Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE & Protective Device Evaluation

User’s Guide

Power Analytics CORPORATION
16870 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 330. San Diego, CA 92127 U.S.A. © Copyright 2011 All Rights Reserved

Version 6.60.00

May 2011

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Table of Contents
1 Unique Features of Paladin DesignBase Short circuit Program ........................................................ 1 1.1 WHAT’S NEW IN THIS RELEASE ......................................................................................................... 1 2 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................. 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4. 2.4.2 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 Type of Faults ............................................................................................................................... 2 Terminology .................................................................................................................................. 3 Sources in Fault Analysis ............................................................................................................. 6 ANSI/IEEE Standard .................................................................................................................... 7 1Multiplying Factors (MF) ............................................................................................................. 7 Local and Remote Contributions .................................................................................................. 8 IEC 60909 .................................................................................................................................. 10 System Parameters .................................................................................................................... 10 Short Circuit Current Calculus .................................................................................................... 24 Standard Ratings for HV and MV Circuit Breakers (CB)............................................................ 30 Standard Ratings for Low Voltage Circuit Breakers (LV-CBs) ................................................... 34 Standard Ratings for Low/High Voltage Fuses, and Switches................................................... 36 CIRCUIT-BREAKERS ................................................................................................................ 40 Rated characteristics to be given for all circuit-breakers ........................................................... 40 Circuit Breaker Name Plate Data ............................................................................................... 47 FUSES........................................................................................................................................ 48 General considerations .............................................................................................................. 48 Fuse IEC Characteristic Quantities [IEC 60269-1] ..................................................................... 49 Breaking range ........................................................................................................................... 49 Cut-off current ............................................................................................................................ 49 Cut-off current characteristic; let-through current characteristic ................................................ 49 Peak withstand current ............................................................................................................... 49 Pre-arcing time; melting time ..................................................................................................... 50 Arcing time of a fuse................................................................................................................... 50 Operating time; total clearing time ............................................................................................. 50 I2t (Joule integral) ....................................................................................................................... 50 Fuse nameplate data.................................................................................................................. 51 Fuses Evaluation ........................................................................................................................ 55 LVCB Evaluation ........................................................................................................................ 55 HVCB Evaluation........................................................................................................................ 56 A. B. C. D. E. F. Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Tools............................................................. 57 AC ANSI/IEEE Standard – Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Tools: ................................. 58 AC Classical Short Circuit Method....................................................................................... 72 AC IEC 60909 Short Circuit Method .................................................................................... 73 AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit Method .................................................................................... 82 AC Single Phase Short Circuit Method ................................................................................ 94

ANSI/IEEE Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEEE) .............................................................. 30

IEC Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEC) ............................................................................ 40

4.2.3 5 5.1 5.2 5.3

Protective Device Evaluation Based on IEC Standard ...................................................................... 52

6. DesignBase Short Circuit Calculation Method ........................................................................................ 57

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
7. Managing the Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program ............................................................... 94 A. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, ½ Cycle ........................................................................................... 94 B. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 5 Cycle ............................................................................................ 97 C. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Steady state .................................................................................... 99 D. 3 Phase Fault, Steady State .............................................................................................. 101 E. Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Tool Based on ANSI/IEEE Standard ....................... 103 F. Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Based on IEC Standard ........................................... 112 G. Report Manager – ANSI/IEEE ........................................................................................... 127 H. Short Circuit Back Annotation ............................................................................................ 142 I. Managing Schedule in Short Circuit .................................................................................. 145 J. Managing Utility / PCC Short Circuit contribution .............................................................. 159 K. Managing MOTOR CONTRIBUTION ................................................................................ 160 L. Managing UPS bypass function during a fault downstream UPS source ......................... 161 M. Three-phase Faults IEC 61363 Method ............................................................................ 163 N. Short Circuit Analysis Input Data ....................................................................................... 167 Power Grid Input Data .............................................................................................................. 167 Synchronous Generator Short Circuit Input Data .................................................................... 168 Induction Motor Short Circuit Input Data .................................................................................. 169 Synchronous Motor Short Circuit Input Data............................................................................ 170 High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data .......................................... 171 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data ........................................... 172 Low Voltage IEC Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data ....................................................... 173 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse Short Circuit Input Data ........................................................... 174 Medium / Low Voltage IEC Fuse Short Circuit Input Data ....................................................... 175 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 176 Sample System Data................................................................................................................ 176 How to Perform Equivalent/Reduction Calculations ................................................................ 177 Separating the Equivalent Part from the Rest of the System................................................... 178 Specifying the Buses for the Equivalent................................................................................... 179 Reporting of the Equivalent System ......................................................................................... 180 Computation of Equivalent System and Inspection of the Result ............................................ 183 Reconstructing the Original System by Using the Equivalent .................................................. 185 Validation and Verification of the Equivalent ............................................................................ 192 The Calculation Tools............................................................................................................... 196 Graphical Selection of Faulted Bus (Annotation) ..................................................................... 197 AC-ANSI/IEEE Method............................................................................................................. 197 Short Circuit Annotation Tool ................................................................................................... 199 3-Phase Fault, 30 Cycles at Bus 18 ......................................................................................... 200 3-Phase Fault Current, ½ Cycle Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”:...................................................... 202 3-Phase Fault Current, 5 Cycle Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”:....................................................... 204 Change the “Fault Type” displayed onto the drawing. ............................................................. 207 Professional Report .................................................................................................................. 215 All types of Faults at bus MAINBUS, 0.5 Cycle Symmetrical:.................................................. 215 All types of Faults at All buses, 0.5 Cycle Symmetrical: .......................................................... 219 All types of Faults at All buses, 5 Cycle Symmetrical: ............................................................. 222 All types of Faults at All buses, 30 Cycle Symmetrical: ........................................................... 224

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9 9.1 9.2 9.2.1 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 9.4.4

Network Reduction/Equivalent .......................................................................................................... 176

TUTORIAL: Conducting a Three-phase Short Circuit Study .......................................................... 195

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
List of Figures Figure 1: Device Evaluation, ANSI Standard, Page 1 .................................................................................... 38 Figure 2: Device Evaluation, ANSI Standard, Page 2 .................................................................................... 39 Figure 3: Percentage D.C. current component in relation to the time interval from initiation of short-circuit current, for different time constantτ. ............................................................................ 44 Figure 4: PDE Flow Chart - IEC standard: ..................................................................................................... 52 Figure 5: Unbalanced system ......................................................................................................................... 66

List of Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Note: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times ............. 6 30 cycles calculation impedance....................................................................................................... 7 Resistivity and equivalent earth penetration ................................................................................... 22 IEC voltage factor ............................................................................................................................ 23 CB rated interrupting time in cycles ................................................................................................ 30 K factor ............................................................................................................................................ 33 Default Device X/R Values Using EDSA’s Library .......................................................................... 34 n factor based on PF and short circuit level .................................................................................... 42 Icu and k factor ................................................................................................................................ 46 CB Name plate data ........................................................................................................................ 48 IEC c factor...................................................................................................................................... 81

You can view this manual on your CD as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file. The file name is: Short Circuit Analysis Program 3_Phase_Short_Circuit.pdf

You will find the Test/Job files used in this tutorial in the following location: C:\DesignBase\Samples\3PhaseSC Test Files: ANSIYY1, IEC-YY; Busfault, EDM5, IEC1-60909, IEC2-60909, IEEE399, IEEEpde, MutualNet, SlidingFault, T123, T123PDE, testma1, Trib, TribNVTAP, UPSexpse, West

©Copyright 2011 Power Analytics Corporation All Rights Reserved

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1 What’s new in this release New PDE based on IEC Standards New professional report tool based on Crystal Reports New functions for UPS bypass and motors fed from VFD Minimum and maximum utility fault contribution 1 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 1 Unique Features of Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program The salient features of the Paladin DesignBase advanced short circuit program: Fault analysis of complex power systems having over 50.000 buses Exact short circuit current and contributions computation using Three-Sequence Modeling Simulate sliding and open conductor faults High speed simulation by utilizing the state-of-the-art techniques in matrix operations (sparse matrix and vector methods) Automated reactor sizing for 3 Phase networks Exporting and importing data from and to Excel Import system data from Siemens/PTI format into Paladin DesignBase Customize reports Professional Reports UPS source bypass Support of ANSI and IEC standards for PDC (protective device coordination) Support of ANSI and IEC standards for PDE (protective device evaluation) Fully integrated with ARC flash program Fully integrated with PDC 1.

the total energy is less than a three-phase fault. The most common faults are: • • • • Three-Phase Fault. The protective devices such as circuit breakers and fuses are applied to isolate faults and to minimize damage and disruption to the plant’s operation. with or without ground (3P.1 Type of Faults Types of Faults depend on the power system grounding method. however.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2 INTRODUCTION The short circuit is an accidental electrical contact between two or more conductors. or 3P-G) Single line to ground Fault (L-G) Line to Line Fault (L-L) Line to line to ground Fault (L-L-G) Estimated frequency of occurrence of different kinds of fault in power system is: 3P or 3P-G: L-L: L-L-G: L-G: 8% 12 % 10 % 70 % Severity of fault: Normally the three-phase symmetrical short circuit (3P) can be regarded as the most severe condition. There are cases that can lead to single phase fault currents exceeding the three-phase fault currents. 2. Such cases include faults that are close to the following types of equipment: • • • • The Wye side of a solidly grounded delta-wy transformer / auto-transformer The Wye-Wye solidly grounded side of a three winding transformer with a delta tertiary winding A synchronous generator solidly connected to ground The Wye side of several Wye grounded transformers running in parallel 2 .

during the first cycle. whether made accidentally or intentionally. b):L-L. Often called “first cycle capability.the maximum asymmetrical current capability of a medium or highvoltage circuit breaker to close. with any applicable multipliers with regard to fault current X/R ratio. the close and latching duty calculation is simplified by applying a 1. Fault – an abnormal connection. line-to-ground 2. line-to-line-to-ground.2 Terminology Arcing Time .the interval between the beginning of a specified over current and the instant when the primary arcing contacts have just begun to part in all poles. It is also known as “Interrupting Current” in ANSI Standards.” The rms asymmetrical rating was formerly called momentary rating.6 factor to the first cycle symmetrical AC rms short circuit current. Often.the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation (pole separation). 3 . Crest Current / Peak Current – the highest instantaneous current during a period. and d): L-G. Breaking Current . Close and latch duty is also called “first cycle duty. Contact Parting Time . including the arc. between two points of different voltage potentials. and immediately thereafter latch closed. of relative low impedance. The close and latch asymmetrical rms current capability is 1.the maximum short circuit current that the power system could deliver at a given circuit point assuming negligible short circuit fault impedance.the maximum rms value of calculated short circuit current for medium and high-voltage circuit breakers. c):L-L-G.” and was formerly called momentary duty.the interval of time between the instant of the first initiation of the arc in the protective device and the instant of final arc extinction in all phases. for normal frequency making current. It is the sum of the relay or release delay and opening time. Close and Latch Duty . Close and Latch Capability .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Type of Short Circuits: a):3P – three-phase. line-to-line. Available Short Circuit Current .6 times the circuit breaker rated maximum symmetrical AC rms interrupting current.

Depending on the Standard. Short circuit current is the current that flows at the short circuit location during the short circuit period time. Peak Current – the maximum possible instantaneous value of a short circuit current during a period. Initial short circuit current IK" is the rms value of the symmetrical short circuit current at the instant of occurrence of the short circuit. First Cycle Rating – the maximum specified rms asymmetrical or symmetrical peak current capability of a piece of equipment during the first cycle of a fault. Branch short circuit currents are the parts of the short circuit current in the various branches of the power network. present terminology: “Close and Latch Capability”.circuit power S K " is the product of 3 *I K "*U N 4 . is the rms value of the symmetrical short circuit current flowing through the switching device at the instant of the first contact separation. I b . on the opening of a mechanical switching device under short circuit conditions.an AC current waveform whose baseline is offset from the AC symmetrical current zero axis. Nominal Voltage UN – (IEC) the nominal operating voltage of the bus. Maximum asymmetrical short circuit current Is is the highest instantaneous rms value of the short circuit current following the occurrence of the short circuit. according to which the power system is designated. Rated voltage VR the phase-to-phase voltage. IEC 60909. Offset Current . IEC UR the rated voltage is the maximum phase-to-phase voltage. Sometimes referred to as “Breaking Current”. IEC60909. Interrupting Current – the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation. It was used on medium and high-voltage circuit breakers manufactured before 1965.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fault Point X/R – the calculated fault point reactance to resistance ratio (X/R). Making Current – the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant the device closes and latches into a fault. First Cycle Duty – the maximum value of calculated peak or rms asymmetrical current or symmetrical short circuit current for the first cycle with any applicable multipliers for fault current X/R ratio. Momentary Current Rating – the maximum available first cycle rms asymmetrical current which the device or assembly is required to withstand. Initial symmetrical short . Symmetrical breaking current Ia . Symmetrical short circuit current is the power frequency component of the short circuit current. different calculation procedures are used to determine this ratio.

Thermal stress is the effect of electrical heating during the short circuit conditions. 141 – 1993. Short-circuit currents in three-phase AC systems. Part 0: Calculation of currents IEC 60909-3/2003. Molded-Case Switches. Standard for Safety for Molded-Case Circuit Breaker. IEEE Standard for Low-Voltage AC Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures IEC-909 – 1988. International Electro technical Commission. Equivalent generator is a generator that can be considered as equivalent to a number of generators feeding into a given system.010 – 1979. or part of it. Direct earthing / effective earthing is the direct earthing of the neutral points of the power transformers.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE System breaking power S B is the product of 3 *I a * U N Minimum time delay t min is the shortest possible time interval between the occurrence of the short circuit and the first contact separation of one pole of the switching device. disconnectors. Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 3: Switches. IEEE Application Guide for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis ANSI/IEEE Standard C37. Short Circuit Current Calculation in Three-Phase Ac Systems UL 489_9 – 1996. IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution of Industrial Plants (IEEE Red Book) ANSI/IEEE Std.13-1990. Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 1: General rules IEC 60947-2:2003. switch-disconnectors and fuse-combination units BS EN 62271-100:2001. IEEE Recommended Practice for Power Systems Analysis (IEEE Brown Book) ANSI/IEEE Standard C37. Short-circuit currents in three-phase AC systems. by Conrad St. Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 2: Circuit breakers EN 60947-3:1999. Dynamic stress is the effect of electromechanical forces during the short circuit conditions. 399 – 1997. DesignBase Short Circuit Analysis Program is based on ANSI/IEEE and IEC Standards and fully complies with the latest ANSI/IEEE/IEC Standards: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ANSI/IEEE Std. padmounted. Short circuit earth current is the short circuit current. that flows back to the system through the earth. and Circuit-Breaker Enclosures “A Practical Guide to Short-Circuit Calculations”. Pierre IEC 60909-0/2001-07. High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 100: High-voltage alternating-current circuit-breakers IEC 62271-111:2005-11. Part 3: Currents during two separate simultaneous line-to-earth short-circuits and partial short-circuit currents flowing through earth IEC 60947-1:2000-10. High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 111: Overhead. IEEE Application Guide for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Total Current Basis ANSI/IEEE Standard C37. dry vault and submersible automatic circuit reclosers and fault interrupters for alternating current systems up to 38 kV 5 .5-1979.

5* Z Z" " ANSI C37. low voltage molded-case breakers.5 to 4 cycles cpt) Reference Remote Utility (equivalent) Local Generator Synchronous Motor Large Induction Motors: >1000 HP or 250 HP and 2 poles Medium Induction Motors 50 to 249 HP or 250 to 1000 HP <2poles Small Induction Motors <50 HP Z " s Zs Z " dv " ANSI C37.010 ANSI C37. all rotating electric machinery and regenerative drives are sources in fault calculation. The main impedances for the first ½ cycle is the sub-transient impedance.010 ANSI C37.010 1. Type of Device High voltage circuit breaker Low voltage circuit breaker Fuse Switchgear and MCC Relay Duty Closing and latching capability Interrupting capability Bus bracing Instantaneous settings Table 1: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times Source Type 1/2-Cycle Calculations Interrupting Time calculations (1.2* Z " 3* Z ∞ " ANSI C37. ½ Cycle Network Duty The decay of short circuit current is due to the decay of stored magnetic energy in the equipment.13 1.010 Z " dv " Z dv 1.3 Sources in Fault Analysis Power utilities.010 ANSI C37. The following table shows the type of device and its associated duties using the ½ cycle network. It is generally used for the first ½ cycles up to a few cycles.67* Z " 6 . high and low voltage fuses and withstand currents for switches and high-voltage breakers.5* Z dv 1. The ½ cycle network is also referred to as the sub transient network. ½ cycle short circuit currents are used to evaluate the interrupting duties for low-voltage power breakers.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2. because all rotating machines are represented by their sub transient reactance.

they are called “Symmetrical”.5 – 4) cycles after the fault. The type of power system component and its representation in the 30-cycle network are shown in the following table. Type of Device High voltage circuit breaker (>1. If the envelopes of the positive and negative peaks of the current are not symmetrical around the zero axis. 7 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Harmonic Filters Z% = 100 Tuned _ harmonic X”d = 1 LRC / For Induction Motors 1.1 Multiplying Factors (MF) The short circuit waveform for a balanced three-phase fault at the terminal bus of a machine is generally asymmetrical and is composed of a unidirectional DC component and a symmetrical AC component.4. if DC fault component is considered.4 ANSI/IEEE Standard 2. they are called “Asymmetrical”. the fault current has the AC component only. Table 2: 30 cycles calculation impedance Source Type Power Utility /Grid Generators Induction Motors Synchronous Motors 30 Cycle Calculation Impedance Z s" ' Z dv Infinite impedance Xd 2. synchronous motors. Note that the induction machines. and the amplitude of the symmetrical AC component decays to constant amplitude in the steady-state. If the envelopes of the positive and negative peaks of the current waveform are symmetrical around zero axis.5-4 Cycle Network This network is used to calculate the interrupting short circuit current and protective device duties (1. then the fault current is asymmetrical and is called asymmetrical or total fault current. and it is symmetrical. If the DC fault component is not considered in the fault current. The DC component decays to zero. and condensers are not considered in the 30-cycle fault calculation.0 kV) Unfused Low Voltage PCB without instantaneous All Other Low voltage circuit breaker Fuse Switchgear and MCC bus Duty Interrupting capability Interrupting capability N/A N/A N/A Steady State or 30-Cycle Network This network is used to calculate the steady state short circuit current and duties for some of the protective devices 30 cycles after the fault occurs (delayed protective devices).

2 Local and Remote Contributions The magnitude of the symmetrical current (AC component) from remote sources remain essentially constant. when a generator is local or close to the faulted point. the MF is equal to 1. and X/R = 25 to one decimal place is MFPeak = 2. In other words. “No AC Decay” (NACD) at its initial value or it may reduce with time toward a residual AC current magnitude (ACD). then the AC component decays (ACD). the short circuit current decays faster.1 Note: In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1. Note: In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak = 2. The MF is calculated based on the X/R ratio and the instant of time that the fault current happens. The X/R ratio for ANSI breaker duties is calculated from separate R and X networks.6 Peak Multiplying Factor Is defined as: MFPeak = 2 (1 + e − 2πτ X /R ) . 8 .7.4.7 . . X/R for ANSI breaker duties are calculated from separate R and X network. First Cycle (Asymmetrical) Total Short Circuit Current MF (Circuit Duty): Is defined as: − 2π X R MFm = 1 + 2e For: X/R = 25. 2.6. the AC short circuit current decay will be slow and a conservative simplification is to assume that there is no AC decay (NACD) in the symmetrical AC component. If the fault is close to a generator.2 where τ is the instant of time when fault occurs. If the generator is remote from the faulted point. For: τ = ½ Cycle.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The multiplying factors MF converts the rms value of the symmetrical AC component into asymmetrical rms current or short circuit current duty.

3 • • Its location from the fault is two or more transformations or Its contribution to the total symmetrical rms Amperes is less than or equal to 0. " Xd EG is the generator short circuit current for a three-phase fault at its terminal bus " Xd A generator is a REMOTE SOURCE of a short circuit current if: • The per unit reactance external to the generator is equal to or exceeds 1. or when there is no generator.5 times the generator per-unit sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA Its contribution to the total symmetrical rms Amperes will be greater than where the 0.5 times the generator per unit sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA The generator short circuit contribution may be written as: IG = EG " ( XExternal + X d ) .4 * EG . " Xd where the EG is the generator short circuit current for a three-phase fault at its terminal bus " Xd The ANSI Standards provide multiplying factors (MF) based X/R ratio for three-phase faults and line-to-ground faults fed predominantly from generators and MF for faults fed predominantly from remote sources. No AC decay (NACD) Ratio The Total Short circuit Current is equal to: I Total = I Local + I Re mote and: 4 NACD = I Re mote I Total 5 When all contributions are remote. then NACD = 0 9 .4 * EG . then NACD = 1 When all contributions are local.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Per ANSI Standards: A generator is a LOCAL SOURCE of the short circuit current if: • • The per unit reactance external to the generator is less than 1.

reactors. The positive-sequence short-circuit resistance RT of a two-winding transformer is given by the relationship: RT = PkrT . cables and other similar equipment.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2. 2 3 ⋅ I rT 9 10 . The zero-sequence short-circuit impedance.Ω. ukr is the short-circuit voltage at rated current in percent. 100 ⋅ S rT 8 Where: UrT is the rated voltage of the transformer. network transformers (T) and power station units (S) will be multiplied with the impedance correction factors KG.5 IEC 60909 While using the IEC standard the following system components formulae are used: The network components like power transformers.1 System Parameters Power transformer parameters The impedance module ZT can be calculated from the rated transformer data as follows: ZT = 2 u kr ⋅ U rT . 2. KT and KS or KSO when calculating shortcircuit currents with the equivalent voltage source at the short-circuit location according to the standard [1]. overhead lines. earth wire. neutral conductor. The impedances of generators (G). 6 Z(0) =U (0) / I(0) . on the high-voltage or low-voltage side. positive-sequence and negative-sequence short-circuit impedances are equal: Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) . SrT is the rated apparent power of the transformer. earthing arrangement. In this case.Ω . the three-fold zero-sequence current flows through the joint return.5. 7 is determined by assuming an AC voltage between the three paralleled conductors and the joint return (for example earth. feeders. cable sheath and cable armoring).

The positive-sequence short-circuit reactance XT of a two-winding transformer results as follows: 2 2 X T = Z T − RT .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Where: PkrT is the total loss of the transformer in the windings at rated current. 2 U rT 11 Note: The ratio RT/XT generally decreases with transformer size.the rated current of the transformer on the high-voltage or low-voltage side. Note: The resistance RT is to be considered if the peak short-circuit current ip or the DC component iDC is to be calculated. 11 . 13 Zero-sequence impedance arrangements for the calculation of unbalanced short-circuit currents are given in IEC 60909-4. IrT . the resistance is so small that the impedance is represented by the reactance only. Ω . The impedance short-circuit impedance Z T of a two-winding power transformer is considered like positive-sequence Z (1) . . 12 The actual data for two-winding transformers (used as network transformers or in power stations) are given in IEC 60909-2. which is equal to the negative-sequence short-circuit impedance Z(2) : Z T = Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) . when calculating short-circuit currents. For large transformers. The zero-sequence short-circuit impedance the manufacturer: Z ( 0 )T may be obtained from the rating plate or from Z ( 0 )T = R( 0 )T + jX ( 0 )T . . 10 The relative reactance of the transformer xT is given by the formula xT = S rT ⋅ XT . Ω .

b IT . The impedance correction factor will be applied also to the negative-sequence and the zerosequence impedance of the transformer when calculating unbalanced short-circuit currents.the highest operating current before short circuit (this depends on network configuration and relevant reliability philosophy).the highest operating voltage before short circuit. 15 The impedance correction factor will be applied also to the negative-sequence and the zerosequence impedance of the transformer when calculating unbalanced short circuit currents. then the following equation may be used instead of equation (1.6 xT 14 where cmax (from table 2. b b b U 1 + xT I T / I rT sin ϕT ( ) 16 Where: cmax is the voltage factor from table 1. The rated transformation ratio tr of the power transformer: 12 . related to the nominal voltage of the network connected to the LV side of the network transformer. according to the following relationship: Z TK = K T ⋅ Z T = (K T RT ) + j (K T X T ) . 1 + 0. ϕ tb . an impedance correction factor KT is to be introduced in addition to the impedance evaluated according to equations (1.the angle of power factor before short circuit.95 ⋅ cmax . Ub .2. The correction factor will not be introduced for unit transformers of power station units.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE For two-winding power transformers with and without on-load tap-changer.2) ÷ (1. The impedances between the star point of transformers and earth are to be introduced as (3 ZN) into the zero-sequence system without a correction factor. If the long-term operating conditions of network transformers before the short circuit are known for sure.10) in order to calculate the correction factor KT: KT = Un cmax ⋅ .4): KT = 0.2) is related to the nominal voltage of the network connected to the LV side of the network transformer and the transformer relative reactance is calculated with the relationship (11). The correction factor KT is multiplying all the components of the transformer positive-sequence impedance.

U rTLV tr = 17 where UrTHV and UrTLV are transformer rated voltages of the HV and LV windings. UN – the system nominal voltage. Synchronous Generators and Motors The synchronous generator rated impedance is given by: 2 U rG . ZR ≅ X R = u kR ⋅ U n .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE U rTHV . related to the rated impedance is: d x" = d " Xd . the negative-sequence and the zerosequence short-circuit impedances of reactors are equal: Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) = Z ( 0 ) .Ω. the positive-sequence. 18 Short-circuit current-limiting reactors will be treated as a part of the short-circuit impedance. Reactors Assuming geometric symmetry. respectively. Z rG 21 The following values for the fictitious resistances RGf may be used for the calculation of the peak short-circuit current with sufficient accuracy: 13 . S rG Z rG = 20 The relative subtransient reactance x" .Ω 100 3 ⋅ I rR 19 Where: ukR and IrR are given on the reactor rating plate.

05 In addition to the decay of the DC component. in the positive-sequence system can be calculated with the formula: " Z G = RG + jX d . and 0. RGf = 0. UrG . X" RGf = 0. given by the relationship: KG = where: ( cmax ⋅ U n . the manufacturer’s values for RG should be used. The influence of various winding-temperatures on RGf is not considered. the factors 0. 14 .the rated voltage of the generator. 0.15 d for generators with UrG ≤ 1 kV.07 d for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG < 100 MVA.05.15 also take into account the decay of the AC component of the short-circuit current during the first half-cycle after the short circuit took place. 1 + x ⋅ sin ϕ rG U rG " d ) 24 cmax is the voltage factor according to table 2.2. d according to the (21) relationship. UN . When the effective resistance of the stator of synchronous machines lies much below the given values for RGf. ϕrG is the phase angle between U rG and I rG . The subtransient impedance Z G of the generator. X" RGf = 0.07.the relative subtransient reactance of the generator related to the rated impedance. 23 ( ) with the correction factor KG for SG. x" . 22 When calculating initial symmetrical short-circuit currents in systems fed directly from generators without transformers unit. The values RGf cannot be used when calculating the aperiodic component iDC of the shortcircuit current.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE " X d for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG ≥ 100 MVA. the corrected impedance positive-sequence system: Z GK of the SG has to be used in the " Z GK = K G Z G = (K G RG ) + j K G X d .the nominal voltage of the system.

26 The corrected short-circuit impedance of SG. 25 If the values of " " X d and X q reactances are different. If synchronous motors have a voltage regulation. they are treated like synchronous generators. Z ( 2) GK = (K G RG ) + j (K G X ( 2) G ) . for the negative-sequence reactance X ( 2 )G of the SM.20): of SG in the zero-sequence system. it may be necessary to introduce: U G = U rG (1 + pG ) . the symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib. When calculating the initial symmetrical short-circuit current k . (cU / 3 ) If the terminal voltage of the generator is different from UrG. I" Asynchronous Motors (AM) The rated apparent power of an AM can be calculated from the equation: 15 . Z ( 0 )G 27 For the short-circuit impedance with KG from equation (1. and the steady-state short-circuit current Ik. they are subject to additional considerations. is given. 28 When an impedance is present between the star-point of the generator and earth. If not. their arithmetical mean can be used: " " Xd + Xq X ( 2)G = 2 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The correction factor KG (equation 24) for the calculation of the corrected subtransient n impedance Z GK has been introduced because the equivalent voltage source is used instead of the subtransient voltage E″ behind the subtransient reactance of the synchronous generator. the peak short-circuit current ip. synchronous compensators are treated in the same way as SG. the following applies Z ( 0 )GK = (K G R( 0 )G ) + jX ( 0 )G . the correction factor KG will not be applied to this impedance. in the negative-sequence system. by the following equation: Z ( 2 )GK .

The rated current of the AM is given by the relationship: I rM = 3 ⋅ U rM PrM . The contribution of AM in LV power supply systems to the short-circuit current calculated without motors: " ∑ I rM ≤ 0.and negative-sequence systems can be determined by: 16 . according to the circuit diagram (interlocking) or to the process (reversible drives). " I k may be I" neglected if their contribution is not higher than 5 % of the initial short-circuit current k 0 M . they are not switched in at the same time. The impedance module ZM of AM in the positive. LV motors are to be taken into account in auxiliaries of power stations and in industrial and similar installations. also to the steady-state short-circuit current Ik. in accordance with its nameplate data.05 ⋅ I k 0 M . for unbalanced short circuits.the initial symmetrical short-circuit current without influence of motors. to the symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib and.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE S rM = η rM PrM . MV motors have to be considered in the calculation of maximum short-circuit current. cosϕrM and ηrM are respectively the active rated power. " I k 0 M . rated power factor and rated efficiency of the motor. for example in networks of chemical and steel industries and pump stations. ∑ I rM In the calculation of short-circuit currents. to the peak shortcircuit current ip. those MV and LV motors may be neglected. ⋅ cos ϕ rM 29 where PrM. ⋅ η rM ⋅ cos ϕ rM 30 where UrM is the rated line voltage of the AM. MV and LV motors contribute to the initial symmetrical short-circuit current k . providing that. I" 31 Where: is the sum of the rated currents of motors connected directly (without transformers) to the network where the short-circuit occurs.

the ratio of the locked-rotor current to the rated current of the motor.922⋅ZM for LV motor groups. (ILR/IrM) . with XM=0. then the motor reactance XM will be calculated as follows: XM = 1 + ( RM / X M ) ZM 2 . AM are substituted by their impedances negative-sequence systems: " Z M = RM + jX M . in the positive-sequence and 35 The zero-sequence system impedance Z(0)M of the motor will be given by the manufacturer. SrM . 34 For the determination of the initial short-circuit current according to the short-circuit currents calculation method. which are connected by two-winding transformers to the network in which the short circuit occurs.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2 U rM .25)). ⋅ (I LR / I rM ) Z rM = S rM 32 Where: UrM is the rated voltage of the motor.42. where p is the pair of poles number. MV and LV motors. RM/XM=0. The following relations may be used with sufficient accuracy in order to calculate AM parameters: RM/XM=0. if needed. Z M . may be neglected in the calculation of short-circuit currents for a short-circuit at the feeder connection point Q.the rated apparent power of the motor (see relationship (1. with XM = 0.989⋅ZM for MV motors with rated powers per pair of poles (PrM/p)<1 MW. If the ratio (RM/XM) is known. 33 However the motor resistance RM will be R M = X M ⋅ ( RM / X M ) .995⋅ZM for MV motors with rated powers per pair of poles (PrM/p)≥1 MW. if there is the following condition: 17 .10. with connection cables.15. with XM=0. RM/XM=0.

the initial symmetrical short-circuit current at the feeder connection point Q without supplement of the motors. through which the motors are directly fed. Lines Constants The positive-sequence short-circuit impedance. UnQ .the nominal voltage of the system at the feeder connection point Q. " I kQ . ∑ S rT .3 Where: ∑ PrM is the sum of the rated active powers of the medium-voltage and the low-voltage motors which will be considered. 36 − 0. 37 may be calculated from the conductor data.the sum of the rated apparent powers of all transformers. The following values for resistivity may be used: 1 Ω ⋅ mm 2 / m for Copper. 38 The line resistance RLr at the reference temperature θr=20°C can be determined if its length lL is known: 18 . 34 31 ρ Cu = The effective resistance per unit length RLr of overhead lines at the conductor temperature 20°C may be calculated from the nominal cross-section qn and the resistivity ρ: ' ' RLr = ρ qn . such as the cross-section qn and the centredistances d of the conductors. 54 1 1 ρ Al = Ω ⋅ mm 2 / m for Aluminum and ρ Ala = Ω ⋅ mm 2 / m for Aluminum alloy.8 ∑ PrM ≤ ∑ S rT 100 ⋅ c ⋅ ∑ S rT " 3 ⋅ U nQ ⋅ I kQ .Ω / m.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 0. Z L = RL + jX L .

aluminum and aluminum alloy. or the center of bundles. θe.the reference conductor temperature in degrees Celsius. r . when calculating minimum short-circuit currents: 40 RL = [1 + α (θ e − θ r )]⋅ RLr . θr=20°C . R is the bundle radius (see IEC 60909-2). see also IEC 60865-1. in the case of overhead lines. assuming transposition. line conductors and neutral conductors) will be introduced at a higher temperature θ e ≠ θ r . the equivalent radius rB can be determined by the following formula: rB = n n ⋅ r ⋅ R n−1 . r⎠ ⎝ 4n 43 19 . Where: α=0. valid with sufficient accuracy for most practical purposes for copper. The reactance per unit length from: 42 ' X L for overhead lines may be calculated. dL2L3 and dL3L1 are geometric distances between conductors. is determined by the relationship: d = 3 d L1L 2 ⋅ d L 2 L3 ⋅ d L 3 L1 .the conductor temperature in degrees Celsius at the end of the short-circuit duration (for The geometric mean distance between conductors.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE ' RLr = RLr ⋅ l L . 39 Line Resistances RL (overhead lines and cables. In the case of bundle conductor.the resistance value at a reference temperature of 20°C.004 K-1 is the temperature factor of resistivity.the radius of a single conductor. Where: 41 dL1L2. d⎞ ⎛ 1 X 'L = μ 0 f ⎜ + ln ⎟ . IEC 60949 and IEC 60986). Where: n is the number of bundled conductors. θe . Ω . RLr .

( 1 )L ( 0 )L and of LV and HV cables depend on national techniques and The impedances standards and may be taken from IEC 60909-2. from the (43) relationship.the radius of a single conductor or. r . or n=1 for a single conductor. The overhead line reactance XL follows to be determined.37) relationship. the impedance of a network feeder at the connection point Q is given by: 2 c ⋅ U nQ ZQ = where S " kQ = c ⋅ U nQ " 3 I kQ . 44 For measurement of the positive-sequence impedance Z ( 1 ) = R( 1 ) + jX ( 1 ) . 47 " I kQ is the initial symmetrical short-circuit current. d . like in the resistance case. in the case of conductor bundles. f – the nominal frequency of the power system. Earth Wire Impedance The equivalent earth penetration depth δ is given by the following relationship: 20 . 46 Sometimes it is possible to estimate the zero-sequence impedances with the ratios R(0)L/RL and X(0)L/XL (see IEC 60909-2). n .the number of bundled conductors. if its length lL is done: ' X L = X L ⋅ lL .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Where: μ0 = 4π⋅10-7 H/m. and the zero-sequence short-circuit impedance. 45 Z ( 0 ) = R( 0 ) + jX ( 0 ) . Ω .the geometric mean distance between conductors. Z Z However. according to (2. (see IEC 60909-4). r is to be substituted by rB. from textbooks or manufacturer’s data.

having values in accordance with table 2.angular frequency.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE δ = 1. Resistivity ρE and equivalent earth penetration depth δ for different soil types 21 . μ0 = 4π⋅10−7 H/m – vide absolute magnetic permeability.85 ⋅ Where: ρE ωμ 0 .1 content. m. ρE is the earth type resistivity. 48 ω= 2πf .

relative permeability of earth wire.32÷3. loam Marshy soil The earth wire impedance per unit length Z W is: ⎞ ⎟ . for Steel wires. wet sand Farmland Clay..65)⋅103 (1. μr ≈ 1. =⎨ 8 ⎩0. where dW is the distance between two earth wires. μr ≈ 5 . 51 22 .94)⋅103 3 (0.94÷5.300 >8.3)⋅103 (4.2)⋅103 660÷930 600÷850 295÷660 <415 270÷600 <380 Granite Rocks Stony soil Pebbles. μr ≈ 75. equal to the earth wire radius rW if there is just one earth ωμ 0 rWW = rW .78÷1. if there are two earth wires: 50 rWW = rW ⋅ dW . 10. 49 ⎟ ⎠ ' ' Z W ≈ RW + ' ωμ 0 ⎛μ δ + j μ 0 f ⎜ r + ln ⎜ 4ν 8 rWW ⎝ Where: ' RW is the earth wires resistance per unit length.1÷9. for f = 50 Hz . wire ⎧0.2÷2. m f=50 Hz f=60 Hz >9. for f = 60 Hz .1)⋅103 (2. rWW .71÷1.2÷1.69÷4.06 Ω / km .65÷8.equivalent earth wire radius. for other ACSR wires. dry sand Calcareous soil. ν .05 Ω / km .22)⋅103 (1..2)⋅103 70÷200 50÷100 10÷50 <20 Equivalent earth penetration depth δ.the earth wires number. For Aluminum core steel reinforced (ACSR) wires with one layer of aluminum. and calculated with following formula.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Table 3: Resistivity and equivalent earth penetration Earth types Resistivity ρE.32)⋅10 (0.2)⋅103 (2. μr .500 (5. Ωm >104 (3÷10)⋅103 (1÷3)⋅103 (0.

10 - 23 .00 1. cmax1) 1. 52 Where: dWL is the geometric mean distance between the earth wire and the line conductors L1. V U n ∈ [100. % 6 10 Nominal voltage U n.1000]kV Medium voltage.95 1. when there is only one earth wire and by the next formula 53 dWL = 6 dW 1L1 ⋅ dW 1L 2 ⋅ dW 1L 3 ⋅ dW 2 L1 ⋅ dW 2 L 2 ⋅ dW 2 L 3 . 1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The mutual impedance per unit length between the earth wire and the parallel line conductors with common earth returns Z WL ≈ ' ωμ 0 8 + j μ 0 f ln δ dWL . L2 and L3. when there are two earth wires. 54 Sources As per IEC 60909 the equivalent voltage source (rms) is given by the relationship U es = c ⋅U n 3 . having values according to the table 4: Table 4: IEC voltage factor Voltage factor c for the calculation of Minimum short-circuit Maximum short-circuit currents. given by the formula dWL = 3 dWL1 ⋅ dWL 2 ⋅ dWL 3 . U n ∈ (1.05 0. V. cmin currents.35]kV U n > 35 kV High voltage2). 55 where c is the voltage factor.10 Tolerance. Low voltage.

u. two short-circuit currents. it is necessary to transfer impedances values from one voltage level to another.e. system no transformation is necessary if these systems are coherent. In general.5.generator short circuits if X TLVK ≥ 2 ⋅ X Qt . 2. if no nominal voltage is defined 2) U m = cmaxU n or cminU n = 0. 56 The impedances of the equipment in superimposed or subordinated networks are to be divided or multiplied by (tr)2. In the case of a far-from-generator short circuit.the AC component with constant amplitude during the whole short-circuit .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 1) cmaxUn should not exceed the highest voltage Um for equipment of power systems: cmax ⋅U n ≤ U m . for each transformer in the system with partial short-circuit currents. there is no change: o in the involved network o in the type of short-circuit involved Additional calculations about all different possible load flows at the moment of the short-circuit are superfluous General rules • • • • All network feeders. are neglected Arc resistances are not taken into account For the duration of the short-circuit. are to be calculated. U rTHV / U rTLV = U nHV / U nLV . usually to that voltage level at which the short-circuit current is to be calculated For p..2 Short Circuit Current Calculus Assumptions • • • • • All line capacitances and shunt admittances are neglected Non-rotating loads. except those of the zero-sequence system. which differ in their magnitude.the aperiodic DC component beginning with an initial value A and decaying to zero Single-fed short circuits supplied by a transformer may be regarded as far-from.9U m should be applied. synchronous and asynchronous machines are replaced by their internal impedances The equivalent voltage source is the only active voltage of the system When calculating short-circuit currents in systems with different voltage levels. 57 24 . i. the square of the rated transformation ratio tr. voltages and currents are to be converted by the rated transformation ratio tr. the short-circuit current can be considered as the sum of the following two components: .

the aperiodic DC component beginning with an initial value A and decaying to zero In the calculation of the short-circuit currents in systems supplied by generators. the system may be converted by network reduction into an equivalent short-circuit impedance Zk at the shortcircuit location. negative-sequence. the initial symmetrical short-circuit current is first calculated as if these devices were not available. the steady-state short-circuit current Ik is smaller than the symmetrical short- circuit breaking current Ib. as the individual contributions to a balanced short circuit can be evaluated separately for each source. it is necessary to distinguish between networks with and without parallel branches. the symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib is smaller than the initial symmetrical short-circuit current " I k . When sources are distributed in meshed network and for all cases of unbalanced short-circuits. In this case. power-station units and motors (near-to-generator and/or near-to-motor short circuits). network reduction is necessary to calculate short-circuit impedances Z ( 1 ) = Z ( 2 ) and Z ( 0 ) at the short-circuit location. and the steady-state short-circuit current Ik at the short-circuit location. This procedure is not allowed when calculating the peak short-circuit current ip. it is of interest not only to know the initial symmetrical short-circuit current " I k and the peak short-circuit current ip.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE with XQt calculated in accordance with 11 and X TLVK = K T ⋅ X TLV .the AC component with decaying amplitude during the short circuit . Short-circuits may have one or more sources. and zero-sequence short-circuit impedances of the system. In this case. 25 . From the calculated initial symmetrical short-circuit current and characteristic curves of the fuses or current-limiting circuitbreakers. Normally. which is the peak short-circuit current of the downstream substation. For the calculation of the initial symmetrical short-circuit current " I k the symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib. the cut-off current is determined. 58 In the case of a near-to-generator short circuit. Calculations are simplest for balanced short circuits on radial systems. but also the symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib and the steady-state short-circuit current Ik. The type of short circuit which leads to the highest short-circuit current depends on the values of the positive-sequence. the short-circuit current can be considered as the sum of the following two components: . While using fuses or current-limiting circuit-breakers to protect substations.

the highest initial short-circuit current " I kE 2 E will occur for a line-to-line short circuit with earth connection.voltage factor cmin for the calculation of minimum short-circuit currents will be applied according to table 3 .motors will be included if appropriate in accordance with 2. it is necessary to introduce the following conditions: . the minimum equivalent short-circuit impedance will be used which corresponds to the maximum short-circuit current contribution from the network feeders . and neutral conductors) will be introduced at a higher temperature Initial symmetrical short-circuit current The highest initial short-circuit current will occur for the three-phase short circuit.4. will be applied for the calculations of maximum short-circuit currents in the absence of a national standard . it is necessary to introduce the following conditions: . Z ( 2 ) = Z (1) .resistances RL of lines (overhead lines and cables.motors will be neglected . Z(0) may be smaller than Z(1). line conductors.lines resistance RL are to be introduced at a temperature of 20°C When calculating minimum short-circuit currents. or for accepted sectioning of the network to control the short-circuit current .choose the system configuration and the maximum contribution from power plants and network feeders which lead to the maximum value of short-circuit current at the short-circuit location. because for the common case Z( 0 ) > Z( 1 ) = Z( 2 ) .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Maximum and minimum short-circuit currents When calculating maximum short-circuit currents. This situation is described by the following relationships: Z ( 2 ) / Z ( 0 ) > 1. In that case. 2.5 and [1] .choose the system configuration and the minimum contribution from power stations and network feeders which lead to a minimum value of short-circuit current at the short-circuit location . 59 For short-circuits near transformers with low zero-sequence impedance.voltage factor cmax . " Ik 60 The initial symmetrical short-circuit current equation: will be calculated using the following general 26 .when equivalent impedances ZQ are used to represent external networks.

The impedance of the network feeder side connected to the short-circuit location. The impedances in systems connected through transformers to the system. 27 . Resistances Rk 62 63 Z Qt = RQt + jX Qt is referred to the voltage of the transformer Rk < 0. parallel connection. 65 In meshed networks. If there are several transformers with slightly differing rated transformation ratios (trT1. may be neglected. trT2. it is generally necessary to determine the short-circuit impedance Z k = Z (1) .3 ⋅ X k . in which the short-circuit occurs. the arithmetic mean value can be used.... Each branch short-circuit current can be calculated as an independent single-source three-phase short-circuit current in accordance with equation: " Ik = 3 Rk2 + X k2 ( c ⋅U n ) . X k = X Qt + X TK + X L .. 61 where Rk and Xk are the sum of the series-connected resistances and reactances of the positivesequence system respectively: Rk = RQt + RTK + RL . trTn). have to be transferred by the square of the rated transformation ratio. and the sources are unmeshed. 64 When there is more than one source contributing to the short-circuit current.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE c ⋅U n " Ik = 3 Rk2 + X k2 ( ) . delta-star transformation) using the positive-sequence short-circuit impedances of electrical equipment. 66 by network reduction (series connection. in between two systems. the initial symmetrical short-circuit current " I k at the short-circuit location F is the sum of the individual branch short-circuit currents.

c . the short-circuit breaking currents are equal to the initial shortcircuit currents: " " " " I b = I k . the contribution to the peak shortcircuit current from each branch can be expressed by: " ip = 2 κ Ik . 71 28 . I b 2 E = I k 2 E . 70 Where: " I k is the initial symmetrical short-circuit current f .the time R/X . = 2 I k e −2πf t ( R / X ) .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The peak short-circuit current For three-phase short-circuits fed from non-meshed networks. I b1 = I k1 . i 69 DC component of the short-circuit current The maximum DC component iDC of the short-circuit current may be calculated with sufficient accuracy by equation: " id . fed from sources which are not meshed with one another. 68 The peak short-circuit current ip at a short-circuit location F. I b 2 = I k 2 . 67 where the factor κ will be calculated by the following expression: κ = 1.98 ⋅ e −3( R / X ) . is the sum of the partial short-circuit currents: i p = ∑ i pi .the resistance/reactance ratio Note: The correct resistance RG of the generator armature should be used and not RGf. Symmetrical short-circuit breaking current The breaking current at the short-circuit location consists in general of a symmetrical current Ib and a DC current iDC at the time tmin For some near-to-generator short circuits the value of iDC at tmin may exceed the peak value of Ib and this can lead to missing current zeros.02 + 0. For far-from-generator short circuits.the nominal frequency t .

according to IEC 60909-0/2001-07 [1]. 72 " I kG / I rG and IrG is the where the factor μ depends on the minimum time delay tmin and the ratio rated generator current. the decay to the symmetrical short-circuit breaking current is taken into account by the factor μ according to equation: " Ib = μ ⋅ Ik . in the case of a single fed short-circuit or from non-meshed networks. i 73 The short-circuit breaking current Ib in meshed networks will be calculated by: " Ib = Ik .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE For a near-to-generator short circuit. 29 . For three-phase short circuits in non-meshed networks. the symmetrical breaking current at the short-circuit location can be calculated by the summation of the individual breaking current contributions: I b = ∑ I bi . 74 which is usually greater than the real symmetrical short-circuit breaking currents.

4 1. Table 5: CB rated interrupting time in cycles Circuit Breaker Rated Interrupting Time.0 S is the breakers’ asymmetrical capability factor and is determined based on the rating structure to which the breaker was manufactured. 30 . Those manufactured before 1965 were rated on a ‘total’ current basis.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 3 3. Both the symmetrical and total current rated breakers have some DC interrupting capability included in their ratings and it is a matter of how it is accounted for in the total interrupting current. Most breakers manufactured after 1964 are breakers rated on a ‘symmetrical’ current basis. The typical total rated interrupting time for Medium-Voltage Circuit Breakers is 5 cycles (ANSI C37.1 ANSI/IEEE Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEEE) Standard Ratings for HV and MV Circuit Breakers (CB) The ANSI/IEEE Standards define the CB total interrupting time in cycles. in the 2 -8 cycle network. The interrupting rating is calculated differently based on the formulae shown in the next sections. the Contact Parting Time (CPT) needs to be known for application of breakers. However. However. Note: For circuit breakers rated on Total Current S=1. the MV CBs interrupting time correspond to 3 cycle contact parting time for the short circuit current.0 Medium voltage breakers duty is based on: 1.2 1. in Cycles 2 3 5 8 CPT.1 1. in Cycles 1. Momentary rating (C&L) 2.5 2 3 4 S 1. Peak (Crest) 3.06 – 1987). Interrupting The Momentary and Peak formulae apply to both breakers symmetrical and total current rated breakers.

rms). Calculate the peak value of momentary SC using the following formula: Imom.peak = MFp*Isym. Total rms current.rms.asym = MFm*Isym.1 * e -X/R 3 77 31 .asym*100)/Device C&L. or peak current.rms. The closing and latching capability of a symmetrical current-rated CB is expressed in terms of Asymmetrical.rms where: MFp = (1 + e -2πτ X /R ) 2 . Calculate the ½ cycle symmetrical short circuit (Isym. DesignBase uses the following steps to calculate the circuit breaker momentary duty: 1. 75 Note: In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Momentary Duty Calculation (C & L): The CB Closing and Latching Capability defines the CB ability to withstand (close and immediately latch) the maximum value of the first-cycle short circuit current.rms).49 . Calculate the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym.0. where: -2π MFm = 1 + 2e X / R .rms ) value: If Device C&L. Compare Imom.6 3.76 and τ = 0. then the device Pass or otherwise it fails 4.asym against the medium voltage circuit breaker (C&L. Calculate the % Rating = (Imom.rms.rms. 2.rms.asym. 2. Calculate asymmetrical current value using the following formula: Imom.rms rating ≥ Imom.rms rating Peak Duty calculation (Crest): 1.

“All Remote” i. then the NACD (the current is obtained by using the (1. Calculate The % rating = (Imom. total local contribution. 3.0.5-4) cycle network impedance Calculate NACD (No AC Decrement) ratio NACD = 4. 3. If Device Creast. For a system other than of 60 Hz adjust the calculated X/R as follows: ( X / R) mod = (X/R) * 60 System Frequency (Hz) 78 The following steps are used to calculate the circuit breaker interrupting. this is based on actual calculations Determine if the generator is Local or Remote Calculate total remote contribution.peak*100)/Device Crest.peak rating ≥ Imom.5-4 cycles short circuit current. NACD = 0 “Adjusted”. NACD = 1.Ilocal) Itotal (Iremote + Ilocal) 79 Calculate the Multiplying factor based on the fault location (MFr. or MFl) Remote – If Generator current contribution to fault is less than 40% of a generator terminal fault then this generator is Remote. which the CB can interrupt regardless of how low the operating voltage is.5 times the Generator Z’’dv. For remote fault the multiplying factor is MFr: -4π C X /R MFr = 1 + 2e S 80 32 .peak rating Interrupting Duty Calculation The Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Capability for a Symmetrical Current-Rated CB is the maximum rms current of the symmetrical AC and DC component.7.e. or equivalent impedance to generation terminals is > 1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Note: In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak = 2. Compare Imom. This is the most conservative solution “All Local”. 2.peak. i.peak against the medium voltage circuit breaker (Creat.peak ) value. or otherwise it fails 4. Iremote (Itotal .e. then the device pass. The interrupting fault currents for the MV & HV circuit breakers is equal to 1. There are three options: • • • 1.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Where C = CB Contact Parting Time in Cyc. Local – For any local fault the multiplying factor MFl is calculated using the following formula within EDSA or look up tables. The equations are not given in ANSI C37.101, but are empirical equations to match the curves within the ANSI breaker standard.
-4π

MFl =
where:

K 2 + 2e X / R S

C

,

81

Table 6: K factor CPT 1.5 2 3 4 K= 1.0278 - 0.004288(X/R) + 0.00002945(X/R)2 - 0.000000068368(X/R)3 1.0604 - 0.007473(X/R) + 0.00006253(X/R)2 - 0.0000002427(X/R)3 1.0494 - 0.00833(X/R) + 0.00006919(X/R)2 - 0.000000075638(X/R)3 1.0370 - 0.008148(X/R) + 0.0000611(X/R)2 - 0.0000002248(X/R)3 The Adjusted Multiplying Factor (AMFi) is equal to: AMFi = MFl +NACD (MFr-MFl), If AMFi is less than 1.0 then the program uses 1.0 5. Calculate Iint, All Remote: All Local: Mixed local and remote: 6. Iint = MFr*Iint,rms,sym Iint = MFl*Iint,rms,sym Iint = AMFi*Iint,rms,sym 82

Calculate 3 phase Device Duty by adjusting the device interrupting duty based on rated voltage using the following formula:

3P Device Duty = Min (
7.

Device Int Rating * Rated Max kV * Device Max Int Rating) Operating Voltage kV

Compare Iint against the CB 3P Device Duty. If 3P Device Duty ≥ Iint, then the device Passes, otherwise it Fails.

8.

Calculate % rating = (Iint *100)/ (3P Device Duty)

33

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

3.2

Standard Ratings for Low Voltage Circuit Breakers (LV-CBs) For Low-Voltage CBs (LV-CBs) the time of short circuit current interruption occurs within the sub transient time interval. However, the interrupting capabilities of unfused LV-CBs are sensitive to the maximum peak magnitude of the total /asymmetrical fault current. If the device library does not have a value for X/R then the following default values are used as default by the EDSA program:

Table 7: Default Device X/R Values Using EDSA’s Library Breaker Type Unfused Power Circuit (PCB) Breaker Fused Power Circuit Breaker, MCCB, ICCB (Insulated Case CB) Molded Case (MCCB), ICCB rated ≤ 10,000A Molded Case MCCB), ICCB rated 10,001-20,000 A Molded Case (MCCB), ICCB rated > 20,000 A Test %PF 15 20 50 30 20 Test X/R 6.59 4.9 1.73 3.18 4.90

The following steps are used to calculate the low voltage circuit breaker interrupting: 1. Calculate the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms). 2. Calculate Low Voltage Multiplying Factor (LVF) PCB: Power Circuit Breaker ICCB: Insulated Case Circuit Breaker

Fused PCB / MCCB / ICCB
(1 + 2e
2π Calc X/R

LVFasym =

) )

2π (1 + 2e Test X/R

( EQ − 7)

,

83

Unfused PCB / MCCB / ICCB with Instantaneous setting
−2πτ X/Rcalc

LVFp =

(1 + e

-

)
, 84

(1 + e

−2πT X/Rtest

)

34

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Where

τ = 0.49 - 0.1e
and T=

-X/Rcalc 3

- X/Rtest 0.49 - 0.1e 3

In Options of the short circuit Tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” , the user can select to use τ =T = 0.5 instead of using the empirical formula by selecting “Applies 0.5 Cycles”.

Unfused PCB without Instantaneous setting If the breaker does not have an instantaneous setting then the breaker has two interrupting rating (peak and asymmetrical). Therefore the LVFp and LVFasym are calculated.

LVFasym =

(1 + 2e (1 + 2e

-

4πt X/Rcalc

) )
85

4πt X/Rtest

Where t is the breaker minimum short time trip in cycles at interrupting duty. The default value used by EDSA is 3 cycles. The peak interrupting rating is calculated as follows:

LVFp =

(1 + e

-

−2πτ X/Rcalc

)
86

(1 + e
Where

−2πT X/Rtest

)

τ = 0.49 - 0.1e
and

-X/Rcalc 3

T = 0.49 - 0.1e

- X/Rtest 3

35

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

3. If any of the LVF is less than 1.0 then uses 1.0 4. Calculate adjusted Interrupting factor Fused Breakers Iint,adj = LVFasym* Isym,rms (the 3-8 cycle interrupting short circuit) Unfused Breakers With Inst Iint,adj = LVFp* Isym,rms (the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit) Unfused Breakers Without Inst Iint,adj = LVFasym* Isym,rms (the 3-8 cycle interrupting short circuit) Iint,adj = LVFp* Isym,rms (the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit) 5. Compare Iint,adj against the CB symmetrical interrupting rating. If Device Symmetrical rating ≥ Iint,adj, then the device passes, or otherwise it fails 6. Calculate The % rating = (Iint,adj*100)/Device Symmetrical rating

3.3

Standard Ratings for Low/High Voltage Fuses, and Switches The LVFs interrupting capability is the maximum symmetrical rms current which the fuse can interrupt and still remain intact. While the fuse has a symmetrical current rating it can also interrupt the DC component up to a value based on its test X/R ratio. The interrupting capabilities of LV-Fs are classified by the UL according to symmetrical current ratings in rms Amperes. In some rare cases the fuse asymmetrical rating is provided. Evaluation procedure: 3. Calculate the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms). 4. Calculate Iasym: Iasym,adj = MFasym*Isym(1/2 Cyc) • If the fuse is symmetrical rated, then MFasym is calculated using the following formula:

36

adj*100)/Device Symmetrical rating. Compare Iasym. 88 - 2π Test X/R 5. then the device Pass otherwise it Fails 6.adj. then MFasym is calculated using the following formula: MFasym = (1 + 2e (1 + 2e - 2π Calc X/R ) ) . Calculate The % rating = (Iasym.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE MFasym = (1 + 2e - 2π X/R ) 87 • If the fuse is asymmetrical rated. If Device Symmetrical rating ≥ Iasym. For standard switches the same formulae are used Note: 37 .adj against the fuse symmetrical interrupting rating.

adj*100/ Device rating Calculate %rating=Iint. ICCB rated <=10.73 = 3. Run the PDE analysis Fuses/ Switches LVCB Fuse / Switch Symmetrical Rating.adj =LVF*Isym. then LVF =1 Is Device rating greater or Equal to Iasym.adj? NO Yes MCCB/ICCB/PCBWith Instantaneous : Iint. ICCB rated > 20. ICCB = 4.rms PCB Without Instantaneous: Iint.rms(½ Cyc) int. ANSI Standard.000A MCCB. then adjust the X/R where. For frequency other than 60 Hz.000 A = 1. MCCB.adj =LVFp*Isym.9 YES Calculate LVF based on EQ-8 for PCB breaker with Instantaneous Setting.adj? Yes Fail Pass Fail Pass Calculate %rating=Isym.rms).rms.sym.000 A MCCB.rms(3-8 Cyc) NO Is Device Symmetrical rating greater or Equal to Iint.59 MCCB. (X/R)mod=(X/R)*60/(System Hz) For LVCB. selected: Calculate MF based on EQ-1 Fuse / Switch Asymmetrical Rating selected: Calculate MF based on EQ-10 MVCB NO Fused? YES CB X/R is known? CB X/R is known? NO Yes The X/R is equal to: NO The X/R is equal to: PCB.adj*100/ Device rating Figure 1: Device Evaluation. Page 1 38 . ICCB rated 10. MCCB and ICCB.9 PCB. MVCB & Fuses Calculate the ½ cycle short-circuit current (Isym.001-20.18 = 4. For PCB without instantaneous use EQ-8 & EQ-9 Calculate LVF based on EQ-7 Go to Page 2 IF LVF < 1.adj =LVFasym*Isym.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE ANSI DEVICE EVALUATION Perform Short-Circuit Study & Update Answer File. ICCB = 6. For MVCB calculate the Iint.

rms rating greater or Equal to Imom. Page 2 39 .rms.sym) NACD using (EQ-3) If NACD=0 then all contribution are Local If NACD=1 then all contribution are Remote Peak Duty (Crest) Peak Duty (Crest) Momentary Duty (C&L) Momentary Duty (C&L) MFp = 2. ANSI Standard.peak=MFp*Isym.asym*100/ device C&L.sym/S Fail Pass Calculate 3 phase device duty using EQ-6a Calculate %rating=Imom.rms.0 Iint = AMFi*Iint.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE MVCB From Page 1 Calculation Based on Generation: All Remote All Local NACD ANSI DEVICE EVALUATION Page 2 In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has selected the fixed MF factor YES YES NO Interrupting Duty NO Calculate: Total Remote Contribution Total Local contribution Total Contribution (Iint.sym NACD Is Device peak (crest) rating greater or Equal to Imom.peak? NO Yes Calculate: NACD using EQ-3 MFr using EQ-4 MFl using EQ-5 AMFi = using EQ-6.asym=MFm*Isym. If AMFl less than 1 use 1.rms.rms rating Figure 2: Device Evaluation.6 ALL Remote Calculate MFp using EQ-2 Calculate MFm using EQ-1 All Local Calculate MFr using EQ-4 Iint=MFr*Iint.rms Calculate MFl using EQ-5 Iint=MFl*Iint.sym Calculate Imom.rms.rms.peak*100/ device peak (crest) rating NO Is Device Int rating greater or Equal to calculated Iint? Yes NO Is Device C&L.rms.rms Calculate Imom.asym? Yes Fail Pass Fail Pass Calculate %rating=Iint*100/ 3P device Int rating Calculate %rating=Imom.7 MFm = 1.

However. the high energies and relatively low di/dt values associated with an asymmetrical duty make it less onerous for such a device than an equivalent symmetrical duty. High Voltage Breakers. for which extensive operating experience is available. energy requirements and cost. It must be stressed at this point that there is no intention to cast doubt on the capabilities of particular equipment design philosophies merely to emphasize that as refined design techniques lead to minimized designs so the importance of well constructed and realistic testing regimes increases.: If the manufacturer indicates a few values for the rated voltage.1 CIRCUIT-BREAKERS Circuit-breaker design techniques have improved over time leading to benefits of technical performances. 4. equipment testing should consider the equipment under test to be a "black box" model regardless of the technology being employed. are factors which might prove particularly critical. Ultimately. However. In principle. Low Voltage Breakers. On the HV breakers it may to check if the breaker voltage rating is greater than the system voltage.1. interpolation of test evidence is relatively simple and accepted. 40 . However. solution to problems of asymmetric switching is to increase circuitbreaker operating times. a2) Rated insulation level. The voltage rating of IEC breakers is the maximum voltage that the breaker can be applied at. This progression is also perceived to have led to an inevitable reduction in inherent design margins such that much of the older equipment. the effect of low energy minor loops and the possibility of extended arcing periods. although this does not alleviate the duty on other associated equipment and may be inconvenient from an overall system viewpoint. in technologies where the basic interruption characteristics of the device are duty dependent. then the greatest represents the maximum rated voltage. such interpolations are far more difficult to achieve simply and it is quite conceivable that critical fault duties may be identified at fractional short-circuit levels. The same standards are used for LVPCB and MCCB. Normally the interrupting current is a constant current at any voltage.1 Rated characteristics to be given for all circuit-breakers a1) Rated voltage Ur. This trend is not problematic in itself but further emphasizes the need for future testing regimes to be fully representative of the system conditions in which the equipment needs to function correctly.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 4 IEC Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEC) 4. This contrary to the tendency for reducing protection times in modern equipment. but this presents obvious difficulties if varying design technologies have specific sensitivities. weight. An obvious. but non-preferred. in what are generally very short overall travel times. some manufacturers do give a different current at various voltages. may have considerable margins in hand-over and above modern equipment. reduced size. In technologies where the interruption capability is fundamentally constant regardless of the switching duty.

I e ≤ 2. indicated in table 3. 5 kA}. on the base of the mentioned standard. I cw = 30 kA . short-time current. The rated short-time withstand current must be greater than twelve times the rated maximum operation current and. as follows: I cw = Max{ (12 ⋅ I e ). disconector or swich-disconector means the rms value of a rated. The rated short-time withstand current Icw of a CB. pt . It is necessary that the last mentioned value to be lower than the product between the short duration acceptable rated current and the factor n. 90 91 InAC the rated short-time withstand current is compearing with the rms value of the periodical shortcircuit current component. a5) Rated short-time withstand current Icw.5 kA .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE a3) Rated frequency fr. 41 . indicated by a manufacturer. pt . pt . in accordance with CEI 60947-1: I k ≤ n ⋅ I cw . The standard values for the rated frequency of high voltage circuit-breakers are 50 Hz and 60 Hz. without other manufacturer’s indication. which the equipment can support without any damages.5 kA . admited. The testing determination of this current for a concret equipment is made in standard conditions [CEI 60947-1]. Tcw = 1s . I e > 2. the time constants and the ratio n between the peak value and the rated short-time withstand current. 92 Values of the power factor. a4) Rated normal current Ir: Current which the main circuit of a circuit-breaker is capable of carrying continuously under specified conditions of use and behavior. 89 A complete determination of the rated short-time withstand current is made. the current duration must be 1 s: I cw ≥ 12 ⋅ I e .

kA ≤1. switch-disconnectors and fuse-combination units.05. p.EN 60947-3:1999 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 3: Switches.70 2.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Table 8: n factor based on PF and short circuit level Short-circuit current.20 5 10 15 At the same time.8 0. ms n factor 1.53 1. disconnectors. 42 . 0 . 6] (6.5] (4. the short duration acceptable rated current represents the upper limit value of the rms value of the short-circuit current periodical component which is presumed constant during the short timing τ. 20] (20. 10] (10. as applicable.95 0.33] . for which the following normalized values are recommended: τ ∈ {0 . A rated duration of a short-circuit need not be assigned to a self-tripping circuit-breaker provided that the following applies.3 0.00 2.7 0.25 0. 50] 50≤ Power Factor 0. a7) Rated duration of a short-circuit tk.5.10 2. 0.5 0. a9) Rated supply frequency of closing and opening devices and of auxiliary circuits. a10) Rated pressures of compressed gas supply and/or of hydraulic supply for operation. 4. Direct over current releases include integrated tripping systems. a6) Rated peak withstand current (Ip): It is equal to the rated short-circuit making current.41 1.5.25.9 0. the circuit-breaker shall be capable of carrying the resulting current for the break-time required. 0 . interruption and insulation. The rated short-time withstand current is equal to the rated short-circuit breaking current [5.1. This break time is that required by the circuit-breaker with the over current release set for the maximum time lag when operating in accordance with its rated operating sequence.1} s 1.42 1.47 1.2 Time constant.5. a8) Rated supply voltage of closing and opening devices and of auxiliary circuits Ua. When connected in a circuit the prospective breaking current of which is equal to its rated short-circuit breaking current.5 (1. 3] (3.

for a self-tripping circuit-breaker. – the percentage DC component.6 – 2 – 2. Such a current is found in a circuit having a power-frequency recovery voltage corresponding to the rated voltage of the circuit-breaker and having a transient recovery voltage equal to a specified value. no short-circuit breaking current is guaranteed. The following applies to a standard circuit-breaker: .for a circuit-breaker which is tripped solely by any form of auxiliary power. Time Tr in the formula (6) is to be set to 0 ms . If the DC component does not exceed 20%.5 – 3.15 – 4 – 5 – 6.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE a11) Rated short-circuit breaking current Icn. The standard value of the AC component of the rated short-circuit breaking current shall be selected from the R10 series specified in IEC 60059.c. The percentage value of the dc component (iDC%) is based on the time interval (Top + Tr) and the time constant τ using the formula: ⎛ Top + Tr id . the percentage DC component shall correspond to a time interval equal to the minimum opening time of the first opening pole Top of the circuit-breaker plus one half-cycle of rated frequency Tr. The value of the percentage DC component shall be determined as follows: . The minimum opening time mentioned above is that specified by the manufacturer.3 – 8} and their products by 10n. The rated short-circuit breaking current is characterized by two values: – the rms value of its AC component. % = 100 ⋅ exp⎜ − ⎜ τ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟. it shall be capable of breaking its rated shortcircuit breaking current . associated with it.at voltages below and equal to the rated voltage. The rated short-circuit breaking current is the highest short-circuit current which the circuit breaker shall be capable of breaking under the conditions of use and behavior prescribed in standards. The R10 series comprises the numbers {1 – 1. the percentage DC component shall correspond to a time interval equal to the minimum opening time of the first opening pole Top of the circuit breaker. under the conditions mentioned above.25 – 1. which is expected by the manufacturer to cover the entire population of the circuit-breaker concerned under any operational conditions when breaking asymmetrical currents. For three-pole circuit-breakers.at voltages above the rated voltage. The minimum opening time is the shortest opening time. the rated shortcircuit breaking current is characterized only by the rms value of its AC component. the AC component relates to a three-phases short-circuit. % ⎟ ⎠ 43 . The circuit-breaker shall be capable of breaking any short-circuit current up to its rated short-circuit breaking current containing any AC component up to the rated value and. any percentage DC component up to that specified.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The graphs of the DC component against time given in figure 1 below are based on: a) standard time constant of 45 ms b) special case time constants. for different time constantτ. the required DC component and any additional test requirements should be specified in the inquiry. etc. design of lines. some applications may require even higher values. They are provided as unified values for such special system needs.5 kV up to and including 420 kV .60 ms for rated voltages from 72. current component in relation to the time interval from initiation of short-circuit current. In addition. related to the rated voltage of the circuit-breaker: . In these circumstances. for example if a circuit-breaker is close to a generator. a12) Rated ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity Icu The rated ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity Icu represents the highest rms value of the current that the device is able to interrupt without suffering significant damages.75 ms for rated voltages 550 kV and above Figure 3: Percentage D. 44 .C. taking into account the characteristics of the different ranges of rated voltage. These special case time constant values recognize that the standard value may be inadequate in some systems.120 ms for rated voltages up to and including 52 kV . for example their particular system structures.

According to IEC 60947-1 the rated short-circuit making capacity is established in comparison with the limit value of the short-circuit rated breaking capacity Icu. In other cases. This waveform is adequately represented by an envelope consisting of two line segments defined by means of two parameters. is used for testing at short-circuit breaking currents equal to the rated value. expressed by the highest instantaneous value of the current that the device can connect at the rated voltage and frequency and at a specified power factor. The influence of local capacitance on the source side of the circuit-breaker produces a slower rate of rise of the voltage during the first few microseconds of the TRV. particularly in systems with a voltage 100 kV and above. the transient recovery voltage approximates to a damped single frequency oscillation. The rated short-circuit making capacity Icm of a circuit-breaker or switch represents the value of the short-circuit closing capacity. followed by a later period of lower rate of rise.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The magnitude of this current. particularly in systems with a voltage less than 100 kV. This parameter is indicated by the equipment manufacturer in the device catalogue data. This waveform is generally adequately represented by an envelope consisting of three line segments defined by means of four parameters.TRV 93 related to the rated short-circuit breaking current is the reference voltage which constitutes the limit of the prospective transient recovery voltage of circuits which the circuit-breaker shall be capable of withstanding under fault conditions. a14) The rated short-circuit making current Icm of a circuit-breaker having simultaneity of poles is that which corresponds to the rated voltage and the rated frequency. or in systems with a voltage greater than 100 kV in conditions where the short-circuit currents are relatively small in relation to the maximum short-circuit currents and fed through transformers. given in the table 2. The transient recovery voltage corresponding to the rated short-circuit breaking current when a terminal fault occurs. In some cases. is the upper (superior/higher) limit of the short-circuit ac component (the dc component is considered null): I cu ≥ I k a13) Transient recovery voltage . determined under the conditions specified in the product standard. in accordance with the relationship: I cm = k ⋅ I cu 94 45 . the transient recovery voltage contains first a period of high rate of rise. by multiplying it to the factor k. for LVCB. This is taken into account by introducing a time delay. and where the short-circuit currents are relatively large in relation to the maximum short-circuit current at the point under consideration.

so a following relationship can be written: I cm = k H ⋅ I cn . 50] 50≤ cosϕ 0.1 2.6 times the rms value of the AC component of its rated short-circuit breaking current for all special case time constants it is equal to 2. In this case. the rated short-circuit making capacity Icm of an CB is compared with the peak current ip and the next inequality have to be fulfilled in order that the device withstands the short-circuit action: I cm ≥ i p The following values apply for the high voltage CB (Ur >1 kV): • 95 for a rated frequency of 50 Hz and the standard value of the time constant of 45 ms it is equal to 2. kA (6. 96 where the multiplying factor kH was introduced.50 0.20 k 1. 20] (20. independent of the rated frequency of the circuitbreaker • 46 . 10] (10. kH=2.30 0.0 2.5.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Values of the multiplying factor k when fixing the rated short-circuit making capacity Icm of the LVCB Table 9: Icu and k factor Icu.5 times the rms value of the AC component of its rated short-circuit breaking current (Icn).7 2.25 0.7 times the rms value of the AC component of its rated short-circuit breaking current. • for a rated frequency of 60 Hz and the standard value of the time constant of 45 ms it is equal to 2.2 The rated short-circuit making capacity implies that the breaker is able to connect the current suitable to this rated capacity at an applied voltage corresponding to the use rated voltage. Being an instantaneous value.

break time: interval of time between the beginning of the opening time of a mechanical switching device and the end of the arcing time 4. The main nameplate information is indicated in the Table 10 below. the opening time is the interval of time between the instant of energizing the opening release. the instant when the arcing contacts have separated in all poles is determined as the instant of contact separation in the first unit of the last pole.2 Circuit Breaker Name Plate Data The nameplates of a CB and its operating devices shall be marked and must contain data in accordance with the standards IEC Standards. The opening time includes the operating time of any auxiliary equipment necessary to open the circuit breaker and forming an integral part of the circuit-breaker.for a self-tripping circuit-breaker.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE a15) Rated operating sequence. and the instant when the arcing contacts have separated in all poles . 47 .1. the circuit-breaker being in the closed position.for a circuit-breaker tripped by any form of auxiliary power.arcing time (of a multipole switching device): interval of time between the instant of the first initiation of an arc and the instant of final arc extinction in all poles . the circuit-breaker being in the closed position. the opening time is the interval of time between the instant at which. For circuit-breakers with more than one interrupting unit per pole. .opening time of a circuit-breaker defined according to the tripping method as stated below and with any time delay device forming an integral part of the circuit-breaker adjusted to its minimum setting . a16) Rated time quantities: . the current in the main circuit reaches the operating value of the over current release and the instant when the arcing contacts have separated in all poles The opening time may vary with the breaking current.

A characteristic of modern cartridge fuses is that. but decreases as the current increases. and a slow-blow fuse may require twice its rated current for tens of seconds to blow. owing to the rapidity of fusion in the case of high short-circuit current levels.1 seconds. 4. Releases shall bear the appropriate data. One of the most critical factors for optimum protection is proper fuse selection. The choice depends on each application requirements and specific network conditions. The nameplate shall be visible in the position of normal service and installation. Fuses have different characteristics of operating time compared to current. a fast-blow fuse may require twice its rated current to blow in 0. The operating time is not a fixed interval. according to time required to respond to an over current condition. a current cut-off begins before the occurrence of the first major peak.2. This limitation of current reduces significantly the thermal and dynamic stresses which would otherwise occur.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE CB Name Plate Information Table 10: CB Name plate data Information Manufacturer Type designation and serial number Rated voltage Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Rated switching impulse withstand voltage Rated frequency fr Rated normal current Rated short-circuit breaking current DC component of the rated short-circuit breaking current Rated duration of short-circuit Ir Isc (idc%) tk Hz A kA % s Ur Up Us kV kV kV Abbreviation Unit Required marking condition Mandatory for CB and operation device “ Mandatory “ Rated voltage 300 kV and above Rating is not applicable at both 50 Hz and 60 Hz Mandatory “ More than 20 % Different from 1 s Coils of operating devices shall have a reference mark permitting the complete data to be obtained from the manufacturer. This can be done based on theoretical calculations but in many cases practical knowledge obtained from actual test results could make it easier and even more reliable. thereby 48 . so that the fault current never reaches its prospective peak value [Schneider]. characterized as "fast-blow".2 FUSES 4.1 General considerations The fuses can operate as single devices or can be combined with switch disconnectors. The speed at which a fuse blows depends on how much current flows through it and the material of which the fuse is made. A standard fuse may require twice its rated current to open in one second. "slow-blow" or "time-delay".

Fuse Breaking capacity – value of prospective current that a fuse is capable of breaking at a stated voltage under prescribed conditions of use and behavior (the rms value of the periodic component. and fault levels are generally low. In the case of DC. the DC transients (in this case) have an insignificant effect on the magnitude of the current peak. Note: the prospective current is the quantity to which the breaking capacity and characteristics of the fuse are normally referred. No short-circuit current-making rating is assigned to fuses. Short-circuit currents initially contain DC components. The rated short-circuit breaking current of the fuse is therefore based on the rms value of the AC component of the prospective fault current.5 (standardized by IEC). R greatly predominates XL. I2t and cut-off current characteristics. as previously mentioned. as previously noted. can be as high as 2. Peak withstand current – value of the cut-off current that the fuse-holder can withstand. Note: in the case of AC.g. The peak-current-limitation effect occurs only when the prospective rms AC component of fault current attains a certain level. the values of the cut-off currents are the maximum values reached related to the time constants as specified. let-through current characteristic – curve giving the cut-off current as a function of the prospective current under stated conditions of operation. Note: the peak withstands current is not less than the highest cut-off current of any fuse-link with which the fuse-holder is intended to be associated. the values of the cut-off currents are the maximum values which can be reached whatever the degree of asymmetry.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE minimizing danger and damage at the fault position. at lower distribution levels in an installation. Close to the source (MV/LV transformer) the relationship Ipeak / I rms (of AC component) immediately following the instant of fault. e. 4. As already mentioned. the magnitude and duration of which depend on the XL/R ratio of the fault current loop. XL is small compared with R and so for final circuits Ipeak / Irms ~ 1.41. On the other hand. At lower levels of distribution in an installation. 49 . For AC. Cut-off current – maximum instantaneous value reached by the current during the breaking operation of a fuse-link when it operates in such a manner as to prevent the current from reaching the otherwise attainable maximum. Breaking range – range of prospective currents within which the breaking capacity of a fuse-link is assured. the prospective current is expressed by the rms value of the AC component. for AC).2.2 Fuse IEC Characteristic Quantities [IEC 60269-1] Prospective current (of a circuit with respect to a fuse) – current that would flow in the circuit if each pole of the fuse were replaced by a conductor of negligible impedance. This means that the level of fault current may not attain values high enough to cause peak current limitation. Cut-off current characteristic.

purposes the difference between pre-arcing and operating time is negligible. e.value of current specified as that which causes operation of the fuse-link within a specified time (conventional time). under specified conditions. Time-current zone – range contained by the minimum pre-arcing time-current characteristics and the maximum operating time-current characteristic. Time-current characteristic – curve giving the time. total clearing time – sum of the pre-arcing time and the arcing time. pre-arcing time or operating time as a function of the prospective current under stated conditions of operation.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Pre-arcing time. I2t zone – range contained by the minimum pre-arcing I2t characteristic and the maximum operating I2t characteristic. for practical. Conventional fusing current (If) . under specified conditions.g. melting time – interval of time between the beginning of a current large enough to cause a break in the fuse element(s) and the instant when an arc is initiated. Operating time. I2t (Joule integral) – integral of the square of the current over a given time interval: I 2 t = ∫t 1 i 2 dt 0 Notes: • • • t 97 The pre-arcing I2t is the I2t integral extended over the pre-arcing time of the fuse The operating I2t is the I2t integral extended over the operating time of the fuse The energy in Joules released in a 1Ω resistor in a circuit protected by a fuse is equal to the value of the operating I2t expressed in A2s I2t characteristic – curve giving I2t values (pre-arcing I2t and/or operating I2t) as a function of prospective current under stated conditions of operation. Conventional non-fusing current (Inf) – value of current specified as that which the fuse-link is capable of carrying for a specified time (conventional time) without melting. Rated current of a fuse-link (In) – value of current that the fuse-link can carry continuously without deterioration under specified conditions. Note: for times longer than 0.interval of time between the instant of the initiation of the arc in a fuse and the instant of final arc extinction in that fuse. 50 .1 s. Arcing time of a fuse .

3.3 Fuse nameplate data The follwoing data will generally be provided for a fuse: 1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 4. i.2.e. 2. 6. 5. fuse speed Approvals by national and international standards agencies Manufacturer / part number / series Breaking capacity 51 . Rated current (Ampere rating) of the fuse Voltage rating of the fuse Time-current characteristic. 4.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 5 Protective Device Evaluation Based on IEC Standard Figure 4: PDE Flow Chart .IEC standard: a .main branch and fuses evaluation. 52 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE b LVCB evaluation.HVCB evaluation. 53 . c .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE c HVCB evaluation 54 .

1 Fuses Evaluation Compare the voltage rating of the fuse (Ur) against the system voltage (Un) where the fuse is placed: if the fuse rated voltage Ur ≥ Un then the device Pass. if Icm ≥ ip then the device Pass.a. otherwise Fail (the user have to verify the fuse ratings). For the FAIL situation Calculate % rating = ip I cm ⋅ 100 . Compare Icm with the peak short-circuit current. if Ur > Un then the real breaking capacity of the fuse will be used in the next steps. For the Ur ≥ Un case. otherwise Fail. b. otherwise Fail. Determination of the LVCB short-circuit making current Icm. For both situations of the last comparison " Calculate %rating = I" k Ib 5. if Ur = Un then the fuse breaking capacity rating (Irb) = the fuse real breaking capacity (Ib).2 LVCB Evaluation The LVCB evaluation begins after the comparison of the CB rated voltage presented in the right side of the figure 2. there are two situations: a. for this situation calculate the fuse real breaking capacity: Ib = Ur ⋅ I rb . For the PASS situation 55 . Un " Ik : Compare the fuse real breaking capacity against the initial symmetrical short-circuit current if Ib ≥ I k then the device Pass.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 5.

3 HVCB Evaluation The HVCB evaluation. according to the IEC standards calculus. if Iasymsc < Icn then the LVCB Pass. For both situations of the last comparison calculate % rating = I asymsc I cn ⋅ 100 .b. Calculate the asymmetrical short-circuit presumed current I asymsc = I k ⎛i %⎞ 1 + ⎜ dc ⎟ . The differences occur just in the loop of the Icm determination. given in paragraph. presented in Figure 2. 56 . Tr – according to the specifications from figure 2. ⎝ 100 ⎠ 2 Compare the asymmetrical short-circuit presumed current with the CB short-circuit breaking current Icn.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Calculate ⎛ Top + Tr i dc % = exp⎜ ⎜ τ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ . ⎟ ⎠ Where: Top represents the minimum opening time and it is specified by the manufacturer. 5. τ – circuit time constant.c is similar to the LVCB one. otherwise Fail.

for both AC three-phase and single-phase networks. DesignBase Short Circuit Calculation Method a.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 6. Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Tools To launch DesignBase Short Circuit program. as per ANSI/IEEE Standard) AC Classical. (Z complex method. X/R from the complex Z) AC IEC 60909 AC IEC 61363 AC 1 Phase DC Classical DC IEC 61660 57 . both the short circuit analysis method and the corresponding short circuit tools are displayed as indicated below: Paladin DesignBase provides several short circuit calculation methods based on the ANSI/IEEE Standards and the IEC Standards. The following short circuit calculation methods are implemented: • • • • • • • AC ANSI/IEEE (separate R and X. click the short circuit icon as presented below: While in Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit program.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE b. AC ANSI/IEEE Standard – Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Tools: Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program: Short Circuit Tools The Short Circuit tools are presented in the Figure above. and are listed below: AC Short Circuit Options Report Manager Short Circuit Back Annotation Analyze Reactor Sizing 58 .

AC IEC 60909. The Short Circuit Option Dialog Window is opened and presented in the Figure below. Click on this icon to launch the “Short Circuit Analysis Options”. Control Tab: this tab depends on the short circuit method that user selects. with the same fields for: AC ANSI/IEEE. AC Single Phase. faults can be performed only at all buses in this release. AC Classical. AC IEC 61363 and AC Single Phase calculation. phase B. phase A. for L-L and L-L-G fault phase B and C For L-G fault. for L-L and L-L-G fault phase A and C For L-G fault. phase C. It has two tabs: Calculation and Control for ANSI/IEEE: Note: For L-G fault.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option Icon: Short Circuit Analysis Option has two tabs: • • Calculation Tab. for L-L and L-L-G fault phase A and B Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option 59 .

Selecting More Than One Bus: • • Graphically on the drawing space: click onto the desired first bus. are faulted individually in turn. select each bus individually Menu Driven: highlight the desired bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on the Add. (Sliding and series fault does not apply to IEC61363 or AC Single phase calculation) Miscellaneous options: use only X to calculate the faults. the program will place a three-phase. the program will place a three-phase. then hold down the “shift key”. If One Bus is selected. line-to- 60 . Notes: • Faults at more than one bus. when the buses are faulted individually. Selection of One Bus: The Bus can be selected: • • Graphically on the one line diagram. The highlighted bus/buses will be transferred to the “All Buses” List. not simultaneously. This option is applied if the fault is calculated at one bus only Fault location: selected buses. It can be: system voltage. The bus faults are displayed at all buses simultaneously. or Highlight the bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on the “Add” button. Depending on the specified fault type. the selected buses will be transferred to the “Selected Buses” list. while the “shift key” is being held down. by a simple click on the desired bus. not simultaneously. sliding fault or series fault.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Calculation Tab allows the user to select the followings: • • • • Base voltage: o Adjusted by tap/turn ratio if power transformer is run on “off nominal” taps o System voltage Prefault voltage represents the bus voltage at the instant the fault is applied at that bus. To remove a bus from the “Selected Buses” list highlight the bus ID and click on “Remove” button. To remove a bus or several buses from the Selected Buses List highlight the bus ID and click on Remove button. the selected bus will be transferred to the “Selected Buses” list. The highlighted bus will be transferred to the “All Buses“list. then any fault type at that bus is calculated. The calculated results are displayed either on the one-line diagram (if Default Output: Annotation is selected by the user) or printed in the output report (if Default Output: Report is selected by the user) Fault impedance. all buses. line-toground. Depending on the specified fault type. bus post-fault voltage and fault summary are generated. and apply phase shift Duty type for PDE based on: maximum branch fault flow or total bus fault current • • • • Fault Location • • Fault at one or more buses in the same run Fault at all system buses. branch contribution to that fault. and line-to-line-to-ground fault at each bus which is faulted for short circuit studies. line-to-line. load flow calculated bus voltage or actual/name plate voltage Default output: Annotation or report Contribution level: levels away from the fault location for the output results.

as per user selection in the Short Circuit Back Annotation Selecting All Buses: Fault at all buses can be selected from the “Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option only. In the Calculation Tab. L-L-G. DC rms. by selecting “All Buses” option. depending on the user selection). not simultaneously. F3. IPeak instantaneous value. and F4) and single point sliding fault and a specific location (F). Branch currents (3P. line-to-ground. as per user selection in the Short Circuit Back Annotation All buses are colored in “Red” The Short Circuit Report will provide: • • • • Bus Fault Current (3P. DC rms. L-G. select “Sliding Fault”. • • • Faults at “All Buses”.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE ground. and line-to-line-to-ground fault at each selected bus which is faulted for short circuit studies • On the drawing are displayed only the bus fault current value: Symmetrical rms. line-to-line. the program will place a three-phase. Asymmetrical rms. depending on the user selection). Sliding Fault: The Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program can simulate a fault along a feeder/cable/transmission line. L-L. “From” Bus F1 F F2 F3 F4 “To” Bus Click on this button to open the “Short Circuit Option” dialog window. IPeak instantaneous value. line-to-line. L-G. Short Circuit multiplying Factors. 61 . Fault Summary. Depending on the specified fault type. F2. The figure below shows examples of evenly spaced sliding faults (F1. Using this option eliminates the need to create a dummy bus at a location along the feeder. L-L. are faulted individually. Asymmetrical rms. and line-to-line-to-ground fault at all buses which are faulted for short circuit studies On the drawing are displayed: Symmetrical rms. L-L-G.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Sliding Fault 62 .

The highlighted Feeder/Cable will be transferred to the “All Feeders / and Cables Box / List. and then press on the “OK” button. highlight the Feeder/Cable and click on Remove button. the selected Feeder/Cable will be transferred to the “Selected Feeders and Cables” Box. only one Feeder/Cable can be selected for Sliding fault calculation at a time. Sliding Fault: Report Manager 63 . In this release. Select a feeder “3C – 12”. the Sliding Fault Report Manager is displayed as presented below: Note: Sliding fault does not apply to IEC61363 and AC Single Phase calculation. To remove a Feeder/Cable from the “Selected Feeders and Cables” box.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Selecting a Feeder / Branch: Highlight the desired Feeder/Cable in the “All Feeders and Cables” Box and then click on the Add button.

with the user defined decimal places For Capacity: KVA or MVA. with the user-defined decimal places Per Unit MF.e. with the user defined decimal places For Bus Voltages: Volts or Kilo Volts. In case only one fault location is selected.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The program allows the user to introduce the Fault position on the selected Feeder: “Any Position” away “From Bus” or select the “Number of Fault Spots” evenly spaced alongside the selected feeder. The program automatically divides the feeder/line into as many equidistant segments and fault currents are calculated for each intermediate points. 300 Feet down from sending end) should be specified. Contributions from both ends of the feeder/line for each fault location as well as the voltages at the faulted location and at both ends are also reported. %X/R: with the user-defined decimal places 64 . Fault type: • • • • Units: • • • • 3-Phase Fault Line-to-line fault Line-to-ground fault Double-Line-to-Ground fault For fault Current: Amps or KiloAmps. then the exact fault location (i.

LLG Flt --------------.-------Fault Spot--480 31748 27494 29176 31828 3.------.------.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123 Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE ------------------------------------------------------------Fault Spot Report for Sliding Fault Bus Results: 0. 3-Phase Fault Line-Ground Fault Thevenin --------------.------------------------------.4 2426 3.------.------.2 27050 27163 2. Complex Pre-Flt 3P Flt.0819 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Branch Report for Sliding Fault Branch Results: 0.5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LG Faults ---------------------------------------------------------------Fault Feeder From Bus To Bus Fault Spot System Volt: Fault Type Spot RMS( Spot X/R : : : : 480 : ): : 3C 3C 12 150 V 3-phase 31748 3.08 ->12 Fault R(Ohms) : Fault X(Ohms) : Length(Feet) : 0 0 300 Feet away from 'From Bus' Base Volt: 480 L-G 29176 V L-L-G 31828 Prefault Volt: 480 V A L-L 27494 * Stands for the Low or Mid.------.7886 4. voltage side of a transformer or To Bus --> Fault Spot for Sliding Fault Feeder.9297 2.------.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Sliding Fault Report: 300 Feet away from “From Bus”.8 29373 38.4 2194 2135 3.7253 4.5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults ------------------------------------------------------------- Fault Feeder From Bus To Bus Fault Spot : : : : 3C 12 3C 150 ->12 Fault R(Ohms) : Fault X(Ohms) : Length(Feet) : 0 0 300 Feet away from 'From Bus' Thevenin Imped. LL Flt.------.8206 3.5561 3C ->12 * 2.1 100.-----Bus Name V A A A A Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R -----------------------. A partial Report is presented below: 3-Phase Short Circuit Project No.------.--------------From Bus (A) From Bus (A) Impedance Branch Name V Ia Va Vb Ia 3Io Z+(pu) Zo(pu) -----------------------. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : 01:14:44 am Drawing No.------.------.6677 65 .------.------.------.6 98. LG Flt.------3B ->11 0 0 0 3C ->12 28.------. : Company : Revision No.

and unequal series impedances) with or without neutral unbalance are supported in the Paladin DesignBase’s short circuit program. and Zn are: Figure 5: Unbalanced system 66 . the equivalent voltage at the opening point is computed from the pre-fault system current at the unbalance point.e. The series fault types are shown in the below figure.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Series Fault: Series fault types (one phase open. It should be noted that series faults are meaningful only if pre-fault load has been taken into account (i. Zb. load flow solution is considered). For series faults. The default fault impedances Za. two phases open.

and C) Default values: Za=Zb=Zn=0.0 In Paladin DesignBase short circuit Analysis Option.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE For one phase open (phase A).0 For two phases open (phases B and C) Default values: Za=Zn=0.0 For Series Unbalance (phases A. select “Series Fault” field to perform open phase study. 67 .0+j0. Default values: Zb=Zn=0. B.0+j0.0 +j0.

1 2 3 68 . For series fault. only one feeder can be selected at a time.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Select the feeder / branch: Highlight the desired feeder / cable in the “All feeders and Cables” box and then Click on the “Add” button. Click “OK”. The selected feeder / cable will be transferred to the “Selected feeders box as is presented below: To remove a feeder / cable from the “Selected feeders” highlight the feeder/cable and click “Remove” button. The highlighted feeder/cable will be transferred to the “All feeders and Cables” box.

69 . Units: • • • For current: Amps or KiloAmps For capacity: KVA or MVA For voltages: volts or Kilo Volts Output File: to CSV or text file.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Series Fault Report Manager: The program allows the user to select: • • • one phase (one phase open) two phases open unbalanced series fault At the fault (opening location) the user can select the fault impedance in ohms.

48 0.0 Calculating Series Fault Classical Calculation Complex Z for X/R and Fault Current Transformer Phase Shift is not considered. Base Voltages : Use System Voltages Prefault Voltages : Use Load Flow Results -----------------------------------Feeder/Cable Series Fault Report -----------------------------------Fault Feeder : 3C ->12 Prefault Voltage System Base -------------------------Bus Bus Name kV kV kV % Degree ----.-------.000 60 48 48 47 3 4 0 5 20. 0 95 94 Angle 0 -122 109.-------Magn.03 0. Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date :……….One Phase Open -----Item Phase A Phase B Phase C ----.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123 Check by: .-------.4 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 70 .48 0.48 100.48 99.-------.-------From 04 0.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Report is listed below: EDSA 3-Phase Short Circuit Project No.-------. : Company : Revision No.-----------------------.0 20.48 0..-------.0 Fault Impedance(Ohms) : Za = Zb = Zc = Zn = Fault Current Direction : 0 +j 0 +j 0 +j 0 0 0 From Bus --> To Bus A .-------.00 To 12 0..94 -0. : Page : 1 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : Drawing No. Angle in Degree) Phase Sym Fault Current at 1/2 Cycle (Magnitude in ---. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE Base MVA System Frequence(Hz) # of Total Buses # of Active Buses # of Total Branches # of Active Sources # of Active Motors # of Active Shunts # of Transformers Reference Temperature(°C) Impedance Displaying Temperature(°C) : : : : : : : : : : : 100.48 0.

0 • Or regardless of the X/R value.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Control Tab: AC ANSI/IEEE Standard: The AC ANSI/IEEE method is based on a separate R and X matrix method: Fault current multiplying factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault calculations are performed. For calculating the MF the user can select: • Based on X/R using the equations in section 2. the MF is fixed 71 . The tab provides also information on ANSI Standard impedances – first cycle and interrupting cycles: 2-8 cycles as per ANSI/IEEE Std.

C. The first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows: R= X" X /R The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative. The Calculation Tab is the same as in AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options. AC Classical Short Circuit Method The AC Classical is based on the Complex E/Z calculation method and the X/R ratio is extracted from the complex impedance matrix (X/R). 72 . In the second option. positive).5 The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. zero.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In calculating the MF the user can also select to use: • Empirical value for τ • Or τ = T = 0.

D. positive). The first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fault Current Multiplying Factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault calculations are performed. in cycles. Options Report Manager Back Annotation Analyze Reactor sizing 73 . In this case the X/R ratio will be variable for different time bands and sequences.e. The user can also select the Machine Current Decay. variable X/R (see the lower left part of the above figure). i. In the second option. the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows: X" R= X /R The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative. AC IEC 60909 Short Circuit Method The AC IEC 909 Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit program tools are shown below. zero.

The first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). the control tab allows the user to select: • Fault Current Multiplying Factors 74 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The method is based on IEC60909 Standard. While in the IEC 60909 standard. zero. In the second option (variable X/R. see the lower left part of the above figure). The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options. In this case the X/R ratio will be variable for different time bands and sequences. positive). the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows: R= X" X /R The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative. The user can select the calculation based on: • 1988 Version • 2001 Version The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances.

This is the situation when the user calculates the short circuit current at generator terminal. The value of X is calculated from Fig. Xb from Fig. Apply K g factor to Generator Z g impedance: This field should be selected by the user when calculating the initial short circuit current in systems fed directly from generators without unit transformers. C or EDSA Thevenin) Also. as per IEC 60909 standard. B. Method C: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE • The method which is employed in calculating the Peak Current (method A. 75 .8 page 47 IEC 60909 Std.15 multiplied by the Xb. 8. The smallest X/R ratio determines the k factor Method B: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks X=1. IEC 60909 and depends on X/R ratio of the network EDSA Thevenin: X is calculated from the Thevenin equivalent Impedance correction factors: 1. the user can select: • • • System Voltage IEC maximum Voltage IEC minimum Voltage Peak current method: • • • • Method A: uniform ratio R/X.

is the system rated voltage U rG .generator phase angle between current and terminal voltage 76 .the generator rated voltage " Xd - generator sub transient reactance referred to generator rated impedance sin ϕG .) " U rG 1 + X d sin ϕ G Where: U n .: KG = Un cmax (18. IEC 60909 Std.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The K g factor is given by formula (18) – IEC Std.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 77 .

an impedance correction factor KT is to be introduced in addition to the impedance evaluated according to IEC (equation (7) to (9)).). Apply K t factor to network transformer Z t : The DesignBase user should check the above field if the short circuit occurs from a network transformer. For two-winding transformers with and without on-load tap-changer.95 cmax 1 + 0. 6 X T 78 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2. A network transformer (see the figure capture below) is when a transformer is connecting two or more networks at different voltages (IEC Std. K T = 0.

This factor is active only if the user selects the filed Network Transformer (used in IEC 60909 method) in the transformer editor. see 3.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Where: X T is the relative reactance of the transformer and cmax is from table 1 is related to the nominal voltage of the network connected to the low-voltage side of the network transformer. as presented below: 79 . This correction factor shall not be introduced for unit transformers of power station units (IEC.7).

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 3. If the user select the 1988 IEC 60909 version then the “c” factor values are provided by the program. In this situation the Apply Adjust program consider the transformer impedance as a function of the transformer tap position. Z t factor by using actual tap: If the user selects this field. then EDSA adjusts Z T by using actual transformer tap. as follows: 80 .

as follows: cmax Standard: Above 1000 V: A Other User Defined: Above 1000 V: Other 1. 3P3W Other voltage levels.05 1. 3P4W 1.05 cmin 1 1 1 0.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Table 11: IEC c factor cmax Standard: Above 1000 V: Low Voltage networks: 230/400V.05 1 1.1 1. 3P3W Low voltage networks: 230/400V.95 Per user selection per user selection per user selection per user selection 81 .1 1. 3P3W/4W Other voltage levels 3P3W/4W Per user selection per user selection per user selection per user selection per user selection per user selection If the user select the 2001 IEC 60909 version then the “c” factor values are provided by the program. 3P4W Other voltage levels.05 cmin 1 0.95 1 User Defined: Above 1000 V: Low voltage networks: 230/400V.

AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit Method IEC 61363 Standard calculates the short circuit instantaneous current as a function of time and displays its instantaneous values.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE E. The method provides an accurate evaluation of the short circuit current for sizing protective devices and coordinating relays for isolated systems (off-shore platforms and ships electrical design). DesignBase AC IEC 363 Short Circuit program tools are shown below: Options Report Manager Back Annotation Analyze 82 . The machine’s sub transient reactance and time constants are used by this method. The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options.

83 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Options: The “Options” features are similar to ANSI Method.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Report Manager: As can be seen from the window dialog above. the Short Circuit Report can be: • • • Fast User Defined Curve with Time 84 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fast Report: If “Fast Report” is launched. the following dialog window is displayed: Select the items to be displayed in the Report. 85 .

cycle 8 – cycle 30 – cycle User defined output options: Td – DC Time constant. Report Style. rms value Idc – Short circuit DC component Ienv.Short circuit envelope Input Report & Abbreviations: Input Data and Abbreviation. Units & Log: 86 . in seconds Iac – Short circuit AC symmetrical component.cycle 1 – cycle 3 – cycle 5 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE “User Defined” Fault Report displays: Time Bands: 0 – cycle ½ .

The AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit program “Abbreviations” are displayed below: The work is identical with that presented for AC ANSI standards. the following steps need to follow: Step1: select the bus: bus 18. Step2: launch the short Circuit program. View Log File. Unit. Step3: click the “Report Manager” icon The following window is displayed: : Select “Curve with Time” and then click “OK” button.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Print Layout. In order to display the “Report of Short Circuit Results” varying with time. by clicking the program icon. 87 .

the user can select the Short Circuit Current” components to be displayed such as: • • • • • Idc – dc component of SC Current iac – instantaneous ac component Ienv – Upper Envelope of Sc current I – Instantaneous total short circuit current Im – magnitude of ac component 88 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step4: click icon. The following graphs are displayed: The displayed graph components are user defined. However.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Idc – dc component of the Short Circuit Current: 89 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE iac – instantaneous ac component of the Short Circuit Current: 90 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Ienv – Upper Envelope of the Short Circuit Current: 91 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE i – Instantaneous .Total Short Circuit Current: 92 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Im – magnitude of the ac component of the Short Circuit Current: 93 .

7. AC Single Phase Short Circuit Method The AC Single Phase Method is based on the Complex E/Z calculation method and the X/R ratio is extracted from the complex impedance matrix (X/R). From the Report Manager. 3P.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE F. ½ Cycle In the Short Circuit “Option” feature select the output results: Annotation or Report. LL. LLG Fault. the user can select: • • Fast or User Defined Report: 94 . LG. Managing the Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program A. The Calculation Tab is the same as in AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options.

and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into consideration while building up the system positive. L-L. Time Bands ½ cycle. The rms short circuit currents values at 1/2 Cycle are calculated at a selected bus/buses or at all buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing). and zero sequence sub-transient reactance X” are used in modeling both the generators and motors. Motors are normally not grounded and therefore the grounding option should be none. motor. negative. Click “OK” and then launch the program by clicking the “Analyze” icon. and zero sequence networks 95 . The positive. L-G.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In the “SC Report Manager” select “Fast” option. then the user can select the Fault Types as shown below: 3-P. Notes: • In all the unbalanced fault calculations it is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance • Generator. LL-G. negative.

55 34.-----MAINBUS 0.48 31.-----Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R -----------------------.------. Drawing No.7805 2.------. LG Flt. as presented below: 3-Phase Short Circuit Project No.9070 5.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report.------. ANSI Pre-Flt 3P Flt. LL Flt.------.------. LLG Flt --------------.5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults ------------------------------------------------------------- Thevenin Imped.53 3.------.6944 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 96 .47 33.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE ------------------------------------------------------------Bus Results: 0. : Company : Revision No.82 27.------. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time :.

L-G. LLG Fault. 3P. and zero sequence networks 97 . and zero sequence sub-transient reactance is used for modeling both the Generators and motors In all the unbalanced fault calculations it is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance Generator. Select 5 cycle. Launch the short circuit program by clicking “Analyze” icon . negative.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE B. LLG fault at ½ Cycle. motor. The rms short circuit currents values at 5 Cycle are calculated at a selected Bus/Buses or at All Buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing). L-L. LL-G. then Click “OK”. 5 Cycle In the “SC Report Manager” select 5 cycle and the type of faults: 3-P. LL. negative. LG. and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into consideration while building up the system positive. LL. Notes: • • • The positive. LG. Follow the steps presented above at 3P.

------. ANSI Pre-Flt 3P Flt.------.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report.------.9070 5.05 31. LL Flt.0055 2.-----Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R -----------------------. LLG Flt --------------.03 26.------.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE ------------------------------------------------------------Bus Results: 5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults ------------------------------------------------------------- Thevenin Imped. LG Flt.01 33. : Company : Revision No.-----MAINBUS 0.6944 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 98 . : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : Drawing No.99 4.------.------.48 30.------. as presented below: 3-Phase Short Circuit Project No.

and zero sequence reactance Short circuit current contributions from motors are ignored Generator. L-L. 3P. and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into consideration while building up the system positive. LL. Launch the program by clicking “Analyze” icon . Notes: • • • • It is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance in all the unbalanced fault calculation Generators are modeled by their positive. and zero sequence networks 99 . motor. Click “OK” button. The rms short circuit currents values at “Steady State/ 30 Cycle” are calculated at a selected Bus/Buses or at All Buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing). L-g. LLG Fault. negative. Steady state In the “Report Manager” select “Steady” and the type of faults: 3-P. negative. LL-G. LG.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE C.

------.03 30.93 32.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE ------------------------------------------------------------Bus Results: 30 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults ------------------------------------------------------------- Thevenin Imped.------.78 24.48 28.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report.-----MAINBUS 0.------.-----Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R -----------------------. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : Drawing No. : Company :….------.------.6944 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 100 . LL Flt. LG Flt.1790 2. Revision No.------.93 4. LLG Flt --------------.9070 5. ANSI Pre-Flt 3P Flt. as presented below: 3-Phase Short Circuit Project No.------.

Steady State In the “Report Manager” select fault type “3-P” and “Time Bands – Steady”. and the generators are modeled by their positive sequence transient reactance X’.Click “OK” and then launch the program by clicking “Analyze” icon . 3 Phase Fault.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE D. 101 . The rms short circuit currents values after 30 cycles are calculated (as per ANSI/IEEE Standards or IEC 60909 Standard as per user selected fault calculation) at a selected bus/buses or at all buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly on the drawing). The short circuit current contributions from motors are ignored.

as presented below: 3-Phase Short Circuit Project No.6944 4.78 5.48 28.--------MAINBUS 0. : Company : Revision No.--------. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time :04:23:01 am Drawing No.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE ------------------------------------------Bus Results: 30 Cycle -.------.3 Phase Faults ------------------------------------------- Pre-Flt Isym X/R Thevenin Bus Name kV KA Ratio Z+(pu) -----------------------.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report.1790 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 102 .--------.

MV and HV CBs. and it can be: o Load Flow calculated Voltage o Actual Voltage o System voltage 103 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE E. Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Tool Based on ANSI/IEEE Standard Paladin DesignBase PDE is a fast and accurate tool. fuses. select PDE: The salient features added to the PDE program are: • The equipment operating voltage is selected by the user. which evaluates the protective switching devices such as: LV. and switches based on ANSI/IEEE Standard or IEC Standard as per user selection. In the Report manager.

The fault study is per the Standard selected by the user: IEEE/ANSI C37 Standard or IEC 60909. _ Intrr the equipment passes. or as a Text Report. otherwise it fails.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE • • The PDE program includes the CB impedance and CB’s X/R ratio The output results are organized as per: o Equipment Input Rated Data o PDE Calculated Data o Circuit Duty calculated data The PDE output results are either graphically displayed onto the one line diagram (in green if the switching equipment passes or in red if they fail). 104 . momentary asymmetrical crest. and interrupting adjusted symmetrical rms short circuit currents at faulted buses. and if: I Circuit _ Duty ≤ I Equip. interrupting symmetrical rms. The circuit duties are checked against equipment interrupting capabilities. The program calculates momentary symmetrical and asymmetrical rms. based on the user selection.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Consider the file ANSI-YY located in the sample folder:

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

PDE Graphical Display Results: In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option, select “All buses” and then click “OK” button as shown below:

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

The Protective Device Evaluation List is displayed, as presented below:

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Notes: Data error is displayed if: • • The equipment voltage is not equal or higher than the system voltage The equipment voltage in the editor is zero

Double click on A10 equipment: The equipment rated voltage is 1500 V The system bus voltage is 13800 V

108

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE To fix this issue. in the Protective Device evaluation Table double click onto A1: 109 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 110 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Partial Summary Report – ANSI: 110 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Detailed Report – ANSI: 111 .

Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Based on IEC Standard HV CB IEC Input Data: HV Fuse IEC Input Data: 112 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE F.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE LV Fuse IEC Input Data: LV CB IEC Input Data: 113 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Consider the file IEC -YY file located in the sample folder: 114 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 115 .

116 . select PDE: Note: The “Total Bus Fault Current is the most conservative.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In the Report Manager. This option has been considered in the IEC PDE program.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE PDE Graphical Display Results: In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option. select “All buses” and then click “OK” button as shown below: 117 .

as presented below: Notes: Data error is displayed if: • • The equipment voltage is not equal or higher than the system voltage The equipment voltage in the editor is zero 118 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The Protective Device Evaluation List is displayed.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Double click on A10F equipment: The equipment rated voltage is 15000 V The system bus voltage is 13800 V No fuse breaking Irb 119 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 122 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The error has been fixed: Click on “Summary Report” to display the IEC Report: 123 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Partial Summary Report – IEC 60909: 124 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 125 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Detailed Report – IEC 60909: 126 .

the user can also select the “Branch Contribution” option. Report Manager – ANSI/IEEE Click on this button to launch the Report Manager. Input Data. Report Style. If the fault is at one bus. “Time Bands”. Abbreviation. User Defined. The Report Manager provides: Output Reports: Fast. PDE. Unit & Log. Misc. Output Destination: output to CSV or output to Text File Fast Report: The user can select the “Fault Type”. Fast Report and Unit Settings 127 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE G.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Print Layout Fast Report. ANSI/IEEE: 128 . Text Output Report.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fast Report. Text Output Report: 129 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fast Report. ANSI/IEEE: 130 . Fast Summary. Text Output Report.

Text Output Report: 131 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fast Report. Fast Summary.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

User Defined Reports: It is similar to “Fast Report”, but the user can also select the Phase Bus/Branch Components: X/R, AC, DC, Asym, Angle.

If User Defined Reports is selected then the above report screen is displayed. The user can select the Fault Type, Time Bands, User Defined Options, Phase Bus/Branch Components, Print Layout, Units, Output to CSV or Text File.

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In order to get the Tabulated Output Reports on short circuit current calculation, proceed as follows: • • • • Select Output to CSV or Text File Click on “Browse” icon and assign the path and the file title Click “OK” icon Click “Analyze” icon

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Short Circuit Detailed Report:

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Professional Report Writer Wizard: Option 1: Select AC ANSI/IEEE Method: In the “Report Manager” select ANSI Bus Summary. Click “Professional Report Writer Wizard.

The program displays the Report shown below:

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 137 .

140 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Option 2: Select AC Classical Method: In the “Report Manager” select “Professional Report Writer Wizard. Click OK.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The program displays the Report shown below: 141 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 142 .

The Short Circuit Back Annotation tool opens.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE H. Short Circuit Back Annotation Click on this button to launch the Short Circuit Back Annotation tool. The Short Circuit Back Annotation Dialog Window as presented below: 142 .

Phase or Sequence Components. Units. Bus Post-fault Voltage.-Fault Voltage/ Residual Voltage Fault Current to be displayed Select the unit Select the displaying form Select this option to display the current flow arrows Select the Fault Type.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Select this option to display the bus Pre-Fault Voltage Select the color and font size Select this option to display the Fault Branch Current Select this option to display the Bus Symm. Back Annotation is an Executive Short Circuit Report inserted onto the drawing. Fault Components. 143 . Branch Current. display or not the Fault Current Flow Arrows. with the inserted components as per user selection. Bus Prefault Voltage. The back annotation allows the user to insert any data related to the Short Circuit Analysis onto the study network drawing. Displayed Results: Bus Current.

144 . Auto-refresh. Font.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Select the back annotation ON or OFF. size and font color. Font Style.

Managing Schedule in Short Circuit Schedule is a Paladin DesignBase feature that allows the user to combine several motors and loads in the same symbols. It is a very good practice to save “nodes” in modeling and in the meantime to represent all the nodes of a plant in the plant model.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE I. One considers the following network: a) Model with each motor individually represented b) Same motors are represented inside the MCC schedule 145 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The motors representation inside the schedule: 146 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Motors inside the schedule Motor Feeder representation inside the schedule 147 .

148 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Motor Status inside the schedule Motor Loading / Usage inside the schedule Inside the “Schedule” each motor is in detail represented together with the motor feeder as can be seen in the capture Figures above.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Short Circuit Calculation: The short circuit procedure was described so far. the short circuit results can be displayed either onto the drawing or as a Text Output Results: Step 1: Select MCC bus: 149 . However.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step 2: Select the Short Circuit Basic Option: 150 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step 3: In the Report Manager select the “Fast”. Fault Type and Time Bands as shown below: 151 .

5 A 152 .8 A and branch contribution via the Main_CB2 7975.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step 4: Click “Analyze” icon. The Short Circuit Results are displayed onto the drawing: Short Circuit at MCC bus and branch contribution MCC fault current 10767.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In order to provide the each motor contribution while the motors are represented inside the “Schedule”. 153 . MCC/Schedule. Select “Misc”. proceed as follows: Step 1: Select Report Manager.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step 2: Click “Analyze” icon: The results are displayed either on the drawing or in the Text Output Report as per user selection. 154 .

3 Phase Faults --------------------------------------------------- MCC/Schedule Bus Name : MCC Prefault Voltage: 480.-.-----.----.0338 100 0.---------------.00000 Ohms Fault Phases: Phase A for Line-Ground Fault Phase B.60 10095 13438 9.C for Line-Line or Line-Line-Ground Fault ANSI/IEEE Calculation: Using ANSI Std. C37.28 9682 12278 9.00 20. Separate R and X for X/R.00 Cable Data -----------------Length R X (Feet) Ohms/K Ohms/K -----. Base Voltages : Use System Voltages Prefault Voltages : Use System Voltages Jobfile Name: SC_MCC_SCHEDULE Page : 2 --------------------------------------------------Bus Schedule Results: 0.60 5.59 6.0338 155 .---------------------X/R Sym Asym X/R X Item Cd Device Name Status KVA HP Ratio kA kA Ratio (%) ---.------. Complex Z for Fault Current The Multiplying Factors to calculate Asym and Peak are Based on Actual X/R Peak Time Applies ATPC Equation Transformer Phase Shift is not considered.00 17.28 9682 12278 9.00 3 MI 3 100.0 V Motor Bus fault Motor Data Rating --------------------.0338 50 0.00 2 MI 2 200.0433 0.00 17.00 218.0433 0.-----.010-1979 or above.----1 MI 1 200.-----.-----100 0.------.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The fault results displayed as a “Text output Report” follows: -------------------Calculation Options -------------------Calculating Single Bus Fault with Fault Z = 0. Generator and Motor X/R is constant.00000 + j 0.0433 0.60 5.5 Cycle -.----.00 104.----.00 218.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Results Validation: Two networks are considered: a) A model with each motor individually represented. Follow the steps listed below: 156 . b) Schedule Representation Perform short circuit calculation at bus “Motor Bus”: Select this bus and launch Short Circuit program. b) A model with the same motors which are represented inside the MCC schedule Motor Representation: a) Individual Representation.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Step 1: Select the faulted bus: Motor Bus and perform the fault at this bus: Fault Results: Individual Motor Representation: 157 .

158 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Comparative Fault Results: The fault results match in the both motor representation.

It allows computing the Short Circuit Current under maximum and minimum fault contribution from the Utility / PCC.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE J. Both the Utility fault contribution and/R ration are considered as an input data of the Utility. 159 . Managing Utility / PCC Short Circuit contribution This is a new feature included to the Short Circuit Program.

Managing MOTOR CONTRIBUTION This is a new feature included to the Short Circuit Program. The user will need to activate this field for all the motors which are fed from VFD. The motors fed from VFD are not considered towards motor contribution.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE K. 160 .

when the FTS is “OPEN” Scenario during a Short Circuit downstream UPS source when the FTS is “CLOSED” 161 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE L. Managing UPS bypass FUNCTION DURING A FAULT DOWNSTREAM UPS SOURCE While using the UPS units. normally the engineer considers 2 (two) scenarios: • • Scenario during Power Flow.

162 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE To avoid Scenarios. the user needs just to put the UPS source in “Bypass” and associate the Bypass Protective Device as seen in the figure capture below: As such during a Short Circuit downstream the UPS source the UPS unit is considered “OFF” and the fault contribution comes from the Utility and bypasses the UPS units.

The user can display the results using the standard report format. DC and total short circuit current and TDC time constant as well for short circuit at all system buses. Generators are modeled by their positive sequence sub transient reactance. and plot the short circuit results varying with time. annotate results on the one line diagram. The results are tabulated as a function of T/2. and motors are modeled by their locked-rotor impedance.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE M. Theirs subtransient and transient time constants and dc time constants are also considered in the calculations. select AC IEC 61363 to perform a three-phase fault study per IEC61363 Standard. Graphical Display Select AC IEC 61363 Analysis Method: 163 . In order to display the short circuit results varying with time. This option calculates the instantaneous values of the AC. Three-phase Faults IEC 61363 Method From the Short Circuit Analysis program pick-up list. only one bus can be faulted at a time.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE From the SC report Manager select “Curve with Time” option and then click “OK” button: Click on “Analyze” icon: 164 .

165 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE When the graph is displayed the user can select to view all items. or the values the user selects.

29 5.02 8.14 31.66 20.90 18 0.6 4.31 0.00 6.82 6.78 6.90 5.75 5.42 GEN 0.95 20 0.8 0.00 0.----.----.0 26.05 0.72 166 .00 4.06 16.17 3.------.94 9.90 23.3 8.02 34.33 0.00 MAINBUS 0.13 2.32 5.5 4.64 15.97 6.49 0..94 0.28 12.48 0.00 0.------.84 17.56 0.00 0.62 5.48 11.16 0.48 25.64 10 0.----.48 3.05 18.78 13.89 2.04 22.9 0.41 4.76 30.92 0.82 13.08 24.04 2.5 23.04 16 0.58 0.48 9.57 20.67 0.: Title : Time:……………….62 17.00 1.41 5.69 0.29 0.81 13.99 0.68 5.80 15 0.00 2.10 7.------.10 8.0 29.64 1.21 1.42 16.10 4.11 14.46 5.23 0.77 5.91 8.48 2.54 6.56 4.92 14.32 1.21 5.48 20.48 16.06 12BB 0.48 12.1 24.65 14.14 07 0.00 4.62 14.------.95 1.06 15.55 1.42 5.85 0.00 6.7 45.23 5.21 1.00 0.01 4.39 10.1 8.00 0.25 17.: Company : Revision No.64 1.06 2.74 5.80 32.74 2 0.4 25.33 7.48 21.46 5.34 18.91 5.------04 0.: Engineer : JobFile Name: T123PDE Check by : Scenario : 1:mode1 CheckDate: Base kVA : 100000 Cyc/Sec : 60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE --------------------------------Bus Detailed Short Circuit Report --------------------------------- SC Current( kA ).55 12 0.10 16.95 1.13 0.48 0.30 UTILITY1 4.55 1.48 1.7 4.88 6.17 5.12 16.------.21 2.23 17. Drawing No.51 29.15 0.48 25.67 2.86 19 0.80 33.69 6.18 6.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Report Format Display Partial results are tabulated below: IEC 363 Short Circuit Project No.18 19. Time Constant(ms) at the following Times Pre-Flt Tdc 0T 0T Tdc T/2 T/2 Tdc 2T 2T Bus Name kV Idc Iac @T/2 Idc Iac @ 2 T Idc Iac -----------------------.------.32 17.78 13.10 16.09 8.02 1.72 UTILITY2 4.7 26.41 17 0.74 5.7 24.35 0.00 8.04 2.14 0.14 0.77 0.: Page : 2 Project Name: Date .80 21 0.

1 Power Grid Input Data Power Grid /PCC Required data for short circuit calculations The user has the options to input the Power Utility Maximum and Minimum Contribution and the associated X/R ratio. during Fault analysis the user can select either “Apply SCKVA max” or “Apply SCKVA min”. However. Short Circuit Analysis Input Data 7. 167 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE N.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.2 Synchronous Generator Short Circuit Input Data Synchronous Generator required data for short circuit calculations 168 .

It the motor is fed from VFD. then click the “Motor is fed from VFD” field. 169 . you will see the composition rating on this screen. During the short circuit analysis this motor will not contribute towards short circuit. The HP is the average value of the motor in schedules.3 Induction Motor Short Circuit Input Data Whenever there is a schedule.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.4 Synchronous Motor Short Circuit Input Data Synchronous Motor required data for short circuit calculations 170 .

5 High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker required data for short circuit calculations 171 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.6 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker required data for short circuit calculations 172 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.7 Low Voltage IEC Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data 173 .

8 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse Short Circuit Input Data Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse required data for short circuit calculations 174 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 7.9 Medium / Low Voltage IEC Fuse Short Circuit Input Data 175 .

For the convenience of the users.1 Network Reduction/Equivalent Introduction In an interconnected power system. utility A wishes to study their system. However. it is not necessary to model the entire system if exact equivalent representation of the neighboring systems can obtained and utilized rather than resorting to a detailed model of the “outside world”. 8. The equivalent computed is primarily used in the fault analysis. This document illustrates step-by-step instructions on how to compute power system equivalents at given buses.2 Sample System Data The single line diagram of the system to be used for equivalent computation is shown below: Single Line Diagram of Sample System for Equivalent Computation 176 . a network equivalent module is developed within the DesignBase short circuit program whereby exact system equivalent is computed. A power flow reduction is also under development that should become available in the near future. Also. when. for example. V&V is performed for the equivalents system by showing the details of the system with equivalent model and system intact (complete representation). often power system engineers are required to exchange their system models to their neighboring utilities or vice versa in order to study the entire system.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8 8.

and ZZZ69 as shown below (the area inside of the red-dotted-line will be equivalenced at these buses): Part of the System to be Equivalence (the area inside of red dotted line) 177 . let’s assume that we would like to replace the right part of the system by equivalent at buses BBB138.3 How to Perform Equivalent/Reduction Calculations To perform the equivalent calculation for a power system. In the example system shown above. first we should decide which part of the system should be equivalenced. GGG138.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8.

ZZZ69->AAA69. After outaging the above feeders we proceed as follows.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8.4 Separating the Equivalent Part from the Rest of the System Since the right part of the above network is required to be replaced by equivalent system. ZZZ69. feeders ZZZ69>JJJ69. and GGG138 without the right side of the network. HHH138->GGG138. Selecting Options of the Short Circuit Program 178 . and BBB138->AAA138 in the original system SHOULD be placed out of service in order for the program to compute equivalent system seen from buses BBB138. Select the “Options” icon of the short circuit program as shown below.

the “Options” of the short circuit program should be used as shown above. and ZZZ69.5 Specifying the Buses for the Equivalent To specify where the equivalent should be computed. It can be seen that we have selected buses GGG139.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8. BBB138. Now the buses for the equivalent can be specified in the dialog shown below. Selecting Buses where the Equivalent System to be Computed 179 .

the “Report Manager” of the short circuit program should be selected as shown below.6 Reporting of the Equivalent System To obtain a report of the equivalent system at the selected buses. Selecting Report Manager of the Short Circuit Program 180 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE To select the equivalent system report. choose the “Misc” option as shown below: Selecting Output Report (including report of network equivalent) 181 .

” as shown below. Now all the information regarding the equivalent computations is complete. Selecting Network Equivalent Report Option 182 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Then. select the “Equivalent Sys.

e. just assume that the negative sequence is the same as positive 3) If the value of impedance of a link between two buses are extremely high (i. we can proceed to the equivalent computations by selecting the “Analyze” option. there are equivalent branches (feeder/transformer) that should be connecting the equivalent buses. equivalent. it is safe to ignore the link 183 . no coupling between buses). In this example connection between BBB138 and ZZZ69 is a transformer.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8. etc. Performing Short Circuit Analysis (fault current.7 Computation of Equivalent System and Inspection of the Result At this point. then.) Once the computations are completed. Again. generators) are just equivalent element representing a complex part of the system the following situation is common to occur: 1) The impedances may have negative resistances and/or reactances 2) Since positive and negative sequence values of the links (feeders/transformers) may not be equal. buses where the equivalent to be placed and report options are specified. The following report contains a set of “Equivalent Generators” that should be placed at the equivalent buses (see column marked as “Type” in the below report toward bottom of the figure). In this case. the report of the equivalent system is displayed. Important Note: Since the equivalent links (feeders/transformers. Also. the column marked as “Type” shows some the links between the equivalent buses are feeder/line and some transformers (TRSF).

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Sample Network Equivalent Report 184 .

the data for each of the equivalent elements. the equivalent system contains equivalent elements (generators. in this example. Shown below is the reconstructed system. feeders and transformers). we need to join the part of the system which was not equivalenced (in our example. the right side of the network) to the equivalent part.8 Reconstructing the Original System by Using the Equivalent As described above. are entered in the reconstructed network. In order to reconstruct the original system using the equivalent.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8. Based on the report shown above. Reconstructing System Using the Equivalent Part 185 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Generator At bus BBB138 186 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Generator At bus GGG138 187 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Generator At bus ZZZ69 188 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Feeder between Buses BBB138 and GGG138 189 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Transformer between Buses GGG138 and ZZZ69 190 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Entering Equivalent Transformer Between Buses BBB138 and ZZZ69 191 .

192 . and ZZZ69 2) In the reconstructed system (remaining system joined with the equivalent system shown in Figure 7. GGG138EQUI.10 compute the three-phase and single line to ground fault at buses BBB138-EQUI. Comparison of these results show that the equivalent system is computed accurately and can be used reliably in the short circuit studies. and ZZZ69-EQUI 3) The result obtained in step 1 should agree well with the result obtained in step 2 above The result for the reconstructed network using the equivalent system is shown on page 185.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 8. GGG138. the following is performed: 1) In the original system (without reduction) compute the three-phase and single line to ground fault at buses BBB138.9 Validation and Verification of the Equivalent To verify and validate the function of the network equivalent option.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fault Current for Buses BBB138. GGG138. and ZZZ69 in the Original Network (Intact System) 193 .

10 0. GGG138. in % 0. The errors are less than 0. 1272 1464 2644 Equivalent Net 1273 1465 2645 Error.G Flt. in V 138000 138000 69000 The above results demonstrate the accuracy of the system equivalent.07 0.08 0. in % 0. in A Equivalent Net 1728 1959 3242 Error.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Fault Currents for Buses BBB138.04 Original Net 1726 1957 3240 L.06 Bus Name BBB138 GGG138 ZZZ69 Pre_Flt Voltage. and ZZZ69 in the Reconstructed System (equivalent) Comparative Short Circuit Results and errors in %: 3 P Flt. 194 .12 0. in A Original Net.3%.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

9

TUTORIAL: Conducting a Three-phase Short Circuit Study Go to DesignBase\Samples\3PhaseSC and open the file T123.axd:

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9.1

The Calculation Tools To activate the Short Circuit program, click on the Short Circuit Icon .

The Menu displays the following short circuit calculation methods: • • • • • • • AC ANSI/IEEE (separate R and X, as per ANSI/IEEE Standard) AC Classical, (Z complex method) AC IEC 60909 AC IEC 61363 AC 1 Phase DC Classical DC IEC 61660

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DesignBase Short Circuit Program: Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Program Tools

DesignBase Short Circuit Program has the following calculation capabilities: • • Fault at one or more buses in the same run; Fault at all system buses. In this case, the buses are faulted individually, not simultaneously. Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a threephase, line-to-ground, line-to-line, and line-to-line-to-ground fault at each bus which is faulted for short circuit studies.

A bus can be selected in two ways: • • Directly from the drawing - click on the desired bus By selecting the bus in the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option

9.2 9.2.1

Graphical Selection of Faulted Bus (Annotation) AC-ANSI/IEEE Method Select the Short Circuit Method: AC ANSI/IEEE.

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In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option dialog window select “Default Output”: Annotation. Other selection is listed below: • • • • • • Select Base Voltage: System Voltage Select Prefault Voltage: System Voltage Contribution Level from fault location: 3 Default Output: Annotation; Report Bus Type to select: All Buses Fault location: Selected Buses

Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option Calculation Tab

198

199 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9.3 Short Circuit Annotation Tool The Annotation allows the user to insert any data related to the Short Circuit Analysis onto the drawing. Select the Short Circuit result components to be inserted into the drawing.

and in the Time Bands select “Steady”.3.1 3-Phase Fault. 30 Cycles at Bus 18 1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9. Select the bus “MAINBUS” by clicking onto the bus”MAINBUS”. Click “OK” button and then Click “Analyze” icon: 200 . In the Report Manager select “Fault Type: 3-P”.

Components): 201 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The bus “Fault Current” is displayed onto the drawing (Sym and Asym.

3. Select the bus “MAINBUS” by clicking onto the bus.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9.2 3-Phase Fault Current. and in the Time Bands select “1/2 Cycle”. ½ Cycle Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”: 1. 2. In the Report Manager select “Fault Type: 3-P”. Click “OK” button and then Click “Analyze” icon: 202 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The “Fault Currents” are displayed onto the drawing. 203 .

In the Report Manager select “Fault Type: 3-P”.3. 2.3 3-Phase Fault Current. 5 Cycle Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”: 1. and in the Time Bands select “5 Cycle”. Click “OK” button and then Click “Analyze” icon: 204 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9. Select the bus “MAINBBUS” by clicking onto the bus.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Back Annotation 205 .

206 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The “Fault Current” map is displayed onto the drawing.

Fault at Bus “.AINBUS”: 1. “Time Bands ½ Cycle” and enable /click “Branch Annotation” field.3. ½ Cycle.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9. In the Report Manager select “Fast”. 207 . 1-Phase fault. Phase A. “Fault Type L-G”.4 Change the “Fault Type” displayed onto the drawing. Select the bus “MAINBUS” by clicking onto the bus: 2.

In “EDSA Annotation” select Line-Ground.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2. Symmetrical (RMS) and Asymmetrical (RMS): 208 . Phase A.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 209 .

Time Bands ½ cycle: 210 . Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”: 1.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Change the “Fault Type” displayed onto the drawing. B Phase. In the SC Report Manager/ Fast select L-L fault type. Line-Line.

select phase B: 211 . In EDSA Annotation.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 2.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE The fault current displayed on the drawing: 212 .

Select Fault Component: Asymmetrical: 213 . Asymmetrical Current. A Phase. select the fault type and phase to be displayed onto the drawing: 3Phase.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Change the “Fault Current Component” displayed onto the drawing: 3-Phase Fault. Fault at Bus “MAINBUS”: In the back annotation. A Phase.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 214 .

½ Cycle Time Bands. Note: Professional Report Writer provides “All Type of Faults: 3P. 215 . select “Fast”.1 All types of Faults at bus MAINBUS.4 Professional Report 9.4. L-L. as presented in the figure capture below: In the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation. LL-G” always. 0.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9. L-G.5 Cycle Symmetrical: Click on bus “MAINBUS” in the Paladin DesignBase drawing Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage. enable “Refresh Professional Report” filed and then click “Professional Report Writer Wizard”.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Professional Report is displayed: 216 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Professional Report – ANSI Bus Summary: 217 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 218 .

0.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9.2 All types of Faults at All buses. select “All Buses” as presented in the figure capture below 219 .5 Cycle Symmetrical: Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage.4.

Click “Professional Report Writer Wizard” button: 220 . select “Fast”.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation. ½ Cycle Time Bands. enable “Refresh Professional Report” filed and then click “Professional Report Writer Wizard”.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Professional Report is displayed: 221 .

but in the in the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation select 5 cycles. Click “Professional Report Writer Wizard” button: 222 .Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9.3 All types of Faults at All buses.4. 5 Cycle Symmetrical: Follow the steps presented above.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Professional Report is displayed: 223 .

4.Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE 9. 30 Cycle Symmetrical: Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage. select “All Buses” as presented in the figure capture below: 224 .4 All types of Faults at All buses.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE In the in the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation select “Steady”. Click “Professional Report Writer Wizard” button: 225 .

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE Professional Report is displayed: 226 .

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