuated by a very thin detergent foam on a water surface.8 GHz and 6. dielectric constant and conductivity. . the thickness of foam will cause a small measurement error because the microwaves slow down slightly as they pass through the foam. This can be an additional benefit when measuring in small vessels and stilling tubes. For example. low frequencies such as 5. focusing higher antenna gain (directivity) less false echoes reduced antenna size 5 GHz 10 GHz 15 GHz frequency range 20 GHz 25 GHz Fig 4.3 GHz cope with low density foam better than higher frequencies such as 26 GHz.17 Focusing and radar frequency 66 .

4. . . condensation build .18 Signal damping and radar frequency Higher damping caused by agitated product surface reflection from medium .19 Signal strength from agitated and undulating surfaces and radar frequency 67 .up steam and dust 5 GHz 10 GHz 15 GHz frequency range 20 GHz 25 GHz Fig 4. Radar level measurement Reduced signal strength caused by damping at higher emitting frequency caused by: reduced signal caused by damping . . . wave movement material cones with solids signal scattered 5 GHz 10 GHz 15 GHz frequency range 20 GHz 25 GHz Fig 4.

both FM . For example. if the carrier frequency of a pulse is 5.8 GHz and the duration is only 1 nanosecond. The null to null bandwidth BWnn of a pulse radar is equal to Range resolution and bandwidth In process level applications. A wider bandwidth leads to a shorter envelope curve and therefore improved range resolution. Clearly a shorter pulse duration provides better range resolution. Pulse radar bandwidth The carrier frequency of a pulse radar varies from 5. The amplitude of the pulse spectrum of frequencies changes according to a sin x x curve. The pulse duration is important when it comes to resolving two adjacent echoes. a one nanosecond pulse has a length of about 300 mm. In this book. The niche market for custody transfer level measurement applications is outside the scope of this book. Range resolution is one of a number of factors that influence the accuracy of process radar level transmitters.8 GHz to about 26 GHz. A lot of processing power and on site calibration time is used to achieve the high accuracy. Large parabolic or planar array antennas are used to create a finely focused signal. The length of this envelope curve depends on the bandwidth of the radar transmitter. the quality of the electronics and echo processing software employed. then there is a spectrum of frequencies above and below the nominal carrier frequency.21. it would be difficult for the radar to distinguish between two echoes that are less than 300 mm apart. The shape of this curve is shown in Fig 4. These custody transfer radar ‘systems’ are used in bulk petrochemical storage tanks. where τ is the pulse duration. An effect of a shorter pulse duration is a wider bandwidth or spectrum of frequencies.Accuracy There is no inherent difference in accuracy between the FM . the antenna design. Therefore. τ 2 68 .CW and PULSE radar level measurement techniques.CW and PULSE radar work with an ‘envelope curve’. Temperature and pressure compensation are also used. For example. It is clear from the curve that the amplitude of frequencies reduces significantly away from the main pulse frequency. we are concerned specifically with process level measurement where ‘process accurate’ and cost effective solutions are required. The achievable accuracy of a process radar depends heavily on the type of application.

8 GHz shorter pulse better range resolution bandwidth BW nn.8 GHz 6. Radar level measurement pulse frequency 5. 2 equal to τ Fig 4. Fig 4.22 shows how a pulse radar echo curve is used in process level measurement. short duration pulse Lower frequency pulse with longer duration Fig 4. Example a 5.4. The combination of shorter pulse duaration and higher frequency allows better accuracy because the leading edge of the envelope curve is steeper 69 .21 The null to null bandwidth BWnn of a radar pulse is equal to 2 / τ where τ is the pulse duration.22 Envelope curve with pulse radar High frequency. A shorter pulse has a wider bandwidth and better range resolution Fig 4. The guaranteed range resolution is the length of the pulse.8 GHz 4.20 Pulse radar range resolution.23 A shorter pulse duration gives better range resolution. A higher frequency pulse with a shorter pulse duration will allow better range resolution and also better accuracy because the leading edge of the envelope curve is steeper.8 GHz radar with a pulse duration of one nanosecond has a null to null bandwidth of 2 GHz Pulse radar envelope curve Fig 4.

CW signal is constant across the range of frequencies.FM-CW radar bandwidth The bandwidth of an FM . There is an ambiguity ∆fd for each echo fd. frequency A wider bandwidth produces narrower difference frequency ranges for each echo on the frequency spectrum. 4.2] 70 . Unlike pulse radar. 4. the amplitude of the FM . This leads to better range resolution in the same way as with shorter duration pulses with pulse radar.CW radar is the difference between the start and finish frequency of the linear frequency modulation sweep.1] ∆F Ts R fd c time Ts bandwidth sweep time distance difference frequency speed of light Fast Fourier Transform The FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM produces a frequency spectrum of all echoes such as that at fd. This is explained in the following diagrams and equations. fd = fd ∆F ∆F x 2R Ts x c [Eq. amplitude fd ∆fd = ∆fd frequency 2 Ts [Eq.

The above equations (Equations 4.CW radar the range resolution ∆R is equal to:- c ∆F Therefore.3.CW range resolution = c ∆F [Eq. Instead they produce a difference frequency range ∆fd for each echo within an envelope curve. is ∆ R amplitude R ∆R R ∆R R = ∆fd fd 2 Ts ∆F x 2 R Ts x c c ∆F x R = ∆R distance ∆R R = ∆R Fig 4. Examples: A linear sweep of 2 GHz has a range resolution of 150 mm whereas a 1 GHz bandwidth has a range resolution of 300 mm. each echo on the frequency spectrum is processed with an envelope curve.26 . the wider the bandwidth.3] From equation 4.1 to 4.24 to 4. 71 . This translates into range ambiguity. In process radar applications. Radar level measurement The ambiguity of the distance R. the better the range resolution.3) show that the Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) in process radar applications do not produce a single discrete difference frequency for each echo in the vessel. 4.FM . it can be seen that with an FM .4.

FM - CW frequency spectrum - bandwidth and range resolution
Frequency spectrum - narrow bandwidth of linear sweep amplitude envelope curves around echoes

frequency Frequency spectrum - wide bandwidth of linear sweep amplitude envelope curves around echoes

frequency Fig 4.28 Illustration of envelope curve around the frequency spectram of FM - CW radars. The same four echoes are shown for radar transmitters with different bandwidths. An improvement in the range resolution is achieved with a wider bandwidth of the linear sweep

Other influences on accuracy
As we have demonstrated, FM - CW and PULSE process radar transmitters use an envelope curve for measurement. A wider bandwidth produces better range resolution. The correspondingly short echo will have a steep slope and therefore a more accurate measurement can be made. Other influences on accuracy include signal to noise ratio and interference. A high signal to noise ratio allows more accurate measurement while interference effects can cause a disturbance of the real echo curve leading to inaccuracies in the measurement. Choice of antenna and mechanical installation are important factors in ensuring that the optimum accuracy is achieved.

72

4. Radar level measurement

High accuracy radar
High accuracy of the order of + 1 mm is generally meaningless in an active process vessel or a solids silo. For example, a typical chemical reactor will have agitators, baffles and other internal structures plus constantly changing product characteristics. Although custody transfer level measurement applications are not in the scope of this book, this section discusses how a higher accuracy can be achieved.

FM - CW radar
The fundamental requirement for an accurate FM - CW radar is an accurate linear sweep of the frequency modulation. As with the pulse radar, it is possible to look inside the envelope curve of the frequency spectrum if the application has a simple single echo that is characteristic of a liquids storage tank. This is achieved by measuring the phase angle of the difference frequency. However, this is only practical with custody transfer applications where fast and expensive processors are used with temperature and pressure compensation.
frequency error

Pulse radar
For most process applications, measurement relative to the pulse envelope curve is sufficient. However, if the liquid level surface is flat calm and the echo has a reasonable amplitude, it is possible to look inside the envelope curve wave packet at the phase of an individual wave. However, the envelope curve of a high frequency radar with a short pulse duration is sufficiently steep to produce a very accurate and cost effective level transmitter for storage vessel applications.

f2

f2 t1 Fig 4.30 It is essential that the linear sweep of the FM - CW radar is accurately controlled

Fig 4.29 Higher accuracy of pulse radar level transmitters can be achieved by looking at the phase of an individual wave within the envelope curve. This is only practical in slow moving storage tanks 73

Power
Microwave power Radar is a subtle form of level measurement. The peak microwave power of most process radar level transmitters is less than 1 milliWatt. This level of power is sufficient for tanks and silos of 40 metres or more. The average power depends on the sweep time and sweep repetition rate of FM - CW radar and on the pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency of pulse radar transmitters. An increase in the microwave power will produce higher amplitude echoes. However, it will produce higher amplitude false echoes and ringing noise as well as a higher amplitude echoes off the product surface. The average microwave power of a Pulse radar can be as little as 1 microWatt. Processing power FM - CW radars need a high level of processing power in order to function. This processing power is used to calculate the FFT algorithms that produce the frequency spectrum of echoes. The requirement for processing power has restricted the ability of FM - CW radar manufacturers to make a reliable two wire, intrinsically safe radar transmitter. Pulse radar transmitters work in the time domain without FFT analysis and therefore they do not need powerful processors for this function. Safety The low power output from microwave radar transmitters means that they are an extremely safe method of level measurement.

Two wire, loop powered radar
Pulse radar The low energy requirements of pulse radar enabled the first ever two wire, loop powered, intrinsically safe radar level transmitter to be introduced to the process industry in mid-1997. The VEGAPULS 50 series of pulse radar transmitters have proved to be very capable in difficult process conditions. The performance of the two wire, 4 to 20 mA, sensors is equal to the four wire units that preceded them. The pulse microwave module only needs a 3.3 volt power supply with a maximum power consumption of 50 milliWatts. This drops down to 5 milliWatts when it is in stand-by mode. The difference between the two wire pulse and the four wire pulse is that the two wire radar sends out bursts of pulses and updates the output about once every second. The four wire sends out pulses continuously and updates seven times a second. With high quality electronics, the complete 24 VDC, 4 to 20 mA transmitter is capable of operating at only 14 VDC. This allows it to directly replace existing two wire sensors. Pulsed FM - CW The low power requirements of pulse radar have allowed two wire radar to become sucessful. FM - CW radar requires processing power and time for the FFT's to be calculated. Power saving has been used to produce a ‘pulsed’ FM - CW radar. However, this device is limited to simple storage applications because the update time is too long and the processing too limited for arduous process applications.

74

CW process radars have to be four wire and not two wire loop powered · FM .4.CW (frequency modulated continuous wave) radar · Indirect method of level measurement · Requires Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis to convert signals into a frequency spectrum · FFT analysis requires processing power and therefore practical FM . intrinsically safe pulse radar can be used in some of the most challenging process level applications 75 . Radar level measurement Summary of radar level techniques FM .CW radars are challenged by large numbers of multiple echoes (caused by the parabolic effects of horizontal cylindrical or dished topped vessels) PULSE radar · Direct. loop powered. time of flight level measurement · Uses a special sampling technique to produce a time expanded intermediate frequency signal · The intermediate frequency is produced in hardware and does not require FFT analysis · Low processing power requirement mean that practical and very capable two wire.

CW-radar 2. Stand pipes & measuring tubes 5. Radar level measurement 1. Hazardous area applications ix xi xiii 1 13 33 33 36 39 47 48 54 62 68 74 77 81 92 101 106 108 110 115 115 115 117 120 127 134 139 141 141 144 . Mechanical installation 1. safe area applications 2. History of radar 2. Radar level installation cont. Choice of frequency 4. Planar array antennas Antenna energy patterns 6. Types of radar 1.CW 3. Dielectric rod antennas 3. Pulse radar Part II 4. Platic tank tops and windows 6. Installation A. Horn antenna (solids) B. 1. Radar antennas 1. Horn antenna (liquids) 2. General consideration (liquids) 4.Contents Foreword Acknowledgement Introduction Part I 1. Accuracy 5. PULSE radar 3. Power 5. Horn antennas 2. FM . FM . Rod antenna (liquids) 3.CW 2. Physics of radar 3. Parabolic dish antennas 5. Measuring tube antennas 4.

Clearly there is not a tight beam. Antennas for level measurement come in five basic forms: Antenna basics An important aspect of an antenna is directivity.) · Parabolic reflector antenna · Planar array antenna Horn antennas and dielectric rod antennas are already commonly used within process level measurement. No matter how well the antenna is designed. We will discuss the design of these antennas although at present their use in process vessels is limited.1 shows the pattern of radiated energy from a typical horn antenna. Parabolic antennas and planar array antennas have been applied to fiscal measurement radar systems rather than for level measurement within process vessels. there will be some microwave energy being radiated in every direction. We will be discussing how these designs have been developed for increasingly arduous process conditions and how antenna efficiencies have been improved. Radar antennas The function of an antenna in a radar level transmitter is to direct the maximum amount of microwave energy towards the level being measured and to capture the maximum amount of energy from the return echoes for analysis within the electronics. Technical information and sales literature on radar level transmitters quote beam angles for different antennas. The goal is to maximise the directivity.5. The measurements are made some distance from the antenna in what is called the far field zone. Fig 5.8 GHz. Directivity is the ability of the antenna to direct the maximum amount of radiated microwave energy towards the liquid or solid we wish to measure. 77 . This is a 250 mm (10") horn antenna operating at a frequency of 5. The horn antenna and versions of the dielectric rod antenna are also used in measuring tube applications within the process industry. · Horn (cone) antenna · Dielectric rod antenna · Measuring tube antenna (stand pipes/ bypass tubes etc. The convention is to measure the angle at which the microwave energy has reduced to 50 percent of the value at the central axis of the beam.3dB point. It is clear that most of the energy is contained within the main lobe. but also there is a reasonable amount of energy contained within the various side lobes. This is quoted in decibels:the .

: 20. side lobe suppression : 21.3 dB point is the beam angle i.0 deg. 90 Max.1 Typical radiation pattern from a radar level transmitter Radiation patterns of different antennas and radar frequencies are compared at the end of this chapter.4 dB 120 60 150 30 180 0 10 20 30 0 150 30 120 main lobe direction : 0.e.Farfield E_Abs (Theta). the energy has reduced to 50% Side lobe energy Fig 5.9 deg. angular width (3dB) : 14. 78 .6 dB 90 60 Extent of measured microwave energy showing main lobe and side lobes The .0 deg. Phi=90.

Radar antennas A measure of how well the antenna is directing the microwave energy is called the ‘antenna gain’. D = antenna diameter.5. Antenna gain is a ratio between the power per unit of solid angle radiated isotropic power by the antenna in a specific direction to the power per unit of solid angle if the total power was radiated isotropically.1] Where The aperture efficiencies of radar level antennas are typically between η = 0. a larger antenna has a narrower beam angle η = aperture efficiency * must be same units 79 . directional power Isotropic equivalent with total power radiating equally in all directions Directional power from antenna Fig 5.* to the antenna area. that is to say.* It is clear from equation 5. 5.1 that the directivity improves in proportion A = antenna area. equally in all directions.8. At a given freλ = microwave wavelength * quency.2 Illustration of antenna gain Antenna gain ‘G’ can be calculated as follows: G = ηx ( πxD λ ) 2 = ηx 4π x A λ2 [Eq.6 and η = 0.

we can see that the antenna gain and hence directivity is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength. as discussed in Chapter 4. 10 GHz and 26 GHz. For a given size of antenna the beam angle will become narrower at higher frequencies (shorter wavelengths). 5. this is not the whole story when choosing the right transmitter for an application. Beam angle φ = 70° x λ D [Eq. Antenna beam angles (diameter / frequency) 80 beam angle in degrees (-3dB) 5.2] The following graph shows horn antenna diameter versus beam angle for the most common radar frequencies.8 GHz radar with a 200 mm (8") horn antenna is almost equivalent to a 26 GHz radar with a 50 mm (2") horn antenna.8 GHz 60 10 GHz 26 GHz 40 20 0 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 antenna diameter. This means that a 26 GHz antenna is lighter and easier to install for the same beam angle. that is the angle to the minus 3 dB position. However. 10Ghz and 26GHz radar 80 . mm Fig 5.Also. 5.3 Graph showing relation between horn antenna diameter and beam angle for 5.8 GHz. For a standard horn antenna the beam angle φ.8 GHz. For example the beam angle of a 5.2. can be calculated using equation 5.

The microwaves that are generated within the microwave module are transmitted down a high frequency cable for encoupling into a waveguide.8 GHz. ceramic has a sharper angle than PTFE.4 The transition of microwaves from the low dielectric waveguide into the metallic horn where they are focused towards the product being measured 81 . After reflection from the product surface. The horn is mechanically robust and in general it is virtually unaffected by condensation and product build up. especially at the lower radar frequencies such as 5. A low dielectric material such as PTFE. There are variations in the internal design of horn antennas. ceramic or glass is often used within the waveguide. The metal waveguide then directs the microwaves towards the horn of the antenna. Radar antennas 1. The angle of this cone depends on the dielectric constant of the material. The microwaves are emitted from this pointed cone in a controlled way and are then focused towards the target by the metal horn.5. Fig 5. Horn antennas The metallic horn antenna or cone antenna is well proven for process level applications. the returning echoes are collected within the horn antenna for processing within the electronics. For example. At the transition from the waveguide to the horn of the antenna the low dielectric material is machined to a pointed cone.

Metallic grid 7. A potential problem with the design is the sealing between the PTFE and glass on the process side. The thermal expansion of glass and PTFE are different and it is possible for condensation to get between the glass and PTFE and to affect the transmission and receipt of the microwave signals.Horn antenna design 1 Fig 5. The microwaves are directed towards the antenna. Seal between glass and PTFE 8. The explosion proof design requires metallic grid around the glass of the waveguide at the joint between the housing casting and the flange casting. At this point the waveguide changes to PTFE with a ¼ wavelength step design. There is a transition from rectangular to circular cross section. Glass waveguide In this first design of horn antenna the HF cable signal coupling is into an air filled waveguide with a rectangular cross section. PTFE transition 5. Metal horn antenna 2. The waveguide is then glass filled until it reaches the inside of the antenna horn where it changes to a PTFE cone for the impedance matching into the vapour space in the horn This PFTE cone in combination with the metallic horn focuses the microwaves towards the target.5 1. 82 An antenna of this design is capable of withstanding process temperatures up to 250° C and up to 300 Bar. Signal coupling 3. HF Cable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6. Waveguide (air filled) Transition rectangular to circular cross section 4. . PTFE cone 9.

6 1. ambient pressure applications with air or nitrogen gas cooling of the antenna. PTFE cone 6. This seal material can be Viton for stainless steel horn antennas or Kalrez for Hastelloy C horn antennas. 83 . This antenna design can also be used on very high temperature. The PTFE cone and the metallic conical horn focus the microwaves and collect the return signals in the usual manner. There is a continuous transition for the microwaves within a single piece of PTFE which is machined into a cone form for the transition into the horn antenna. the HF cable is encoupled into the PTFE material inside the waveguide. The metal waveguide is welded to the flange and there are two process seals between the metal waveguide and the PTFE.5. An antenna of this design is capable of withstanding a process temperature of 200° C + and a process pressure of 40 Bar. Process seals Viton or Kalrez 5. Waveguide (PTFE filled) 2 3 4 4. These seals protect the signal coupler from the process. Metallic horn antenna 6 5 With this antenna design. HF cable 2. Signal coupling 1 3. Radar antennas Horn antenna design 2 Fig 5.

Horn antenna design 2a
Fig 5.7 Very high temperature, ambient pressure applications. Air/nitrogen cooling through flange

1. HF cable 1 2 3 4 4. Tappings for air/nitrogen keeps antenna area cool 5. Metallic horn antenna 5 2. Signal coupling 3. Waveguide (PTFE filled)

Air / N2

This adaptation of the previous antenna allows the antenna to be cooled with air or nitrogen gas. This is achieved by drilling two holes, 180° apart, laterally from the flange edge into the horn antenna next to the PTFE cone. The flow of air or nitrogen prevents hot gases from affecting the PTFE and the viton seal and it effectively cools the entire flange and horn area. This technique has been used successfully with very high temperatures, including 1500° C + in the steel industry with applications such as blast

furnace burden level and molten iron ladle levels. The microwaves are unaffected by the air movement within the horn area. In addition to cooling, this air purging technique is also used for solids applications where very high levels of conductive dust, such as carbon, heavily coat the inside of the horn and cause signal attenuation. Water purging has also been used where heavy product build up is expected.

84

5. Radar antennas
Horn antenna design 3
Fig 5.8 Special enamel coated antenna

1 2 3 4 5 6

1. Signal coupling 2. PTFE waveguide 3. PTFE flange face 4. PTFE seal 5. Lapped flange

7 6. Steel internals of horn antenna 7. Enamelled coating

This antenna is also a development of the antenna design in Fig 5.6. The waveguide, PTFE transition cone and process flange are standard. The face of the flange is all PTFE. The difference is in the application of a special enamel (glass) coated horn that provides excellent process materials compatibility without resorting to more expensive metals such as Tantalum. The external dimensions of the antenna represent a simple cylinder. The internal dimensions of the antenna are identical to a standard horn antenna (150 mm (6")) is illustrated. At the bottom of the antenna there is a gradual lip

between the external cylinder and the internal horn. The top of the cylinder has a flange for sealing between the PTFE transition cone and the process flange and also between the glassed antenna and the vessel nozzle. External studs hold the enamel antenna to the process flange and PTFE seals are used to provide internal sealing. The antenna is manufactured from carbon steel with blue enamel coating which is identical to the enamel found in glass lined vessels. It provides the efficiency benefits of a horn antenna with first class materials compatibility.

85

Horn antenna design 4
Fig 5.9 High temperature / high pressure antenna with ceramic waveguide

1 2

1. Connection to HF cable from microwave module 2. Coaxial tube to signal coupling 3. Signal coupling in ceramic waveguide 4.Vacon/ceramic brazing seal 5. Graphite seal

3 4 5 6

6. Ceramic waveguide cone

The above antenna has been designed with both high temperature and high pressure in mind. The mechanical strength and sealing ability of PTFE degrades at elevated temperature and is therefore limited to about 200° C. This special design of radar has a chemically and thermally stable ceramic (Al2O3) waveguide within a stainless steel or Hastelloy C horn antenna and flange. The ceramic waveguide is fused to a ‘vacon’ steel bush using a special brazing technique. ‘Vacon’ is used because it has a coefficient of thermal expansion that is similar to ceramic, whereas normal

stainless steel expands more than twice as much as ceramic. A double graphite seal is fitted on the process side of the ‘vacon’ bush. The entire waveguide assembly is laser welded to ensure that the transmitter is gas tight and that differential thermal expansion is negligible. In order to withstand constant process temperatures of 400° C, the electronics housing of the radar is mechanically isolated from the high process temperature by a temperature extension tube. The microwave module is connected via the HF cable and an air coaxial tube to the signal coupler in the ceramic waveguide.

86

HF cable (coaxial) 2.5.10 Close up of ceramic waveguide assembly 1 2 3 4 5 6 3.11 This antenna design is capable of with standing 160 Bar at 400° C with dual graphite seals. Graphite seals have proved to be superior to tantalum seals Ceramic signal coupling Vacon/ceramic brazing Graphite / Tantalum seal 87 . Signal coupling Fig 5. Radar antennas Fig 5. Vacon bush 6. Brazing of ceramic to vacon 5. Metallic horn antenna 7 1. Ceramic waveguide 4. Graphite seal 7.

13 Variations of this design include the use of cone shaped windows. then it is possible to measure through a low dielectric window or lens. The cone can point towards the horn or towards the process 88 . Tantalum and the special enamel coated horn antenna. Some antennas are manufactured with a PTFE window as part of the construction. We have discussed Hastelloy.Adapting horn antenna radars a. However.12 Horn antenna radar is constructed with a metal housing around the antenna and a PTFE process ‘window’ Fig 5. if a liquid is being measured and it is conductive or has a dielectric constant of more that εr = 10. Antenna housing Horn antenna Process flange PTFE window Fig 5. Measurement through a PTFE window Another possible variation of a horn antenna radar is measurement through a low dielectric window.

we discuss how horn antenna radars should be installed. If the nozzle is longer than 200 mm. Horn antenna waveguide extension In the first section of Chapter 6.5. Waveguide extensions should only be used with highly reflective products. we should consider a waveguide extension piece between the radar flange and the horn antenna. A 150 mm (6") horn antenna is 205 mm (8") long. Fig 5. Horn antenna bent waveguide extensions As well as simple waveguide extensions it is possible to bend waveguide extensions in order to avoid obstructions or to utilise side entry flanges.15 Waveguide extensions with bends. The waveguide extensions should be free from any internal welds and the minimum radius of curvature should be 200 mm. It is recommended that the end of the antenna is a minimum of 10 mm inside the vessel. The direction of the polarization is important Waveguide extension with 90° bend 89 . c. Radar level installations. A simple 90° bend or an ‘S’ shaped extension tube are possible. Radar antennas b.14 Extended waveguide horn antenna to enable measurement in long nozzles or through a concrete tank or sump roof Waveguide extension with ‘S’ bend Fig 5.

High frequency radar antennas The majority of antennas in this chapter are designed for microwave frequencies of between 5.8 GHz and 10 GHz. As the waveguide diameter increases in size. the encoupling of a high frequency radar must be made into a small waveguide. The increased diameter of the PTFE waveguide reduces the adverse effects of condensation and build up where the tapered cone of the waveguide enters the metallic horn of the antenna.6. This is because with different modes the microwaves travel at different velocities in the waveguide and therefore a single target will reflect more than one return echo. 90 .8 GHz radar is 31 mm. The encoupling is made within a small PTFE waveguide to establish a single mode. A special patented high frequency antenna design from VEGA minimises the potential problems associated with small waveguide assemblies. The small waveguide assemblies of high frequency radar are susceptible to contamination by condensation and build up when compared with lower frequencies such as 5. For this reason. Measurement problems will be encountered if there are multiple modes within an antenna waveguide. there is a carefully designed transition that increases the diameter of the PTFE waveguide while maintaining the single mode. more modes become established for the given frequency. A measuring tube is a waveguide. As the microwaves travel towards the horn antenna. Compare this design with horn antenna design 2.8 GHz. Later in this chapter. Measurement will become inaccurate or impossible. Fig 5. At a higher frequency the minimum diameter of a waveguide is smaller. The 5.8 GHz radar does not need a transition in the waveguide diameter and the angle of the metallic horn is not as sharp as for the high frequency radar. we discuss the use of radar in measuring tubes where there is a minimum critical diameter for each frequency. The minimum theoretical tube diameter for a 5. Viton or Kalrez process seals are fitted between the PTFE and stainless steel body of the waveguide. the microwaves are established within the waveguide with a single mode and hence a single velocity. Extended versions of the high frequency antenna design involve lengthening the HF cable within a stainless steel extension tube and welding the waveguide assembly to the end of the extension tube. At this minimum diameter.

HF cable from microwave module 2. It has a sharper angle than the lower frequency radars 1 2 3 4 5 6 91 . Metallic horn antenna of high frequency radar. Viton or Kalrez process seals between PTFE and stainless steel of the waveguide 5. Cone shape of PTFE waveguide for the transition into the metallic horn of the antenna 6.16 High frequency (26GHz) horn antenna design 1. Signal coupling into smaller diameter PTFE waveguide assembly 3.5. Carefully designed transition from small diameter to larger diameter without affecting the waveguide mode 4. Radar antennas Fig 5.

The tapered section of the rod acts like a lens and it focuses the microwaves towards the product being measured. the antenna efficiency will deteriorate very quickly. product build up works against the reliable functioning of a rod antenna radar. First of all. As with the horn antenna the waveguide can be air filled or filled with a low dielectric material such as PTFE . it will cause ‘ringing’ noise that will effectively blind the radar. There are some important considerations when applying rod antenna radars. However. This means that. it can be seen from Fig 5.2. This is explained more fully in Chapter 6. With the horn antenna product build up is not a particular problem. If the tapered section is in a nozzle. The size and shape of the dielectric rod depends on the frequency of the microwaves being transmitted. The waveguide feeds the microwaves to the antenna. Also. conductive and adhesive products. The design of dielectric rod antennas has been refined in recent years. the tapered section of the rod must be entirely within the vessel. Dielectric rods can be used in vessel nozzles as small as 40 mm (1½") and they are manufactured from PP. If a rod antenna is coated in viscous. 92 . PTFE or ceramic wetted parts. radar level transmitters can be retro-fitted into existing tank nozzles and they have low cost materials compatibility with most aggressive liquids including acids. Essentially the microwaves are fed from the microwave module through an HF cable to a signal coupler in the waveguide. alkalis and solvents.17 that the microwaves rely on the rod antenna being clean. The microwaves pass down the parallel section of the rod until they reach the tapered section of the rod. Dielectric rod antennas The dielectric rod antenna is an extremely useful option when applying radar level technology to modern process vessels. normally. The reflected echoes are captured in a similar fashion for processing by the radar electronics. Rod antennas should only be used on liquids and slurries and not on powders and granular products.

Radar antennas Fig 5. It is very important that all of the tapered section of the rod must be inside the vessel It is not good practice to allow a rod antenna to be immersed in the product If a rod antenna is coated in viscous. conductive and adhesive product.5. The tapered section of the rod focuses the microwaves toward the liquid being measured . the antenna efficiency will deteriorate 93 .17 Dielectric rod antenna The microwaves travel down the inactive parallel section of the rod towards the tapered section .

Solid PTFE/PP active tapered section of antenna focuses the microwaves towards the product surface 4 5 This rod antenna is a simple and low cost design that provides a radar level transmitter with good materials compatibility. 94 . The HF cable from the microwave module is coupled into PTFE/PP inside a metallic tube that acts as a waveguide. The nozzle height should not exceed 60 mm (2½"). It is ideal for vented and low pressure vessels such as acid and alkali tanks. This metallic tube is totally enclosed within the PTFE/PP parallel section of the antenna. Signal coupling within PTFE/PP filled waveguide 4.Rod antenna design 1 Fig 5. Process connection PVDF boss 3. The microwaves pass down the metallic waveguide directly to the tapered section of the antenna where they are focused towards the product being measured. PTFE/PP inner and outer parts 5. Inactive section with metallic waveguide. The process connection is a 1½" PVDF boss and the antenna is polypropylene (PP) or PTFE. It is designed for use in short 1½" BSP / NPT process nozzles.18 Rod antenna for short process nozzles 1 2 3 1. HF cable 2.

Process connection 6 6. The microwaves are directed towards the antenna. PTFE cone 5. The microwaves continue through the PTFE waveguide to the solid PTFE dielectric rod. Air waveguide 4. solid PTFE rod antenna can suffer from ‘ringing’ noise caused by microwave leakage from the parallel section resonating within the nozzle. the parallel section of the solid rod is extended to ensure that the tapered section is entirely within the vessel. Radar antennas Rod antenna design 2 Fig 5. Solid PTFE parallel section length can be extended 7. An extended. If this type of antenna is to be used in a long nozzle. HF cable 1 2 3 4 5 2.19 Rod antenna with solid PTFE extendible rod 1.5. 95 . The tapered section of the rod focuses the microwaves towards the product being measured. Solid PTFE tapered section 7 With this design of rod antenna the signal coupling is into an air filled waveguide. See Fig 5.20. There is a transition to PTFE via a cone shaped element. Signal coupling 3.

The potential problems of solid PTFE rod antennas have been solved by the latest designs. the microwaves should travel within the parallel section for the entire length until it reaches the tapered section. 96 .on extendible antennas. However. It is important to have a completely inactive parallel section within a vessel nozzle. in practice. this design can suffer from condensation forming between the rod sections causing signal attenuation.20 Extended rod antenna in solid PTFE. some of the microwave energy escapes from the parallel sides. Also the PTFE expands at elevated temperatures and under certain process conditions it is possible for the rod sections to detach.Fig 5. In addition to the ‘ringing’ noise problem described. This is achieved by special screening or signal coupling beyond the nozzle. Some solid PTFE rod antennas are supplied with screw . This design can suffer from ‘ringing’ noise caused by leakage of microwave energy from the parallel section of the solid PTFE rod resonating in the vessel nozzle In theory.

Signal coupling at the bottom of the rod extension 4. solid PTFE. HF cable 1 2.5. All wetted parts of the antenna are PTFE.21 Extended rod antenna with inactive section and signal coupling below nozzle level 1. alkalis and solvents. tapered antenna. Radar antennas Rod antenna design 3 Fig 5. Rod extension casting (metal within PTFE) 2 3. The parallel and tapered sections are sealed together and are designed to withstand a process temperature of 150° C . Below this parallel section is the active. The parallel section that is designed to be within the nozzle has a PTFE coating on a cast metal tube. The HF cable from the microwave module is fed through the metal casting and the signal coupling is made just above the tapered rod. The flange face is PTFE with a tight seal between the flange PTFE and the top of the PTFE covered inactive section. 97 . Solid PTFE tapered ‘active’ section of rod antenna 3 4 5 This antenna is designed for use in nozzles of either 100 mm length or 250 mm length. The flanged version is designed for maximum chemical resistance to acids. This antenna design is used with 1½" BSP (M) stainless steel bosses or with PTFE faced flanged transmitters. Inactive section 5.

This is for less chemically arduous process conditions 98 .23 Extended rod antenna with stainless steel inactive section and PPS rod antenna. Fig 5. The tapered section of the antenna is made of polyphenylene sulphide (PPS).22 Extended rod antenna with inactive section and signal coupling below nozzle level.Extended rod antenna for 250 mm nozzle Extended rod antenna for 100 mm nozzle Fig 5. All wetted parts are PTFE on the flanged version of this antenna For less arduous applications a stainless steel extension tube is used instead of the PTFE covered tube.

outside the grid the PTFE is carbon impregnated. one piece. Internal metal grid acts as extended waveguide and prevents microwave leakage from the parallel section of the antenna 7. HF cable 1 2 3 4 5 2. Carbon impregnated PTFE antenna parallel section and flange face 6. The fabricated. Inside the grid the waveguide is virgin PTFE. there is a transition into a solid PTFE tapered rod which provides the impedance matching and focusing of the microwaves towards the product being measured. 99 .24 Extended rod antenna with metallic grid waveguide extension within carbon impregnated PTFE inactive rod. Screwed connection 5. Radar antennas Rod antenna design 4 Fig 5. The antenna flange facing and the parallel section of the antenna have carbon impregnated PTFE wetted parts. There is a PTFE male screwed fitting at the end of the waveguide within the process flange. Tapered active section of virgin PTFE 1. Signal coupling 3. rod antenna screws on to this connection. The HF cable is connected into a PTFE filled waveguide which directs the microwave energy towards the rod antenna. PTFE waveguide 8 8. Inside the parallel section of the rod there is a tubular metallic grid that acts as an extension to the waveguide. Virgin PTFE tapered antenna 6 7 This design of dielectric rod antenna is for use with flanged process connections.5. PTFE waveguide 4. At the end of the parallel section. As already discussed. This antenna has the option for 100 mm or 250 mm nozzle lengths. the tapered section must be entirely within the vessel.

Active tapered ceramic rod Rod antennas are available with the dielectric rod manufactured from ceramic (Al2O3). However. There is temperature separation between the electronics and the signal coupling (similar to the high temperature horn antenna Fig 5. Ceramic waveguide 3. The ceramic rod has a sharper taper than the equivalent PTFE rod 1 2 3 4 1.25 This is a high temperature ceramic rod antenna design.Rod antenna design 5 Fig 5.10). care must be taken when installing ceramic rods because they are brittle and prone to accidental damage. Ceramic has good chemical and thermal resistance. Signal coupling 2. Process seal (graphite or tantalum) 4. 100 .

In general horn antennas are mechanically more robust and do not suffer as much from build up or heavy condensation. weigh less and can be constructed from low cost but chemically resistant plastics such as PTFE and polypropylene. A small bore tube can be used with a radar Foam . there are applications within the process industry where the installation of an antenna directly within a vessel is not suitable for reasons of vessel design or radar functionality. Bypass tube and stand pipes are used for the following reasons: · · Highly agitated liquid surfaces a stilling tube ensures that the radar sees a calm surface with no scattering of the echo signal Low dielectric liquids such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) a stand pipe concentrates and guides the microwaves to the product surface giving the maximum signal strength from liquids with low levels of reflected energy Toxic and dangerous chemicals a stand pipe installation makes a small antenna size possible. The instrument can be isolated from the process for maintenance · Small vessels .5. Measuring tube antennas As discussed. On the other hand. conical horn antennas and dielectric rod antennas are used widely within the process industry. There may not be enough head space for a rod antenna or a suitable connection for a horn antenna.radar can be installed directly into existing bypass tubes · · · 101 .stand pipes or bypass tubes can be used for measurement in very small process vessels such as vacuum receivers. Radar antennas 3. This can be used to look through a full bore ball valve into the stand pipe. However.a stilling tube can often prevent foam affecting the measurement Replacing existing floats and displacers . dielectric rods are smaller. In these cases a measuring tube (bypass tube or a stand pipe within the vessel) may be an alternative.

For 80 mm and above. 102 . the 40 mm and 50 mm tubes do not require a horn.Measuring tube radar 1 . 50 mm (2"). Radar level installations. Normally.26 Installation of horn antenna radars into stand pipes or bypass tube DN50 DN80 DN100 DN150 ∅ 50 ∅ 80 ∅ 100 ∅ 150 Horn antenna radars are most commonly used in measuring tube level applications. the appropriate horn antenna is attached and this is designed to fit inside the tube. Stilling tube internal diameters can be 40 mm (1 ½"). Larger tubes are possible. As discussed in Chapter 2.horn antennas Fig 5. or towards the process connections in the case of a bypass tube. The PTFE or ceramic waveguide impedance matching cone can be installed directly into the tube. 100 mm (4") and 150 mm (6"). the linear polarization of the radar must be directed towards the tube breather hole or mixing slots. Physics of radar and Chapter 6. 80 mm (3").

103 . PTFE faced flange 4. HF cable 2. Signal coupling 3. offset rod antenna can be used on small diameter tubes (50 mm and 80 mm). There is a high level of ‘ringing’ noise which severely reduces the efficiency of the antenna.27 Offset rod antenna for use on 50 mm and 80 mm measuring tubes 1 1. All wetted parts are in PTFE and the short antenna is off centre. Radar antennas Measuring tube radar 2 . This design is similar in construction to rod antenna design 3. a special design of short.5. This asymmetric design produces improved signal to noise ratios within a measuring tube. However. Offset short solid PTFE rod antenna 2 3 4 The standard length dielectric rod antennas should not be installed within measuring tubes.offset rod antennas Fig 5.

3] is the speed of microwaves in the measuring tube / waveguide is the speed of light in free space is the wavelength of the microwaves is the diameter of the measuring tube Fig 5. The degree to which the running time slows down depends on the diameter of the tube and the wavelength of the signal.71d )2 2 } cwg co λ d [Eq.Microwave velocity within measuring tube The speed of microwaves within a measuring tube is apparently slower when compared to the velocity in free space. For a circular tube. or waveguide. The microwaves bounce off the sides of the tube and small currents are induced in the walls of the tube. This effect must be compensated within the software of the radar level transmitter 104 .28 The transit time of microwaves is slower within a stilling tube. the velocity change is calculated by the following equation : cwg = co x { 1- λ ( 1. 5.

the minimum tube diameter is dc = 6. This will minimise false echoes from the stilling tube wall. dc .4 shows the relationship between critical diameter and wavelength.75 mm. For example.8 GHz has a wavelength λ of ~ 52 mm. dc = λ 1. However. 5.8 GHz should be at least 40 mm.4] 100 % speed of light.8 1. Equation 5. The installation requirements of radar level transmitters in measuring tubes are covered in the next chapter.6 1. 5.8 2. The diameter for 5. an important value is the minimum diameter of pipe that will allow microwave propagation. The minimum theoretical tube diameter is dc = 31 mm With a frequency of 26 GHz.6 2. Radar antennas There are different modes of propagation of microwaves within a waveguide. The value of the critical diameter. depends upon the wavelength λ of the microwaves: The higher the frequency of the microwaves. c 80 60 40 20 0 0. the smaller the minimum diameter of measuring tube that can be used.29 Graph showing the effect of measuring tube diameter on the propagation speed of microwaves Higher frequencies such as 26 GHz will be more focused within larger diameter stilling tubes.5 mm.6 0.8 3. In practice the diameter should be higher.4 2. d / λ Fig 5.0 1.5.2 2.0 2. a wavelength of 11.0 Tube diameter / wavelength.2 1. 105 .4 1.71 [Eq.

106 . Focus of parabolic reflector 2 3 4 The subject of this book is radar level measurement in process vessels. The parabolic antenna is well known to all. which reflects the energy and focuses it towards the product being measured. Parabolic reflector secondary antenna 1 3. The parabolic form is widely seen from satellite television dishes and radio telescopes to car headlights and torch beams.4. This is usually of stainless steel construction and is designed to focus the microwaves as accurately as possible. the secondary antenna. the subject of antennas would not be complete without discussion of parabolic antennas.30 Typical parabolic antenna 1. The microwave energy is transmitted from the primary antenna back towards the parabolic dish. The microwaves are fed through the centre of the dish to the primary antenna that is in front of the dish at the focus. Although they are usually applied to custody transfer applications and not process vessel applications. Feed from microwave module 2. Primary antenna 4. The main structure of a parabolic antenna is the parabolic reflector dish. Parabolic dish antennas Fig 5.

The benefits of parabolic antennas in these applications are clear. Parabolic antennas have been applied to bitumen storage tanks where build up on the parabolic dish is said to cause minimum signal attenuation. slow moving product tanks. The good focusing of the paraboloid shape ensures high antenna gain or directivity. In conclusion. This can reduce the antenna efficiency. parabolic antennas are large. Radar antennas The reflected energy is captured by the dish and focused back to the primary antenna for echo analysis. Pic 1. Also this narrow beam angle results in higher sensitivity. If the primary antenna was coated in viscous product. These factors limit the use of parabolic antennas in most process level applications. However. The central feed to the primary antenna at the focus of the dish causes a blind area directly in front of the antenna. but is not suitable for the arduous conditions that are prevalent in the wide variety of vessels within the process industries. heavy. the parabolic antenna has a niche application in fiscal measurement of large. this would cause a major problem to the signal strength. Parabolic antennas are used widely in custody transfer applications and are well proven in large storage tanks. Parabolic antennas have been around since the beginning of radar 107 .5. relatively complex and expensive to manufacture.

Stainless steel back 5. The construction of a planar array antenna for a radar level transmitter is quite complex. Process flange 2 3.5. Planar array antennas have the advantage of being relatively small and light in weight especially when compared with parabolic antennas. When the nose cone of a modern jet fighter is removed. Antenna feed 4. The antenna is backed with a round stainless steel disk that provides rigidity and strength to the assembly. 108 . Microwave absorbing material 3 6. PTFE process seal 4 5 6 7 Planar array antennas were originally designed and built for aerospace radar applications. it reveals a flat circular disk faced with dielectric material and covered with small slots instead of the more ‘traditional’ parabolic metal dish. The steel disk is faced with a microwave absorbing material. This flat disk is typical of the planar array antennas which have been developed for use on radar level transmitters.31 Planar antenna . Electronics housing 2. Planar array antennas Fig 5. This material ensures that the microwave energy is directed towards the process and that there is no ‘ringing’ noise interference from microwave energy bouncing off the steel back plate.side view 1 1. Microwave patches 7.

Finally. Microwave patches with low dielectric layers between them focus the microwaves from each element of the array 5. Planar antennas can be designed with good focusing of the microwaves and minimal side lobes.5. Additional antistatic material is used for hazardous area applications. Stainless steel back to antenna provides rigidity 2. There is a pattern of microwave elements across the area of the antenna. Microwave absorbing material prevents ringing from stainless steel back 4. Radar antennas Fig 5.32 Cut away of planar array antenna for radar level transmitter 1. the microwave elements and the bonding materials that form the structure of the planar antenna are protected by a PTFE process seal covering the face of the antenna. PTFE process seal with anti-static elements 1 2 3 4 5 The microwaves pass in a common feed from the microwave module through the stainless steel and absorption material to a feed network across the area of the planar antenna. As well as applications within vessels. they can be used for measuring tube applications. Microwave feed through antenna back into feed network to microwave patches 3. Each element is built up of three or more microwave patches with dielectric material between. This forms a multiple microwave array with many individual elements transmitting from the face of the planar antenna. 109 . A pattern of microwave patches are fed from this network.

0 deg.1 deg. angular width (3dB) : 32. The aim is to maximize the directivity and minimise the effect of side lobes. These can be summarised as follows : · Larger horn antennas have more focused beam angles · Dielectric rod antennas have more side lobes than horn antennas · For more focusedofthe beam angle. 150 mm and 250 mm (4". frequency 5.Antenna energy patterns At the beginning of this chapter we stated that the definition of ‘beam angle’ is the angle at which the microwave energy measured at the centre line of the radar beam has reduced to 50% or minus 3 dB.3 dB 120 60 Fig 5.8GHz. The following pages show antenna radiation patterns for different antenna types.: 14. Phi=90.33 Horn antenna 100mm (4"). 90 Max. beam angle 32° 30 150 180 -10 0 10 20 0 150 30 120 main lobe direction : 0. The metallic horn (or cone) antenna and the dielectric rod antenna are the most practical for process level measurement.0 deg.8 GHz Farfield E_Abs (Theta). Comparison of horn antenna beam angle with horn diameter The following diagrams show the comparison of 100 mm. side lobe suppression : 16. We discussed directivity and antenna gain and stated that even the best designed antennas have side lobes of energy.6" & 10") horn antennas at 5.the higher the frequency a given size horn antenna the 1. frequencies and sizes.9 dB 90 60 110 .

0 deg. frequency 5.: 15.9° 30 Farfield E_Abs (Theta). side lobe suppression : 20. 90 Max.34 Horn antenna 150mm (6"). Radar antennas Fig 5.5.35 Horn antenna 250mm (10"). main lobe direction angular width (3dB) : 27.6 dB 90 60 111 .4 dB 120 60 150 180 -10 0 10 20 0 150 30 120 : 0. angular width (3dB) : 14.8GHz. Phi=90.4 dB 120 60 Fig 5. Beam angle 14.9 dB 90 60 Farfield E_Abs (Theta).0 deg. frequency 5. 90 Max.9 deg.9 deg.9° 30 150 180 0 10 20 30 0 150 30 120 main lobe direction : 0.0 deg. Phi=90. side lobe suppression : 21.0 deg. Beam angle 27.: 20.8GHz.

4 dB 120 60 Fig 5.36 Dielectric rod antenna. 90 Max.9 dB 90 60 112 . Although the beam angles are similar.2 Comparison of dielectric rod antenna with horn antenna The following show a 5.0 deg.0 deg.0 deg. side lobe suppression : 20. the rod has more significant side lobes. Phi=90.8 GHz. angular width (3dB) : 32.37 150mm (6").6 dB 90 60 Farfield E_Abs (Theta). horn antenna. angular width (3dB) : 27. side lobe suppression : 14.8 GHz horn antenna compared with a 5. Phi=90.9 deg.: 15.0 deg.2 dB 120 60 Fig 5.8 GHz rod antenna. Beam angle 32° 30 150 180 -10 0 10 20 0 150 30 120 main lobe direction : 0.0 deg. 5.9° 30 150 180 -10 0 10 20 0 150 30 120 main lobe direction : 0. Farfield E_Abs (Theta).: 15. 90 Max.8 GHz. Beam angle 27. 5.

side lobe suppression : 22. Phi=90.1 dB 90 60 113 .2 dB 90 60 Farfield E_Abs (Theta). angular width (3dB) : 9. Beam angle 9.39 80 mm (3") horn antenna.: 19.2 deg. 26 GHz. 90 Max.2° 30 150 180 -10 0 10 20 0 150 30 120 main lobe direction : 0.4° 30 150 180 0 10 20 30 0 150 30 120 main lobe direction : 0.4 deg.0 deg.3 dB 120 60 Fig 5. These should be compared with the previous 5. 90 Max.8 GHz horn antenna patterns. Radar antennas 3 Frequency differences and beam angles The following diagrams show the beam angle of 26 GHz radar with a 40 mm (1½" ) and 80 mm (3") horn antenna.0 deg.5.0 deg. angular width (3dB) : 18.0 deg. Phi=90. 26 GHz. Farfield E_Abs (Theta). Beam angle 18.3 dB 120 60 Fig 5. side lobe suppression : 17.: 24.38 40 mm (1½") horn antenna.

Pulsradar Teil II 4. FMCW-Radar 2. FMCW-Radar 3. Radarantennen 1.Hornantenne 2. Flüssigkeitsanwendungen . Geräte für Ex-Anendungen 47 48 54 62 68 74 77 81 92 101 106 108 110 115 115 115 117 120 127 134 139 141 141 144 1 13 33 33 36 39 ix xi xiii . Pulsradar 3. Parabolantennen 5. Geschichte des Radars 2. Radartypen 1. Standrohrantennen 4. Elektrische Anschlussvarianten 1. Allgemeine Einbauhinweise 4. Flüssigkeitsanwendungen . Planarantennen Richtcharakteristik von Antennen 6. Installation A. Genauigkeit 5. Mechanischer Einbau 1. Messung durch Behälterwand und Radarfenster 6. Radar-Füllstandmessung 1.Inhalt Vorwort Danksagung Einleitung Teil I 1. Frequenzwahl 4. CW-Radar 2. Nicht-Ex-Anwendungen 2. Physikalische Grundlagen des Radars 3. Messung von Schüttgütern mit Hornantennen B. Dielektrische Stabantennen 3. Hornantennen 2. Standrohre und Bypass-Rohre 5.Stabantenne 3. Leistung 5.

6. Installation
Mechanischer Einbau
Der richtige Einbau ist für die Funktion eines Füllstandradars von sehr großer Bedeutung. Obwohl die Signalverarbeitungssoftware moderner Geräte inzwischen auch schlechte Echoverhältnisse zuverlässig auswerten kann, ist dies immer noch die wichtigste Vorausetzung für eine funktionierende Messung.

1. Flüssigkeitsanwendungen - Hornantenne
Stutzen / Muffen Üblicherweise werden Radarsensoren auf einem Behälterstutzen oder einer Muffe installiert. Referenzpunkt für die Messung ist die Unterseite des Geräteflansches. Die Vorderkante der Hornantenne sollte immer mindestens 10 mm aus dem Stutzen heraus in den Behälter ragen. Die Hornantenne eines Gerätes mit einem Flansch DN 150 (6") ist z.B. 205 mm lang. Ist der Montagestutzen deutlich länger als 195 mm, sollte eine Hohlleiterverlängerung verwendet werden. So kann garantiert werden, dass das Ende der Hornantenne über den Stutzen hinausragt.

Korrekter Einbau
10 mm

Falscher Einbau

Abb. 6.1

Abb.6.2 115

Hohlleiterverlängerung und gebogene Hohlleiter Eine Hohlleiterverlängerung sollte verwendet werden, wenn ein Radargerät mit Hornantenne in einem langen Stutzen installiert wird. Hierfür wird ein Edelstahlrohr zwischen den PTFE / keramischen Hohlleiter im Flansch und der Hornantenne montiert. Es ist auch möglich, die Hohlleiterverlängerung für einen seitlichen Einbau des Gerätes abzubiegen. Der minimale Biegeradius für diesen Antennentyp ist 200 mm, der Winkel sollte nicht über 90° betragen. Bei der Verwendung eines gebogenen Hohlleiters ist die Ausrichtung der linearen Polarisation des Radars wichtig. Die Polarisationsrichtung des Radars sollte horizontal sein, wenn die Biegung nach unten verläuft. Verlängerte und gebogene Hohlleiter sind für Flüssigkeiten mit guten Reflexionseigenschaften geeignet. Sie sollten nicht bei Flüssigkeiten mit niedrigen DK-Werten oder bei Schüttgütern verwendet werden.

Minimale Messdistanz bei Geräten mit Hornantenne Mit einer Hornantenne ist es normalerweise möglich, flüssige Medien bis an die Unterkante der Antenne zu messen. Dies ist allerdings nur möglich, wenn die Flüssigkeit gute Reflexionseigenschaften hat. Das Eintauchen der Antennen in die Flüssigkeit, eventuell sogar mit Anhaftungen, verursacht insbesondere bei 6,3 GHz-Geräten kaum Probleme.

Abb. 6.3: Einbau von Geräten mit Hornantenne.

116

6. Installation
2. Flüssigkeitsanwendungen - Stabantenne
Stutzen / Muffen Eine PTFE-Stabantenne eignet sich gut bei chemisch aggressiven Produkten wie Säuren und Laugen. Sie wird oft in der chemischen und pharmazeutischen Industrie benutzt, wo Mischungen aus Lösungsmitteln, Säuren und Laugen alltäglich sind. Die PTFE-Stabantennen mit TriClamp und spaltfreier Dichtkonstruktion sind speziell für Anwendungen in der Lebensmittelindustrie und für sterile Behälter optimiert. Die Stabantenne wird für Flüssigkeiten und Schlämme, aber nicht für Schüttgutanwendungen benutzt. Der Sensor ist meistens in einem einfachen Stutzen oder in einer Gewindemuffe eingebaut. Radarsensoren mit Stabantenne werden passend für geschraubte Verbindungen wie 1½" (NPT oder G), Flanschanschlüsse von DN 50 (2") bis DN 150 (6") oder hygienische Lebensmittelanschlüsse geliefert. Beim Einbau ist wichtig, dass der komplette konische Teil der Antenne aus dem Stutzen in den Behälter ragt. Für den Einbau in langen Stutzen sind Stabantennen mit unterschiedlichen inaktiven Längen verfügbar. Typische Längen für diesen inaktiven Teil, und somit die maximale Länge des Stutzens, sind 100 mm und 250 mm.

Abb. 6.4: Typische Einbau einer Stabantenne: Der aktive konische Teil der Antenne muss komplett in den Behälter ragen. Für längere Stutzen sollten Antennen mit inaktiver Länge verwendet werden.

117

Im Nahbereich kann dies sogar das Echo überdecken. Dies führt speziell im Nahbereich zu einer Verringerung der Messsicherheit. Abb.5: Richtig: Antenne mit angepasstem inaktiven Teil für lange Stutzen. 118 . erzeugen die abgestrahlten Mikro- wellen ein starkes Rauschen (Klingeln). 6. 6. Abb.Falscher Einbau einer Stabantenne Wenn der konische Abschnitt einer Stabantenne in einem Stutzen montiert wird.6: Falsch: Kurze Stabantenne in einem langen Stutzen. Produziert hohes „Klingeln“. Normale Rauschkurve mit deutlichem Echo.

Lösungsmittel oder wasserbasierende Produkte die Stabantenne. Eine Erhöhung der Verstärkung würde dies noch weiter verschlechtern. 119 . Im Idealfall sollte das flüssige Füllgut die Stabantenne nicht berühren. hierbei muss Folgendes in Betracht gezogen werden. dass die PTFE-Antennen nur beschränkten mechanischen Belastungen widerstehen können. Bilden sich starke Anhaftungen. werden die Mikrowellen bei einer Stabantenne vom konischen Abschnitt des Stabs ausgesandt. Jedoch ist auch hier schon mit deutlich verringerter Messsicherheit und Genauigkeit zu rechnen. Hat die Anwendung starke Füllgutbewegungen? Kann die Biegekraft Schaden am Stab verursachen? Anhaftungen auf der Stabantenne Wie schon erklärt. Bei solchen Medien kann die Antenne bis zur Hälfte eintauchen. Installation Stabantenne direkt auf dem Behälter Radarsensoren mit Stabantenne können direkt in eine Öffnung in der Decke eines Tanks montiert werden.B. Taucht nun der Stab in eine viskose Flüssigkeit ein. ist es wichtig. Nach Möglichkeit sollte ein Eintauchen der Antenne gänzlich vermieden werden. Mechanische Belastung Es sollte beachtet werden.6. dann wird das Radar nicht mehr funktionieren. so gefährdet dies die Messung. Dies kann entweder über einen Flansch oder ein Einschraubgewinde geschehen. Maximale Füllhöhe bei einer Stabantenne Wie bereits erklärt. Allerdings ist dies manchmal unvermeidlich. Die Gerätesoftware kann das „Klingeln“ bei einem falschen Einbau nicht eliminieren. Beim Auftreten einer Querkraft kann sie sich biegen und verformen oder sogar brechen. und das Produkt bildet auf der Antenne einen Überzug. Berühren niedrigviskose Flüssigkeiten wie z. kann dies sogar einen Selbstreinigungseffekt haben und die Messung bleibt stabil. dass der konische Abschnitt einer Stabantenne komplett innerhalb des Behälters ist. Die Länge der Stabantenne ab dem Flansch bestimmt die maximale Befüllhöhe im Behälter.

Montage in Behältern mit gewölbtem Deckel Ein Radarsensor sollte nicht im Zentrum eines gewölbten Deckels oder zu nahe an der Gefäßwand montiert werden. 6. tatsächliche Echo. empfängt er deutlich überhöhte Vielfachechos. dass das dritte Vielfache eine deutlich höhere Amplitude aufweist als das erste.oder Stabantenne auf einem Behälter berücksichtigt werden. Ist der Radarsensor im „Brennpunkt“ eines parabolischen Deckels montiert.und Stabantenne bei Flüssigkeitsanwendungen Folgendes sollte bei der Montage eines Radargerätes mit Horn. 120 Abb. Dieser Effekt kann auch in liegenden Rundtanks vorkommen. 6. Die ideale Position ist ungefähr ½ Radius von der Außenwand entfernt. Allgemeine Einbauhinweise: Horn.8: Dieser Effekt tritt auf. Paraboleffekt Wird ein Radarfüllstandmessgerät im Zentrum eines gewölbten Deckels montiert. Vielfachechos können bei Pulsradar durch die Software erkannt werden. . ist dies bei FMCW ein größeres Problem.7: Die ideale Position für das Gerät ist bei Behältern mit gewölbtem Deckel bei der Hälfte des Radius. 6.8 zeigt.3. empfängt der Sensor stark überhöhte Vielfachechos. Gewölbte Tankdeckel können sonst als parabolischer Reflektor wirken. Dies wird vermieden. da sie zeitlich deutlich getrennt sind. Der Effekt dieser Vielfachechos kann deutlich auf der Echokurve betrachtet werden. Wie bereits in Kapitel 4 beschrieben. wenn der Sensor wie zuvor beschrieben eingebaut wird. Echokurve r/2 r Abb. wenn das Gerät in der Spitze eines gewölbten Deckels montiert werden. Abb.

je geringer der DK-Wert des Produkts ist und je höher die Genauigkeitsanforderungen sind.6. Runde Profile hingegen produzieren eine diffuse Reflexion und somit nur geringe Störechos. Installation Störechos Ebene Flächen.10: Durch diffuse Reflexion an runden Teilen werden deutlich geringere Störechos produziert. die von einer ebenen Fläche stammen. Diese Maßnahmen müssen umso gewissenhafter durchgeführt werden. An diesen Objekten werden hohe Störamplituden produziert. 6. Sie sind deshalb vom Gerät leichter zu verarbeiten als große Störechos. Abb. Versteifungen oder auch Einbauten mit scharfen Kanten verursachen große Störechos. Die dann mehrfach gebrochenen Radarsignale sind in der Amplitude deutlich kleiner und deshalb von der Software leichter zu verarbeiten. 121 . 6.B. Einbauten z.11: Ein Streublech verteilt die Mikrowellenenergie zur Seite und reduziert damit die Störechoamplitude. Können flache Reflexionsebenen im Messbereich des Radars nicht ver- mieden werden. Abb. 6.9: Profile mit ebenen Flächen oder scharfen Ecken verursachen starke Störechos. sollten diese mit einem zur Seite ablenkenden Streublech versehen werden. Abb.

z. Achsen. Einlässe. Die folgenden Beispiele zeigen typische Messprobleme und wie sie vermieden werden können. die übrigen Störechos können von der Signalverarbeitungssoftware herausgefiltert werden. Abb. Absätze Behälterprofile mit flachen Absätzen rechtwinklig zur Hauptstrahlrichtung des Radars erzeugen starke Störechos.13).12: Streublech an einem Absatz im Behälter. Durch den Einbau eines Streublechs kann die Störechoamplitude deutlich reduziert werden. 6. 6. 122 .Vermeiden vom Störechos Bei der Einbauposition des Radargerätes sollte darauf geachtet werden. Einbauten mit einer rechtwinkligen Fläche zum Sensor. Hiermit wird das Radarsignal ebenfalls gestreut. um somit eine zuverlässige Messung zu ermöglichen.B. sollten mit einem „Dach“ versehen werden (Abb. 6.13: Streublech auf Einbauten. Abb. dass sich keine Streben und kein Befüllstrom im Detektionsbereich des Radars befinden.

montiert werden. Installation Behältereinbauten Einbauten wie z. 6.B. können diese die Messung bei einem schlecht reflektierenden Produkt gefährden. Versteifungen und Sonden verursachen oft Störechos.15: Winkelbleche an Schweißnähten oder Versteifungen können Störechos reduzieren. Abb. Durch Anbringen von kleinen Blechen können diese Störechos verkleinert werden. Durch einen gute Wahl der Einbauposition können viele Störechos bereits im Vorfeld vermieden werden. Auch Schweißnähte im Behälter können Störechos produzieren.B. z. Abb 6. Leitern. Leitern. Die Störamplitude sinkt und kann von der Signalverarbeitung besser verwertet werden. 123 . Streben. Speziell bei höherfrequenten Radargeräten. Bei der Herstellung des Behälters können Störechos durch Verschleifen der Schweißnähte minimiert werden.14: Der Sensor sollte abseits von Einbauten.6. die nahe an der Wand montiert sind.

es ist am Gerät durch die Position des Typenschildes erkennbar. Die Amplitude von Störechos. Der ideale Kompromiss ist ½ Radius. kann oft durch Drehen des Radarsensors um 45º oder 90º reduziert werden. von Streben oder der Behälterwand. können Produktanhaftungen Störechos erzeugen. 124 .Anhaftungen Ist der Radarsensor zu nahe an der Behälterwand montiert. Der Sensor sollte deshalb immer etwas Abstand zur Behälterwand haben. sind die Mikrowellen der VEGA Radargeräte linear polarisiert. Obwohl die Polarisation eine größere Bedeutung in Standrohren und Bypassrohren hat. kann sie auch bei Anwendung in „normalen“ Behältern von Bedeutung sein. Polarisation Wie schon in Kapitel 2 besprochen. z. Die Richtung der Polarisation wird durch das Einkoppelsystem festgelegt.B.16: Störechos durch Anhaftungen an der Behälterwand sollten vermieden werden. Abb. 6.

Dadurch wird ver- mieden.18: Montieren Sie den Radarsensor abseits von Befüllströmen. 6. Abb. Installation Ausrichtung des Radargerätes bei Flüssigkeitsanwendungen (Stab. sinkt die das Radar-Füllstandmessgerät mögEchoamplitude und die Gefahr von lichst senkrecht nach unten zur zu Störechos wächst.oder Hornantenne) Bei Flüssigkeitsanwendungen muss Wird das Gerät angewinkelt.6.17: Bei Messungen von Flüssigkeiten muss der Sensor senkrecht ausgerichtet sein. 125 . Abb. messenden Oberfläche geführt werden. 6. Fließende Produkte Ein Radarsensor sollte nicht direkt über oder in der Nähe einer Befüllung montiert werden. dass anstelle der Produktoberfläche der Befüllstrom gemessen wird.

Abb.Sensor zu nah an der Behälterwand Wird der Radarsensor zu nahe an der Behälterwand montiert. Bei ungünstigen Einbaubedingungen bzw. Im Allgemeinen sollte darauf geachtet werden.19: Richtdiagramm einer Antenne mit 150 mm Durchmesser bei 6. dass sich die Behälterwand nicht innerhalb des 3dB-Öffnungswinkels der Antenne befindet.3 GHz. Die Echos von Anhaftungen. Nieten oder Schweißnähten überlagern sich mit dem richtigen Echo. um dies zu verhindern. Störungen durch die Behälterwand können die Messverhältnisse durch Verändern der Polarisation optimiert werden. 6. Abhängig von der Antennengröße haben verschiedene Radarfüllstand- messgeräte unterschiedliche Öffnungswinkel (Kapitel 5: Radarantennen). 126 . kann dies starke Interferenzen verursachen. Es muss ausreichend Abstand vom Sensor zur Behälterwand eingehalten werden.

h. Unter diesen Bedingungen ist es wahrscheinlich. 6. Leichte Anhaftungen verursachen jedoch in größeren Rohren. bei VEGA-Sensoren müssen diese senkrecht unter dem Typschild angebracht sein. Die Ausrichtung der Löcher zur Polarisation muss beachtet werden. um vorhandene Geräte in Rohren zu ersetzen. Wie schon in Kapitel 5 erklärt. Diese Art von Installation kann bei Messungen mit Schaum.21 dargestellt. Installation 4. Es gibt aber auch Anwendungen mit Schaum geringer Dichte. 100 mm Durchmesser. Als eine Alternative zum Standrohr im Gefäß kann ein Radarsensor auch außerhalb des Behälters auf einem Bypassrohr installiert werden. Ausgleichsbohrungen oder Schlitze müssen auf einer Achse liegen und dürfen maximal auf zwei gegenüberliegenden Seiten des Rohrs angebracht werden. verursacht durch Rührwerke oder heftige chemische Reaktionen. konzentriert das Standrohr die Mikrowellen und erzeugt so ein starkes Echo von der Produktoberfläche. Turbulente Produktoberfläche Starke Turbulenzen. dass der Radarsensor die Oberfläche des Schaums messen wird. z. kaum Probleme. Schaumbildung Ein dichter.6. Allgemeine Hinweise zur Radarmessung in Rohren Ein Standrohr muss unten offen sein und sich über dem vollen Messbereich ausdehnen (d. leitfähiger Schaum auf dem Produkt kann die Messung stören. Flüssiggas können in Standrohren trotzdem genau und zuverlässig gemessen werden. Produkte mit Dielektrizitätszahlen bis zu 1. mechanisch komplexen Behältern oder bei Flüssigkeiten mit sehr niedrigem DKWert notwendig sein.B. Standrohre und Bypassrohre Radar-Füllstandmessgeräte werden oft für Messungen in Standrohren oder. Zum Druckausgleich muss das Rohr über dem 100 % Punkt eine Bohrung besitzen. Die Polarisation muss wie in Abb. der von Radarwellen problemlos durchdrungen wird. starken Turbulenzen. dass das Produkt im Rohr nicht anhaftet. Bypassrohren eingesetzt. 127 . beeinflussen die Radarmessung. Voraussetzung hierfür ist. Ein Standrohr oder Bypassrohr mit hinreichender Größe erlaubt eine zuverlässige Messung sogar mit starken Turbulenzen im Behälter. Lassen Sie sich bei solch einer Anwendung vom Sensorhersteller beraten. z.B.B. zu den Prozessverbindungen ausgerichtet werden. Flüssigkeiten mit sehr niedriger Dielektrizitätszahl Selbst nichtleitende Produkte und Flüssigkeiten mit äußerst niedriger Dielektrizitätszahl wie z. von 0 % bis 100 % Füllstand). deshalb muss bei Messungen mit Schaum stets mit Umsicht und Erfahrung vorgegangen werden. Verdränger und Schwimmer. Allerdings kann hier keine generelle Aussage getroffen werden. Radar-Füllstandmessgeräte werden oft auch benutzt.5 können so gemessen werden.

128 . 6. 6. 6.E E E Abb. Abb.21: Polarisationsrichtung bei einem Bypassrohr.20: Position von Entlüftungsbohrung und Polarisation auf einem Standrohr. Radarsensoren können Verdrängersysteme und Schwimmer problemlos ersetzen. Abb.22: Installation auf einem Bypassrohr.

In einem Rohr mit 50 mm Durchmesser (2") verringert sich die Laufzeit um 20 % und die maximale Länge beträgt dadurch noch 16 m. 129 . Standrohr zur Messung von inhomogenen Produkten Abb. Eine korrekte Polarisation verbessert die Messung erheblich. dass sich die Mikrowellen im Rohr langsamer.23: Durch Schlitze wird eine gute Durchmischung von inhomogenen Produkten erreicht. Störechos werden dadurch reduziert und somit das Signal-Rausch-Verhältnis optimiert. Die Löcher oder Schlitze müssen auf einer Achse liegen. Bei einem Rohr von 100 mm Durchmesser (4") reduziert sich die nutzbare Länge auf 19 m. Verursacht wird dies dadurch. Installation Polarisation Die Sensorpolarisation muss in einem Bypassrohr in Richtung der Prozessverbindungen und in einem Standrohr in Richtung der Ausgleichsbohrungen oder Schlitze ausgerichtet werden. der maximale Messbereich. abhängig vom Durchmesser. als Lichtgeschwindigkeit ausbreiten. Die Polarisation muss in Richtung der Schlitze ausgerichtet werden. Laufzeitänderung der Mikrowellen Wie bereits in Kapitel 2 und Kapitel 5 erklärt. 6. reduziert sich in einem Standrohr.6.

dass die Flüssigkeit durchmischt wird und. den Prozess zu stoppen. Wartungsarbeiten durchzuführen. Die Löcher und Schlitze müssen aus Gründen der Polarisation in zwei um 180º versetzten Reihen positioniert werden. Je inhomogener das Produkt. E E Abb. Messrohr mit Kugelhahn Zur Abtrennung des Rohrs bzw. 6. bzw. 6. dass die Polarisation in Richtung der Löcher ausgerichtet ist. Dies ist bei Flüssiggas und giftigen Erzeugnissen besonders wichtig. muss das Standrohr Löcher oder lange Schlitze haben. Sollen inhomogene Produkte oder Produkte gemessen werden die eine Trennschicht ausbilden. dies würde sonst zu Störechos führen. desto mehr Öffnungen müssen vorhanden sein. des Messgeräts vom Prozess kann ein Kugelhahn verwendet werden. sollte das Rohr einen Innendurchmesser von mindestens 100 mm (4") haben. Mit dem Kugelhahn ist es möglich.25: Mit einem Kugelhahn kann der Radarsensor vom Behälter getrennt werden. ohne den Behälter zu öffnen. Diese Öffnungen stellen sicher.Anhaftende Produkte Um Messprobleme und Messfehler bei der Messung von anhaftenden Produkten in Standrohren zu vermeiden.24: Die Polarisation muss in Richtung der Schlitze oder Löcher ausgerichtet sein. 130 . Bei geöffnetem Ventil sollten möglichst keine Kanten im Durchlass zu sehen sein. dass sie sich an den richtigen Füllstand angleicht. Der Radarsensor muss so ausgerichtet werden. Abb. ohne den Behälter zu öffnen.

DN80 (3"). In solchen Anwendungen kann der Einbau eines Streublechs am Ende des Rohrs von Vorteil sein. dass die Stoßstellen möglichst spaltfrei und ohne Durchmessersprung ausgeführt werden. als das Produkt selbst. Diagramm 1 zeigt die Konstruktion eines Stand. sollten die Teilstücke mit Vorschweißflanschen oder Rohrverschraubungen verbunden werden. Die Flanschverbindung zum Gerät ist nicht mehr kritisch.6. DN100 (4") und DN 150 (6")benutzt. Die Mikrowellen werden hiermit zur Seite abgelenkt und das starke Bodenecho hierdurch vermieden. Bei starker Bewegung im Behälter (z. Beim Schweißen darf kein Verzug entstehen. dies gilt auch für sehr lange Rohre. Radarsensoren mit Flanschen von DN80 (3"). Diese würden sonst Störechos verursachen und Anhaftungen begünstigen. oder es kommt zu starken Messfehlern im Bodenbereich. 131 .oder Bypassrohren werden Geräte mit Flanschgrößen DN50 (2"). Zur Messung in Rohren DN50 und DN80 sind spezielle Stabantennen vorhanden. Ausgelöst wird dies dadurch. Das Standrohr muss innen glatt sein (Rauhigkeitswert Rz < 30). Allerdings geht dadurch am Rohrende Raum verloren. die Rohrstärke muss angepasst werden. DN100 (4") und DN150 (6") müssen zur Messung im Standrohr mit einer Hornantenne ausgerüstet sein. Hierbei ist jedoch darauf zu achten. Rührwerk) muss das Standrohr entsprechend befestigt werden. da außerhalb des Rohrs nicht gemessen werden kann. Der Antennendurchmesser sollte hierbei möglichst nahe am Innendurchmesser des Rohrs liegen. Bei der Messung von Flüssigkeiten mit niedrigem DK-Wert kann oft der Nullpunkt nicht sicher gemessen werden. dass das Echo des Behälterbodens hinter dem Rohrende ein stärkeres Echo erzeugt.B. Installation Konstruktionsrichtlinien für Standrohre Diagramm 1 (Seite 132) Diagramm 2 (Seite 133) Für Messung in Stand. Rauhigkeiten und Schweißnähte im Rohr müssen sorgfältig entfernt werden. um nicht durch das Rohr durchzuschweißen. Diagramm 2 zeigt die Konstruktion eines Standrohrs für einen Radarsensor mit einem DN100 (4") Flansch. Ideal ist ein durchgehendes Rohr ohne Verbindungsstellen im Messbereich.oder Bypassrohrs mit einem Rohrdurchmesser und Flansch DN50. Werden größere Rohrlängen benötigt. Schlitze und Löcher müssen sorgfältig entgratet werden. da sie hinter der Abstrahlebene der Antenne liegt.

5…2 Löcher müssen gratfrei sein Halterung des Standrohres minimal messbare Füllhöhe (0%) Tankboden 0% Ablenkplatte ~45˚ Alle Abmessungen in mm Abb.0…0.Diagramm 1 Radarsensor VEGAPULS 54 Flansch DN 50 Rohrdruchmesser 50 mm Vorschweißflansch 100% 2.9…6 5…15 150…500 Schweißungs der Verbindungsmuffe 0.4 Verbindungsmuffe Rz ≤ 30 Vorschweißflansch 0.26 132 .4 2.9 Schweißung des Vorschweißflansches 1.0…0. 6.

6 0.0…0. 6.4 Verbindungsmuffe Rz ≤ 30 Vorschweißflansch Schweißung des Vorschweiflansches Löcher müssen gratfrei sein 1.27 133 .0…0.6 5…15 Schweißung des Schweißflansches 150…500 Schweißung der Verbindungsmuffe 0.6.4 3. Installation Diagramm 2 Radarsensor VEGAPULS 54 Flansch DN 100 Rohrdurchmesser 100 mm Schweißflansch 100% 3.5…2 Halterung des Standrohres 0% minimal messbare Füllhöhe (0%) ~45˚ AblenkPlatte Behälterboden Alle Abmessungen in mm Abb.

B. PTFE. Dies ist für einige Anwendungen sehr wichtig. sie können bei geeignetem Behältermaterial direkt von oben. Produkte mit guter elektrischer Leitfähigkeit und mit einer Dielektrizitätszahl von mehr als 10 sind dafür geeignet. gemessen werden. 134 . Polypropylen und Glas.28: Gut reflektierende Medien können direkt durch die Behälterwand oder durch ein Messfenster gemessen werden. Abb. bei der Messung von hochreinen Flüssigkeiten in der Pharmaindustrie oder der Halbleiterfertigung. oder bei hochaggressiven Produkten in der chemischen Industrie. Messung durch die Behälterwand und Radarfenster Die Mikrowellensignale von Radarfüllstandmessgeräten durchdringen dielektrische Materialien wie z. 6.B. Bei Messungen in denen es prozess. z.5.oder produktbedingt zu starken Niederschlägen oder Kondensation an der Behälterdecke kommt. ist dieses Verfahren mit Vorsicht anzuwenden. Ein solche Messung ist bei Produkten mit guten Reflexionseigenschaften möglich. durch die Behälterdecke. In diesen Fällen ist es aus Sicherheitsgründen und im Hinblick auf die Produktqualität von Vorteil wenn der Behälter geschlossen bleibt.

Installation Reflexionen an der Behälterwand Wie Licht folgen auch Mikrowellen den Gesetzen der Reflexion. Anmerkung: Prüfen Sie die Bestimmungen für den Einsatz von Radar-Füllstandmessgeräten außerhalb von geschlossenen Behältern in ihrem Land. 135 . 6. 6. 6.31: Optimale Installation für ein 6.30) Abb. Die geltenden Regeln können sehr unterschiedlich sein.29: Eine flache Behälterdecke produziert eine Störreflexion direkt zurück in die Antenne. Der Winkel stellt sicher. wird immer ein Teil dort reflektiert.30: Die Messung über einem angeschrägten Bereich des Behälterdeckels verbessert die Messung deut- Messung durch ein dielektrisches Fenster Mit einem Pulsradar kann auch durch „dielektrische Fenster“ in Metalltanks gemessen werden. Obwohl bei geeignetem Behältermaterial der größte Teil der Energie durch die Behälterwand hindurch dringt. 6. Das Fenster muss groß genug und sollte im Idealfall auch angewinkelt sein. Dies führt zu erhöhtem Rauschen im Nahbereich. 400 mm zum Behälter montiert wird.29).6. Abb. Die Qualität der Messung wird verbessert. Auch hier sollte der Sensor auf Abstand zum Fenster montiert werden. Abb. (Abb. wenn das Radargerät über einem schrägen Bereich des Deckels (35º bis 50º) in einem Abstand von ca. 6. Bei ebener Tankdecke und Aufsetzen des Radargerätes auf dem Tank wird dieser Teil der Sendeenergie direkt in die Antenne zurückreflektiert (Abb.3 GHz-Radar zur Messung durch ein dielektrisches Fenster. dass die Reflexionen von der Tankwand nicht direkt in die Antenne strahlen und es somit nicht zu Störechos kommt.

in Dimensionierung als Linse wirken und einem metallischen Stutzen über einem die Mikrowellen zusätzlich fokusKunststoff oder Glasfenster installiert sieren. um die Vorteile eines „dielekTrennscheibe kann bei geeigneter trischen Fensters“ nutzen zu können. Solch eine Gerät.Messung durch ein dielektrisches Fenster In einigen Ländern ist es verboten Bei Messungen durch ein Fenster FMCW-Radar-Füllstandmessgeräte kann eine Verbesserung erzielt werden. Kondensat.32). 6. Dies kann jedoch lich das Ablaufen und Abtropfen von einen hohen Störpegel verursachen. Radar-Sensor metallischer Stutzen konische Teflonscheibe Abb. 6. 6.32). In solchen Fällen muss das erhält (siehe Abb. außerhalb eines Metallgefäßes zu wenn die Scheibe eine konische Form betreiben.32 136 . Diese Form begünstigt zusätzwerden (Abb.

6. Installation Dimensionierung des dielektrischen Fensters Die Wahl der richtigen Material180º-Phasendrehung der Mikrowellen. beim Verlassen des Fenster sehr wichtig. Durch Wahl unterschiedlichen Echos. An dieser erste Oberfläche. gen. dem Übergang von DK = 1 auf den DKWert des Fenstermaterials. Fensters. Die entstehenden Interferenzen Hier geht es von einem dichteren in ein durch das Fenster bestehen aus zwei weniger dichtes Medium.6. 137 .33: Die optimale Dicke des Fenstermaterials beträgt λ/2 der Radarfrequenz. an der diese beiden Echos aus (siehe auch die Mikrowellen ins Fenster eindrinKapitel 2). Das erste der Fensterdicke als λ/2 der Echo stammt von der äußeren Mikrowellenfrequenz löschen sich Oberfläche des Fenstermaterials. dicke ist für die Messung durch ein Das zweite Echo. gibt es eine Gesendete Welle Reflexion mit Phasendrehung von der Oberfläche Reflexion ohne Phasendrehung von der inneren Oberfläche D Kunststoffdeckel Sendesignal Reflexion mit Phasendrehung Reflexion ohne Phasendrehung { Gegenseitige Auslöschung Abb. besitzt keine Phasendrehung.

4.) (5..6.0.) (7. 50 …) (22.6 .5 2.9 3 2.5 4.8 .6 3. Fenstermaterialien für Radarsender: Frequenz 6.3 2. 7.) Fenstermaterialien für Radarsender: Frequenz 26 GHz zu durchdringendes Material PE Polyethylen PTFE (Teflon) PVDF Polyvinyl PP Polypropylen Borosylikat-Glas Rassotherm-Glas Labortherm-Glas Quarzglas POM Polyoxymethylen Polyester Plexiglas Polyacrylat PC Polycarbonat εr 2.7 4.4 .6 8. 46. Die Schichten müssen jedoch ohne Luftspalt aufeinander liegen.6 3.7 …) (6.1 ~2.0.0. 42 .5. 30. Es wird die optimale Dicke für 6.4 .0 .. 8.1 ~7 2. 8.3 GHz zu durchdringendes Material PE Polyethylen PTFE (Teflon) PVDF Polyvinyl PP Polypropylen Borosylikat-Glas Rassotherm-Glas Labortherm-Glas Quarzglas POM Polyoxymethylen Polyester Plexiglas Polyacrylat PC Polycarbonat εr 2.5.2...5 …) (20..) (5.) (8..5 …) (5. 36.0.3 5.6 8.8 optimale Dicke 15. 12.5 16.6 D in mm (7. 11. 40 …) (22.) (7.8..0 .5 10 11 8..7 3.) (6.5 14 D in mm (31.1 ~2.1 …) (4.1 ~4 3. 9. 33.8 optimale Dicke 3.1 .7 4.. jedoch verursacht die Dicke des Fenstermaterials eine Signaldämpfung. 11. 44 …) (27. 138 . 48…) (25. 33.5 11 13.4. 26..5 …) (33. 54 …) (28.5 9 15..4 . 27. 6. 34…) (24.) (3.) Anmerkung: Die optimale Dicke kann auch durch Aufschichten einiger Lagen identischen Materials erreicht werden..3 2.6.37..5.6. 10.5 …) (18. Vielfache der optimalen Dicke führen ebenfalls zu guten Ergebnissen. 9..8 2..Die Tabelle zeigt die optimale Dicke für die wichtigsten Kunststoffe und Gläser die zum Durchstrahlen geeignet sind.5 4.3 GHz und 26 GHz gezeigt..4.1 ~4 3. 36 …) (31. 8. 40. 5.1 ~7 2..5 12 12.8 4 1.0 …) (5..7 2 2.3 5. 49. 8. 44 …) (17. 46.8 3.2 3.

Abb 6. der Füll. Messung von Schüttgütern mit Hornantennen Zur Messung von Schüttgütern werden fast ausschließlich Hornantennen verwendet.6. Der Radarsensor wird angewinkelt montiert um immer möglichst senkrecht zur Produktoberfläche zu senden. Die Oberflächen von Schüttgütern in Silos und Behältern sind selten flach.34: Für Schüttgutanwendungen werden Hornantennen verwendet. Die Antenne ist außerhalb der Mitte montiert und zum tiefsten Punkt im Silo ausgerichtet. Granulate und Körner ein. Der Winkel des Schüttkegels hängt vom Produkt selbst. Dies schließt alle pneumatisch beförderten Erzeugnisse wie Pulver.B. Pulver oder Granulat sieht das Profil bei Befüllung und Entleerung zumeist unterschiedlich aus. Dies ergibt bei verschiedenen Schüttkegeln das beste Messergebnis. 139 . Der Radarsensor sollte abseits vom Befüllstrom und von Einbauten montiert werden um möglichst wenig Störechos zu erhalten. So wird über die gesamte Füllhöhe die beste Echoamplitude erreicht. Installation 6. sollten außerhalb der Mitte zum tiefsten Punkt des Behälters ausgerichtet montiert werden.und Entleermethode und von Form und Abmessungen des Silos ab. Radar-Füllstandmessgeräte. Die Stabantenne hat ihre Stärke in Flüssigkeitstanks. ebenso wie Ultraschallwandler. Bei Produkten wie z. Auch hier sollte das Ende des Horns mindestens 10 mm in den Behälter ragen.

35 und 6. Hohe Temperaturen und anhaftende Produkte Bei Anwendungen mit hohen TemHierzu wird der Flansch von zwei peraturen oder stark anhaftenden gegenüberliegenden Seiten bis zum Staubablagerungen auf der Antenne Konus der Teflonfüllung durchbohrt. 6. Stickstoff 140 .bzw. sollte diese mit Druckluft oder StickAn diesen Stellen kann dann die Luftstoff gespült werden. Stickstoffspülung zum Kühlen und Reinigen der Antenne.Abb. bzw. 6. Abb.bzw.36: Schüttkegel von typischen Schüttgutanwendungen beim Befüllen und Entleeren. Stickstoffspülung angeschlossen werden.37: Luft. Luft.

38 b.multi-drop Betrieb mit bis zu 16 Sensoren parallel an einem Strang 141 . Elektrische Anschlussvarianten In den vergangenen Jahren hat sich die Auswahl an unterschiedlichen Radar-Füllstandmessgeräten erhöht. 6.Fernparametrierung mit dem HART®-Handheld Programmiergerät . HART®-Protokoll Die meisten Zweileiter. verfügbar. Nicht-Ex-Anwendungen a. Vierleiter-Radarsensor mit 4 … 20 mA Stromausgang 20/250 VAC / VDC 4 … 20 mA Abb.6.und Ex-Anwendungen auf dem Markt etabliert. Seit ihrer Markteinführung haben sich eigensichere ZweileiterRadarsensoren als vollwertiger Ersatz für traditionelle Sensoren wie z.B. Zweileiter-Radarsensor 4 … 20 mA.und Vierleiter-. Diese umfassen 4 … 20 mA. Zudem haben sich eine Vielzahl von elektrischen Anschlussmöglichkeiten für Standard. Installation B. aufmoduliert auf dem Stromsignal. 4 … 20 mA Radar-Füllstandmessgeräte sind mit dem HART®-Protokoll. In diesem Abschnitt werden die möglichen Beschaltungskonfigurationen für alle Arten von Radar betrachtet. 1.Einspeisung der HART®-Daten direkt in das Prozessleitsystem . Differenzdruckmessumformer oder Verdränger durchgesetzt. 24 VDC Abb. Dadurch wird Folgendes möglich: . Bei der Auswahl eines Radarsensors müssen die entsprechenden Verkabelungskosten berücksichtigt werden.39 c. 6.und verschiedene Feldbussensoren. FMCWRadarsensoren benötigen jedoch noch immer die erhöhte Energie aus einer Vierleiterversorgung. 4 … 20 mA.

Feldbus (VBUS) bis zu 15 Sensoren parallel auf zwei Drähten mit VEGALOG 571 und EV-Eingangskarten maximal 255 Messungen zusammenfassbar VEGALOG 571 mit bis zu 255 Sensoren . 6.40 d.142 VBUS bis zu 15 Sensoren an einer Zweidrahtleitung verschiedene Industrie-StandardKommunikationen Abb.

41 .e. Feldbus (Profibus PA) max. 32 Sensoren gemeinsam an einem Segmentkoppler Profibus PA Segmentkoppler Profibus DP 6. Installation 143 Abb. 6.

24 VDC Ex e Zener barrier Ex-Bereich Nicht-Ex-Bereich Abb. Geräte für Ex-Anwendungen a. 24 VDC Zenerbarriere Ex-Bereich Nicht-Ex-Bereich Abb.Versorgung 12 bis 36 VDC .42 b.43 144 . . 4 … 20 mA. Display und Elektronik eigensicher ausgeführt 4 … 20 mA.Zener-Barriere in integriertem Ex-d Gehäuse. Zweileiter-EEx-d-ia Sensoren mit Verkabelung in erhöhter Sicherheit.keine zusätzliche Trennbarriere erforderlich Ex ia Ex d Bedienung. 6. Zweileiter-Sensoren mit HART®-Protokoll Ex ia 4 … 20 mA. 4 … 20 mA. eigensicherer Gehäuseteil für Sensorelektronik und zur Bedienung .2. 6. eigensicher ia.

Exd-Gehäuse Ex d 24 VDC. Installation c.45 e. Ex e Zener barrier Nicht-Ex-Bereich Ex-Bereich Abb.6. Ex e Versorgung.eigensicherer 4 … 20 mA Stromausgang Ex d 4 … 20 mA eigensicher 24 VDC.6.Versorgung 24 VDC . Vierleiter. EEx d ia Versorgung . 4 … 20 mA. 6.44 d. Vierleiter eigensicher (ib) mit Trennübertrager und Datenkoppler Stromversorgung Ex d Stromversorgung & digitale Kommunikation 4 … 20 mA Display oder Signalverarbeitungseinheit Nicht-Ex-Bereich Ex-Bereich Abb.6. Vierleiter.46 145 . Ex e 4 … 20 mA Nicht-Ex-Bereich Ex-Bereich Abb.

separate Energieversorgung der Sensoren in erhöhter Sicherheit Separate Spannungsversorgung Ex e Abb 6. Feldbus (VBUS) . Verdrahtung in erhöhter Sicherheit . Ex e verschiedene IndustrieStandard-Kommunikationen f.146 VEGALOG 571 mit bis zu 255 Sensoren VBUS bis zu 15 Sensoren an einer Zweidrahtleitung. 15 Sensoren an zwei Leitungen in Ex e.max.47 .

Feldbus (VBUS) . drei Stränge) pro VBUS-Karte .g. 6. 15 Sensoren Ex-e (je fünf Sensoren pro Strang.48 .max. Installation verschiedene IndustrieStandard-Kommunikationen 147 Abb.Verdrahtung in erhöhter Sicherheit ohne externe Versorgung VBUS Fünf Sensoren an jeder Zweidrahtleitung versorgt durch diese Leitung Ex e Verkabelung VEGALOG 571 6.

49 h.max.Schleife. pro Ausgangskarte . 6. eigensicher Ex ia. Feldbus (VBUS) . max.je 5 Sensoren pro Zweileiter.148 VBUS VEGALOG 571 verschiedene IndustrieStandard-Kommunikationen VBUS Fünf Sensoren an einer Zweidrahtleitung eigensicher Abb. 15 Sensoren. 3 Schleifen pro EV-Karte .

Ex ia eigensicher. 8 Sensoren pro Zweiader-Schleife . max. Feldbus (Profibus PA) .i.50 .Verbindung über Segmentkoppler zu Profibus DP Profibus PA Segmentkoppler Profibus DP Acht Sensoren an einer Zweidrahtleitung eigensicher 6. 6. Installation 149 Abb.

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