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CHAPTRE ONE INTRODUCTION
Introduction Fluid power means using pressurized oil or air
to accomplish work. Most hydraulic systems use petroleum oils, but often synthetic or water-base fluids are used where there is a lire hazard. Pneumatic systems use air to power actuators, but unlike hydraulic systems that return oil at low pressure to the reservoir, the air from pneumatic systems is exhausted to atmosphere after doing work. The oil in a hydraulic system exhibits the characteristics of a solid. This provides a rigid medium to transfer power through the system. Conversely, air
used in pneumatic systems is spongy, and additional controls must be provided if actuator speed and stiffness are to be regulated. A fluid power system accomplishes two main purposes. First, it provides substantial force to move actuators in locations some distance from the power source, where the two are connected by pipes, tubes, or hoses. For example, a hydraulic pump mounted to the engine in one area can be connected to hydraulic
motors or cylinders located 100 feet or more away. This is a decided advantage over systems using gears, shafts, and chains, particularly as the location of output actuators becomes less accessible. Second, fluid power systems accomplish highly accurate and precise movement of the actuator with relative ease. This is particularly important in such applications as the machine tool industry where tolerances are often specified to one ten thousandth of an inch and must be repeated during several million cycles.
Historical Perspective The modem era in fluid power began around the
turn of the century. Hydraulic applications were made in the main armament system of the USS Virginia as early as 1906, where a variable speed hydrostatic transmission was installed to drive the main guns. Since that time, the marine industry has applied fluid power to cargo handling and winch systems, controllable-pitch propellers, submarine
control systems, shipboard aircraft elevators, aircraft and missile launch systems, and radar-sonar drives. Fig.1-1 illustrates a combination cargo-passenger ship. A modern application of hydraulics to marine vessels is the hydraulically powered propeller drive
shown, which is used as a lateral thruster for close quarter maneuvers for large ships, or the main drive for smaller vessels. 1.3 Capabilities Hydraulics and pneumatics have almost unlimited applications in the production of goods and services in nearly all sectors of the economy. Several industries are dependent upon the capabilities that fluid power affords. Among these are agriculture, aerospace and aviation, construction,
defense, manufacturing and machine tool, marine, material handling, mining, transportation, undersea technology, and public utilities, including communications transmission systems.
1-2 illustrates a modern wheel drive tractor that features extensive use of fluid power. (b)Hydraulically powered propeller (courtesy of Rexroth). differential lock. draft sensing. Hydraulics power the rear and front main drive and power take-off (pto) clutches. power shift transmission. and particularly in applying hydraulics to solve a variety of problems. Fig.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Figure1-1 (a) cargo-passenger ship. remote valves. and hydrostatic steering. wet disc brakes. A pressurized reservoir is used to supplement the How from the charge pump during maximum demand from large bore cylinders. In a typical tractor application. a 25 to 30 gal/min eight-cylinder variable volume radial piston pump supplies fluid to a closedcenter load-sensitive circuit. 4 . The pump unloads to a minimum standby pressure to reduce power consumption when demand is low. implement hitch. The world's need for food and fiber production has caused unprecedented leadership in agriculture equipment development.
and fertilizer spreaders. Figure 1-3 Self-leveling combine (courtesy of John Deere Company). forage harvesters. illustrates a self-leveling combine harvesting grain on a hillside.3. Notice the hydraulic cylinder on the lower side extending the suspension to keep the operator station level while the 5 . back-hoes.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Figure 1-2 modern wheel tractor (courtesy of John Deere Company). chemical sprayers. Other applications to agriculture include combines.1. Fig.
flaps. payload bay doors. Another sector of our economy that has benefited from the brute power of hydraulics and pneumatics is the 6 . control surfaces. and provide on-the-go engagement and disengagement in forward as well as reverse. assist in adjusting front axle width. Wheel motors consist of a hydraulic motor mounted integrally with a wheel and tire assembly. Hydraulic pumps running off the main engines and electric motors power cylinders to operate the landing gear.1-4 illustrates applications of hydraulic power to the aviation and aerospace industries. they can be used to maintain and improve the turning ability of regular row crop tractors. and complex mechanical arm. Braking is usually designed into the system. All that is required to make the wheel motor functional is mounting to the suspension and connection to hydraulic lines that lead back to the main power control valve. rudder. allow for a high design that maintains under-axle crop clearances.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION combine head follows the contour of the ground to harvest the crop. Combines and other equipment make extensive use of hydraulic wheel motors to assist in marginal tractive conditions. Fig. For example. Auxiliary power drive wheel motors have several advantages to the agricultural industry.
CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION construction industry. and brakes being loaded by a hydraulic power shovel. Fig. Crawler tractors. 7 . trenchers. Notice the-six large hydraulic cylinders that operate the boom and clamshell bucket. steering cylinders. backhoes. and pan scrapers are just a few of the many applications. including telescoping dump cylinders. hydraulic shovels. road graders.1-5 shows a large off-the-road truck with many hydraulic and pneumatic components. bucket loaders.
1-6 illustrates large press for manufacturing thickwalled pipe used to transport crude oil. The manufacturing and machine tool industry is dependent on hydraulic power to provide the force and close tolerance necessary in controlling production. This machine has the capacity to form pipes 40 ft long with an inside diameter to 5 ft and 8 . The cutaway drawing shows how hydraulic cylinders are used to control manipulator feed tables that position sheet stock in the press while the blade inset forms each half of the pipe radius with up to 100 individual bends. gas. and even water. Fig. Thick-walled pipe is usually produced in limited quantities because of the force limits of roll bending.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Figure 1-4 Aerospace and aviation applications of fluid power (courtesy of Fluid Power Educational Foundation).
CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION wall thickness of 2. 9 . Figure 1-5 Off-road truck and loader (courtesy of Aeroquip).5 in. A pipe this size weighs as much as 25 tons.
cm). and time. The units of length are the foot and inch (ft. and flow rate.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Figre1-6 Functional principle of pipe bending press. Area is derived in square feet and square inches (ft2 . 2 ). 1 ). in). The units for distance in the SI metric system most often used are the meter and centimeter (m. velocity is in feet per minute or feet per second (ft/min. Because the Pascal is small. oz). and volume is in cubic feet or cubic inches (ft 3 . and the unit of time is the second (sec). Derived units are made up of basic units. pressure is in pounds per square inch (lbf/in.N/m2 ). volume. The same units are used for weight. One gallon equals 231 in3 . in. A Pascal equals one "Newton per square meter (Pa. 2 ). The units of force are the pound and ounce (lbf. The basic units used from the English system are length. ft/sec). Area is derived in square meters and square centimeters (m 2 . The unit of pressure is derived in Pascal in honor of the French physicist. The unit of force is the Newton (N). velocity.4 The Use of Units English and SI metric units are used throughout this book.cm2 ). The units for time are the minute and second (min. pressure. the kilo Pascal 10 . sec). This is somewhat confusing because the Newton also is Isaac Newton. force. Derived units include area. in. 1.
ft3/sec). which is one million Pascal. but it is not the same in hydraulics as in pneumatics. or from larger to smaller units. Conversation factors for derived units are difficult to remember so if one can work through the conversion with the units 11 . The use of units also is important when conversions are made from one system to another. the answer would be incomplete .CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION (kPa). and mega Pascal (MPa). Volume is derived in cubic meters or cubic centimeters (m3. are used often in hydraulics. which is 1000 Pascal.m3 /sec) in the SI metric system . in the English system (ft3 /min. and cubic meters per minute or cubic meters per second (m3 /min.And unless the units are included with each number in the calculation. flow rate in a liquid measure.cm3). In pneumatics. flow is a volumetric measure: cubic feet per minute or cubic feet per second. Flow rate is a derived unit. from liquid to volumetric measures. In the English system the units are gallons per minute (gal/min). In hydraulics. In most cases the units should be included with the numbers when calculations are made. Velocity in the SI metric system is derived in meters per second (m/s). This is because without the units. there would be no easy way to check through the problem to see if errors have been made. and in SI metrics liters per minute (l/min).
it usually is easy to find the conversion between base unit like inches. It is hoped that before you finish this book you can leave your 'little black book" of formulas at home.5 Dimensional Calculation When analyzing hydraulics or other mechanical system involving dimensions such as length.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION themselves. centimeters. while keeping those called for in the answer. But. it is good practice to apply dimensional analysis to their solutions. With all dimensions properly arranged in the statement of a problem. and time. the solution consists merely of performing the indicated operations of the numbers and combining exponents of like bases. This technique assures the proper use of conversion factors and virtually eliminates the need to memorize formulas. by all means. volume. This method allows cancellation of all dimensions not needed. do not continue to use a memorized formula as a crutch. Example (1): 12 . Although formulas are not needed in the solution of dimensional problems. 1. and Newtons. they are generally shown in this text in order to ease your transition from formula to dimensional calculations. area. pounds.
combine exponents of like bases in. 3 -2 = in.2 × = 1 3in. = 10in.). 3 Note: The formula for distance could have been stated as: Dis tan ce( stroke) = Volume Area While dividing volume by area will in fact give us distance.3-2= in . 1 PistonArea The formula for distance traveled is: Dis tan ce( stroke ) = Volume × = 30in. 2 = in.3by in.1 = in.2) piston move if it receives (30 in .3/in.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION How far will a (3-in.3) of fluid? Solution: Let's examine the problem. 2= in.).2 we get in. The answer we need is the distance traveled (in.2 30 3− 2 in. That is. We are given the volume of oil supplied to the cylinder (in3. 3 /in. First.) and the area of the cylinder (in2. 1 = in. it is better generally to keep everything in the multiplying mode. multiply by (1/area) instead of dividing by area. Since the answer has the proper 13 . By dividing in.
that you have the the properly Next. the answer would have been in.3 × 1 = 10in. If the dimensions had been arranged differently in the solution. Then we would have realized immediately that the dimensions have to be rearranged in order to obtain the proper answer. or 10 in. A general shortcut used for combining like bases is to apply strikethroughs to show divisions or cancellations of exponents from bottom to top or top to bottom of the fraction. perform indicated operations of the numbers (30/3 = 10). other than to divide in. The total answer is the combination of the two answers. and 30 divided by 3 equals ten. 2-3 = in. say. 3 and in. 14 . in.2 This is read "Inches cubed divided by inches squared equals inches. is to apply the "rote method. -1 ." which generally leads to trouble and errors. 2 can be combined to provide in.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION dimension dimensions you will know placed. 3in. 2 /in. 2 . For example: Dis tan ce = 30in. without the dimensions. 3 . There is no way that in. 3 by in." To use the distance formula.
units.S. 1.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION With the use of dimensional calculations you are constantly checking your answer as you cancel unwanted dimensions. Units Displacement Conversion Fractions rev =1 6. You are learning from the procedure instead of blindly applying a memorized formula.6 Review of Dimensions Fig. a review of some common Figure1-7 Dimensions Table (1-1) Common conversion fractions using U.S.28rad Descriptions rev=revolution 15 .1-7 provides dimensions. U.
=inches Hg = mercury Time 60 min =1 1h h = hours sec = seconds 16 .1046 rad / sec 0. = inches ft = feet Length (feet inches) 12 in.3 / min =1 1gal // min 1gal / min =1 231in. 3 /min = cubic inches per minute gal/min= gallons per minute in.2 14.2 =1 29. = 1 hp =1 0.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION (revolution and radians) Rev=6.28 rad 6.28rad =1 rev rev 6. 3 /min 231in.7lb / in.2 lb = pounds in.7lb / in.Hg =1 14.3 / min in.746kW kW = kilowatts hp=horsepower 0.746 kW and 12in.92in.2 and in. Hs. / 1 ft = 1 1 ft / 12in.28rad min × × = 0.7 lb/in. Hg)] 29. = 14.=1 ft Power (horsepower and kilowatts) hp = 0. of mercury (in.92 in.1046 rad / sec =1 rev / min rad = radian sec =seconds min = minutes Flow gal/min = 231 in.Hg 29.746kW =1 hp Pressure [lb/in.1046rad / sec min rev 60 sec rev / min =1 0.92in.
minutes. and seconds) 60 min = 1 h 1h =1 60 min 60 sec =1 1 min 1 min =1 60 sec min = minute Volume (in. and 1-3. and because multiplying by l does not change the absolute value of an expression.3 =1 1gal and 1gal =1 231in. Table 1-2 Common conversion fractions using SI units.3 in.3= 1 gal 1.3 = cubic inches gal = gallons 231 in. SI Units Conversion Fractions 17 Descriptions . show prefixes for forming SI units arid some handy formulas.3 gallons) 231in. dimensions can be converted at will with the use of the conversion fractions given in Tables 1-1. 1-2. the absolute value of the fraction is one.7 CONVERSION FRACTIONS When the value of the numerator (top) of a fraction is equal to the value of its denominator (bottom). respectively.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION (hours.
kiloliter. cm2. (N/m2)/Pa=1 kilopascals. m3 1000L/ m3=1 and cm3) m3 = 1000L liter=1000 cm3 L/1000 cm3=1 1000 cm /L=1 3 m3= cubic meter L = liter 1000 L = kiloliter Cm3 = centimeter cubic 18 . dm2.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Pressure Pa/(N/m2)=1 Pa = Pascal N = (force) m 2 = meters Newton square (Pascals.&bars*) 1000 Pa/kPa=1 Pa =N/m2 1000 Pa=kPa 1 bar=100kPa kPa/1000Pa=1 bar/100 kPa=1 100 kPa/bar=1 kPa = kilopascal bar=approximately 1 atmosphere Area m2/100 dm2=1 ( m2. 100 dm2/m2=1 mm2) One square meter m /10000 cm =1 equals 100 square 10000 cm2/m2=1 decimeters: m2/1000000 mm2=1 1000000 mm2/m2 =1 2 2 dm2 = decimeter square cm2 = square centimeter mm2= square millimeter Volume m3/1000L=1 (Liter.
44822 N 4.44822 N 19 .2) Table 1-3 Common conversion fractions using both U.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION * One bar is approximately the average atmospheric pressure at the earth's surface (or 14.7854 L / min =1 gal / min gal/min = gallons per minute L/min = liters per minute 1 gal/min = 3.5 lb/in.44822 N =1 lb lb = pound 1 lb* == 4. newtons.7854 L/min Force or Weight (pounds. and SI units (converting from one system to the other).S.7854 / min 3. and kilograms) lb =1 4. Units Conversion Fractions Descriptions Flow (gal/min L/min) and gal / min =1 3.
37 in.2 lb / in.895kPa kPa = kilopascals 1 bar = 14.5lb / in.8066 N =1 kg f kg = kilogram mass or kilogram weight =1 2. / m = 1 1m / 39.806654453 newtons (weight or force) 9.2 =1 6.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION kg f 9. = inches m = meter 1 m = 39.2 = pounds per square inch 20 .37in. Pressure (kPa.2 =1 bar lb/in.895kPa= 1 lb/in.37in.2 6.2 lb Length (meters inches) and 39.2lb 2. = 1 in. and bar versus lb/in.5 lb/in.2lb =1 kg f kg f kgf = 9.2) 6.895kPa =1 lb / in.2 bar =1 14.2 14.5lb / in.8066 N 1 kilogram (force)# = 2.8066 N =1 1 kilogram (weight or force) = 9.
024 in.2 Torque (lb-in.024in.7854 L L = liter gal gallons 3.112979 N-m Volume (L and gal) 3.2 =1 m2 1m 2 =1 1550in.3 = cubic inches m3= cubic meter Weight (see Force above) 21 .2 in.3 =1 m3 1m 3 =1 61.2) 1 m2 = 1550 in.2 = square inch m 2 = square meter gal =1 3.3 1550in.7854 L = gal Volume (m3 and in.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Square Measures (m2and in.7854 L =1 gal = 61.024in.3 in.) = 0.3) 1 m3 = 61.
such as a cylinder. This is not necessary. # The term kgf is used here to indicate that we are using kilograms of weight or force and not of mass.8 How Fluid Power Works Fluid power works in accordance with laws governing behavior of the fluid itself. who discovered that pressure exerted by a confined fluid acts undiminished the same in all directions at right angles to the inside wall of the container. This is known as Pascal's Law and is often thought of as the foundation of the discipline. a fluid power pump or compressor delivers fluid through the control valve to a system actuator. and later use. storage. Unused fluid in hydraulic systems is returned to a reservoir at low pressure for cooling. because "lb" always means force or weight (never mass). however. In a typical fluid power system.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION * some expert use lbf here to be consistent with kgf versus Newton.1-8. 1. The beginning of an understanding about how fluid power works is attributed to Blasé Pascal (1650). as shown in Fig. The two most common fluids used are air in pneumatic systems and oil in hydraulic systems. The law can be extended to include transmission and multiplication of force. Fluid power works by applying a force against a movable area. Air used 22 . through lines at high pressure.
To raise the wheel. Fig.9 illustrates a simulated hydraulic system used for lowering and raising the nose wheel of an aircraft landing gear. the control valve directs fluid to the rod end of the cylinder. In both cases fluid power works by applying a force against the area of one side of the movable piston in the cylinder or the other. Movement of the control valve to lower the wheel causes fluid to be delivered at high pressure from the pump to the blank end of the cylinder. Instead it is exhausted to atmosphere.1 . 23 .CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION to power pneumatic actuators is not returned to the receiver.
24 .CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Figure 1-8 Transmission and multiplication of fluid power force. Figure1-9 How fluid power works.
2 ). This means that in the English system of measurement weight or force is in pounds (lbf).37 in Converting units of pressure 25 .254 m and 1 m= 39. and area must be consistent. area is in square inches (in. where: 1KPa = 1000 N/m 2 Following are derivations for the most commonly used conversions.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Examining the definition and example closer Force = Pressure ×Area All we need to remember is that units of force. and pressure is in N/m 2 . 1 lb=4. gauges usually read pressure in kPa. force is in Newtons (N). area is in square meters (m 2 ). Because the Pa is a small unit. pressure. which is given the name Pascals (Pa) alter the famous French physicist. 2 . and pressure is in lbf/in. In SI units.448 N and 1N=0.2248lbf 1 in=0.
000145lbf / in 2 and 1 kPa = 0.145 lbf/in2 Table (1-4) gives constants for conversions among various units used for pressure around the world. 2 kPa kg f /cm 2 bar to 26 .2 = 6. Area = Force Pr essure Table (1-4) units of pressure and conversion Factors Convert lb f /in. When applying fluid power to a system.895 kpa or 1 lbf/in. and safely precautions. System pressures are also determined from the strength of components.448 222 N/lbf 2 N/m =6.2 and Pa will be used here. cost factors. the force required at the output is used to determine the pressure of the system and the cross section area of the cylinder. The Pa is the recognized international unit of pressure. the area of the cylinder then can be computed by solving the formula for this value.448222N = 0.895 kPa 1550 in 2 /m 2 =6895 1N / m2 ×1m2 / 1550in 2 ×1lbf / 4.2 4.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION 1 lbf/in. When the system pressure is known and the force that the system must apply is specified. but the kgf/cm2 and bar are still used in some countries. Only the lbf/in.
07 0.02 0.1 45 14.07 100 0.22 14.7854)(4 in.855 27 . Example:1000lb f Example 2 Pressure = 1500 lbf/in2 Area = (0. (1500 lbf/in2)( 12.5 6.010 0.895 = 6895kPa .2 × 6.069 0.2) = 12.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Convert from lb f /in.0101 1 1.57 in.57 in2) = 18. 2 kPa kg f /cm 2 bars 1 0.895 1 98.2 Force = lbf P× A= / in.98 1 Pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m2 Conversions are made by multiplying the units in the left margin by the conversion factors in the boxes to arrive at the units across the top.
pressure equals force divided by area. bore is the same as the inside diameter of the cylinder. even before the pump is started. In this book we call this the head pressure. and area relationships. That is. which asks for the solution of the force that would. pressure. In hydraulic and pneumatic applications.9 Head Pressure The first pressure of which we should be aware. 28 . force equals pressure times area. and area equals force divided by pressure. and the pressure in the cylinder is 1500 lbf/in. Look at the example that follows the figure. 1.3 )] and height of the fluid (ft) above the test point. the relationship between the other two is given in the proper order. Many helpful devices such as this have been developed to assist the fluid power mechanic and technician to make calculations. To simplify calculations using this formula.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Figure1-10 Force. be applied to the cylinder rod if the cylinder has a bore of 4 in. is the pressure caused by the weight of the fluid in the system.2. the desired value can be determined using Fig. or the fluid density [weight per unit volume (lb/in. By covering the desired value. 1-10.
) So. The weight of the oil in the tank is (29 lb) and the oil inside the tube weighs (0. = 144 in. Therefore. volume. The pressure difference from the top of the tank to the bottom (sometimes called psid) is (29 lb/144 in2 = 0.4 lb/in 2).2 lb/in.1 Effect of Fluid Height on Head Pressure Fig. the pressure 29 . the head pressure is (58 lb/144 in 2 = 0.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Fig. The head pressure at the bottom of the tube acts on the entire area of the fluid at the top of the tank.4 lb).×12 in.1-11a shows a square container with 1 ft3 of oil (1 ft by 1 ft by 1 ft). 1. and container shape on head pressure.2 lb/in. the weight of the oil would now be (29 lb) and the head pressure would be (29 lb/144 in2 = 0.1-11 shows three separate containers of fluids depicting the effects of fluid height.2 lb.2).9.) The head pressure at the bottom of the tube is (0. Since the area of the tank bottom is (12 in. The weight of the oil is approximately 58 lb.) into the tube.). the weight of the oil above each square inch of the tank bottom is ( 58 lb/144 = 0. So. the head pressure is halved as the height of the fluid is halved.2 lb/in 2 . If the oil level were reduced to a height of (6 in.). Filled with oil to a level of (6 in.2 ).
CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION at the bottom of the tank is the sum of the pressure difference of the tank plus the pressure at the top of the tank or 0.2 lb/in2 + 0.2 Significant Head Pressure Head pressures are always present in hydraulic systems. for which head pressures are quite significant: (1) where the other pressures involved are very low.4 lb/in2 This is the same head pressure that we saw at the bottom of the tanks of both Figures 1-11a and 1-11b.3 Destructive Head Pressure Fig. This procedure has been tried by home owners in the mistaken belief that it would be a good method of keeping the basement dry should the water in the storm sewer try to back up into the basement. such as at the inlet of a pump. (2) where the height of the fluid is great. however.1-12 shows a drawing depicting a home basement with a standpipe screwed into the floor drain.2 lb/in2 = 0.9. such as from the bottom of the ocean.9. With weeping tile installed under the basement floor for 30 . the head pressure is proportional to the height of the fluid regardless of the shape of the container. or (3) where the area affected by the head pressure is very large. There are three cases. but frequently they can be ignored as insignificant when dealing with higher system pressures. 1. 1. So.
This means that the "ft" on the top of the fraction cancels the "ft" on the bottom. the underside of the floor will be exposed to the backup water.2 of pressure per foot of water.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION normal drainage. 2= 1.2 3 ft × ft In other words. 31 .4 lb/in.2lb / in. For this example.2 lb/in. let's assume that the head pressure of water is the same as that of oil: The head pressure at the bottom of the pipe would be : 0. and will be acted on by the head pressure created by the standpipe. the pressure for 3 ft would be 3 x 0. with 0.2 Note: Observe that the unit of measure ' ft" has a strikethrough at each location. Assume 3 ft of water in the standpipe (measured from the bottom of the floor).4lb / in 2 = 1.4 lb/in.
the basement would have been flooded had the standpipe not been screwed into the drain.85tons 2ooolb ⎛ ton ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2000lb ⎠ This force could break the basement floor.680lb × ton = 51. ⎜ ⎟ Note: ⎛ 12in ⎞ and ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ft ⎠ are conversion fractions. because the weight of the floodwater in the basement would have pushed down on the floor with the same magnitude at which the head 32 . Multiplying by these fractions changes the dimensions but not the absolute value of an equation. The numerator (on top) is equal to the denominator (on the bottom).CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Figure1-12 Basement standpipe. which gives the fraction an absolute value of one. Of course. One might think that 1. But consider the force pushing upward from the bottom of the floor.2lb × 86.2 is insufficient pressure with which to be concerned. however.680lb 2 in or 103.400in 2 = 103. Flooding the basement would have saved the floor. The area of the basement floor is: 20 ft × 12in 12in × 30 ft × = 86.2 lb/in.400in 2 ft ft The force pushing the floor upward would be 1.
2 at 6 in. in both places.9. This giant structure is maintained perpendicular during travel by a leveling device.2 lb/in. The area of the jug bottom is 50 in. and the force of the bottom caused by the head pressure is 0.10 PASCAL'S LAW Fig.4 Use of Head Pressure for Level Control NASA's Crawler transporter was designed to move a missile and its launch tower from the assembly building to the launch site on Merrit Island. a 100% safety margin. 1.1-13a shows a jug of wine filled to a height of 1 ft.2 cork inserted so that it touches the wine (no air pocket).2 = 20lb . which senses the difference of fluid head pressure at the four corners of the Crawler compared to the tank "bubble" located at the center of the Crawler. thus preventing damage to the floor. 1. and 0.1-13b shows the same jug with a 1 in. Note that "in2" has been canceled. The calculations 33 . The jug will have been designed to carry this weight with. As usual.2 at the bottom of the jug.2.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION pressure force was pushing upward.4lb / in. the head pressure graduates down the height of the fluid to 0.2 × 50in. perhaps. Fig.4 lb/in. by strikethroughs.
and acts with equal force on equal areas. So every square inch will see an additional 10 lb of force added to the head pressure force already there.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION show what happens if the cork is pushed downward with a force of 10 lb. Now the bottom of the jug will see an additional force of 10lb × 50in. This force. as illustrated at the beginning of this chapter. The 10 lb of force per the 1 in. 34 .2 = 500lb 2 in or a total of 520 lb. Note: The head pressure is generally left out of this type of calculation because the 20 lb of head force is small compared to the applied force transmitted from the cork to the bottom of the jug. This law. counting the head pressure.2 cork is transmitted to each and every 1 in. and at right angles to them.2 of the jug. Pascal's law states (in effect): Pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted in all directions. which exceeds the safety margins of most jugs. could break the jug. allows the applied force to be conducted around corners and through irregular passages to the desired destination.
CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Figure1-13 (a) Vine jug head pressure. 35 . (b) Vine jug head pressure with Jed force.
List the components on one hydraulic application and give their specifications.List ten hydraulic applications and ten pneumatic applications. 2.How much fluid is needed to stroke a cylinder with a 100 mm bore and 0. 5. stroke.What bore would be necessary on a cylinder operating at 15 MPa to exert a force of 65 kN? 7.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION Study Questions and Problems 1.If a hydraulic cylinder has a rod diameter half the size of the bore. 6.Compute the area and volume for a cylinder with a 2-in.Compute the bore of a cylinder which must exert 10.Compute the force available from a hydraulic cylinder with a bore of 75 mm under a pressure of 10 MPa.50 in stroke? 8.000lbf with a pressure limitation of 1200 lbf/in2. 4. bore and a 12-in. 3. what will be the difference in force available if 36 .
A house weighing 30 tons is to be lifted by 4 hydrnulic_ram jacks. for the piston and 2 in.000 lbf steel beam from opposite ends.) 9.How is a cylinder actuator engineered to provide the same force extending and retracting? 37 . If Jack A has a bore of 4 in. lift a 10. and Jack B has a bore of 3 in).Two independent hydraulic jacks.CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION the pressure applied alternately to each end remains constant? (Clue: Try two convenient values such as 4 in. what would be the theoretical pressure in each jack when the beam is in the raised position? 11. what is the theoretical diameter of the ram? 10. A and B. for the rod diameter. If the maximum lift pressure available from the pump is 5000) lbf/in2.
CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION 38 .
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