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Cambridge CELTA trainee book

Cambridge CELTA trainee book

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Published by Mark Emerson
CELTA book to study for the Cambridge English CELTA exam
CELTA book to study for the Cambridge English CELTA exam

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Published by: Mark Emerson on Feb 05, 2013
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Introduction

4

C

language awareness
27 Introduction to language analysis 28 Tense and aspect 29 Meaning, form and use: the past 30 Expressing future meaning 31 Modality 32 Conditionals and hypothetical meaning 33 Language functions 34 The noun phrase 35 The sounds of English 36 Stress, rhythm and intonation 37 Teaching pronunciation 38 Vocabulary 39 Text grammar 120 124 128 132 136 141 145 149 154 158 162 166 170

The learners and their contexts
1 2 Who are the learners? Learners as individuals 6 9

Classroom teaching
3 4 5 6 Foreign language lesson 13 Classroom management 15 Presenting vocabulary 20 Presenting grammar (1) 25 Presenting grammar (2) 29 Practising new language 34 Error correction 39 Developing listening skills 43 Developing reading skills 47 Presenting language through texts 52 Developing speaking skills 56 Developing writing skills 61 Integrating skills 65 Lesson planning: design and staging 70 Lesson planning: defining aims 74 Alternative approaches to lesson design 79 Planning a scheme of work 83 ..\tl.otivating learners 86 Teaching different levels 91 English for Special Purposes 97 eaching literacy 101 _ onitoring and assessing _earning 106 -=-eaching exam classes III C oosing and using teaching - ources 115 -

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 6
7

D

Professional development
40 Professional development and finding a job 174 177 181 181 183 185 192 193 197 201 204 214 215
'3

Teaching practice
Planning Post-teaching Reflection tasks Journal tasks

1 :9

Classroom observation
Observation tasks

Tutorials and assignments
Tutorials Written assignments

-:I

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Resource file
Warmers and fillers Brief guide to the English verb Glossary Further reading Acknowledgements

Introduction

CELTAstands for the Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults. CELTAis an initial qualification for people with little or no previous teaching experience, and is awarded by Cambridge ESOL,part of the University of Cambridge. Candidates can take CELTA full time (typically four to five weeks), or part time (from a few months to over a year). There are five main units of learning: • • • • • learners and teachers, and the teaching and learning context language analysis and awareness language skills:reading, listening, speaking and writing planning and resources for different contexts developing teaching skills and professionalism

Candidates are assessed throughout the course, with no final examination. An external assessor, appointed by Cambridge ESOL,moderates each course. There are two components of assessment: • Teaching practice: candidates teach for a total of six hours, working with classesat at least two levels of ability. Assessment is based on the candidate's overall performance at the end of the six hours. • Written assignments: candidates complete four written assignments. The assignments each focus on one of the following areas: adult learners; language systems of English; language skills; classroom teaching. To be awarded the certificate, candidates must pass both components. There are three pass grades: Pass, Pass B and Pass A. A Pass is awarded to candidates who meet the criteria for a pass in both areas. A Pass B is awarded to candidates who meet the criteria for a pass in the written assignments and who demonstrate a level of achievement significantly above that required for a pass in relation to teaching practice. A Pass A is awarded to candidates who meet the criteria for a Pass B award and, in addition, demonstrate an awareness significantly higher than that required for a pass in relation to planning for effective teaching. For more information about CELTA,visit the Cambridge ESOL website: http://www.cambridgeesol.org.

The CELTA Course is a coursebook for CELTAtrainees. It is designed to be used during course input sessions (although some activities may be set in advance of sessions or as follow-up to sessions). The course consists of 40 units covering the topics on theoSample CELTAcourse timetable (accessible on the Cambridge ESOL website), and extensive supplementary materiaL including advice on how to get the most out of teaching practice, a bank of classroom observation tasks, and a resource file that includes a glossary and recommendations for further reading.

The 40 units are divided into four topic areas: • Section A: The learners and their contexts (Units 1 and 2) Learners' purposes, goals, expectations and learning styles • Section B: Classroom teaching (Units 3-26) Presenting language, developing language skills,planning, classroom management, teaching different levels, English for special purposes, monitoring and assessing learning, choosing and using teaching resources • Section C: Language analysis and awareness (Units 27-39) Grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation • Section D: Professional development (Unit 40) How to get a job and continue your professional development Each unit comprises a number of activities, starting with a warm-up and concluding with reflection. From these units and activities, course trainers will select only those elements that meet the needs and syllabus specifications of their particular courses: it is not expected that trainees will do all the units and all the activities in the book, nor that they will necessarily do the units in the order presented in the book.
The CELTA Course is not only a coursebook: it also serves as an invaluable resource for post-course review and reflection. We hope that it enriches your experience of the CELTAcourse, and that the CELTA course, in turn, opens the doorway to a fulfilling and worthwhile career in English language teaching.

She attends a one-to-one English class in Sao Paulo to help her in her business dealings. Nearly"all of his classes at Utrecht University are conducted in English. • Soni Kim is from South Korea. • Maxim (45) is of Russian origin. She is enrolled on an online course in order to prepare for a trip to the USA with her husband in the near future. UK. She speaks Kurdish and Arabic and is attending English classes with a view to settling in Canada permanently. what would you have done differently? rJ rn Learners' purposes Readthese learners' profiles. • Ning Wang is a Chinese Mandarin speaker who is at a further education college in Manchester. which are mainly with Middl~ Eastern clients. have a private teacher. • Kazankiran is an asylum-seeker in Canada. for example. • Mies is a Dutch student of economics. is the head of marketing in a large exporting company. why did you choose that particular language? 2 What was your purpose for learning? Was it. go to classes or study online? Or did you simply pick it up by using it? 4 If you attended classes.1 Who are the learners? Warm-up Answerthese questions about your second-language learning experience.Thenwork in groups and compareyour answers. She also attends an English class twice a week in a local language school. what were your expectations? Were they met? 5 How motivated were you? What factors either raised or lowered your motivation? 6 What level of proficiency did you hope to achieve? Did you achieve it? 7 All in all. or simply curiosity? Or did you have no real purpose? 3 Did you teach yourself. for travel or business. He lives and works in Australia and is learning English through contact with his workmates. who is Brazilian. • Carmen. a language he started learning when he was six. • Lucia is a 16-year-old Italian speaker who is studying English as one of her school subjects in Bologna. 1 What was the language that you learned? Did you have a choice of language? If so. a requirement for entry into a British university. doing a course as preparation for the IELTSexamination. were you satisfied with the experience? If not. .Identifytheir reasons for learning Englishand answer the questions.

What are their reasons for learning English? Use these abbreviations: EFL = English as a foreign language ESL = English as a second language EIL = English as an international language ESP = English for special (or specific) purposes EAP = English for academic purposes _ Which of the above learners is probably bilingual in English and another language? Who is or may one day be . = 'on't need to read or write. and who is getting the least? Who are already users of English. look. I'm too learn to speak English perfectly. and practice in understanding people. though. _ _ ~ '0 __ ow I make many mistakes when I speak. Besides. rreed the basics: a few useful phrases to get by. and the kind of situation you are expecting to teach in? to ners' goals t ese statements with four of the learners in section B. as opposed to simply picking it up (or acquiring it)? What is the difference? . o only specialised English but also social English for chatting. Maybe I would like to lose my strong accent. .\ ho is probably getting the most exposure to English. and with a native -er accent. I don't have much time. so I can forget myoId life and begin a new life here. ~ ers on this cline. earn would be to speak English like a native speaker.depending on their language learning goals.:peeting teach. But people understand me. and I need to be able to ::realy the kinds of things I do in my work. and.multilingual? 3 Whose first language is likely to contribute positively to their learning of English? Whose is not? Why? -r ho is learning English. as opposed to simply learners? ho is likely to be the most motivated? Who the least? hich of the above learners (if any) most closely fits the profile of the kind of learner you are e:>. fluently.

and we didn't study many grammar rules. we didn't sit in rows.earners in your teaching practice class. Hold ihterviews with your learners: Compare your learners' responses.1 doworry. and answer the questions.) Find out about their purposes. Alan made . but I didn't enjoy this because I was making mistakes and no one corrected them. Sometimes we play games and listen to songs. very much. forthe way you teach this group? . What are the implications .+f\. Also. (Ifthis is not possible.rn Learners' expectations Read what Ning Wang and Lucia said about their English classes.. and there's no chance to speak.YVri!e questipns for~. But tV.lneed to get a good mark inthe exam. but In a half circle. 1 2 3 4 5 What expectations did Ning Wang have? Where did his expectations originate? How realistic were his expectations? Why is Lucia happier than Ning Wang with an informal. write questions that your trainer may be able to answer. or we write a story together. In the evening class we have discussions in groups.' 'I like my evening class because it is notas big as the class at school. but at school the teacher often explains things in Italian. At school we do mainly grammar exercises.e and the teacher doesn't know how to control them:' wqrk in pairs. /. Alan explained that it was important to speak and not to worry about making mistakes. and their previous language learning experiences. The only bad in~heevel1ing class is that some of the boys misbeha".US work in groups. and it's more fun. goals and expectations. I was not happy because we didn't use the book' . group-centred How appropriate are the teaching methods in each case? approach? 'At first I was very surprised that the teacher told us we should call him byhis first name. diagnostic interview with the I. Another difference is that the teacher speaks to us only in English. Alan.

and a passive-active axis. as in the following diagram: studial A B passive active C D experiential A studiallearner is one who prefers more formal study (such as in classrooms) over learning by experience (such as through chatting with native speakers). for example.2 Learners as individuals ork in groups. An active studiallearner (Type B). One is to imagine two intersecting axes or clines: a studial-experiential axis. actively working out rules from examples and capable of working alone. at the same time. would be self-directed. likes to be told the rules. But. A passive studiallearner (Type A). What kind of activities might they enjoy? Write eight questions to use as a diagnostic test of learning style. Multiple intelligences Another way of viewing learning style is in terms of different kinds of intelligence. 1 2 Describe the characteristics ofType C and D learners. 1 Do you like learning and memorising rules from grmpmar books? (Yes = Type B learner). and is less confident about taking initi~tive. Compare their: • personality • previous educational background • motivation Learning style There are a variety of ways of describing learning style. Describe two very different learners. relies more on the teacher. Some intelligences that have been proposed are: • verbal: the ability to use language in creative ways • logical/mathematical: the ability for rationaL analytic thinking . on the other hand. Follow the example below. a studial learner may be either active or passive in the way they study.

2 Tellthe group that any time anyone wants to take over as interviewer. Iwrite new words on Post-it notes and Istick them on a big map of the world I have in my study. they just go up and touch the current intervieweron the shoulder. Learner A: repetition aids memory.• • • • • visual: the ability to form mental models and use mental imagery kinesthetic: the ability to express oneself through body movement musical: musical and rhythmic ability interpersonal: the ability to understand other people's feelings and wishes intrapersonal: the ability to' understand oneself According to this view. try to sit next to those in class who I know like to do pairwork. so that the interview proceeds smoothly. Students can also replacethe intervieweein the same way. 1 What aspects of language learning (such as grammar. and ask for a volunteer interviewer. 2 Suggest language learning activities that would favour these intelligences: • visual intelligence • kinesthetic intelligence • musical intelligence m Learning strategies and learner training watching a TV programme or a film in English. to When I'm reading in English and I come across a word I don't know. the best learning opportunities are those that match the learner's most developed intelligence. Itry to read on a bit.) does each strategy target? 2 What learning principle does each one seem to exemplify? For example. Itry to make an association with the word and the place on the map. etc. learners with a strong logical/mathematical intelligence would benefit from problem-solving activities such as ones involving sorting sentences into different categories and then working out rules. vocabulary. A group member can do this at any time. production helps pronunciation. . 1 Askfor one student to volunteer to be interviewedabout a topic of her choice. I tryto echo what the speakers are saying under my breath. Thus. almost at the same time they are saying it. 3 Explainthat the idea is to do it in a harmonious way. they then take over as interviewer. to see if the meaning comes clearer. Read this activity and decide which intelligence it favours.

b Rose lives in Canterbury and works in London.lA~i~3 Who is the commuter in these sentences. 2 Where is the stress on the word commuter? 3 How is it marked in the dictionary? 2 Check the meaning and pronunciation the wordlist on page 138. Joao or Rose? a Joao lives in London and works in London. .. Learner training ideas are often integrated into course book materials. and to adopt effective learning strategies.2 Leamer training refers to training learners to make the most of their individual learning style.ilAtio~ 3rlAt1I-t1I-IAr word e. word prO~tHlc. Is your pronunciation correct? 4 Say the poem to another student.'3' ~01A~ "'" ~ com·mut·er /kg'mju:tgr/ noun a person who travels a long way to work each day / I de. 3 of new words in the poem. Use a dictionary or lip C(II Listen to the poem.fi~i tio~/ t1I-e.

What can I do? How can I use the internet to help me practise my English.? REFLECTION . I'd like to read in English but I don't know where to start. what are the alternatives? Our teacher doesn't give us homework.~~ "~::i:i~ !tII D Learner autonomy Good learners generally take responsibility for their own learning. but I think I need to practise grammar.::~<. I don't live in an English-spe. Is learning the words in the dictionary a good way of increasing my vocabulary? If not. 1 :::. but most movies in English are too difficult to understand without subtitles.? Where can I get more listening practice in English . Advise the following learners on how to continue their language learning outside the classroom.:::~~~jgl ". both inside and outside the class. they take steps to become autonomous.::~!~ . make notes about it. MakinO notas_o~a~ve~rb~s When you write down a new verb.LJJarningjjp.aking country.. That is. I'm an intermediate student.something not too difficult? I like movies. Is it regular or irregular? How do you spell the different forms? How do you pronounce the endings? .

Tell your group: " which languages you can speak • what your first language class was like • which picture looks most like your language classroom ~~ ~ "Q'b ~~ ~~ . Warm-up Work in groups of three orfour.3 Foreign language lesson .

1 2 3 4 Write down the order in which things happened in the lesson. Divide what happened into stages ('chunks' of the lesson). Say how the teacher: • set up activities • involved the learners • made meanings clear • presented new words or expressions • dealt with errors rn Comparing languages work in pairs.--~j I . Doyou thinkyou'll be able to remember what you learned in seven days' time? 2 What have you learned. Think about: • • • • word order unfamiliar sounds the way sounds combined pieces of grammar or vocabulary (such as how plurals are signalled). Tryto remember as much as you can of the lesson.rn [!I A foreign language lesson After your lesson work in pairs or groups of three. compare your ideas with a partner's. Tellyour partner about any differences you noticed between the language you learned and English. When you are ready. REFLECTION fu 1 Think about the questions. from this experience about learning a new language? 3 What haveyou from this experience aboutteafhing a new language? . Describe how you felt during each stage of the lesson.

d If learners want to make a contribution. and wait to be asked. they should put up their hand Disagree e Demonstrating activities is sometimes better than explaining activities. c Classrooms are places of study .so they should be largely quiet. business English class • a grammar presentation " pairwork " groupwork " a written exam .it can seem very aggressive. Classroom organisation 1 Look at these diagrams and say which arrangement (1-4) would be most suitable for the classes below.4 Classroom management rJ Warm-up Agree a Avoid using too many gestures . • a large class • a small. Give some reasons for your choices. b Don't point at learners .they are very distracting for learners.

compare your ideas with a partner's. Think about: word order unfamiliar sounds the way sounds combined pieces of grammar or vocabulary (such as how plurals are signalled). Tell your partner about any differences you noticed between the language you learned and English. Try to remember as much as you can of the lesson. Do you thinkyou'li be able to remember what you learned in seven days' time? 2 What have you learned from this experien.III ~ A foreign language lesson After your lesson Work in pairs or groups of three. Divide what happened into stages ('chunks' of the lesson). Say how the teacher: • set up activities • involved the learners • made meanings clear • presented new words or expressions • dealt with errors m Comparing • • • • languages Work in pairs. 1 2 3 4 Write down the order in which things happened in the lesson. Describe how you felt during each stage of the lesson. I 1 lThink about t. When you are ready.he questions.ce aboutlearping a new language? Whafhave you learned from this experience about teaching a new language? .

d Miss out small words (articles.e. e Speak at a natural speed.m (\'\.cs [were a. .e..ol -to nospi.he vtchm I. b Use gestures.. prepositions. auxiliary verbs and so on) so that learners can focus on the 'content' words and understand the message.9lo.(Y\c.) £(\) The b ufg la. very idiomatic language).ri. g Try to avoid complex grammar patterns.r . Tickfivesentences that offergood advice.t.ti. to. f Try to avoid' difficult' vocabulary (for example. New words Court: Cri.nestedllo. particularly lower-level learners. Then compareyour answers with a partner.o.Crossout the other two sentences.person. and answer these questions.. P __ ~b __ Grading language One of the most important things that teachers have to learn is how to adjust their language to make it appropriate for different groups of learners. but pause slightly longer after each 'chunk'.lJ ((\) .. c Speak with natural rhythm and intonation..2 Thinkbackto the foreign language lesson (Unit3).C..s \::<4\:.me eft) (n) <Arres\:(v) (n) vte. Saywhat the pictures belowsuggest about the best use of the whiteboard.L bU(3la. a Pronounce each word slowly and deliberately.c . if necessary. Readsentences a-g.. 1 What activities did you do in pairs or groups? What was the purpose of these stages? 2 What are the benefits of pairwork and groupwork in a language classroom? 3 What are the potential drawbacks to using pairwork and group work? 3 Workin pairs. bU(. pictures and other things that will support what you are saying to make it easier to understand..

for this do you speak or write? [Learner answers 'speak'] OK.now.OK.rn Giving instructions Teacher 1: OK. [Teacher indicates who should work with who and then learners compare. Teacher 2: So look at these pictures. about four. stand up. OK. maybe a few more . I want you to stand up .] OK.I would like you to write some sentences.good . [Teacher holds up the book and points to the pictures. but you don't do now. please. So. Have you got that? All right.] . you're going to write some sentences. and then what I want you to do is. they're on page 87 . write some sentences about things you used to do. [Learners stand up and mingle. [Learners write some sentences. Write four sentences.] You can use these for ideas. open your books and look at the pictures about what the man does now and what he used to do . so let's start . so do you understand all that? .don't worry if yoL find it difficult. so.talk to as many people as you can and find people that used to do the same things as you.yeah you can find them in just a sec. please.they're just some ideas for you to think about.f you'd rather . and do you speak to one person or lots of people? [Leamer answers: 'Iotsl OK. doesn't really matter now .I don't think it matters too much .and then I wa~\y~u to mingle around and then find someone that you have something in common with.or you can work in threes . just have a go anyway. let me stop you there . And then write some sentences about things you used to do. Now compare your sentences with a partner. OK?So.OKyeah. but you don't do now.] OK. if you want.OK. OK?And when you've done that I want you to compare them with your partner . so if you wouldn't mind.don't worry if you've only written three.

not the class.'J'lce.Ash l did so.ae.f the. I thil"lk part of the problem was that they didn't quite understand what you wanted them to do at . Well. so e. writi'J'lO se.~eryone can hear'.s.St stooet tltleY'e. Just listen to what they say. If there's a fairly stop the activity sort the problem out.it too fo'J'lO doi'J'lO 'J'lotk. or to respond if they need help or guidance. 1 :r: WV. OK ~ you did well to of time was wasted. Try getting further away and just saying something like 'a bit louder. but quite a lot particularly for the last pair you got general problem.S'J'l't S1Are.:r: )('J'le.Y'ewltlat I sltloL<. few studeV"\ts who just S?oKetheir OWV"\ 100V"\suo.e.fi'J'lisk. I tried to ask more learners questions lesson. You have to get the right balance.e.etevvts weY'e all eto~""0 title 'Pa~Y'WoY'i~ exeY'c~se avvet IjL<. I thought you made a pretty good decision here. don't be afraid to and give the instructions again. But it was embarrassing. otk.t to do wk. ~o Wa~thi~ r-i~t? 2 Now match the trainees' comments (1-6) with the trainer's advice (a-f).ilnd ~o I tv-ie-d to ~ r-ovndto e-ilW govp ilnd ~ov-t t o it ovt I think the-~ did g+ it in the. times. trainees are asked to write an evaluation of their own lessons.vvhilt to do in the.(J we. I did the. .pilirwor-k bit .usually a group of three is fine. I wasvv't eto Y'ealllj. today.of the. ~ If you do this it becomes very hard for you to know what the other learners are doing. but don't interrupt if everything is going well. You need to think about how you will deal with awkward numbers before the lesson .'J'lt tk.(J Md'J'l't v. that learner is quiet.'J'lte.v. It was good that you said something but you probably needed to be a little more assertive about it . Even when I got really close to her it was still difficult. but it Wd~ obv'iov~ vvhe-n the-~ ~t<Jv-te-dhilt ~OrYIe.at least repeat it.Y's to wv.or alternatively. Trainer's advice did OK here.e.e.it much There were 0.r-wor-kbvt I had an odd nVrYIbe-r.e. and discuss possible solutions to the problems that they express. .'J'ltk.d b1At :r: did'J'l't wv.~tvde-nt~ hildn't vnde-r-~tood. You could try to move learners around a bit so that they are not always sitting next to people who speak the same language.U. Reassure learners that they don't always have to finish .e-nd..~tvde-nt~. You were there to help if they needed it. thov~t rYI~ in~mC--tion~ we-r-e.re. 6 'r-e-all~ Wdnte-d10 v~e-Pil.Se whole the wo. But if you get closer to learners they often get even quieter because they talk to you .i'J'lO' 2 l didV"\'t eV"\jo.I] Trainees' queries As part of the training process. to.wtk. 4 5 -me stL<.e.let I asked Kim what she thought her. wk.~thrOl.OK. Read the trainees' reflective comments.~'iV"\EV"\Slish'oV"\ceM it didV"\t do much sood ' 3 'Wd~n't ~VYe. I know Ijust kept asking the same people in my last and it was so quiet I couldn't hear SL<. have something ready for the quick finishers to do.fiv'it~ with one.

Classroom application Think about your next teaching practice lesson. • Will you use the board in the lesson? What will you need to write? When would it be appropriate to erase what you write? • At what points in the lesson will you monitor the learners? What will you be looking and listening for? in pairs or groups of three. Write some advice about classroom management using these terms: eating pairwork monitor • language grading • giving instructions • boardwork • early finishers . • What will be the best seating arrangements? Will they be the same throughout the lesson? • Plan the instructions that you will need to give.

ju:.tlkl adj ~up~emisticalJy l. without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. o The article made so much use of euphemism that often its meaning was unclear.il adj having a powerful effect.z'mJ noun Ie or U] a word or phrase used to avoid saying an unpleasant or offensive word: 'Senior citizen' is a euphemism for 'old person'. a a dictionary b a phrase book c a grammar reference book Compare ideas with a partner.f:l'mIs.k[il adv eyeball l'al.ml. .b:>:l1 @ l-bo:11 verb [T) TNFORMAL to look closely at someone: He eyeballed me across the bar.f:l'mls. Do you agree with Wilkins? Why?/Why not? 'The fact is that while without grammar very little can be conveyed. a the form of each word b the meaning of each word c the use of each word? What information is given about: euphemism l'ju:. " heady I'hed.' rn Form. 2 Work in groups ofthree. they thought anything was possible. Readthe quotation. Explain your choice.tI. euphemistic l.5 ri1 Presenting vocabulary Warm-up Choose one type of book to take to a country where you don't speak the language. meaning and use Readthese entries from the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary. making you feel slightly drunk or excited: a heady wine/perfume o In the heady days of their youth.f:l.ju:.

Say it. [Teacher writes pilot on the board. OK . T: That's good .] Now the door is shut .apples. a Beginners' class (1) [Teacher holds up a picture of a doctor. [Teacher opens the door. oranges.] T: Do you know what job this is? What does this person do? 51: In a plane. yeah.we can say that for a car or a train./fru:t/ -like boot . Shut. 1 Readthese lesson transcripts and complete the table below.] T: Listen: doctor . [Teacher closes the door.that's right . [Teacher opens the door.the door is open . T: No -look. T: Good .open. good.shut.] b Beginners' class (2) T: [Teacher points to the door] Look . he flies a plane. Good .he's a pilot. T: Good . Class: Nurse.what do you need to know in order to use a word productively(inspeaking or writing)? 3 Whatare the implications ofthe above for the teaching of vocabulary? Learning about form and meaning Dictionaries are an effective way of learning vocabulary.Forexample.] c False beginners' class [Teacher holds up a picture of a pilot. Sl: Open. Now you. Now you.] Shut.doctor.] Open. but what is the word for his job? 52: Driver. [Teacher writes open and shut on the board.] T: Listen: nurse . Class: Open. bananas are types of fruit. particularly when learners are working outside the class.everyone.] Elementary class S1: What means fruit /fri:t/? T: Pronunciation . but there are many other ways that teachers can teach words and phrases. Say it. [Teacher writes doctor and nurse on the board. [Teacher closes the door. 1: Oh. Class: Doctor [Teacher holds up a picture of a nurse. Say it for me.can you say it? 51: Fruit /fru:t/.thank you.2 Discusswhat it means to 'know a word'. T: Yeah.nurse.] T: Now. Sl: Shut. Class: Shut. but for a plane? 2: Pilot. .

do you think? 3 work together. Which points are helpful? 2 a Try to trick the learners or they will find it too easy. . 1 As well as pictures. OK. Describe the different ways the teacher teaches the words doctor. what does enormous mean? T: Does anyone know that word . [Teacher writes enormous on the board] f Advanced class S1: It saysflattery here. How would you teach these groups of words? You can use more than one method per group.!] Eliciting vocabulary 1 work in pairs. Group 1: a pet to put down (a pet) to vaccinate (intermediate class) Group 2: to dig to paint to saw (pre-intermediate class) Group 3: grape cherry strawberry (elementary class) Group 4: slap smack punch (upper-intermediate class) f. nurse and pilot in section C1 (a and c). How is the meaning conveyed? a Beginners' class (1) b Beginners' class (2) c False beginners' class d Elementary class e Intermediate class f 2 Is the spoken form practised? yes How is the written form made clear? The teacher writes it on the board. What's that? T: It's when you say nice things to someone .enormous? S2: Big. Readthis advice for eliciting vocabulary.e Intermediate class S1: Sorry. by using pictures Advanced class Answerthe questions. a learner asks a question but the teacher doesn't answer it immediately. what other ways of illustrating the meaning of a word could a teacher use? 2 In the intermediate class (e).just big? Or very big? S3: Verybig. T: That's right .very big. Explain why the teacher uses different strategies.usually because you want something from them. T: Yeah. Why not. b Plan how you will elicit things before the lesson.

~ men and women use them.. never give in and just tell the learners. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques for checking that learners have understood new words. _ . c What do you notice about the answers? The teacher has just taught the word shoplift. and given the example sentence The kids were ught shoplifting sweets. generally? ~ you like this handbag? . or just when you are travelling? .c Keep eliciting as simple and quick as possible. easy-to-answer questions. uld a handbag be used every day. e If the learners don't get the word quickly. Cross out the ones that aren't useful. Compare ideas with a partner. Do you understand? the students to use the word in a sentence. short. a What is the purpose of the teacher's questions? b Complete the students' answers (1-6).)0 you put big things or small things in a handbag? . For example: If you are head over heels in love.of handbag. a b c d The The The The teacher teacher teacher teacher asks asks asks asks a learner to translate the word (or phrase) into their own language. d Make sure you elicit everything. Read the lesson transcript.'. is shoplifting used about very bigthings? 5 Can it be used about very valuable things? 6 _ --- t ese questions for checking the understanding. are you in love a lot.hat colour is this handbag? . Didthe kids pay for the sweets? s: 1 T: Isthis a crime? 2 Can you shoplift a washing machine? 3 Can you shoplift a watch? 4 So. or a little bit? Work in pairs. 3 Suggest ways to elicit the following words: a watch (noun) b game show c toflatter Checking understanding 1 Work in pairs. try giving them the first sound of the word.

.. d Houses are often more expensive near the coast...... Think about the lesson you helped to prepare.. Discuss the differences between the three practice activities (a-c) below... For example: An accident on a motorway often leads to long . Your trainer will give you a set of words to teach to the class..... 1 2 3 4 What level is each activity suitable for? Which activities could be set for homework? How long would each activity take to do? Which skills (reading... relationships with other words. listening or speaking) does each activity practise? a The learners discuss transport problems and developments in their own countries. • How will you convey the meaning of the words? • How will you make both the written and spoken forms clear? • How will you check that the words have been understood? When you have prepared what you want to do..) c The car was a write-off after the accident. e What have you done? Why are you limping? o Practising vocabulary Work in groups.. .. b Learners work in small groups... a Did the mini lesson proce~d as you imagined? '" r . (The teacher is worried that 'briefcase' will be confused with 'suitcase'.. The teacher gives each group a set of cards with one of the target words written on each card. Im1i!IiiItD r Work in groups. c The teacher prepares a gap-fill exercise and the learners have to complete the sentences with the target words and phrases... [!1 Classroom application: microteaching Work in groups...) b Could you give me a hand with the housework? (The teacher is worried that the learners will not realise that 'give me a hand' is informal. One learner must take a card and can use mime..4 Readthe sentences and write questions to check understanding of the bold words and phrases. drawings. a She picked up her briefcase and left. Did you learn anything from the way in which thepther groups approached the task? . teach the words to the class. or any other means to elicit the word from the other members of her group. writing. .: _ b Was there anything about the plan that you could have improved? c How do you think it would have been different with 'real' language learners? d. (answer: traffic jams). definitions. Discuss the questions.: .

and you are going to take the role of learners. After the three mini-lessons. discuss these questions: hich lesson did you prefer? Why? _ Which word(s) sum up the approach of each lesson? Choose from the list below: • • • • • • demonstration personalisation situation examples explanation text Conveying the meaning of a grammar item In the previous activity. Imagine you are trying to learn a new computer program. your trainer used both 'live' actions and an invented situation to convey the meaning of going to.6 Presenting grammar (1) Answer the questions. Other ways of conveying grammatical meaning include the use of pictures (called visual aids). . Doyou prefer: • • • • • to be told how to do it? to be shown how to do it? to read how to do it in the manual? to try using it and find out for yourself? a combination of these? Three presentations Your trainer is going to present a grammar item in three different ways. and the use of texts to provide a context.

I I ~ ~ ~ « « « 2 Work in groups. Plan out the steps you would take to convey the meaning in class. going to (future intentions) • •~ « 4 4 can/can't (for ability) used to (for past habits) present continuous (for activities happening at the moment of ". (Going to has been done for you. with three suggestions. Write cinema. ete. Visual aids Show the class some thingsyou have.) Grammar item Demonstration Point to a window in the classroom. ete. Pause. must have done (for making deductions about past situations) •• • ·4 3 Work in groups. . Choose one of your presentation ideas from the above table. Repeat with door. speaking) "- •• • 4 . in bubble. gym. and then open it. and use these to tell them your future plans. Situation Draw face on board plus thought bubble. Give details.like tickets. Complete the table by suggesting at least one way you could convey the meaning of each 4 • 4 of the following grammar items. Say 'I'm going to open the window'. and elicit the character's plans for the coming weekend.

where did she leave it.] Absolutely? [Ss: Not absolutely]. Everybody. Must have. Do we know for sure? e T: f Ss: No. She went shopping yesterday. left. left. Where is her wallet? Where did she leave it? Did she have it in the supermarket? [Ss: Yes]. Did she have it in the newsagent's? [Ss: No]. Did she have it in the greengrocer's? [Ss: Yes] Did she have it in the post office? [Ss: Yes]. probably? [Ss: In the post office. Read this transcript of a grammar presentation. She bought some milk. Identify the points in the transcript where the teacher: • conveys the meaning • highlights the spoken form • highlights the written form This is Elka. Go back to the presentations you were planning in activity q. She must have left it. she went to the news agent's to buy a newspaper. She must've left it in the post office. [writes must +have + past participle on the board]. [writes She must have left it in the post office on the board] She must have . She bought some bananas. Must've. (Teacher pats pockets). Include a stage where you ighlight the spoken and written forms of the new grammar item. So. Then she went to the post office. d Ss: She must've left it in the post office. What is this? I St 2: Past tense. . But she couldn't find her money. T: So. c T: Listen: She must have left it in the post office. What is this? (Turnk)? a T: - I. what can we say? b S 1: She probably leave it in the post office.] Are you sure? [Ss: Yes. Finally. Is it probable? g T: h Ss: Yes. ill T: Not exactly.] So. Tell me about the grammar of left.' ork in groups. Where was the last place she had it? [Ss: In the post office. It's the past participle: leave. ark in pairs. what do we say? j S 1: She must've left it in the post office. Then she went to the greengrocer's. First she went to the supermarket. Discuss these questions. and bought some stamps.• 1 Highlighting the form of a new grammar item Learners need to know both the form and meaning of new language items. 1 Why do you think the teacher asks Do we know for sure?? (Turn e) 2 Why does the teacher highlight the spoken form before the written form? 3 What is the teacher's purpose in asking Tell me about the grammar of 'left'.must've -left it k T: in the post office.

. Remember that different learners may have different preferences for how new language items are presented. Check that learners have understood the meaning. compare your answers with a partner.~n you are ready. Give a lecture about grammar. wb. Always use the same presentation technique.Look back at what you have done in this unit. Look at the following statements and complete the table. Can you add anyother statements to the • • • • •• • Involvelearners in the process as much as possible. :r:righlightthe form.

Notice that the line starts 'before now' and continues 'beyond now'. Here.30 every morning. a b c d She used to ride a motorbike. I've been working there for ages.Timelines are simple diagrams that can help some learners to see relationships between verb forms and their time reference. Matchthe sentences (a-d) with the timelines (i-iv). she had broken up with Chris. By the time I met her. ~ + There is no one correct way to draw timelines but learners need to know the conventions you are using. I'm living in Australia at the moment. the wavy line is usedto indicate the temporariness implied in the sentence. xxxxx J 2 Drawtimelines forthese sentences. . I get up at 6. e f g h The business will have closed down by the end of the year. I'll still be lying on a beach when you go back to work. I m reading a book at the moment. This diagram illustrates the sentence 'I'm reading a book at the moment'. 1 Workin pairs. She used to live in Athens.

D I've been revising 2 Now make sentences with! don't think .' f 'Did you phone Peter about tonight?' 'No.' 'Oh! I didn't know it was on. right qualifications. New Headway (Intermediate) Soars and Soars Practising new language is dealt with more fully in Unit 8. We'll get married/We're going to gel married next year.' c 'Why are you putting on your coat?' 'Because I'll take/I'm going to take the dog for a walk. I'll do/I'm going to do it now. yes.. will. 'Don't worry. He's been playing really well recently. They are all part of the same lesson. A a b c d e f Jeremy/win the match it/be a nice day tomorrow IIpass my exams you/like the film we/get to the airport in time you/get the job Example I/bath tonight ! think I'll have a bath tonight/! don't think I'll have a bath tonight. listening. He hasn't practised for ages.. I'm going 10 give/ I'll give you a lift. I'll come/I'm going t~ come round at about 7. for weeks. the meaning.' d 'Are you and Alan still going out together?' 'Oh. I forgot. Match them with a sentence in B.' b 'It's Tony's birthday next week.' 'Is it? I didn't know. or both? 3 What language skills (speaking. Use the prompts in A to make sentences with! think .it/rain tomorrow _.I/eat out tonight . . I'll send/I'm going 10 send him a card. The forecast said rain and wind. contrasting will and going to. I'm late for work.I/be a millionaire one day .' 'Have you? Wait a minute. Underline the correct verb form in the sentences. He's been playing really well recently. is the emphasis on practising the form. no experience. Match them with a sentence in C. I'll gel/I'm going to get you an aspirin. He hasn't practised for ages.rn Ways of practising grammar Work in groups. Example 'Oh.we/have a white Christmas . will with the words from A in Exercise I. C D D D ~ There's too much traffic. What's his number?' . dear. 'Would you like to go out for a drink tonight?' 'I'll watch/I'm going to watch the football on television.' a 'I've got a headache. II go shopping this afternoon . Example ! think Jeremy will win the match.the teacher/give us a lot of homework B D ~ But we'd better get a move on.' e (a telephone conversation) D D You've got all the D It's a lovely story.30..' 'Come and watch it with me!' 'OK. reading and writing) are practised in each activity? 3 Make true sentences about you. The forecast is warm and dry. Compare the following four grammar practice activities.. and the acting is superb. Example ! don't think Jeremy will win the match. 1 In what ways are the practice activities similar and in what ways are they different? 2 In each activity. I haven't done any revision at all. D You're too young and you've got D It's not really your cup of tea.

r pe. 5 The.jone.r "'-s)(s so~ i1'\.d tk.owi1'\.pe..-r 01'\.-ck.e.e.e. pi". Stage B1Aiidi1'\.-~ -tootb".d '1Ase.-1'\. w"."'-t tk."'-t tk..-1'\.e.riod i1'\.d to" + '1'\.-is .n ".c)(i1'\.".e.s c d e f i1'\. it.port bM)( 10 sck. tk.-i ii1'\. HiOk.1'\. ~de.box r01A1'\.-~ -tootb".-r1'\.tor\1\.-rdl Sk.-1'\.. bo".rst". Fre.t ~".-vid1Ase. -tDr\1\. tk. ie. p".e.1'\.e.e.O"'-pe..dtk.ow?' (No) .ce.1'\.d pmc tice.e.t e.d "'-Sck.e.-ii'.t writte.e.ir -tirst oro1Aps.-ck. ".rsk.pe. tk.".e.e.e.e. te.n e.1'\.-i)(s ".r".i1'\.d k corre.n we.r "'-S)(S' Did k.e.di1'\.-11d"'-s)(s e ie..r SOl"~S'D".e.s o-t tk.e.te.O' i-t _09 The.-h.e.OS tk.-l)" 7 L-e.-1'\.de. te.\1\. HiOk..ow ~1'\.ve.e.-s)(i1'\. p".s) .i1'\."..iiOk.r write.".uJdd se.1'\.-1'\.OIstre.e. ie..divid1A".".di1'\. 3 The.s' b". -tor\1\.O otk.-1'\..d ".re.-r1'\.01Ai". a b The.-rd.-ii 1'\.1'\.r prMtiM g h i j ""ode.d to do tk.-is wk.-st?' (Ye.o 6 S1A\1\.e.'ove.01'\.e.opie. be.e.e.st ".e.1'\. pi".e. se. ci". ie.tk.e.i se. Doe.-ss ".t SPO)(e.d to pi"'-n -tootb".-re.d to' ".1'\. HiOk.".tk.-rds sk.s k.r s"'-ls" 1Ase.xt 2 Procedure 1 ie. tk.ss ". Dr"."'-tio1'\.iidre. ck.oose.-ck.1'\. 'r1Aie.re.iidre.ir i.d to 4-".dtk."'-t1Ar".-1'\.-i)( ".OC01'\.s~ii Re.e. write.dwrite.1'\.iiOk. 1Ase.e.~ pe. .".rsdisC1ASS tk. witk.1'\. re. 1Ase. A-tte.witk.rw".e.e. te.e.te.OS we.". .e.r 'pi". The.-c)( The.O 4 C-k.-rd ". ". sk.e.M Re.Mk..ow'.-bo1Attk.1'\.r "'-s)(s so~ tk.port b".-stl b1At 01'\. s"'-~ tk.ir ~\1\.-se.Mk.itive.-h tk.-ti1'\.orie.r re.~ e.i1'\. k. te.".d dOi1'\. C".rrors i-t The.-ck.ce.-st witk. bo".divid1A".Mk.1'\.e.te.-bo1Atwk. bo".-re.e.s tk.-i)( r01A1'\. 1'\.rrors sk.p t".stric te.-ctiVit~ tk.e.)(i1'\.-ii i1'\.-i crosse.ch e.e.i se.i1'\.opie.O 1A1'\.' 8 Re.s SO\1\.'t do 1'\.-ss re.iiOk.Mk.e.tk.-r1'\. p".1'\. \1\.te.ooi i1'\. 01'\.i1'\.-ws". c ".". ci".c t tk.Owk. ci".ode.\1\.-rise.".to1'\.e.Planning a grammar lesson Lesson plan Aim: Expressing past habits with used to + base form. te.".-1'\.j~e.e.-ss t".rsto corre. The.-bo1At.r dmws "'-ti~ii1'\.-i)(e.-ri~ did i1'\.

in what ways could it be adapted? .Answerthe questions. i What stages in the presentation can you identify? Is the new language contextualised? Is the mea.ning made clear? Is the form highlighted? e Are there any practice activities that focus on the form? Are there any practice activities that focus on the meaning? Do you like the material? h Do you think this material is suitable for the learners you are teaching? If not.- ose a grammar lesson from one of the booksyou are usingfor teaching practice.

but for the most part [learned by trying things out.hitting having tennis lessons. and I just got on with it. and the cons of drilling. what kinds of practice were helpful? I remember shot . Share your ideas with a partner.that was probably the bit I liked best. 1 Do you think that either of these learning experiences compares to the experience of learning a language? For example. or For me.8 Practising new language li1 Warm-up Read the following texts and answer the questions. The lessons would always finish with a short match though . would spend ages just practising one again. that sort of thing. or volleying whatever. She gave advice now and then. We backhands over and over at the net. . As a kid I'd go into the kitchen and try to help my mum chopping stuff up. being a chef is a dream job. After the lesson. Then one day I just said 'I'll cook this'. rn Practice drills Your trainer is going to give you a short foreign language lesson. being drilled? Make two lists: the pros of drilling. discuss these questions in pairs: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Can you remember an instance of a choral drill (when all the class was drilled together)? Can you remember examples of individual drills? What was the purpose of the drills? Was all the new language drilled? Why/why not? How did you feel. Compare your lists with other pairs. what is the role of practice? 2 In your own experience in learning a second language.

. .~Da to the supermarket yesterday and me yesterday and me out. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in the box.. 3 Leona the talent competition and a big star. . smoke) = ::-e controlled and one less controlled exercise to practise the distinction and between don't have to (as in You don't have to wear a tie)..._-= '. the talent competition and some bread... a big star. coffee and pizzas. mplete the sentences. • --~:or the interview. a big star. the talent competition and some bread. I didn't get the job.?aula .. ... I texted 1 I 2 Paula 3 Leona became won went invited bought I to the supermarket yesterday and me yesterday and me out. some bread.. ext become win go invite buy I .. _ Paula me yesterday and me out.se ence beginning with iffor each of the following situations ... . coffee and pizzas... coffee and pizzas.ritten practice Complete the sentences with the words in the box. =_ _ . to the supermarket yesterday and.

a Dialogue to practise the past simple: In pairs the learners practise the followingdialogue: A: Hellopat. B: Was that fun? A: Itwas untilI burned myself! 2 They change the elements in italicsto make a new dialogue. We had a barbecue.fi1 1 Interactive and communicative practice Read activities a-e and complete the table that follows them by ticking the appropriate boxes.Iwent skiing. and practise that. The teacher shows the first picture (the Eiffel Tower) to a learner and asks 'Have you ever been to France?' The learner answers. What about you? What did you do? A: Istayed at home. A: That sounds likefun. What was the weather like? B: Itwas fantastic. so that all the pictures are travelling around the circle with the learners asking and answering questions. The learners sit in a circle. Didyou have a nice weekend? B: Yes. . the teacher gives the picture to the learner who turns to the next learner and asks the same question and then passes the picture on. The teacher then continues with the other pictures.

done . .. _. They then report back to the class. can swim can speak more than three languages can juggle can play the piano can sing can drive a car e Writing sentences to practise the future perfect: In pairs the learners write as many true sentences as they can to complete this table. The language is personalised.. to practise can: Learners stand up and mingle._.. Learners communicate: they must speak and listen to what is said. d Find someone who .. we both will have one of us will have neither of us will have been to .. By the end of next ... asking questions so as to find people who can do the different activities. They take turns to ask each other questions in order to find the six clifferences between the two pictures... _ . _ . with only six differences..._----. They have very similar pictures... FIND SOMEONE WHO. finished . _.---------._-- ..Learners interact and/or take turns.. The language is contextualised.. ete... ...c Spot the clifference to practise have got and there is: Learners work in pairs. Dialogue Circle drill Spot the difference Find someone who .. The activity is fun and playful... Writing sentences There is built-in repetition: the activity gives learners opportunities to use the new language item on several occasions.. ~ .

a Why do learners need to practise language if they already know the rules? b How would you respond if learners made errors in the sort of activities you have seen in this unit? c As well as the sort of practice activities you have seen in this unit.2 Explainthe possible advantages of a practiceactivitythat is: a b c d e repetitive contextualised interactive communicative personalised fun Thinkabout the followingquestions. and when? . what other types of practice activity would you need for a balanced lesson? d Is there a correct order for sequencing practice activities? What factors might influence a teacher's decision as to which practice activities to use. Thenwork in groups and compare your answers.

I don't want my learners to pick up bad habits. Do their errors fit one of the types above.and as teaching material they're really useful. Types of error 1 Find the errors in sentences 1-6 and match them with the classifications answers with a partner. or are they different? . 2 Think back to your own language learning experience. I feel bad correcting my students' errors . isn't it?' 5 'This sofa is very comFORTable. (a-f).' off his bike but he wasn't 4 'It's a lovely day. Did you like it when the teacher corrected your errors? Why? / why not? Compare experiences with a partner.9 Error correction Olga: ~rrors need to be avoided at all costs.' 6 'Where is standing the teacher?' ~ d problem with choice ofword(s) . Errors are a natural part of the learning process . She works for the same Classification a problem with word stress company for years.vocabulary e ·problem with register f problem with the choice of verb form 2 Recall some of the errors that your learners have made in teaching practice. Then compareyour Errors 1 'She likes her job.it's judgemental and de-motivating.' 2 (In a restaurant) 'Bring me the menu!' b problem with intonation c problem with word order 3 'My brotherfell badly damaged.

monitoring.Iam absolutely happy to join this class.Vera.. rn 1 Correction strategies Work in pairs. Who did you go with? f T6: makes no comment.so.can you introduce yourself? 5: Iam coming from Moscow. 51: Technologyis such important for allof us.and provide feedback at the end of the activity.. Explain their strategies. The teacher is walkingaround the class. Then compare ideas with a partner. the teacher says.Iam agree with Anja 54: Iprefer to text friends than email them. at the end. [Holds up hand and indicates second finger from left from the learners' point of view.. Lesson 1 The students are working in different groups. look: We go to the beach yesterday. grammar? b T2: Yesterday.everyone uses computers . 'I heard someone say. c The teacher should correct the error immediately.what instrument does he play? 5: He is play saxophone. Myjob is to make the guests. do you mean you go every day? • e T5: You went to the beach .that's nice. Lesson 4 The students have just listened to a recorded interview. b The teacher should delay correction .. Didthe teacher use any of the strategies in Dl? Ifso. 53: Yeah. "We go to the beach yesterday. you .~ When to correct Read the lesson transcripts. 52: Inmy country. c T3: Not quite.] d T4: Sorry. S: We go to the beach yesterday. Compare the ways that different teachers responded to the same error.. What should the teacher do about the learners' errors? Choose the best answerfor each lesson. Lesson 2 T: And what's your job. a The teacher should not correct the error. the activity continues until. T: OK. Lesson 3 ~I T: We have a new student today. Freddie? 5: Iwork in hotel. and hears these utterances from speakers inthe different groups." Can anyone correct that?' 2 Think about lessons you have observed. were they effective? . a II: Yesterday .

Correction strategy a Teacher prompts using terminology, e.g. grammar, tense, pronunciation, etc. b Teacher repeats the utterance to the point of the error. e.g. Yesterday you ... c Finger correction (Teacher uses fingers to indicate the position of the error.) d Teacher asks a question, e.g. Do you mean you go

Advantages Easyto use. Indicates the type of error that the learner should be looking for.

Disadvantages Learners need to be familiar with the terminology used.

everyday?
e Reformulation, e.g. You went to the beach.

...,.
f Delayed correction

1

Readout the error on the card you are given and respond to what your trainer does or says. Payattention to how the trainer corrects the error.

Error Canyou borrow me some money? Do you can juggle? Bring me the menu! Where is going Felipe? Her father is a PROfessor. My brotherfell off his bike but he wasn't badly damaged.

How was it corrected?

"

,

.

o

Classroom

application

Work in groups of three. Your trainer will give you a set of cards. Each card has an error on it. Trainee A: Play the role of the learner. Take a card and read out the error. Trainee B: Play the role of the teacher. Correct A's error. Trainee c: Play the role of an observer. Give feedback on the success of the correction strategy. Take turns at playing each role.

Work in pairs. Complete the mind map. You may add as many extra 'bubbles' as you wish. Then compare your mind map with another pair's.

ERROR CORRECTION

10

Developing listening skills
Warm-up
Work in pairs. Write a list of all the things you listened to in the last 24 hours. For example: •• watching the news on TV last night • listening to voicemail

ri1

2

Decide which of your 'listening experiences': a involved you speaking as well as listening, i.e. which were interactive, as opposed to those which were 'one-way', i.e. non-interactive b involved listening to a speaker who was physically present c involved listening for specific information d involved listening more for pleasure or entertainment e required you to listen closely and attentively f allowed a less attentive style of listening.

3 Rate these types of listening in terms of their likely difficulty for a second language learner: • • • • • •• watching the news on TV listening to the news on the radio listening to a song on the radio talking about the news with a friend face to face talking about the news with a friend on the phone listening to a recording of the news in the classroom.

Comprehension
Us·en to your trainer reading two (unrelated) texts. Then answer the questions. 1 Did you understand _ Did you understand all the words in the texts? the overall meaning of the texts?

listen again, and answer these questions. , hat was different about each text, the second time you heard it? Were the texts easier to understand? -hat factors make comprehension easier or more difficult? 3 -hat are the implications of this activity on listening and reading in the classroom? -hat can the teacher do to make comprehension easier?

I!t

Listen ing texts and tasks
Match each listening text type

(1-8)

with appropriate tasks (a-k). There are often several tasks which

would be suitable for each text type. Listening text types
1 a news broadcast 2 the directions to a person's home

Listening tasks a answering wh-questions why?, etc.)

.

__._-

(where?, who?, what?,

3 the description of a missing person 4 an embarrassing personal anecdote 5 a shopping dialogue (sales assistant and customer) 6 a pop song 7 recorded entertainment 8 a weather forecast information (e.g. movies, theatre, etc.)

b putting a series of pictures in order c ticking off items on a list of names of people and places d drawing on a map e filling in a grid ortable f choosing one of several pictures g taking notes h choosing one of several adjectives i writing the exact words j drawing a picture k filling in gaps in a transcript .tr-

rn A listening
\0 Murder
\

lesson
@

Read the coursebook extract and identify the purpose of the activities marked with an arrow (~).

Mystery of Dolphin Lover

police and Protesters Clash at World Trade Conference

listening
~ ". ''' .. " a) Read newspaper headlines A-D. Check new words with your teacher or in a dictionary. Which is the most interesting story, do you think? b) Listen to the news. Put the headlines in order. b) Work in pairs. How is the information in 2a) connected to the headlines? c) •• You can often understand the general idea of a story by listening to the stressed words. a) Look at RI1.6, p156. Listen again and follow the stressed words ill the first three stories. b) Look at the fourth story on p156. Decide which words are stressed. c) Listen again and check. )

@TEACAN . STf.)P CANCER "'-t
=oi MOt

~

a

~ lGi a) Match two pieces of information
.. j

to each of the headlines A-D_ r they tried to stop cars arriving z swim-with-dolphin centres 3 they have to test all new products 4 two men dressed as gas inspectors Saver $20 million 6 found dead in her car 7 over 40 arrests
B an Al11crican (JTan1

a Listen again and check

\. /

e

ID

+-

++-

and one task. I was lucky. -. to know 25.at least that's what people say! A London taxi driver has . And you don't have much free time when you're a student vet . by giving. a definition or an example. or knowledge about. d The teacher generates interest in the topic by. a The teacher focuses on features of grammar or vocabulary that occur in the recording. The teacher sets a gist listening task .000 streets and aU the important places in the city. but you probably learn more facts than a university student . about what. one or ile-Iistening tasks. b The teacher sets a task that requires listening for specific details.for example. and checks the answers.you have to work very hard. for example.. -==. She plays the complete recording. e-listening tasks While-Iisteni ng tasks Post-listening tasks = i groups. GARY You don't have to go to university. Explain the principles underlying your order. but If didn't have to pay for it . and replays sections if necessary.. and now I have a job that I love. the topic.10 ing recorded text (in which people =-= == ing about their jobs) that you could use -~ "g oup of pre-intermediate learners. c Learners read the transcript of the recording and listen at the same time.. I suppose. NIGEl ~: i!l .for example. lassroom application . Design a sequence oftasks for :.. by asking students to complete a gapped transcript. and why? She then plays a short section of the recorded extract._:e 2t least one pre-listening task.-= . checks the answers. e. I had to do 72 weeks' basic training. feelings on. e The teacher presents some key vocabulary in the listening text . For example: • Learners will listen with more attention if their interest has been aroused (d). MELISSA It's not easy to become a vet.g. You •• have to have a degree and the training takes 5 years.2 Put these stages of a listening task into a logical order. asking the class about their experience of.the company did. But these days most pilots have to pay a lot of money to do their training. or eliciting.-::ening I became a pilot about 20 years ago. Who is talking to whom.

the students get frustrated word. Is there a good reason for this. but I'm not sure that this is a good idea. is there an effective way of using songs? Many coursebook listening texts sound a bit stilted and unnatural. but that they have problems understanding real people when they talk to them. and. Should I let them.Q2: My students hate listening to recordings. How can :[Aelp them with this? Q5: Q6: . How can I discourage them from trying to do this? if they can't understand every Q4: My students say that they like listening to songs. if so. such as reading Q3: When I do a listening activity in class. the transcripts to them aloud? Is there an acceptable alternative. and is there a viable alternative? My students complain that they can understand recordings in the classroom.

you'll probably be able to read well in a second one. means reading aloud. Reading is a good way of improving vocabulary.~ ide Q' a second language . For teaching purposes. ~ a b c d e Reading is like listening. The aim of classroom reading is the appreciation of literary texts. in the classroom. not spoken. Reason for reading pleasure information Way of reading close reading skimming for gist scanning for specific information : e i structions for installing ::: omputer monitor _ _ 'message (SMS)from :::. Reading. Compare ideas with a partner. texts should be simplified.: ening's programmes in :::. Comprehension means understanding all the words in a text. Reading purposes and strategies Identify the reasons for reading and the ways of reading for these different text types. except that the input is written. g If you can read well in your first language.11 Developing reading skills Warm-up Readthe statements and decide whether you agree or disagree.'end :-.

situanta 150 kilometrojn for de la cefurbo Kairo. plejparte surtretitaj de la panikiginta homamaso. sed pluraj personoj pereis.Fajro en lealro provokas la morlon de 32 personoj en Egiplio Incendio en teatro de la egipta urbo Beni-Suajfo. diris la urbestro de BeniSuajfo. kiam fajro ekestis. "Ankau estas mortigitoj pro asfiksio". Anaso Jafar. b sIte I (f rom the Esperanto we b' www. 1 How many questions could you answer? What clues were you using in order to answer them? 2 What does this tell you about reading in a second language? 3 What can the teacher do to help learners understand a text like the one above? m Coursebook reading texts and tasks are pre-reading. Proksimume 100 persoI1oj estis en la teatro.gxangao. kio arigis plurajn aktorojn kaj trupojn el la tuta nordafrika lando. lail informoj de la loka polico. La fajrobrigadanoj sukcesis estingi la fajron.com) 2 ~==' Compare ideas with a partner. Identify the purpose of tasks a-h in this course book extract. guante spektaklon. . La urbo egipta estis la sidejo de festiyalo pri amatora teatro. Decide whetherthey while-reading or post-reading exercises. falcis la yiyon de 32 personoj kaj vundis dekojn. jue ci tiu mardo.

_ ~ " } \_-" 1 Look at the photob'raph of van~a~\ a) What can you see? (. going on foot up and down mountains or by boat to other islands. Use a dictionaly to check the meaning. p. Look into my thoughts and you'll see memories of those islands . which two things take Brian back to Paradise? 20 o What colour does Brian use for: the sea and the sky? ~o or what ... grey Britain I don't remember the bad things. .of the wind in the palm trees."'C~'E . Life there was warm. Look at the map and you'll see a group of tiny islands in the Pacific Ocean.~ What can you hear? \Vhat can you smelJ?What can you taste? How do you feel' c) The words in the box are from Brian's article about Vanuatu..tu?W~. 2. . But now I'm back in cold. We played sports slowly.~ ICe are in Vanuatu.. "-~. I was one of ten thousand lucky people who lived in POit Vila.- J1 0 N' 3 1 .- 10 15 How did B1ian get to work? What do you think his job was' What <lidhe like eating in restaurants? He remembers four bad things. too.y>J flv £ J . 0. ~\) O.the hot white sandy beaches and green mountains. There was a plane which crashed just after it took off.. But there were problems. It's beautiful.radise (n) m~mory (n) tiny (adj) MY PARADISE thought. What are they? In England. Begin: :Jear .:-----. sandy' _ are kind and hardworking? re"ld. friendly and slow. I remember picnics on the beach and the fire-red sun going down over the sea in the evening. I can smell the freshness of the flowers. And when I remember the colour and the sunlight. kind people who always smiled and worked hard.. ( 11 What can you say about Vanuatu? • • • • 2 3 4 5 6 Where is it? What's the capital city? How many people live there? What's the weather like' .'3Readin9. Once I was very ill.ja his~ article and check. I can taste the sweetness of the fruit. A. --. b) Imagine you are there."..> (n) earthquake (n) I was in Paradise when I lived in Vanuatu. I'm in Paradise again. The sea and the 35 ~ ann-eTy blue and .. And' once an earthquake carried my car across the road. too. I can hear the wind in the trees. There were hunicanes which blew down houses... the blue sea ~d ~y. e you're staying in Vanuatu. I rememher people.. I remember visiting schools. Write a postcard to . ate delicious seafood slowly in French restaurants and cooked meat very slowly on stones outside. sailed slowly to other islands. C t( F I 9 . 3 is slow' 4 is delicious? 5 is cold? 6 is sweet? 7 are fresh? 30 2 the sand? 3 the mountains? 4 the sun' 5 Britain' 25 .> e) Answer the questions. :. the capital of Vanuatu. .• ' i ~ \". 1~lCky (adj) I d) ~ Do you think Blian was happy in VaJ}G.-') "- .

Look at the map and you'll see a group of tiny islands in the Pacific Ocean. ate delicious seafood slowly in French restaurants and cooked meat very slowly on stones outside. > e) Answer the questions.. t \ () l' '1 Look at the photograph of :an~~an you see? ). I can taste the sweetness of the fmit.-0 MY PARADISE thoughts (n. I rememher picnics on the heach and the fire· red sun going down over the sea in the evening.. sandy? _ are kind and hardworking' 3 is slow? 4 is delicious? 5 is cold? 6 is sweet? 7 are fresh? 30 .. There was a plane which crashed just after it took off. I remember visiting schools..:"~ Ire are in Vanuatu. 35 . paradise (n) m~mOlY (n) tiny (adj) lucky (adj) I Do you think Brian was happy in varttatll? article and check. Once I was very ill. . \. Begin: :Jear .in Vanuatu. 2 the sand? 3 the mountains? 4 the sun? 5 Britain? 25 ~o . I was one of ten thousand lucky people who lived in POit Vila. going on foot up and down mountains or by boat to other islands. ( 'Reaa his--· /11 What can you say about Vanuatu? • • • • 2 3 4 5 6 Where is it? What's the capital city' How many people live there? What's the weather like' 10 15 How did Brian get to work' What do you think his job was' What did he like eating in restaurants' He remembers four bad things. r can hear the wind in the trees. I can smell the freshness of the flowers. Look into my thoughts and you'll see memories of those islands . too.- " D_~ea~in!t ~ " 3 \ \J-I' '-. are very blue and . What can you hear? What \ can you smell? What can you taste? How do you feel' c) The wards in the box are from Brian's alticle about Vanuatu. •. the capital of Vanuatu. which two iliings take Brian back to Paradise? 20 f) What colour does Brian use for: 1 me sea and me sky? or what . The sea and the· . sailed slowly to other islands.:)SKILLS . And when I remember the colour and the sunlight. grey Britain I don't remember the bad things. It's beautiful. e 'ou're staying . kind people who always smiled and worked hard.) e"ariliquake (n) was in Paradise when I lived in Vanuatu.. We played sports slowly. Life there was warm. I remember people. b) Imagine you are d1ere. But now I'm back in cold. Write a postcard to :iiend. And>once an earthquake carried my car across the road.of the wi!ld in the palm trees. too. the blue sea and Sky"the hot white sandy beaches and green mountains. friendly and slow. What are they? In England.. There were hunicanes which blew down houses. But there were problems. I'm in Paradise again. Use a clictionalY to check the meaning.

the players were divided into two teams. The game (called pok-o-tok by the Aztecs) is no longer played and the rules were never written down. The rings were BALL GAME almost identical in diameter to the balls. Each team fought for possession of the ball. and one post-reading task to use with this text. The ruins of almost every ancient city include a walled court that was used for this sacred game. players were often injured. Ballplayers used cotton pads and thick leather clothing to. Imagine that you are going to use the following text with a group of intermediate learners. If played correctly. It may have been a re-enactment of an ancient creation myth. The players were not allowed to hit the ball with their hands or feet. a Decide which features might help understanding and which might make it difficult to understand. and the crops to grow.2 Work in groups. It seems that the first team to score won. b Design at least one pre-reading. In Mexico alone well over 600 stone ball courts have been found. Evidently. Perhaps the ball symbolised the sun as it moved from the east to the west across the sky. the rain to come at the right time. which must have made it extremely difficult to score. What we know about it is based on drawings and on descriptions by the first European visitors. probably a little larger than a modern basketball. The game seems to have had a religious significance. The ball was solid rubber. The ball could not touch the ground. They could use only their knees. despite these protective measures. Apparently. The object of the game was to drive the ball through rings that were positioned on these walls. hips and elbows. one while-reading. the game would cause the sun to shine.protect themselves from the ball. Pok-a-tok: THE MEXICAN From ancient times a ritual ball game was played by all the peoples of Mexico and Central America. On either side of the rectangular court were two long sloping walls. and would have weighed several kilograms. .

Ask learners to read the text quickly in order to answer gist questions. Use a picture to generate interest in the topic. for example. Z. a b c d Check detailed understanding by asking multiple choice questions. while-.e. Y. or are the advantages of using real (i. _ Choose a reading text in a coursebook that you are using.A reading lesson Put these stages of a reading lesson in a logical order. asking learners to underline instance of it. h Use the title of the text to encourage learners to predict the content of the text. Focus on vocabulary in the text by asking learners to find words that mean X. such as: What's it about? Who wrote it? Why? e Ask learners to talk about their personal response to the text and its topic. -2 s? .. authentic) texts rather than texts that have been specially -'::en or adapted for classroom purposes? . could you add anything to the sequence of tasks? each in groups. a Identify any pre-. or should they be allowed to consult 2 hy? / Why not? _ ___ . g Focus on a grammar structure in the text by.=-=_ _ . os? . diagrams. Then compareyour answers with a partner. ·s i sometimes a good idea to let learners compare their answers to reading comprehension learners be allowed to consult dictionaries while reading? What is the alternative? comprehension questions from memory. f Teach essential vocabulary that learners may be unfamiliar with. ·s setting a task in advance of reading a good idea? -~: oes 'matching the task to the text' mean? Why is it a good idea? -. b Using ideas from activity E 1. and post-reading tasks.. Discuss these questions.= - --= -.-2 ~ at is the advantage of choosing reading texts that are accompanied by illustrations. =_ .: learners answer .

When presenting a new grammar item. Thanks for your message. Meaning becomes clearer in context. Amy: Never mind. Some other time. Each teacher has to meet with their head of department. maybe. ~~I. I can't meet this week because I'm really busy. Maybe the week after? I don't have to work on Monday: I'm free all day. Now she works as an acupuncturist.you can convey the meaning of the new item 2 Grammar presentation: review a by eliciting true sentences that incorporate the new item.you can provide initial practice of the item Target structure: Teacher: She's been doing Xfor Y days/weeks/months.12 Presenting language through texts . She used to be a receptionist in a hotel. Choose the best context (a-d) to present have to (obligation). . etc. d through a real or imaginary situation. Bella. But she changed her job six months ago. now. Thanks all the same. She's been doing this for six months now. 1 Which context best shows the meaning? 2 Which context best shows the form? Why? Amy: Hi. and so I have to be at the college every day.. I have to babysit for my sister. And you can highlightthe form ofthe item 3 Then you can check understanding of the new item 4 Finally. c by writing it on the board or having students repeat it. She did a course in acupuncture.. But some contexts are better than others. Bella: Gee thanks. but I can't.lrd Compose Mailboxes Get Mail ~ Junk From To -Subject John Rick Meeting Hi Rick. [points to picture] This is Lisa. b by asking concept checking questions. It's the start of term. It's one of the rules.~l/~ D~lete Rtply Reply All Forv. It's really important. I'm afraid. Would you like to come over tomorrow evening? We're having a few friends round to play Scrabble.

. ~ Slj". ( ~_ _.-\.'J7riUl'! 71c!J"aulJ~ul" '\ .:-==:. My .~A. What structure is this text presenting? _ Does the text provide a useful context for it? Grammar questions Tanya. We have a budgie and a goldfish.aue a . Does she Jive in a palace' What tense is lived? ./"'---.r me . > . :. JlljOaJ andm!J . I'd have servallls to look after me..._/~ .~J.. And then I have to prepare for an exam. together. 7 .-A ... < 3 Read about how Graham describes his life.::'Gmmar > '-.lauer-fless.. his ti ••• .l'tos. and complete the sentences about his dream.s o1At. Ne. _..0/ .If I lived ill a palace.-.~.l't IAII-Ve.II-S "'iJ hie. Then I have to go to school.. Bill: You've got a busy day! Text-based presentations ead the first part of the extract from a coursebook (about Tanya) and answer the questions.l'tie. '7'clLirle a whtle hOl:>ea.. I have a cat$od my Mum works in a We often play football some chickens.'7f9liuecltiw sertJanls palace.lo!oschoo!. . Ann: Hi.l'ttre.7'cI ) Graham.r(---V~.. meloschoo/. and so my Gran often looks after us and helps my Mum.llcltJV wea/"afomjthessallciagolclcmwlI. <<I ! ._~. Dad is unemployeqand to school with myJfietid.7 pQh 01} (J \ while . . ~ \ pUb in the city.__ + the withouttQ. The Second Conditional is formed with if + the _. My Mum works in a hospital.9(JX?./ . 7l(y . peacocks ill my ywdeJ' C:hlck}s~ .Jb1 woukl6'e 9woulthi'l._lnapu6. r.i) be. it's il't tlAe. I walk C) C) o C.7 '\ f ) '" CJ ( li)a(YJl!aye.7 .l'toS iive.. of 1-01'001') wltce.e. lense.... 2 Practise the sentences that express Tanya's dream.l. 'f. What do you have to do? Ann: I have to practise the violin.CII-1ASe..~ .• ~_ 9 rJ . ancIshellXJukh'!wol'/': ... .~<.7(if~fjl ..?clliue r In apalace . cOl'tve.re.. . ce.. . I go to St Paul's School and I wear a blue and grey uniform. ::c'••• Ooil'tO to stll-iJ il't II-lAote.:~each stage. the auxiliarv verb .'7'cI/iaue QI/~enl /0 look ajie..a in a cas/Ie.Il(.)!' C) (> .l"::c 00 ::c 1AS1AlI-iiiJ stll-iJ witlA fy-ie. I go to the village school. aged 7 I live in a block of flats with my Mum and little brother. •••iie.reapnnce".Xt "'Ol'ttlA ::c lAMe. Bill. ) ~. 0/..l'tt be. _.. Is this a dream or realitv? .Which tense is used to describe Tanya's real life? ..Complete the following rule.. After school I have to do my homework. --:: ~ollow-up to the text in activity C1 (" =_ Z~ questions') and identify the L:=.. to 00 II-Oll-il't. to 00 to 1-01«101') 11-1'0 wlAe.:Jl[.::c o-He.. .- ) \ jJr. aged 9 I live in a cottage ioa village near Glasgow. "'iJ cO"'pll-l'tiJ is pll-iJil'tO' ::ct's II-iso T e •••ore. What do you have to do tomorrow? Bill: I have to go to my math class....CII-1ASe.

tricycle. She completed used each method for at least 100 rT!~tres and a maximum of 50 her journey in 183 stages. skateboard. Roz. then? Yeah. other backpackers A Suffolk woman travelled from John o'Groats to Land's End . get one soon. life. Rolls-Royce. Where did you expeditions. to be part of London Are you planning on working while you're here? Yeah.' She finished the trek with a piggyback brother Phil. stretcher. catamaran. induding preliminary work on helping the learners understand the text. 162-mile trip. I think I'll That could be it. Sounds great. Suffolk. So you're enjoying what London has to offer. golf buggy. Text a: level: Elementary/Pre-intermediate NAME JOSH KIPPIN FROM OTTAWA. 67. my girlfriend stay as long as we can. luggage trolley. 35. canoe. pedalo. we both have working visas. then? next sounds great. Everyone is really friendly and there's so much to do. so I'm hoping to get out there at some point. I think place.using 73 different transport. Her mum Sandra. pogo stick. we love it. suffers from the condition. at the level that is indicated b how you would stage your presentation. of Wen haston. Roz Gordon. lawn mower. 39. We drink a lot . headed south on a dog sled. wheelbarrow and many more. Barcelona was probably my favourite trip around Europe. and even a camel on her six-week 1. I'd love to go to Japan and to New Zealand is heading year. AGE 21 How long do you plan to stick around? I think we will probably After this we're heading No more travelling Maybe in the future.I think that is where my money seems to be disappearing feeling really excited and couldn't be back in the future. Roz told the Mirror: 'When you arrive in a town q. So what's been your best memory of London so far? remember definitely ~ I wait Probably when we first arrived.n a Space hopper or pogo stick you quickly lose your inhibitions. job in a bar but I'm still looking.rn Classroom application Work in pairs or groups. raised £3.270 for Ataxia UK. My friend has a I think I should to. it's been great. types of The landscape photographer miles. unicycle. kayak. from her She also travelled by ambulance. Read one ofthe following authentic texts and decide: a what language area(s) you could present using your text. . quad bike. back home. CANADA Backpacker~~ How long have you been here for? I came to London about a month ago with my friend after an inter-railing Wow! Inter-railing go? We went pretty much everywhere. It's been great meeting in and around the hostel. stilts. rickshaw. go-kart.

A responsible attitude and perseverance will be the way to work out a solution. As you take charge others will realise you aren't called the Lion of the zodiac for nothing I Call my Leo advice line 0905 062 3000 to hear why you can be a major motivator for others and how you will get good news by the weekend. Granted. This could lead to a dressing down when a manager disagrees. it is entirely possible that is what's going to happen.You don't want to have to pay for other people's mistakes but ifyou act too quickly or take anything for granted. Youmight even feel a complete idiot at having to rely on their involvement but it's one of those days'when you just can't win no matter what you dOl Call my Capricorn advice line 0905 062 3000 to hear why you need to remember your most important commitment is to yourself. Although your boss or a superior isn't in a good mood. today Call my Piscean advice line 0905 062 3000 to hear why an unusual achievement or unexpected success will boost your personal prestige and reputation. Ifyou receive an unexpected financial gift or some other kind of money surprise.LEO July 24thAugust 23rd Mistakes made are not beyond repair no matter what other people are telling you. nothing will be resolved and you will only have the same issue to return to later. don't keep anything from them. don't be too quick to spend it!It could turn out there are strings attached or you were not the proper recipient for this after all.You might feel half tempted to walk away from a stressful situation but ifyou do.You want to use your initiative to sort out a tricky matter without consulting anyone. others may grumble and groan if you take problems to them. CAPRICORN December 22ndJanuary 20th .

As we communicate by speaking. Do you agree or disagree with them? Give A teacher should have maximal authority and minimal powelc (Thomas Szasz) !11kteachers can only help the work going on. listening.Askquestions to find three people that you have at least three things in common with. 2 Answerthe questions. a Is it practical? Consider how easy the activity is to set up and manage. the teacher is the most important. More controlled. or restricted. does it need any materials? Do the learners need time to prepare? b Is it purposeful? Do the learners have a purpose for doing the activity? Is there an outcome? c Is it productive? How much speaking will it generate? d Is it predictable? How easy is it to predict the language that the learners will need in order to do the activity? For example.13 Deveioping speaking skills fi1 Warm-up Walkaround the room and talk to as many different people as possible. El Different speaking activities Communicative language teaching is based on the premise that people use language in order to communicate. then it follows that it is useful to give direct practice in these skills . For example. Weare both female is not validfor this activity. (Maria Montessori) Technology isjust a tool. Youcan onlycount things that you do not already know.rather than using these skills only as a means of practising particular language points. quotations. activities are dealt with in Unit 8. In terms if getting the kids working together and motivating them. Discuss the following reasons. what vocabulary and grammar are they likely to need? e Is it adaptable? How versatile is the activity type? For example. how would you round it off? This unit focuses on fluency based speaking activities. (Bill Gates) .'could you adapt it for a higher or lower level? ActiVity 1 Discussion Work in groups. reading and writing. Discussthe questions for the speaking activities 1-5 on the followingpages. as servants wait upon a master. 1 2 3 4 5 What asswnptions does this activity make about language level and learners? What skills does this activity practise? What is the teacher's role here? Would this activity be appropriate for the learners that you are teaching? If you used this activity. Then complete the table on page 58.Forexample.

. Plan what you are going to say. Can you guess which of ates' sentences are true or false?If you are not sure. Form new groups. six sentences about your typical daily routine. -r -e curns to present your findings and conclusions to the class.. Student B:Teacher ou have only been working at the school a few months. Draw some conclusions from your survey. You think she is being bullied by older children. You do not know a lot about this child. Use expressions like Five out often students always do their homework. StudentC:Headteacher You are going to have a meeting with the parent of one of the children and her teacher. prepare a survey on the topic: Are you a good language learner? Prepare six questions that you will ask the other students in the class. 1 Work with another student who has the same role as you. In groups of four. act out the roleplay. You are pleased they are coming. ctivity 3 =_~:ey and presentation . Take turns to read out one sentence each. B and C). so that each student in the new group comes from one of the original groups. you can ask them questions. Return to your original group. but you know that her for~r teacher felt that she was doing well. Share the results of your survey. and make a note of their answers. The girl's current teacher has only recently joined your team. Ask the other students your questions. For example. It would be good if we could listen to more songs in . You will run the meeting. You have been very busy at work lately and only noticed the problem recently although your daughter says that it has existed for some time.Prepare a presentation of your findings. You know that a parent is coming to see you and the headteacher about their daughter. because the girl has been disruptive in lessons.::: /ish. Student A: Parent You are worried that your child is unhappy at school.Activity 2 Roleplay A parent is concerned because their 8-year-old child is unhappy at school. Some sentences should be true and e should be false. . The parent will meet the teacher and the headteacher of the school. For example: Do you do the homework that the teacher gives us? 2 Ahvays b Sometimes c Never.. in groups of three. _ In groups of three (A. 711is lVould improve our listening skills .You will take one of the following roles.

dental appointment. -- - 2 Roleplay 3 Survey and presentation --. THURSDAY FRIDAY 2 You need to arrange a meeting with two colleagues. Choose one of the exercises from activity down the instructions you would use._--4 Guessing game 5 Information gap 2 Work in pairs. Work in groups of three.. afternoon WEDNESDAY . you have made. a Is it practical? 1 b Is it purposeful? c Is it productive? d Isit predictable? 4r- e Isit adaptable? - Discussion _. Use your diaries to find a time when you can all meet. Bl. morning MONDAY TUESDAY .. Fill in five of the spaces with arrangements For example: meeting with boss. Write Challenges .Activity 5 Information gap 1 This is your diary for next week. Decide how you would set it up in class.--_.

°jandra ~- I -~ja ~? ~ .like roleplays muchhate saying things that I don't really believe .I prefer to talk about real things. I What we can learn from the learner Cinzia yun-Joo Danijela .

Answer the follOWing questions. . which is good. Also if learners are talking. LQok at the books that you are using with your respective groups and choose one speaking activity from each. how could you ensure that as many learners as possible are speaking as much of the time as possible? c Write the stages you would go through in order to exploit it. You can't always restrict people to using particular forms. Correction is a way of focusing on a variety of language points. Does anyone else have this problem? What can you do? can be a good thing . I was terrified of silence. get some of the learners to report back on what they discussed.unless the error is so bad that it stops communication.what would it be? 2 What should I do at the end of pairwork and groupwork? 3 Should I feel guilty if there's no specific language point practised in a speaking exercise? a If you use groups of three or four. One. you know . f I often have the same conversations! I think it 4 I taught a lesson last week and it started and finished with some speaking.don't interrupt them and stop them doing it. anyway. b No.the learners should see an improvement.good stuff. How could you make it maXimally productive? For example. Two. doing what you want them to do . learners have to speak a bit louder than when they are worki ng in pai rs.. a Do you like the material? Would you be happy to use it with the appropriate group? b Choose one of the activities. two things. e Well. mistakes. but I try to interrupt as little as possible . I often give some feedback afterwards and may correct errors then. But the two speaking tasks were nearly the same. Sometimes I just switch the groups round a bit so that they are not talking to the same people.bem some feedback on how they said it . d Typically. c Shut up! It took me ages to learn that. Is that OK? 5 I can't always hear what the learners are saying..rn Questions and answers 1 If you could give one tip to a new teacher doing speaking lessons . Work with a partner from anoth@rteaching practice group. give~. I'd ask a question and before anyone else spoke I'd answer my own question.

Afterwards they write their own letter :eracti e writing ~a. they discuss the achievements of a famous person.er. For example. they must i.-ords that are given by the teacher. respond to.r::J. a ~ {ultiple-choice gap fill -he learners choose the best answer to complete sentences. For example. and . they layout of the letter and the content of complaint..14 Devel in writi g skills I All ofthe following comments were made by practising teachers. . riting activities . text messages to each po irion ~ ers write a composition. 1"or example.nplete the table on p 62 for activity types a-e below. For example. based on it. For example: • e had a nice holiday despite b in spite of the weather was bad. Which ones do you agree with? Discuss your ideas in groups.te a Qlalogue that 'mcluues pre-selecteu i.ersinteract in writing. they·write.ncluue ~. ~~=-O'Wewriting + items er wri. d although 2 c because _ 3eproducing a model =-earners study a model text and then write their own text ~d a letter of complaint and answer questions about the = each paragraph.tems.

Write a final copy. Discuss what •• • 2 We can see from activity C1that writing involves a number of different processes. Are there any things here that you wouldn't do? a b c d e Read and make changes and corrections. 3 Read this sequence of activities from a coursebook 1 What is the purpose of each stage? 2 To what extent does the sequence reflect the processes as outlined in activity C I? . of writing. Put the stages below in the order in which you would do them. and answer the questions.Analysis of activity types Activity type Purpose: is there a communicative purpose to the task? Integration: do the learners produce whole texts? Authenticity: is the task a real-life one? Readership: What level could does the writer it be used for? have a specific reader (or readers) in mind? a Gap fill b Reproducing a model c Interactive writing d Composition e Dialogue writing + items Work in pairs. Consult books and talk to colleagues to get ideas. in order to: a make it more communicative b make it more integrated (i. Write a rough draft. Discuss ways to redesign the following writing task. implications this has for teaching. not simply a list 2 ~ [!i 1 Stages in writing Imagine writing an article for a teachers' journal.e. so that the learners of sentences) c make it more authentic d provide a readership are producing whole texts. Organise your ideas.

I have looked at your website.. Write two paragraphs. The book I am currently studying is 'pre-intermediate' (Common European Framework level A2).gra:ph I Elll'lain why you are writing and give some personal inl'orm'lticlO. . Could she stay with me in the same family? I look f9!'W~:tpt1earing Yours faitt1!. 2 Ask your questions. I am 31 and I work in the library at Miian University./) the questions that Adriano wants the school to answer.lJIY Adriano Ruocco from you. I am especially interested in an intensive course of two or three weeks.a Read the e-mail to a language school. My wife is going to visit me for a weekend when I am at the school. How would they be different in an informal e-mail (or letter)? Formal e-mail Dear Sir / Madam lam writing I would like I look forward to hearing from you Yours faithfully Informal e-mail o How much do the courses cost? o When do the courses start and fmish? o How many students are there are in a dass? o Are there Business English classes? o \!Vherecan I stay? [] Where afe the teachers from? Adriano RuoccO [adrianor@tiscaILnetj To: The Grange Language School [enquiries@grangeedinburgh] Subject: Information about courses I af)1w!itir19: to ask for information about your language courses. If possible I wotJldlik~ to stay with a family. Tick ( . but there is no information about intensive courses next summer. I can read English quite well but I need to improve my listening and speaking.. a formal e-mail asking for information. b Look at the higlilignted expressions. ~ph ~. Could you please send me information about dates and prices? I would also like some information about accommodation. and ask them to send yon infonnation.

t skCtY"e.e. for a colleague who has applied for a job or scholarship.t we.Hk(j pY"od'Uc. ~ tk{).c. " Write a review of " Write an email to book.Marking written work Work in pairs.Y" tkCtl't c.oph tkis. .l'td we. we. c.l'td we. hfe. Key to symbols ww sp = wrong word = spelling Classroom application Work in small groups.ke. ot. Mso} T we.ol'>\. pY"ic. l'tudl'Upd{).{). be.ke.visiol't ~ .e. Discuss the ways the errors in this learner writing have been indicated and answer the questions. We.pe.{).'UH to 6 HMHei61fe. ide.Y"e. sko'Ufd to be.l'td we.Ve.{). t-{).'UCtse. Your trainer will assign your group one of the following writing tasks. Plan the stages of a lesson that lead up to the activity. an online book distributor complaining about their failure to deliver a of an embarrassing incident for a teenage magazine.{)'se.Ctl'tdo 1'>\.idil't wCt(j' O G + SP ww tke.c. un .ts {)'Y"e.{).dvutis~ As (j0'U J<l'tow)tkis pY"od'Uc. k{). l'te. t-oY" t-0'UY" (je.'Us 01' tkis. 8'Ut p'UbfiC.Ctpe.t.tis ~ {). SOI'>\.fe. " Write an account " Write a reference a film for a website for film buffs.~ tkis :I:1't Ctdditiol't we. to correction t-oY" {). Do you think the approach would be the same for all levels? 3 What do the symbols mean? Complete the key.poY"tCtl'tt.tltke.. Wnlpp5Y" tke.1't 6 tdf f pY"o~oV~c-5 ~l pe.bh l'tOW{). O 1't{). w{)'l'tt_il'tc. Ctl't ot-t-ic.s.lis to C.CtY"j(e. ~. pY"od'Uc.Y"s {). c. s{). CtY"e.{). 1 Which of the three ways do you think is the most effective? 2 The writer of this text is an intermediate learner.Y"(j il'>\. M~5 .{).s tke.'Use. \-1e.fe.iCtf SP0l'tsoY" Ctt tke. de.skil't{). sko'Ufd c.titoY"s e. G-Ctl'>\.te. b I'>\.ide.k{)'l't e.c.0Y"e. Mso D5/i5v'5 to we.Y"bs Ow pY"od'Uc.e.e.t~ 01' s{).tke. t-r-Ol'>\.xt Of(j~pic. l'tOWit is dit-t-ic. 01'te. sko'Ufd i5! t-oc.it(j is Ctfso ve.1'>\.

c Learners read a text about language teaching methodologies and answer questions. reading and writing) did you each practise? 2 Did you enjoy the activity? What was the atmosphere like in the room as you were doing it? 3 Would you be able to use this type of activity with a class you are teaching? Combining skills Activity listening speaking reading writing a Learners do a 15-minute roleplay in pairs. They discuss their answers in small groups before reporting back to the teacher. They then write a magazine-style article on the subject. who interview the other half of the class. e Learners work in pairs to write a review of a restaurant they like. 1 What skills (speaking. Reader: run to the wall and read the text. d Learners read a short newspaper description of a radio programme. recorded lecture. They then listen to the radio programme and answer questions. f Learners make notes as they listen to a short. Half the class are journalists. Continue until your partner has completed writing the text. b Learners work briefly in small groups to discuss ideas to put into a piece of writing on animal rights. Run back to your partner and dictate as much of the text as you can remember.15 Integrating skills 1 work in pairs. Answer the questions about activity Al. One is the reader and one is the writer. compare your text with the original. who are famous actors. listening. . When you have finished. Work as qUickly as you can. 2 Work in pairs.

Dr Shostak. Choose some tasks in the coursebook you are using in teaching practice that include a combination of two skills. economics. At what stage is there a focus on grammar? a The teacher asks Why is Brazil hotter than Greece?Why is Denmark colder than Greece? The learners discuss the answers in pairs.such as biology. Read the lesson description and identify the skills practised. Consider the balance ofthe skills in the tasks. to listen aliens alien cells. or geography (as in the lesson description below) . according to scientists.through English. for ETs reports all time. And he reckons life may have landed in clumps of bacteria m 1 Integrating content and language One way in which skills are very naturally integrated is in content-based learning (also called content and language integrated learning or CLIL). Are the skills equally prominent in all cases? 1S Classroom application Think of ways you could use this text in a lesson so that all four language skills are practised.pelieves could already be listening to Earth. b The learners then read the following text: . Dr Seth Shostak of the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence group said: 'We'll know if not the biggest. Aliens. 'will chat to us in 20 years' Aliens will be talking to us within the next 20 years. story of we are not alone between the years 2020 and 2025.' His group is building 350 telescopes The Sun.2 Choose one of the four skills and see where it occurs in the table in Activity 1 Is it equally central to the activity in each case? 2 What implications might this have for teaching? Bl. This will be one of the biggest. This is when the teacher teaches a subject .

'J neT.-:--ey then listen to the following recorded text. thin. . Places nearer the equator are hotter. such as hotter . So allhe poles each place gets less heat and it is colder. . big . etc. like wide . But why? Our heat comes from the sun.colder. But near the poles the heat covers a larger area (C) than at the equator (D). wet . That's why places further from the equator are colder.Brazil is nearer the equator than Greece.wider.-he teacher checks their understanding of the text by asking questions.'. and do this task.bigger. and then asks the learners to use the pictures to explain to each other why some places are hotter than others.wetter. -:-'ey then read the text again. and underline the comparative forms. . ~ =-eamers match opposites in a list of comparative adjectives. The heal is the same at the equator and at the poles (A and B). -:-he~then form comparatives from adjectives. Greece is nearer the equator than Denmark.

ct- .g~E.'~~d~ fimmer ~summer the Earth leans . :~e Sun. from the Sun.Explain in writing why it is hotter in summer than in winter. 1 In what ways is the above sequence similar to I different from standard coursebook material? 2 What advantages can you see in content-based learning? Are there any disadvantages? 3 The above material was written for younger learners. 60 300C~ 20 a 10 b -10 JFMAMJJASOND •• spring Why is it hotter in summer than in winter? This diagram shows the seasons for the northern hemisphere. Would the same approach work with a class of adults? What adaptations might you need to make? . Madrid is hotter than Lisbon in April. ~ 3 Draw another diagram to show the seasons in the southern hemisphere. 4 Stick your work on the seasons into your magazine.. but is colder in February. 2 .Look at these temperature graphs for four cities Listen and match the temperature graphs with the cities: Which graph is for which city? Moscow is hotter than London in July.. Answerthe questions. Lisbon is always hotter than Moscow. 1 Copy the diagram. '. In winter the Earth leans away .. 2 Work in pairs. Only one city is colder than London in January.. The~ .

ark in p Rules • Eachp • Player • If the eds a counter and should place it on the start line. on 'heads' they move one square.A'text. They answer questions based on the text. and if it lands on 'tails' they move two lands on a question square s/he should answer the question. in. How could you also develop productive skills in this lesson? . 2 What do you understand by 'productive' skills? 3 What is an 'authentic'text? 4 Why is it not necessary for learners to understand every word of a text? 10 Learners read a text about a holiday where everything went wrong. t answer to the satisfaction of the other player(s). s/he must go back to the square 1 What do you understand by 'receptive'skills? 11 Give some criteria that you might use in ••selecting an authentic .

The learners tell each other their stories.. e Learners complete sentences. b The teacher asks questions to check understanding... Each group makes up a story. Didyou complete it in a similar way? 3 Consider teaching a sixty-minute lesson on the past simple with an elementary class. a b c d A A A A good good good good lesson lesson lesson lesson is like is like is like is like a a a a film because . How could you apply your metaphor to the design of the lesson? rn 1 Sequencing stages Good lessons usually follow a logical sequence. d The teacher clarifies the form with examples (she went / she was going) on the board and then gives out a series of rules of use of the verb forms. Learners decide which rules go with which verb form and pick out examples from the text.. f The teacher gives out a short story and asks learners to underline examples of the past simple in blue and examples ofthe past continuous in red.16 Lesson planning: design and staging 1 Choose one of the following sentences and complete it.. meal because . 2 Find somebody who chose the same sentence starter as you.. Learners volunteer stories.. Put these stages of a lesson into a logical order.. How long would you expect to spend on each stage in a 45-minute lesson? Level: Intermediate Task: Writing a story to practise past simple and past continuous Stage Time Procedure a The teacher divides the class into three groups. comprising one person from each of the other groups. deciding whether the past simple or continuous is more appropriate. symphony because . Work in pairs. . 1 0-5 mins c The teacher asks learners about their favourite stories when they were young. football match because . g The teacher forms new groups.

Learners read a text qUicklyto understand the gist and answer questions. _. Checking answers Adapt or extend the following grammar exercise to encourage a variety of i1feraction patterns. Activity Procedure Interaction Speaking Task checking/ Report back Reading for gist Learners talk about their hobbies and interests in groups. Part of achieving this depends on ha\ing different interaction patterns.lanning decisions Good lessons tend to have a variety of activities and pace. C mplete the table with the interaction patterns in the box. 1 Make ten sentences from the box.. Teacher asks the learners what they talked about. Example: My father is often bad-tempered. lam __ is __ are always usually often not often sometimes never occasionally tired happy late friendly bad-tempered worried depressed in love in trouble etc ._-_ . Learners compare answers to reading.

However. 1 Match the terms Pre-plan 1 Aims 1-5 with the examples a-e. d Li Baoning is very shy and won't say anything unless asked directly. One part is the 'procedure' . D2. a The learners already know will and may overuse this. a The pairwork exercise requires an even number of learners. and their interaction patterns (see sections B and C).it includes the activities. b 2 Level 3 Length of lesson 1--- 4 Class profile 5 Anticipated problems/solutions 2 Put the anticipated problems into the correct category. If necessary Iwill use a short discrimination exercise contrasting will and going to. Linguistic The learners already know 'will' and may overuse this. c Three or four learners tend to talk in Chinese if they're asked to do group/pair work. d Pre-intermediate e There are ten students in the class. They are all Chinese (Mandarin) speakers and are aged 18-23. b Fan Kong is much stronger than the other learners and tends to answer every question I ask. b 60 minutes c Bythe end of the lesson the learners will have practised expressing future plans using going to + infinitive. Written lesson plans can usually be divided into two parts. e Some learners have a problem with word stress and they are difficult to understand. --Organisational Individual 3 Suggest solutions forthe anticipated difficulties in activity For example. . leaving an odd number. their rationale. The other part could be termed the 'pre-plan' and gives background to the lesson. some teachers like to plan more formally than others and some teaching situations may demand a more formal approach to planning.rn Putting it on paper Planning decisions are made about every lesson. It's possible that one (or more) may not attend. If necessary I will use a short discrimination exercise contrasting 'will' and 'going to '.

I follow the coursebook. "1:' .and then I pick out some grammar. . so you be prepared to adjust things according to what c. If I had the time I would study Russian. After all. I spend at least as much time planning as I do teaching.you teach people. and plan and plan.but I've got more experienced so I feel I don't need to.oQi up. ~ I used to spend ages planning when I started teaching . something to get them going .but I hardly ever ehd teaching the plan .) Class: Intermediate/ adults. Use the timings to establish the sequence of stages.. uld say that I plan pretty carefully . some vocabulary from what they say and we go from there. Choose two or three of the following statements and discuss them.just a speaking activity. I do it because my students deserve a professional approach .. . it was written and trialled by experts.: he moment? Do you thinkyou will change I plan . or even abandon.the an completely. ork in groups. Your trainer will give you the pieces of a lesson plan for the following Aim: to present and practise '2nd' conditional to talk about hypothetical lesson: time situations in present/future (e. not plans.Work in groups. Who are you most like 2.g. Then match the activities and their rationales with each stage. I plan the first five minutes or so . plan .

17 Lesson planning: defining aims Warm-up Choose the statement(s) you agree with.. Which is the odd one out? a b c d e f To present and practise the form and use of the present perfect with ever and never. What is unsatisfactory about the other aims? a b c d e f to do some speaking to present and practise the past tense to practise writing the learners will tell each other stories about disastrous holidays to develop oral fluency when narrating past events by the end of the lesson the learners will have learned some new words . m Types of aims 1 Work in pairs. To develop my grammar presentation skills.ame lesson. 3 Choose the aim that best matches the teacher's description of her lesson below. 2 Match aims a-f in activity Bl with the terms in the box. Fiveof them relate to the s. By the end of the lesson the learners will be able to express future plans and arrangements. By the end of the lesson the learners will have talked about and compared past experiences.. The learners will take part in informal conversation. The lesson will help to build a good classroom dynamic. Then find a partner who has made similar choices to you. and agree on their order of importance. Read the following six lesson aims. Lesson aims are important because . a trainers (and directors of studies) require them b they make planning easier c they make lesson plans look more professional d they frame the criteria by which the lesson will be judged e learners need to know the focus of the lesson f they set a goal that can be used to test the learners' achievement.

2.se.2.2. ve. To 00 t~is t~e.1Ae.Ot~e.1't :r'2.i! CCl.t~e.t r<-ore. i1'tVo2.r.2. This w/?-~t~e.t2.s so t~e. So the text is a way of contextualising the language s(') that I can contrast the verb orms. e.U1'tt ~o2.i1't t~e.2.. using the rubric: By the end of the lesson . f~e.00)(1Ap/?-1't)tworos t~~ Y<-iO~ 1'te. The.2. 1ASe.r} /?-1'tO t~is wif2.~.2./?-S)(t~e. Lesson B I've recorded two of my colleagues talking about their weekend. a Identify each teacher's main aims and at least one subsidiary aim.y<-/?-bo1At?-re. identify and formulate: a a main aim a possible subsidiary aim.1'tt wro1't }/?-1't0to pre.C)(t~/?-t t~e.2. etc. Lesson A I've got a short text about a driving instructor.~/?-1't0o1Atoictio1't/?-rie. so I'll want to focus on these at some point so that hopefully they will use them in the speaking actiVity. t-irst O 1't&e.e.t t~Y<.2.ills-focused.re./?-1't t~e.t-2.s.ve.~ C/?-1't Oe.-p2.C01'tstr1Act Y<-)t stoy] i1't writi1't } /?-1'tO :r'2./?/ O O ois/?-ste. quite nice.1'tse. t t~i1'tOS we.s et /?-i1't) SOY<-/!. to oit-t-e.Y<-to t~i1't)( ot. 1At t~e. p/?-st te. The. soY<-/!.io/?-~s w~e.ir storie. S/?-Y<-/!.2.s) /?-bo1At rips or ~o2. and I'm going to use this as a model for the learners to do the same thing.p/?-re.o. The.r1A2.ir storie.rbs O corre.. There are one or two useful expressions in the recording..1'tt. such as different ways of expressing evaluation: not bad.re.Y<-i1'tpetirs to te.01'te.2. storie.1'tt} O ~Ope.1't te. ead the lesson descriptions (A and B). .2.2./?-c~ot~e.t~e.s} /?-1't0:r'2. . t. b Formulate each teacher's aims (both main and subsidiary).s to e. communicative..~ ve. or each of the folloWing pieces of published material.0 to p2. M1't e.iO/?-~ :r ~/?-o w~ic~ w/?-S/?-bit ot.2. So the students are going to read that and answer a couple of comprehension questions I've chosen the text because there are lots of ex~mples of the present perfect simple and continuous.1't :r '2.1't :r '2.x/?-to. p/?-irs so t p c O t~e.s.e.C~e.cH~.:r'y<-Ooi1't to st/?-rt b)t te.ir storie.~ C/?-1't 2.to te.dassify the aims that you have formulated according to whether they are linguistic. in pairs.to wor)( O i1'tpetirs to re. or .2.1't :r'Y<.ir OW1't storie.t~e.t~e. pretty good.Oi1't~ to Oe. The.

...... his seawater so that we could \ wife Jacqueline. but I think I'll trip on Saturday... filtering Raymond Kearne. our own seven-year-old son Jimmy.. we were dying of (7).. (3). 2). Staffs.. . (8).. sea( weed to stay alive os their boat ... .. Raymond ...bloody awful.a thirst and hunger.........' A British family .... Just as they had given up miles away from the crowded holiday beaches of hope. 'The stay on dry land for a winds got very violent and while..(4)... .. a Spanish fishing Majorca.. a nightmare for thirst.. 'I didn't use to be afraid back from a round-the-bay of the water... and picked yesterday at his villa on the them up. .. So we ...' time they . and drink it but it didn't work... The family were island: 'We now know what an suffering from sunburn.. . (10)..... He has out of fuel on their way put his boat up for sale. boat ..... helplessly for ( three days on stormy seas.. 39. who come pub on the holiday island from Lichfield. (5)... 48.. .us out to sea......BOAT ORDEAL BRITONS SURVIVE ON SEAWEED I at sea lor three da ~ An that the family had taken with them was one bottle of orange juice. And all the Then we ate seaweed... Raymond said... ran but has now retired.... . it's like to face death . Raymond said: 'On MonA two hour pleasure trip day. out of petrol. We . .' The family.. when their motorboat ran urine to save our lives.' he said. It (9). 1). only 11 . Raymond used to-have a horrible death at that.(6).....

Discuss these questions with a partner. 29 33 34 WELL. 35 27 . THEY'VE LIVED IN THE SAME FLATG YEARS AGO. I Have you ever got on the wrong train or bus?When?What 2 Have you ever had to take something it?What was wrong with it? 3 When was the last time you called the wrong number by mistake? happened? wrong with back to a shop because there was something 31 32 WHAT'VE YOU BEEN DOINGWITH YOURSELF THESE LAST FEW MONTHS? 30 SHE'S ARRIVED LAST WEEK.

.fime. so B1Attk~t me.~}<il1(Y~ctjvjtl1l so •••. brl1U'S se.negfive.~djl1(Y. a Can you answer any of the trainees' questions? b If not. •••.h va~ lill1@lilj1f'fov 1dlkJ~ ilbovt plill'l<..~}<il1(Y~ctivitl1 sool1e.t'«fion<.iln~ rVile. ilnd fine.me.r? sophie: l stClrted teo. Spe. what further information would help you to give advice? Andrew: 1v1111e-ssol1 wAS me.-fiu-. 1Ack~l1d tke.~ilnd VVil<.the. le.~O(1il1(Y tke.Wil<.!done ClloY\S reCldi~ lesson before.<.<.on VVil<..-lil<.:l1(Ylisk :r: didl1 't W~l1t to stop tke. which vJCIS More \i'lel~ l thOllSht the lessoVJ86J.pe+ter Cltter thClt ShOllldl helve doY\eClll the controlled prClctice? ll<Y\ow the-y vJere still MCIl<i~MistCll<es the end CIt I don't find thi<. .bvt b~ the. I VVilntw to te-ilc.d to be. e-il<.for. ~il1ASil1(Y /.~l1t tMt :r: didl1't MVe.n'tve-Y1j hiJrr~ with thilt I«<.~~ lesson ClY\d there vJCIS enerS~ l Missed Y\O Ollt sr:>rv\e of the controlled prClctice of the Y\ew IClI'"\S80ge becCIllse l jllst vJClY\ted set to the to pMe.~d-il1} t/M.eA. 9'i~ . e.I hild e-xplilinw to' ilnd ~r-«e-nt umfinvov<.on.Do1101A tkil1}< :r: sko1A1d MVe.1hvovsb how 11:> milke.re. the. Spe. no fime. e-IW'le-n1dY1j c. •••.d tke.1«<.e.t ilbovt ove-rilnd the-ve.e-nte-nc.fil1iske. .. re.osphere vJCIS l t ClvJfllL The stlldeY\ts SE?eYv\ed so bored The-yheld Cllrood..~dil1(Y b1At tke.Al1t to be. Abo1At re. Read these questions written by trainee teachers for their trainers.<:lI1dhow to milke.l1 we. 1Acktime.Sam: Work in groups. jv<.chi~ ClY\d thCX-lShthe Clw.for t"'-e.

tWntoo.brother' on the boo. There are alternative approaches to lesson design. .. ~secl on the difference between 'ha-ve' Mcl 'has '. 'brother'. and only later are these fine-tuned for (8) .i1:tLegfA-P fiLLtho... we start by using our first language in order to convey our meanings. This type of approach is sometimes called a '(9) first' approach.oo -+ 1__ p_ra_c_tic_e __ I-+ _ .sso. e sWrtea.<3 s and finishes. I then wrote 'I'ye got.st.. We then d..-repLo... and then (6) .lJA. fM1i1.. however.me worcls 7'(ll. That is.!1Mcl then they told. theirs Ln grolAps.eners tri.e"". and only when these can be produced correctly is the learner allowed to use them to express their personal meanings.. .bOlAt. language is presented and practised in isolated 'bits'.. the focus is traditionally on (5) . (3) precedes (4)..-wthe fM1i1.2 ch this lesson description with one ofthe lesson designs in activity Bl. first.bOlAt.-rclMcl they told. that foreground (7) Learners are encouraged to express their personal meanings..Ui 0. 0. But. Identify where each stage ::-.eOv to clro. That is.cl1 other o.-t.eo..1 then sWfA-Ppecl grOlApsrOlAnclMcl they the eo. in second language learning. off WLkLng o.e..the c..bOlAt. . .bOlAt.I...wLd. In first language learning.-disecl the pronlAncio. fM1Ules. e. Two lesson designs Pee.!1 :ra of the spwker.c.18 Alternative approaches to lesson design Accuracy and fluency By (1) we mean 'getting things right'. We pro.cl1 my ~ er o.. and by (2) we mean 'getting your meaning across in real time'. . I told. their fM1Ules rAEcUn Mcl th~s time the u. and only later do we achieve precision at doing this.

task. a b c d e What level is the class? Could the same lesson format work with a different level group? Why do you think the teacher swapped groups around for the final activity? What are some of the advantages of encouraging communication early in the lesson? Can you think of any disadvantages? Task-based learning One way of prioritising communication in the classroom is through 'task-based learning' (or 'activity-based learning').The learners then complete sentences about other professions. The teacher puts a model senttrlce on the board and focuses on the form and meaning of 'should' to convey (mild)obligation and duty. She gLvesthem a few minutes to prepare and then the learners give their reports. Only while they are doing the task. Learners are given a task to do or a problem to solve. The teacher introduces the idea of 'the qualities of a good teacher'. Afterwards you willreport your discussion to the group and also the reasons for your final choice. or immediately after its completion. Youare planning to include a short article about the lifeof someone that you think willinspire your fellow students. The teacher later displays the posters on the wall. 1 Read the lesson outline and answer the questions. Discuss these questions about the lesson in activity B2. Learners then work in small groups to produce a draft of a poster entitled 'Tipsfor teachers'. 1 2 3 4 Can you identify a communication -4 language focus -4 practice -4 communication pattern? How could the teacher deal with the learners' immediate vocabulary needs? What happens after the learners produce a draft of their poster? Can you think of any advantages of ending the lesson with a similar task to the one used at the start? 2 Work in groups. .3 Work in groups. Plan how to use the following task with an intermediate class. 1 2 3 4 What What What What vocabulary might be necessary for the successful completion grammar patterns might the task create a need for? would you anticipate including before the task? do you think might be included after the task? of the task? Youare the editors of a student magazine. are the learners given any explicit guidance as to the language items that might help them perform the task. There is no prior focus on language. The learners then work in groups to produce a poster entitled 'Tipsfor language learners'. For example: A pilot shouldn't drink alcohol A hairdresser should be friendly to clients. They may then be given an opportunity to incorporate these items into a subsequent. Youmust decide together who you think would be a suitable subject. similar. The teacher tells the learners that they willreport back on what they have included and also give reasons for their choices.

You notice that several learners need help expressing the idea of shouldn't have done. ork in groups. You decide to present this language area and practise it. They should record around five minutes but this may take up to 25 minutes as they use the pause and rewind buttons to rehearse. You explain and also decide to expand this vocabulary field. At the beginning of a lesson a learner asks what the difference is between 'taking an exam' and 'passing an exam'. Suggest howyou could focus on the language areas that arise in these situations. . a A warm-up exercise generates a spontaneous discussion about an argument one learner had with a taxi driver. b At the beginning of a lesson a learner asks you how to make suggestions in English. practise and correct what they say. When the recordings are made they should be exchanged with another group. Give each group a cassette/CD recorder. These could be displayed on an overhead projector or photocopies can be made. Their task is to make a recording for another group. You want to give a little practice and also provide an opportunity for communication. 1 2 3 4 Do you think this activity would work well with a class that you are currently teaching? To what extent does this activity prioritise communication? What skills are practised? Identify the part of the lesson where the teacher may choose to focus on grammar and vocabulary. You decide to make a lesson point of this.Put the students into groups of five or six. The group then transcribes the recording they receive. The texts can then be analysed.

I've always tried to keep my lessons quite learner-centred. particularly near the start of lessons.wREFUECTION 1 Work in groups. Read these contributions posted to an ELT discussion board. but the students hardly ever produce it in a freer situation at the end ofthe lesson.but I always feel that the starting point is 'here is the grammar . But when I teach grammar sometimes it seems inevitable that the lesson will be dominated by me. Where have the substantial communication tended to come in lessons that you have taught? .what can you say with it?' rather than 'what do you want to say? . I'm quite newly qualified and I like the idea of using tasks in the lessons. Suggest ideas that could hel p the teachers. but I'm worried in case it throws up a language problem I can't explain. Felipe: I get frustrated because I often present language at the start of the lesson and we practise it a lot. phases Clare: Dave: Maria: 2 Think of your own teaching practice experience. particularly at the start. The coursebook I use is OK.here's the grammar you need'.

Describe the characteristics of lessons where the main focus was on: ammar • \'ocabulary • social English (or functional • receptive skills roduetive skills • ::-e\iew exam preparation. were they more or less teacher-fronted? Was the pace urgent or relaxed? . English) -=. teachers may be expected to produce a scheme of work for a week. or even the entire year.'" - Ie. I wish the teacher would give us more chance to say what we want to do in lessons. Think back on the teaching practice lessons you have given or any lessons you have served. We have already looked at plans for individual lessons and in this unit we are going to consider longer-term planning. Teachers are expected to plan their classes. It's really boring now. '.'or in pairs. A scheme of work (also ometimes called a timetable) is a plan which looks further ahead than just an individual lesson. I can't prepare for lessons because I never know what the teacher is going to do next. I find the class quite difficult and it would be better for me to do some work before the lesson. Before the break we did a long reading text and then after the break the next teacher did a reading lesso too. We have two teachers every morning. a term.19 Planning a scheme of work I used to like the lessons when I started but all we ever do is the coursebook. The teacher does new things with us every day but I can't remember everything about what we have done I don't think all the things we do are useful. Depending on the context in which they are working. It was so boring.

2 Work in pairs. they have two three-hour lessons a week for thirty weeks. in what ways were content.focus on language skillsand language systems Monday 09-9.how to do well in a job interview Functionallanguage asking for advice Speaking . a A group of 12 elementary learners studying two evenings a week for nine months in their home country. Think back to your recent teaching practice sessions and answer the questions.50 Wednesday Friday Grammar-usesof 'should' and 'must' Listening. pace and interaction patterns different? 3 Consider the following teaching contexts. d A one-to-one class for an advanced student of business English. b A group of 18 intermediate learners studying three hours a day for a month in a private language school in the UK. pace and interaction been well balanced? b If you have taught more than one level of class. a Over those sessions. e A group of migrant workers and refugees studying in Canada.roleplayjob interviews Speaking and writingpreparing a news story Reading.jobs Vocabularycollocations with 'make' 10 -10. studying 20 hours a week.three days per week Type of course: general English. they have two months of classes. is there a reasonable balance between vocabulary. [!j Sequencing lessons level: intermediate Number of lessons: three lessons per day. a good result in which will give them access to university study. in central London. In what ways might a scheme of work differ in each context? Think about: • • • • • the the the the the balance of grammar vs skills lessons balance of receptive vs productive skills inclusion of social English lessons.50 1 In terms of quantity in the week. c A group of 15 upper-intermediate learners in New Zealand preparing for the IELTS exam.working in a call centre Grammarrevisionpresent perfect simple Speaking . that takes place three hours a day. None of the class is above CEF level Al and some have additional literacy needs. for two weeks. of review lessons and of practice tests balance between teacher-fronted and learner-centred activities balance between intensive activities and more relaxed activities. have content.50 11 -11. and skills work? 2 Is there a reasonable balance of lesson types on each day? 3 Are there obvious links between the lessons that are planned for the week? grammar .

Monday 09-09.50 11-11. 12-12. • Ensure that there is a variety of types of lesson. Plan a sequence of lessons based on the coursebook that you are using in teaching ractice.50 ork as a group. Your trainer will tell you how many lessons you should plan. Lesson planning game Work in groups. .. Use the cards your trainer gives you to plan the lessons for the week.50 I II I bo. • You can use additional material to that in your course book if you wish.50 Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 10-10. Then compare ideas with another group.

They also have more opportunity to influence these characteristics than students' reasons for studying the second language or their attitudes towards the language and its speakers. learner really likes English literature and wants to read it in the original language. Divide the list into two groups. . difficult to achieve. In a teacher's mind. considerable work has been done within the field of educational psychology. teacher praises and encourages learners. a routine which is occasionally broken. learner feels the lessons are useful. I How is this motivation demonstrated? 2 Can you suggest reasons for their level of motivation? rn Things teachers can influence Work in pairs. I Do you think the teacher should set targets that are easy to achieve. and where the atmosphere is supportive and non-threatening.20 Motivating lea rners rJ Warm-up Look at the list of factors that may influence a learner's attitude to their language learning. or lots and lots of variety? 3 Do you think learners respond better to cooperative or to competitive games? 4 Do you think that all learners can be motivated using the same strategies? 2 Read the text and decide how the authors would answer the questions in activity Bl. we can make a positive contribution to the students' motivation to learn.cause the content is interesting and relevant to their age and level of ability. Compare ideas with a partner. learner knows that a good level of English will benefit their career. Teachers can easily recognise characteristics such as these. learner likes socialising with the other members of the class. where the learning goals are challenging yet manageable and clear. Think about a learnerfrom one of your teaching practice classes who appears 'highly motivated'. If we can make our classrooms places where the students enjoy coming be. or somewhere in-between? 2 Do you think learners respond best to having a set routine in lessons. What criteria did you use to divide the factors? Factors •• The •• The •• The " The " The •• The that may influence a learner's attitude to their language learning: learner finds the material interesting. 2 Work in groups. express interest in the subject matter and study a great deal. Although little research has been done to investigate how pedagogy interacts with motivation in second language classrooms. Discuss the following questions. motivated students are usually those who participate actively in the class.

In a review of this work Graham Crookes and Richard Schmidt (1991) 1 point to several areas where educational research has reported increased levels of nlOtivation for students in relation to pedagogical practices. patterns and formats have been shown to lead to a decrease in attention and an increase in boredom. Knowing that their team-mates are counting on them can increase students' nlOtivation. • Were learners 'motivated into the lesson'? • Were activities. because every participant in a co-operative task has an important role to play. -hich things will influence motivation for a short period of time (during one lesson)? . & Schmidt. Clearly. 1 2 3 4 Can a teacher influence a learner's motives for learning a language? Are the points made based on ELI research or more general educational studies? Are the points applicable to an ELI classroom? What two factors do the authors identify as impacting on how teachers could try to motivate learners? :> Think back to a recent teaching practice session. while in others. (1991) 'Motivation: Reopening the research agendii . However. These techniques have been found to increase the self-confidence of students. G.. In some classrooms. it has been observed that remarks teachers make about forthcoming activities can lead to higher levels of interest on the part of the students. Varying the activities. Varying the activities. tasks and materials Students are reassured by the existence of classroom routines which they can depend on. -hich things will influence motivation over a longer period of time? . hich things that are mentioned could you realistically do in teaching practice on this course? 'hich things do you think you could do if you had your own class for a fairly long period of e? ~ -. students may thrive on competitive interaction.• . including weaker ones. I Crookes. Using co-operative rather than competitive goals Co-operative learning activities are those in which students must work together in order to complete a task or solve a problem. tasks and materials varied? • Were tasks largely cooperative or competitive? ays of influencing motivation ~e2d the follOWing comments made by learners and teachers and answer the questions. lessons which always consist of the same routines. tasks and materials can help to avoid this and increase students' interest levels. cooperative activities will be more successful. Language Learning 41/4:469-512 Read the text again and answer the questions. Included among these are: Motivating students into the lesson At the opening stages of lessons (and within transitions). R. cultural and age differences will determine the most appropriate way for teachers to motivate students.

achievable objectives really help to motivate learners. One of the lessons I like best is when the teacher tells us to choose a reading from the internet . I even do it with essays and things sometimes because at least then there is some sort of readership and audience created. I set objectives. It makes me look back at work we've doriebefore and makes me realise how much I have learned. I remember when I was thinking my English would never get better and my teacher always told me it would and always said how weill was doing.make sure they know what's expected of them.after every ten hours or so of lessons . . It's important tha11-eachers make it the right level. I think teachers should give work back quickly. I often ask learners about what they want to do . Personalised. Sometimes I give them a list of things that I think they should be able to do by the end of term or something like that . Teachers' views a Jason: I sometimes get learners to make posters and things and it's always nice if you put work on the walls so everyone can see it. It really annoys me. This way it's much easier to meet their needs and that always makes them more motivated. I think it's important to set objectives for students .it's really important. I remember a course where all the lessons were too easy for me .make a simple telephone call in English .anything we like.and discuss what they want to achieve and how they will do it.and get them to tick them off as they think they achieve them. And then we write some questions and give them to another student and they answer them. I think it is really important for the teachers to give us tests sometimes.it was terrible -I didn't learn anything.that kind of thing .Learners' views a Fan Kong: I don't like it when 1 do a bit of homework and then don't get it back for a long time. It made me feel better -I think teachers should encourage students as much as they can .and also what sort of lessons they like. he said he went to_a class and told me it was too difficult and he stopped going. But my friend. I think. It's fun for students to choose the material sometimes. but I speak to each learner individually .

b1At we."1ke. woros et'1>\O write.-r1Al Mt01Ao. et lot o-F ~etp -ri£.'1>\ste. How could it have been adapted? .t wetS et 1ASe.' Choose a person you have read about. Variety is so important. woros.sso'1>\ et f5it.£..ve. or I record some adverts and do some worksheets to go with them or something like that.Xe.lJtke. woros '(}'ooo ') 'pet7t'} 'etpolo(}'ise.petre.two or tkre. :r.e.eto):r. tf.e. or learned about.1. se. tr1Ae. We have a project.1'\ COl1l.j1Ast wrote. ? Me or Bob? her all the time .r et'1>\O p1At tke. like make a class newspaper. Think of an activity you have done in your teaching practice lessons that could have been e more interesting. I 2 4 S 6 . et'1>\O tk01A(}'kt It w01Alo be. character to your classmate. o-F tke.e. keto OO'1>\e. I think Don't worry.retl ti~s so o 0'1>\ litHe.setD01Attke..petpe. :r. me. 1 What has the teacher done to make the activity more motivating? 2 Can you think of any other ways of adapting the original material? Complete the sentences. (}'OOOto cket'1>\(}'e.ve.tkett !<i1'\o o-F tf.l1I. tke.petee.£. Can they guess who it is? Describe the in pairs. I think.We use a coursebook quite a lot but it can get a little repetitive so every few lessons I try to do something very different. Readthe folloWing exercise and the teacher's explanation of how and why he adapted it.lJ keto writte. • Adapting material One factor that may influence motivation in the classroom is the intrinsic interest generated by the material. mice? Mary how you feel. Activities do not always need to be adapted but a teacher may sometimes choose to try to make an activity more interesting.11'\et bet~.\.'1>\. ':r:'11I.s1ASi1'\Q tke. St1AOe. Just explain I get the answer wrong the teacher always shouts Did you know that Paula is afraid ':r. o-r tke.k e.1'\te.witk I1I. those sweets? her immediately.1he. B1Aite. in your coursebook.1'\ts tke. bits ot.1'\ keto to tet!<e.e.et-rmio o-F OO(}'S'}':r: so~ti~s 001'\'t et(}'re.i'1>\Jr st1A-r-r j1Ast be.-rore.11I.7 8 He's not very good Did you pay When singing. 3 You should apologise Who do you agree I must be in love.lJboss' . Use one word only.rcise.i'1>\(}'.\.o w/II:etttke.' et'1>\O 0'1>\ 1At se.se.'1>\ce.

Answerthe questions and write the answers in the grid. then not only might learners be moreinotivated but the room might look nice too! (7 & 4 letters) 6 In order to of the learners. 5 IT teachers do this.. is to give learners short (5 letters) 3 We all do better if we hear a bit of this from time to time.3 and 5 letters) 7 These may be cooperative or competitive. 1 IT learners start to get disheartened it helps for the teadler to . (13 letters) 4 A combination of different things gives ~(7 letters) •. and are usually fun in the classroom. (5 letters) . teachers can ask what they like doing and what they want to do. (4 & 8 letters) 2 One way of achieving 1. (4.so they can see how far they have come.

academic and professional purposes. B1. detailed text on complex subjects.) language. well-structured. Can produce clear. Then compare ideas with a partner. Can produce clear. C2. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. B2. and c:proficient user.The descriptors in the table represent levels C1. Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance [. detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of diffe: (. b At lower levels learners might need c Ilike teaching level learners because .A2 and A 1. hopes and ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans. 3 Use these descriptors to rate your own ability in a second (or third. dreams.. a Which one describes the highest level? b Which one describes the lowest level? Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. etc. Compare answers with a partner. "- Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type [. Can describe experiences and events.C1. The Common European Framework The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEF)is a 'detailed model for describing and scaling language use'. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions.. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst traveling in an area where the language is spoken.] Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help. It provides descriptors of learners at three broad levels:A: basic user. B: independent user. a At higher levels learners might need .21 Teaching different levels fi1 Warm-up 1 Readthese descriptions of learner proficiency and answer the questions.A2. B2. Each level is divided into two bands:A1.] Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. 4 Complete these sentences in any way that seems appropriate to you. ...t options. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social. B1.

e.rn Adapting to different levels Rachel moved from teaching an elementary class (i.particularly pair. I got a real shock when I started with this new group. I can't just chat to this group and find out about them as people so easily. CEF B2). I've noticed that I have more activities in a lesson and they tend to be a bit shorter . 2 Work in pairs.and doesn't last as long. I thought I wouldn't be able to use authentic material with this group. CEF A2) to teaching an upper-intermediate class (i. . but I found a menu that was quite easy and we had a really good lesson on food vocabulary. I don't think they understood anything I said in the first lesson! There was an exercise that was quite easy but I just couldn't get across what they had to do. a If you have not yet taught Rachel or Tom? b If you have already taught at different levels. I realise that the learners I have now can already say a lot of what they want to and my job is partly to give them alternative ways of saying things. who do you think you can learn more from. In the other group I didn't mind if the learners used their own language a bit . have your experiences been similar? at different levels.e. Tom moved from teaching an upper-intermediate class to teaching an elementary class. Compare your experiences.but I try to stop it completely now. I don't think Inave such a good rapport with them.

3 Ask other students your questions. Whose answers are the most similar to yours? 2 Work in groups. What da you like wearing in the evenings? for clothes. 1 What do the learners do before they speak? 2 Can you predict the sort of exchanges that would happen in part 3? s~eak out 1 Write five questions about clothes and shopping or more of the words below in each question.Work in pairs. concerts and plays family and fr:iends . Swap roles. and C. B ask questions. Now read the following activity. and C monitor. toss a coin to play the game. Discuss how you would expect a more advanced speaking activity to be different. Read this speaking activity and answer the questions. B. A talk about recent activities. A. Are the activities different in the ways you predicted? Slleak out In groups of three. Use one where~ shopping ?favourite wea r expensive evenings colour buy sport work when? comfort:able money how? h t' was like 2 Answer your own questions on a piece of paper.

I carried on like that. it was something I had talked about wanting to do for quite a while and then when my boyfriend gave it to me as a birthday present last April I think I was more shocked than anything. Discuss how you would expect grammar input to differ between levels. I would actually have to do it. What level do you think it would be appropriate for: elementary. I elicited the kinds of places you do these sports (e. Match the descriptions with the levels: elementary.. At first I refused to go but then my boyfriend said how marvellous it was so we drove out to Kawarau bridge which is just over 20 kms from my home in Queenstown. On the day I woke up terrified. until they got it.. and it was all over so fast. or would like to do. playing little chunks at a time.. intermediate and advanced. in the mountains. intermediate. and there I was bouncing about at the end of this rope just a few metres above the river.rn Receptive skills Read the following listening transcript. I then handed out the transcript. I played the recordin __ 'YVoor three times. Then I told them that they were going to listen to someone describing their first-time experience with one of these sports. and let them discuss the task in pairs between each playing. They had to listen and choose which one. Unbelievable .g. off a bridge). I can quite honestly say it was a once in a lifetime experience.' 'I put up three pictures of different adventure sports: hang-gliding. Consider: • • • • the way in which a context is created how much is taught the complexity of the rules that are given the type of practice activities that are used . Standing on the edge of the bridge I had a real sense that 'this was it' and I suppose my life did pass before my eyes! Then I jumped . in the sea. Then we talked about adventure sports they had done. Everything was ready and I got careful instructions for what to do. 2 Read how three teachers used this listening text at different levels.' 'I dictated the following questions: 1 What adventure sport is the woman describing? 3 Where did she go to do it? 2 How did she feel beforehand? 4 HOWdid she feel afterwards? Then I played the recording.. New Zealand. a 'I played the first sentence "cold" and asked them to predict what "it" referred to. or advanced? Why? Well.' 1 n Teaching grammar Work in groups. checked the answers and re-played the bits they were having trouble with. stopping at strategic points. played the recording another couple of times and each time set some more questions before listening. scuba diving and bungee jumping.

Work with a partner. the action is complete. He's just written a book. Discuss the aspects of grammar input that you would expect to remain the same at different levels. the situation is incomplete or ongoing. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) How long have you saved I have you been saving with the same bank? Have you ever broken I Have you ever been breaking your arm or your leg? How long have you had I have you been having your current e-mail address? Have you ever been I Have you ever been going to Berlin? How long have you driven I have y.2 Work in groups. Pair C I've been doing this·job since I was 2l. 1 In what ways are the extracts similar? 2 In what ways are the extracts different? 3 How accurate were your predictions in Activities Eland E2? Present perfect simple & continuous 1 Look at the verbs in these pairs of sentences from the Lara Croft interview. Verb structure? a) What is the name of the verb structure used in each pair of sentences? Dynamic or stative? b) Which two pairs of sentences have verbs with dynamic meanings? c) Which pair of sentences has verbs with stative meanings? Complete or incomplete? d) Which pair of sentences shows actions that are complete? e) Which pair of sentences shows situations that are incomplete or ongoing? f) Which pair of sentences shows actions that are incomplete or ongoing? 2 Match the beginnings (a-d) with the endings (1-4) to make four important rules about the use of the present perfect simple and continuous. Answer the questions below. a) b) c) d) 1 Verb with Verb with Verb with Verb with dynamic meaning + the present perfect simple: stative meaning + the present perfect simple: dynamic meaning + the present perfect continuous: stative meaning + the present perfect continuous: 3 4 not usually used. and then ask each other the questions. Choose the most appropriate form of the present perfect. Pair B He's tried to climb Everest three times. 2 3 the action is incomplete or ongoing. 3 Compare these two course book extracts. Pair A They've been a bit frosty since I started the job. I haven't been seeing anyone recently.ou been driving the same car? Have you ever missed I Have you ever been missing a plane? Have you ever eaten I Have you ever been eating oysters? How many times have you taken I have you been taking English exams? How long have you known I have you been knowing your English teacher? How many times have you done I have you been doing exercises on the present perfect? . I've had my trusty old Land Rover for years.

really. but I have similar. I worked for a design company in Brazil for three years. and guess what? She's a new job with a much bigger company. I have. We don't use the present perfect with a past time expression like last week or yesterday. Other issues • • • Receptive skills • • • • • • • • . A: Have you You're very good at it. much I you I have I travelled Shanghai Cops? B: Yes. Now ask a partner in the conversations the questions. the Philippines. practise the conversations. as Work with the rest. We use it to talk about experiences in the past. twice. This form is the present perfect simple. Did you notice the answers in sentences often use the past simple to give details when our past experiences happened.ill Using grammar: present perfect simple In the text. It was OK. A: Have you that new film - m Practice in order and make questions. this is the first time I've ever here. 1-3? We about Complete the conversations You will need to use some with past participles. 4. I've never Vietnamese food before. I've to Singapore.of your teaching practice group and complete the chart below. but nothing special. I've been a security guard and a barman'. Quite a few places. 2. With a partner. Try to answer in Activity 5. Do you know the past participle of these verbs? 5. Put the words 1. We're going out next week to celebrate. A: Have you this kind of work before? B: Yes. A: We're going to a Vietnamese restaurant Would you like to come with us? B: Yes. Advice for teaching Classroom management Level: my class Productive skills • • • -Vocabulary and grammar . B: No. 1. Have you from Jing recently? Yes. she rang me a few days ago actually. actually. I went to see it last week. 6. tonight. I'd love to. A: Have you round Asia much? B: Yes. the writer said: 'I've done lots of other jobs as well. Then compare your charts with a from another teaching practice group. A: Have you . something 7. never. Japan. this game before? . our country before? B: No. Thailand.. We make it by using have or has and adding the past participle. .

. has to handle regular email and phone communication in English.which of the ESP situations would the teacher need to have extensive specialist o\vledge in the learner's/learners' subject area? . and occasionally take part in conference calls in English.22 English for Special Purposes a Warm-up Talkto as many people as possible. who lives and works in Croatia. d An Argentinean civil rights activist is planning a trip to an international conference. as opposed to group ones? .Askquestions to find someone who: " " " " •• •• •• •• has a degree in a science subject has worked in business has worked in journalism has written an academic essay of at least 9000 words has presented a paper at a conference subscribes to a specialist journal or magazine has designed a web page has taught a school subject that is not a language Howmany ofyour colleagues have specialist knowledgeof some sort? Special purposes a A Japanese marine biologist is preparing to present a research paper in English at an international conference. G - in pairs. and wants to brush up her social English skills. 'bich ofthe above situations are one-to-one teaching situations. e A Croatian businessman. in preparation for post-graduate study at a university in New Zealand. A group of students from China are getting instruction in how to write academic essays in English. b An intermediate class of young adults of different nationalities are preparing to sit the Cambridge First Certificate in English examination.-.Answerthe questions. c A group of French air traffic controllers are receiving instruction in aviation English. "orkers and clerical staff attend an on -site beginners level English class at a paint factory in Poland.

etc. If seawater it may short and motor has door systems to verify that they are condition. i. This is usually done by means of questionnaires and interviews. watertight switches. The local port authority needs a language course for a group of marine safety inspectors. of the vessel's entire underwater drydock examination completed. the 'closed' position. the inspector door system. Comment on the vocabulary and grammar in these texts.•. should be examined To the extent with the evidence of water operated seawater watertight entering shall also be satisfied are familiar location of disconnect found that faulty operation of electrically switch that the ship's personnel doors may be caused by the local control 2 Here are some examples of entries made by inspectors when making their reports. Read this extract from an official online manual for marine safety inspectors.satisfactory. a b c Examined all pressure/vacuum valves and flame screens after they were opened for inspection. . In designing and teaching an ESP to understand the discourse conventions of the target community. rn Text analysis People who work or study together typically share the same way of belong to a special discourse community. Several areas in the T . Theirjob involves carryingout safety inspections on visitingships These inspections are conducted and reported on in English.e.(!I Needs analysis The first stage in designing an ESP course is usually to conduct a needs analysis. door opens even with the wheelhouse indicating practical. so that the control for all local control Dr corrosion.lnitial Visited vessel to inspect progress of construction satisfactorily port fuel tank were marked for pickup welding. of thos~ noted on page 6. door switches It has been enclosure. Think of at least six questions to ask the learners about their job-specific English needs. it is important involves studying the use and produce. members. What special features ofthe vocabulary and grammar do you notice? The inspector watertight enclosures in satisfactory and controllers shall thoroughly operating check the The for located at the watertight entered circuit the switch the motor starter door. with approved plans. This kinds of language and texts that the members of the discourse community using language. body was made prior to launching and found of the hull and internal structural 7 were inspected and found satisfactory in accordance all were found satisfac('ory with the exception All items listed on pages 4 through All work was proceeding d A final inspection . Work in groups. except as noted. They course. an assessment of the specific needs of the learners. Read the requirements and decide what information you would need in order to prepare for the course.

this year. changes in: I ?a:st simple ?n5em perfect Sales Business/Sales willi a partner and use the table to help you describe'important . (fall) by 0. (increase) a lot already this year.:: i rion last year Lry. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb given. Subject Up/down decreased has/have increased How big a little a lot When last year.~L!l19nth~ We use the past simple: Sales We1Jtup last month last year Iin January. 2 Sales have fallen gradually this year. 1 What is the 'special purpose' for this course? 2 How does the material differ from a general English course? 3 How is the material similar to a general English course? Match the sentences with the sales trends (a-e). (rise) by 2% so far this year. 1 Unemployment 2 Inflation 3 Bank interest rates 4 Taxes S Perrol prices "" (decrease) by 5%last year. 1 Sales went up a lot last month.5% last month. 4 Work in groups. 2 The tenses we use with the language of trends are very important. we use the present perfect: Sales have gone up this year.llxx£.ntyear I If the year is not finished.. 4 Market share has stayed the same for the last few years. . (go up) by 20 cents in July. Suggest some classroom tasks appropriate for a group of marine safety inspectors who need to use English. \:.3 Write questions an inspector needs to ask in order to produce statements like the ones in activity D2. Read the extract from an ESPcourse and answer the questions. 3 Turnover increased a little but then went down by €2 million. Past ye¥. 5 Turnover decreased in the first quarter but went up by the end of the year.

from beginners to advanced. e Can take and pass on most messages that are likely to require attention during a normal working day. b Teaching ESP requires not only knowledge of English. f Can state simple requirements within own job area. Could you offer an ESPcourse? .. Put these statements in order.. but also area of your learners. Consider: • • • • • syllabus materials activities interaction motivation l!t Assessment 1 Assessment of ESPstudents often involves identifying and testing specific competencies. a Can offer advice to clients within own job area or simple matters. such as 'I want to order 25 of . '. such as 'Friday m~~ting 10 a. far doyou agree with these statements? a Teaching more satisfying than teaching general English. such as legal or financial matters. better idea of your learners' needs. becauseyou have a much " knowledge of the subject can start learning ESP. to the extent that he / she has the necessary specialist knowledge. c Learners need a basic grounding in general English before they d All English language learners are really ESP learners. 2 Suggest how you would test the folloWing competency.m. These often take the form of 'con do' statements.o One-to-one work in pairs. 2 Think about your own interests and special isms.' d Can advise on / handle complex delicate or contentious issues. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of teaching one-to-one. c Can take and pass on simple messages of a routine kind. Can take and pass on most messages that are likely to require attention during a normal working day. b Can contribute effectively to meetings and seminars within own area of work and argue for or against a case. Work-related 'can do' statements for the skills of listening and speaking.

-hat else does he need to know about reading and writing in order to achieve 'functional "'eracy'? . she annot read or write any English and she never had the opportunity to learn to read or write in her own anguage either. rent a flat. She works in the UK and listens and speaks well. Why might Aasmah and Halima find learning these things harder than some classmates? • \ {hat skills. require native-like literacy skills in order to function effectively in the target culture. they need to achieve functional literacy . Halima moved to the UK from Somalia. To what extent is each one literate or illiterate in a) their first language(s).. a national insurance application form. increasingly learners of a second language. She cannot read or write any English but has a good command of writing in Farsi. do you think Aasmah may be able to transfer from reading and writing in :arsi to reading and writing in English? -hy do you think that the ability to read and write sentences is insufficient for Huseyin's eeds? .' ~•. or Canada)? For example. for example. b) English? _ \ hy would it be difficult to comment on the overall level of English possessed by both . 2 Why is 'doing reading and writing' in class unlikely to meet the special needs of such learners? Ll and L21iteracy Aasmah moved to the UK from Afghanistan nearly three years ago. and speaks English fluently. if any. understanding. especially those living in an English as a second language (ESL) context. He is literate in both Kurdish and rabie. useyin is an electronics engineer and a recent arrival in the UK from Iraq. However. or get a driving licence. She has picked up a fair amount of spoken language but has never had formal lessons. and filling in. her native language. usually one's own. However. F An A-Z of ELTThornbury 1 What typical reading and writing challenges face a new arrival to the UK (or Australia.-\asmah and Halima? :> Consider the ways in which most learners are taught new vocabulary and grammar. simply 'doing reading and writing' in class is unlikely to meet the specific needs of such learners. In other words. He can read and write English sentences but cannot handle the kinds of documents that he needs in order to apply for a job..23 Teaching literacy Warm-up 'Literacy is the ability to read and write in a language.

\1'tO t/A.mpvovi~ a IIftle-. Y'f\e CAnd CAlwCA~S encQ«'eAged Li Na It wa~ a bit fl'1l~mti~ Th~t~ae-h~y I=pt pYavti~i~ 1~1t~y~dl1d ~ovl1d~.ti~ I fovnd it ~o diffre-vl+ 5vt the-n a te-ache-v he-Ipe-d me.i1't is t/A.\~s oot ve-Y] MtXio1AS be--Fon n{.thete-ache-y c.bL!t CAlwCA~S sCAid'cop~ this .\ss C{.\1'tOi-F t/A.they are aI/new.. I Wdl1t~d to mov~ 011.e0 yiti1't is B1Aite. {.B1AiC)(I~b1At -FOY\1\£.\ n{.\te.hose t l never hCAdtiY'f\e the l telt other l Hussein Y'f\issed 0L{t CAnd tell behind stL{dents M~h'JI1dWYiti~Wd~ veY~ bad .\t it isj1Ast so O tiyi1't ' :r C01'tce-1'ttr{. :rt's B1Aite-i1'tti~io{. Then compare your answers with a partner.e-n is 1'tot too ~1Ac/A. .~be-Y ~on /A.}i-F :r c0Pjt t/A.i1'tOSI:r c{.. o -- Soula \L{cK~with Y'f\~ toocher She gcwe Y'f\e lots of tiY'f\e rood never with CAnossistCAnt And sOfY\etiY'f\es l teCAcher. A-l1d th~11 ~~l1t~I1~.\ti1'tO' :r t /A.{. --- Mei Van SO\1\£.lYld~howe-d me..\ti\1\£.how to hold the.\t {. In each case write what you should remember when you teach basic literacy.:r Oe-t O tino {.{.\oe-{. It Wd~ mOl1th~befoy~ I y~dd d /i1tk ~toy~. It's very frustrating if you are trying to learn to read but you don't actually understand the words anyway .\o {.new words.i1't ~ ~ e-i{.pe-na~d now I'm .ovldnt ye"ad what I Wd~ WY. :rt's ve-Y] oiNic1AH. 1't t/A. trOfY\ grCAY'f\Y'f\C\r. ~ ..e-w O l wOS ve'0j I should remember .i1'tOSi1't e-i{.\1't OY two Ie-tte-yS 01'te.\1't't n\1\£. The-~ write..WOyst t/A.bio' P{.Readwhat these learners say about learning to read and/or write in English. Th~ got tY'LIstrCAted with Y'f\e.\ss.pe-ople. ~~l1tvall~ w~ W~l1t 011to woyd~.\ 'tO 1't 1 wyite.so ~1Ac/A. O ~ Shireen Ali -----Samia M~ teCAcher the boord' things .B1Aite-wd1.\oi1't t/A. The.e-lps i-F t/A.e-1't~~ writi1't Oe-ts WOYse-. Learner Karim Comment :r "d'w{.

one of a set of keys on a table. _ ~ ere are letters of the alphabet on a piece of paper. d Matching The teacher gives out pictures of known vocabulary. The teacher begins to read the text to the class. o Nextword The teacher gives out a short text. c Odd one out The teacher writes words on the board and the learners have to say which word is the odd one out. lriting activities :2 ify three writing sub-skills and find two activities that practise each one in the following activities. and one with keys on a chair. The learners must put the text into the correct order. 'What is the next word?' . The learners must match the pictures to the appropriate word.~ .=- .rom Poland. . but every now and then stops and asks. Tuesdav. June.. March. _ ~ -eacher gives out a series of pictures which represent simple sentences. e learners are given a sentence and under the· sentence is a space for them to write their . . The learners .. dots and the learners must join the dots to form the letters. The learners must write a similar sentence. and the corresponding words on pieces of card. But the letters are in the form of a series .Reading activities Activities focusing on reading at word level Activities focusing on reading at sentence level Activities focusing on reading at text level a Reading Bingo The teacher gives out bingo cards with known vocabulary on them. e Ordering ~ The teacher gives out a short text but the sentences are in the wrong order. with the first word given.. The learners read 'My keys are on the table' and must select the correct picture. Describing pictures Learners read a series of sentences and choose the correct picture in each case. For example. She reads out items of vocabulary and the winner is the first person to tick off all the words. . For example.-he teacher gives out a handout on which there are pictures of known vocabulary. there are two pictures.Tite the sentences. April. Scattered around the picture are the letters to make the written form arid a space underneath for the .orm to be written. b Find and underline The teacher gives out a short text about eating habits. The learners must underline all the types of food mentioned.

Request for action 7. Every day the learners must read the words. I. This problem is urgent therefore r would appreciate it if you could arrange to have an electrician come and fix the stove immediately. with only two elements functioning and the oven out of order it is extremely difficult to prepare a meal for a family of five. Yours sincerely. Explain how the writing activities are similar to or different from those in General English courses. &e. 3 Read the list of functions 1 to 8 on the right of George's letter. As you can appreciate. f The teacher selects eight items of vocabulary each week and teaches the written form. a.e The teacher writes simple words on pieces of paper in thick board pen. o Functional literacy Readthe coursebook extract. Greetings 8. She gives one to each learner. A coursebook targeted at developing funetionalliteracy for recent arrivals in Australia 2/96 Beach Street Emerald 2026 1June Dear Sir / Madam: about the stove in our flat. Identification of complaint r am writing r have already rung and reported this problem twice (14th of May and the 21st of May) but nothing has been done about it yet. I.Two elements are not working and the thermostat in the oven does not appear to be working accurately either. 4 Read the letter again and answer the questions.orOe. What is George complaining about? b. Closing 2. The learners place another piece of paper over this and then trace the word onto their own piece of paper.Then read the letter. Writer's address S. Wil1lGeorgeWin 2 Check the meaning of any unknown words in your dictionary or ask your teacher. Writer's signature and name 3.Write a number next to the parts of the letter which match these functions. Date 6. and then cover them and try to write them out correctly. Justification of complaint 4. What justification does George give for his complaint? . The first one has been done for you.

Will it be the local council.5 Think of an issue that you have wanted to complain about recently. Subject of the letter Content of the letter (in note form) Problem Details Action requested Closing phrases Yours 7 Write a draft of your letter. get a.Pare a meal have a shower sleep study arrange to have someone look at it. 2 Work in pairs. ark in groups.. Then write a final draft. organise someone to check this. a real estate agent. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ As you can appreciate As a result Consequently I wouldappreciate it if you could I would be grateful if yOll could 8 Discuss your draft with other students in the class and your teacher. and which would lend themselves to the same approach. a. contact the owner and ..plumber to come and fix it. I ~in'writing to complain about the I am writing about the I am writing to you regarding the stove plumbing .. Complete the diagram below. a company. Decide which authoriry you will need to send your letter to. the local school or the Enviroru11ental Protection Authoriry? 6 Make notes on this sheet before you write your letter. Our tips for teaching literacy . Suggest other types of text that new arrivals in an English-speaking country would need to master. prf. Use some of these expressions to help you with your draft. Show you final draft to your teacher. noise from the nearby factory neighbour's barking dog .

I'm meeting / I'll meet Lauraon the 14th. Which test types: a b c d e f test individual language items? test language items in combination? test knowledge about la:qguage? test language use? can be marked objectively? require subjective marking criteria? . In the second lesson she decides to give the class a short test. b A teacher has a new class. Is there anything you want? 5 Howcan a teacher help to keep learners motivated? 1 Work in groups.yes. Explainwhy the test may be taking place in the following testing situations. In the penultimate lesson they will have a test.24 M nitoring and assessing learning Revision test 1 Howisthe future continuous formed? 2 Whichform is best. and why? a Ah. They will all sit a test on the first morning of the course. Discuss the reasons teachers test learners. Arethere disadvantages to testing learners? Ways of testing 1 Study the table and answer the questions. b people will buy / are buying books onlyfrom the internet ina few years. c Who do you think will win / are winning the football match tonight? 3 What things would a learner need to know about new vocabulary items? 4 Writesome concept checking questions for the grammatical pattern in bold: I'm going to go to the shop. d A class is very near the end of their course. I thought so. a A course director is expecting an intake of lOa students. He decides to give the class a test. 2 Work in small groups.where's my diary? Oh. here it is. c A teacher has taught 50 hours of a lOa-hour course.

.. . . . ... Use the table below to help you.. . .. A B Range of vocabulary and structures A good range of vocabulary and structu res An adequate range of vocabulary and structures An inadequate range of vocabulary and structures to communicate effectively ccuracy (including onunciation) ~ mmunication tegies ... ... 2 Which of the test types in activity C1could be used to test the follOWing areas? • receptive skills • productive skills • vocabulary and grammar ork in groups.... accent.. ... . .. .... -or example: ..... ~ ow design some criteria by which you can assess performance in an oral test given to a group of earners.. .... Decide what features make one learner's spoken language better than another's... .. .....Test types Multiple-choice questions Gap-fill exercises Sentence transformations Writing a composition Oral interviews Matching Sentence production Examples I'm .... b) go c) going d) went She's very intelligent and { love .. Learners are shown pictures and describe them orally. ...... Learners read a text and match pictures to the appropriate parts. The shop sold the fast copy of the book yesterday. .. to see Zoe tomorrow.. You see the following job advert in a newspaper........ . .. ..... Write a letter of application.. ~ • One learner may use a wider range of vocabulary than another. .. .. such as used to + infinitive.. Learners write sentences about themselves using a given structure. . . The last copy of the book. a) gone .

but at the end we had to do a writing test and Ididn't do very well. What things do you think have been taught in the unit? Do you think the writers of the test intended formally.rn How not to test Read the learners' complaints. Analysing a test 1 Read the test on page 109. A lot of the students did the same as me. The instructions just said 'fillthe gaps' . Iwas the worst in the class. Complete the sentences explaining the problem with the test design in each case.so Idid and got nearly all of the questions wrong because Iwas only supposed to use one word. or more or in groups? 2 2 Would you ask the learners to do this test individually 3 Do you like the type of questions that are asked? 4 Are there any sections that you would change? . The teacher just wrote 'You must work harder' at the bottom but Iwas working quite hard. Igot the test back from the teacher and I hadn't done very well. The course was all about listening and speaking and I really liked it . It comes at the end of a unit of an intermediate coursebook. more like an exam? it to be done in an informal way.

+ two things you tnIght do this evening. Close your book and .. write them dowlI •.ook back through Module 11 and write two more revisioll questions of your own to ask tther studellts. car tll~7fonowhigsentences g) • ey'Couidn'tsell alcolioL • They weren't allowed to sell alcohol.Explain the differellce ill meallillg (if an!) between fun the b) Spelld three milIutes tryillg to memorise the words. They're . c) He has heen ill recently.. The weather wasn't cold . He has had a lot of personal problems. two tl:tings you don't like doing.. e) There has been a serious accident.olle! . There owas a bomb in the city cen~Jast night. . There are a lot of traffic jams. l. e)· She ought to be careful. • I have to do some studying t c) • ~'t~te~ing. h) • have to vote. Most of the shops are open as normal today.. g although. • I have to stay in tonight.going on strike. . also. c) two things people often do when they're at school or university. Ali y~~wers mc:lllde phrases should with do.tl.drivers have not had a this year. however.kilchen.~~twell. for this reasoR. ~a} It was the middle of winter.atotal. • 'Ii t have to write an g. b)· I must do some studying tonight. or what is more. d)· I've got to stay in tonight. Think of: two things people usually do in the. Who remembered the most words? a) • • You shouldn't eat that. . therefore.. Compare answers with parmer.

-olvrYln~ and 'e.rs st.f O b Laura 1.i .fosd~} wiff !<1otOW i.l<ethe diClries iVl ClVldsee how the loorAers thiVlK c Kirsty I five.\re.th~ th~ th~ whether th~ liKed it Ev~ \'Y\o.-tie.ssi1ot \1C01otitor wVct.\sse.-onfrde-nt'.\t fe..and I f f?t ~OrYleIde-a of how the-~ think the-~ al'e.e.done.{.sK IOOrAers to Kee.dOI~ ~. how \'Y\~chth~ ~derstood ClVld thClLlSht the Cli\'Y\ f the lessoVl wClS.In e. o. \1I.f tVce.ss Vcowwdf ~01A i1otdivid1At.Vce.\C.Other ways of monitoring Read about other ways of monitoring with a partner.t.it back.\!<i1ot proOre. the learner or the teacher? Are all the ideas practical? Whose idea do you like best and why? Whose idea do you like least and why? t:ve.1' ~01A fe.l<e Ifew Vlotes Clfter ooch lessOVlsCl~iVlS C whClt lOOrAed.le-aVYle-~a lI~t of what we-'ve.\1otd do e.~ t.\fs t.\~ t. pro re.for te. who does the assessing.appv-opl'late-e. Then compare ideas In each case. .-olvrYlnal' e-aU1 ~I~ and five.t. to.\re.-e-'The-~ tick.SS01ot a Shaun is t.\r1ote. O O' :I.ss.rs to t.-Ia~~ ne-xt to e-aU1 thl~ the-~ have.thl'e-e. 'ok' and 'n=cl PI'Je.?CIloorVliVlS diClr.whClt th~ o Clre doiVlS VlOWClVldtheVl 1.the.\1otopport1A1otit~ . 1 2 3 4 progress learners' progress and answer the questions.

0-3.. B2 Vantage B 1 Threshold English A2 Waystage Key English Test (KET) 3. Study the table for 90 seconds.0-5.0 paper test 633 600+ 540+ 500+ 350+ 250+ Computer test 267 250+ 207+ 170+ 75+ 50- C1 Operational f---. It shows three popular exams and their approximate level according to the Common European Framework..5 20-30 A 1 Breakthrough .5 4.5 5. TOEFL Common European Framework C2 Mastery Cambridge ESOL Proficiency (CPE) Pen-andIELTS 7. Ask questions about these exams.5 .0-4.25 Teaching exam classes Warm-up Work in pairs.0-6. Then answer your partner's questions.5 7. proficiency Certificate of Advanced English (CAE) First Certificate Preliminary Test (PET) (FCE) 6.

(1) You can help to maintain motivation by gradually building up to FCE-Ievel tasks and language. class.g. Try to instil good study habits from the start. Don't test at FCE level too soon by announcing in week two: 'Right. Learners in exam classes tend to be more goal-oriented than those in a general English class.far better to try just one listening task at a time. (4) Encourage learners to keep a vocabulary notebook. (2) Setting quizzes based on the exam specifications .e. Itis also worth going through this sample paper yourself. Today we're going to try. However.rn Teaching exam classes How to teach an FeE class Be aware of issues like learner motivation and classroom morale. Tackling small chunks of the exam paper in this way minimises the risk of demotivating individuals or even the whole class. (3) Be aware that reading and grammar/vocabulary exercises can be usefully set for homework with class time being used to discuss. Encouraging learners to take a degree of responsibility for their own progress has an added bonus of taking the pressure off you. explain and compare answers. How much time do you have for the Reading paper? . as this will help you see the exam through your students' eyes.can inject some fun into an otherwise dull or routine procedure. . What your students do outside the exam classroom is just as vital in preparing for the exam. organised in a way that is meaningful to them. Students need to be familiar with the exam conditions and requirements. an FCE listening paper' . it is essential to get a good balance between exam-style tasks and general skills development.

/!. (gone) to Look at these two photographs [examiner shows two photographs. Do the four sentences you inserted provide an adequate summary of the text? 3 Read the text again and answer the questions. using the word given. during the reading/listening. Example: Jane went to the meeting but itwasn't really necessary.k. You must use between two and five words. 1 What language knowledge. Work in groups.d. 1 What skill(s) did this exercise test? 2 Inserting sentences into a text is a popular test type in some public examinations. and after the text? . Does the material look interesting and motivating? 3 Read the texts in the unit you have chosen. Discuss with your partner in which of these two places you would prefer to study. Read these rubrics taken from common exam question types and answerthe questions. including the word given.:}\'t. skills and sub-skills could they be used to test? 2 Would the question format be useful in a non-exam-focused course? a Key word transformations complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. What other environments are good for studying? College isn't going so well at the moment. Can you identify activities to do before the text. it is a fair test? Do you think Exam question types Work in groups. one of a tidy bedroom with a desk and one of a work space in a library).2 Work in pairs.1ole: the meeting. Jane~e. Do not change the word given. I find it really hard to organise my time and last semester I failed two exams because I just didn't manage to revise for them. Choose an exam-based coursebook and answer the questions. 1 Does the book give an outline of the exam? 2 Choose one unit from the book.tl:Ve:(l'o.

-Id~~~tvde/Vit~ lAiOlAfzy \1I-otivl.\.\ss st1Ade-1-\. .. \ t::XI. On a separate piece of paper write the stems of the sentences.\ye- ~drYl e..ts d 1AS1AI. dV"e/ v~vdll1 .l.Hzy I.4 How much of the unit would be useful for most learners.\\1I. Compare your answers. regardless of whether do an exam? How much is useful only if you are preparing for the exam? 5 Would any of the material be appropriate for the classes you have taught? they wish to Write four sentences that are relevant to the teaching of exam classes.\te-d.. Giveyour partner the stems to complete.

26 Choosing and using teaching resources

Imagine you are going offto teach English to adults in a remote part of the world. There are absolutely no teaching resources available and no electricity. Weight restrictions limit what you can take with you. Choose three items from this list that you would take. • • • • • • • • • • • • • six copies of a student's reference grammar plus exercises a year's subscription to an English language weekly newspaper a set of Cuisenaire rods the collected works of William Shakespeare a dozen copies of a current coursebook a phonemic chart (see page 156) a selection of graded readers at different levels a battery-operated digital audio recorder, plus speakers four copies of an advanced learner's dictionary a teacher's resource book of classroom games and warmers an encyclopedia a guitar a set of 100 magazine pictures mounted on card

mpare your answers to activity Alwith a partner's. Agree on a definitive list of three items. Then join ,j-h another pair and do the same again.

r in groups. Write 8-10 questions you would ask when choosing a coursebook. For example: • Does it have a grammar reference section? • Is the material culturally appropriate? in groups. Use the questions you wrote in activity Bl to evaluate the coursebook that you are ently using in your teaching practice classes.

~

3

Coursebooks components

are usually

published

along with

a number

of supplementary

components.

Match

the

(1-9) of the coursebook

Reward

with the descriptions

(a-i) from the publisher's

catalogue.

Component
1

Description
Book a Detailed teaching marking system of material in a combination of drama and mininotes include four photocopiable tests with a

Student's

2 Teacher's Book

b 50 minutes

documentaries 3 Practice Book c Additional vocabulary 4 Grammar and Vocabulary Workbook d Contains over 40 photocopiable full teacher's English integrated 5 Diskette communicative lessons with exercises for further practice of grammar and
\

notes; ideal for learners who want some BUSiness, into their General English course
--

e Provides a 70-hour core syllabus of forty lessons and eight Progress Check lessons

6 CD-ROM

f

Provides additional

teaching

material,

in photocopiable

format,

to practise the main language points of each lesson 7 Video g Provides a variety of tests for teachers to customise learners' needs 8 Resource Pack h Designed for class use or self-study, in grammar, work 9 Business Resource Pack i Wide variety of interactive each individual student's activity types and practice material; marked and a running total of score is kept vocabulary, providing further practice to suit their

reading, writing,

listening

and sounds

each section is automatically

4

Decide which adopting

ofthe

components

of

Reward

you would

consider

essential

and which

optional

if you were

this course.

[!I

Adapting and supplementing
Read the follOWing activity. How could you adapt it for t~e following situations?

a teaching one-to-one b teaching a distance class,online c teaching a group of academic writing learners

Tick all the things you used to do when you were ten years old. Then add three more things you used to do.
@

ill 1Il It

• • • •

spend hours playing computer gameslreading have a favourite toyrIV programme put posters of pop stars/footba1Jers on my bedroom wall be very shy/moody gel into trouble with my parentslthe teachers be good or bad at mathsllanguages play on my own/with my friends a lot sludy very hard/do sports at school

Work in groups. Talk about things you used to do when you were ten. Ask follow-up questions if possible. I used to spend hours playing computer games. So did I Which "me< did yoo "" to _p_laY_
1

i

I ~~

_. _

ork in groups. Discuss how you could supplement the above activity with some authentic reading or listening material (for use in a General English class of adults). Think about the following questions:

I What kind of material could you use? _ What would it be about? 3 Where could you look for this material? \ hat purposes would you be using it for?

echnology
i

and aids

in groups. Look at the 'mind map' of things that you can do with an audio recorder-player in the

- 2ssroom. Then design a similar mind map for one of the items below.

record learners having a conversation

play sound effects to teach vocabulary, or as prompt for writing

"D .ideo player camera earl projector/data

projector

2

work in groups. Read the list. Which of these language learning activities are now possible? Bywhat technological means are they possible? Learners Learners items. c Learners d Learners' e Learners f Learners g Learners h Learners to be. Learners j Learners k Learners 1 Learners' m Learners a b in different countries collaborate on a task in real time. consult a database of real language, looking for examples of specific language talk to a computer that speaks back. written compositions are automatically corrected. watch English-language films with English subtitles. read a text and get instant definitions of unfamiliar vocabulary. get feedback on their pronunciation from a computer. communicate with their teacher in out-of-class time, from wherever

they happen

take part in simulations using English. get an instant print-out of the boardwork of a lesson. assess the level of difficulty of an authentic text in advance of reading it. texts are automatically translated into English. download audio lessons to listen to anywhere, at any time.

3 Read the extract from a report on the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs)in schools. Decide which of these applications would be particularly useful in the language classroom.

Inte:ractive whiteboards
An interactive whiteboard is a large, touch-sensitive board which is connected to a digital projector and a computer. The projector displays the image from the computer screen on the board. The computer can then be controlled by touching the board, either directly or with a special pen .. Ideal for: • using web-based resources in whole-class teaching .• showing video clips to help explain concepts • demonstrating a piece of software • presenting learners' work to the rest of the class • creating digital flipcharts • manipulating text and practising handwriting .s?lving notes written on the board for future use • and searrtless revision

Dozens of cards made of three-ply and hand-printed and illustrated...' 'A lot of the boring stuff associated with language learning can now be done by the learners working on their own. using computers. seeing it all go up in smoke. This frees up the classroom for the really interesting stuff.' . (I was sad.) But teaching is so much simpler and clearer as a result. How could you manage without coursebooks. communication. for example.' could teach anywhere.Teaching without technology Imagine you are teaching in a place where resources are limited. The removal of effort and denying to the child of its right to call on its own resources . 1 say that the more material there is for a child. Boxes of them. but there ~ay be whole lessons where e don't even open it. so g as I had a blackboard. There will be only the following list in my infant room: Chalk Blackboards Paper Pencils Guitar Books Charts Paints Clay Piano And when a child wants to read he can pick up a book with his own hands and struggle through it. the less pull there is on his own resources . There's much more time for conversation .. though. 1burnt most of my infant room material on Friday. or photocopying facilities? Suggest ways to do the following: a b c d e 2 grammar presentation grammar practice listening activities reading activities testing Read the text and decide how the writer's view might be relevant to language learning. audio or video equipment.. Not to do so might be considered unprofessional. (You should have heard the roaring in the chimney!) • structure my classes around he coursebook. 1burnt all the work of my youth...' expect schools to have state-of-the-art resources and they also expect that teachers will use them.

. • wanling • stress on main information words (PASSengers. independent of context rn 1 Multiple perspectives When analysing language. such as the present perfect h the way that words or structures are written or pronounced i variation in a person's use of language due to situational factors. reMINDed. be destroyed) • words associated with travel (passengers. destroyed) • an airport . or the words surrounding it in a text d the way that sounds are produced when speaking a language e the area of language learning that is concerned with word knowledge f a continuous piece of speech or writing. verbs associated with security practices (removed. Read this authentic text and decide which term in the warm-up activity defines each feature. unatTENDed . baggage).e. such as context and degree of familiarity j 3 structure 4 concept 5 function 6 style 7 pronunciation 8 context 9 text 10 form the basic meaning of a word or structure.27 Introduction to language analysis a Warm-up Match the terms (HO) with their definitions (a-j). any piece of 'real-life'language can be looked at from different points of view.. haVing a communicative purpose and a distinctive organisation g a grammar pattern that generates examples. intonation falls at the end of each sentence • use of modal verbs (must. Baggage found • impersonal. written in order to be read aloud -= b st~f. Terms used to talk about language 1 Definitions vocabulary grammar a the rules that govern the way words are combined and sequenced in order to form sentences - 2 b the purpose for which a language item is used c the place in the world where an instance of language occurs. . ). may) and passive voice (are reminded. will be removed and may be destroyed. BAGGage. will. formal. Passengers unattended are reminded that baggage must not be left unattended. be removed.

gently prepositions. film titles. for. stirring. e. e. such as and. Identify the part of speech of each word in the following i + is. minutes pronouns. i.g. These are: • • • • • • • nouns. perfect. destroyed adjectives.g. e.g. freshly. the definite article the. this. i. baggage. which go in front of nouns • conjunctions. tea. with. Funny Thing Happened On The Way To The Forum e The Postman Always Rings Twice __ \-farried A Monster From Outer Space g _-'.g.n God Created Woman :: 5: !Or My Mom Will Shoot . and words like one. Thus. that Many common words can function as different parts of speech.g. are.2 Read the following text and identify: a b c d e the text type the context in which it is typically found its function its style any sets of words that relate to the topic of the text any distinctive features of its grammar is dealt with in Unit 38. e. that is a conjunction in Passengers are reminded that baggage must not be left unattended. the indefinite article alan. words that join parts of sentences. without determiners. organisation is dealt with in Unit 39. e. for example in the case of it's. they verbs.e. words that take the place of nouns. unattended adverbs. some. e.g. depending on their context. such as it. be. passengers. Note that if a pair of ords is contracted. But it is a determiner in a sentence like Whose is that baggage? And it is a pronoun in the sentence Whose is that? ark in pairs. the pair should be analysed as two separate words: a It's A Wonderful Life b Gentlemen Prefer Blondes c Ii Happened One Night d A. Parts of speech In English there are at least eight parts of speech. use. or.e.

Words group together to form meaningful units called phrases. For example: Subject (identifies the actor or agent) A funny thing Verb (expresses a process or state) happened Adverbial (gives circumstantial information. Each phrase forms an element that fulfils a specific junction in the sentence. place or manner) on the way to the forum Subject I Verb married prefer Object (identifies the person or thing affected) a monster from outer space blondes Gentlemen Subject It Verb is Complement (gives additional information about the subject) a wonderful life Work in pairs. Note that sometimes a phrase can consist of only one word. a It Happened One Night b Mr Smith Goes To Washington c Lady Sings The Blues d The Empire Strikes Back e I Was A Teenage Werewolf The Russians Are Coming g Who Framed Roger Rabbit? h Meet Me In St Louis i I Never Promised You A Rose Garden . Divide these film titles into their component phrases and assign a function to each phrase. such as time.

is there a grammar a sufficiently detailed description? Is it easy to . verb. What _ -::-::=. too.: ::.and vice versa? a Turkish Ingliz kitaplan odamda English books-the room-my-in (The English books are in my room) Biz yine eski hayatlmlza we again old life-our-to (We returned to our old life again) b Arabic buyOtu al-rajuli al-ghanTyi £ala houses the man the rich on (The rich man's houses are on a river) di:indOk returned nahrin river shahTratun famous hadha khitabun ba£athathu sayyidatun this letter sent-it lady (This is a letter which a famous lady sent) c Japanese ringo. adjective.0 apple-[OBjEG marker] (He ate an apple) tabeta ate nagai long zoo-wa hana-ga elephant-[TOPIC marker] nose-[SUBjEG marker] (Elephants have long noses) watashi-wa I-[TOPICmarker] (i go to the store) mise-he store-to ikimasu.g. article.:: __ ::= ==__'on at the back? Do you think the book gives . object) in the same order as in English or a different one? 2 Are the elements in a phrase (e.) es he book provide that might help you analyse this item? For example. subject.g.=_ 3y have to consult the Teacher's Book. Find the grammar .Contrastive analysis Readthe sentences with their translations and answer the questions.-= contents page of a coursebook that you are using (or that you have used). noun) in the same order as in English or a different one? 3 Are there elements that occur in English but not in the other language .: (: nstitute the syllabus (or part of it). go anoko-ga Taro-ni kompyOta-o anoko-[SUBjEG marker] Taro-to computer-[OBjEG ( anoko gave Taro a computer) ageta marker] gave =. Choose one item that you are not familiar with.::--=. Are the elements in the sentence (e.

I've got as much work as I want and I really <enjoy it. some of them were horrified. West Yorkshire. "Just go for it!'" .someone's got a leak or their heating isn't working. "Surely you don't want to drive around in a van with your name on it?" But I knew it was what I wanted. runs her own plumbing business from Ilkley. At 42. and why? a now b always c tomorrow She's seeing Peter. so I've taken on an apprentice. and why? I've been to Guatemala. but I'd become very unhappy with what was happening in schools. 'When I told my friends and family I was training as a plumber. and you can sort it out for them. a never b last year c once d many times rn Tense review Read this extract from a magazine article and: a name the verb form in each of the underlined verb phrases. d yesterday 6 Which of the following time expressions is unlikely with this sentence. I'd say. I'm very proud of what I've achieved. They didn't think it was a suitable job for a woman and my mother-in-law said to me. To anyone thinking of making a change like I did. 57. I was a French teacher. That's worked really well: he's got the strength and I've got the knowledge. and there's a real sense of satisfaction in having learned something completely new. She's married with two grown-up children. I'd always liked the idea of being a plumber.28 Tense and aspect fi1 Warm-up How many tenses are there in English? a 2 2 In the question a an infinitive 3 In the question a an infinitive 4 b 3 Where do you live? what is do? c an auxiliary verb b a participle Where have you been? b a participle what is been? c an auxiliary verb Which is the odd one out in this group? Why? a went b done c came 5 Which of the following time expressions is unlikely with this sentence. Jo Thornley. b find one more example of each form in the text. especially now I'm getting older. because it's such a useful job . • I'm aware that I'm not as strong as the men.

I was training as a plumber. present simple 2 concept a past event with present relevance b activity or process. Their heating doesn't work. I am a French teacher. in progress in the past c past state. event or habit e past event that happened prior to another past event activity or process. I'd become very unhappy. Work in pairs. I've taken on an apprentice.:. I became very unhappy. Their heating isn't working. I'm very proud of what I've achieved.Aspect (no aspect continuous perfect past (no aspect continuous = = simple) simple) Basic concepts One vvay to understand the basic concepts of the different verb forms is to contrast them. 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 atch the verb forms (1-6) with their main concepts (a-f): Verbform . in progress in the present past simple 3 present continuous . event or habit d present state. I took on an apprentice. Jo Thomley ran her own plumbing business. I'm very proud of what I achieve.past continuous :> present perfect 6 past perfect .. Jo Thomley is running her own plumbing business. I trained as a plumber. I was a French teacher. What is the difference in meaning between these pairs of sentences? a b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b Jo Thomley runs her own plumbing business. Jo Thornley runs her own plumbing business.

.2 This time you have to read some sentences and correct them. The English is correct but the irifonnation is wrong. ~ke this: Bruno's my boyfriend. When we arrived the film already started.rn Learner problems Studythese learner errors. what exact meaning is targeted? 2. He's working in a restaurant at the moment. Howwouldyou explainto the learnersthe correct rule in each case? a b c d e f g I am not enjoy this film.e: e:£'\\'J~~ 3 a) Write the names of six important people in your life on a piece of paper.r:t0:(}"()e:sr:01A1:tdt0:e. I studied for the exam but I didn't passed. . r:01A~4 tk. Example: The sun goes round the earth.. . Let's leave. like this: b) Work in groups..Th/l.or both? c In the case of meaning.S14~ doe:s1'l't(}"o The:e.~1A:'t. Ask and explain what these people do / what they're doing at the moment. D Materials Studythese teaching materials. Write two correct sentences each time. What have you done last holidays? I met my friend when I walked in the park. What do you eating now? Yesterday I and my friend go to the swimming pool.. .. . but he really hates it. a What verb form does each one target? b Is the focus on form or meaning ..

has left . Devise a way of Work in groups. Be prepared to demonstrate your presentation idea to the rest of the class. Your trainer will assign your group one of the grammar presenting this item. What questions will you ask each student? the shortest / longest time? (name/time) (name/time) Who has done these things for Been in this town! country Known their best friend/partner Had their own room/house Been able to drive Played their favourite sport Classroom application items (a-f). Identify any visual aids that would facilitate your presentation. often. using just present perfect for situations continuing to the present.. . can now answer the questions in the quiz at the beginning of this unit correctly. a b c d e f present simple with adverbs of frequency (such as always. sometimes. such as concept questions or timelines. ) Your presentation should include: " a situation which illustrates the meaning of the item " at least three or four examples of the item " some kind of check of understanding..1 Talk to other students and complete this chart. never) present continuous for activities in progress at the time of speaking present continuous for future arrangements present perfect for recent events. using for/since present perfect passive for changes that have present results (for example: The school has been decorated.

2 c rained. cut. the infinitive without to). They didn't like it. add -(e)d to the base form of the verb (i. It I as in liked. Speakers: Choose one ofthe following and take turns to tell each other about it. 6 Questions are formed by inverting the subject and the auxiliary verb did. f went. 2 b Did it rain? Why didn't they like it? 3 The -(e)d ending is pronounced in three different ways. Two of you will have a conversation and one will observe and take notes. Idl as in rained. wrote. form and use: the past B Warm-up work in groups ofthree. 4 There are many irregular verbs.e. which have to be learned as individual items. change the -yto -I. Verbs that end in consonant + -y. stop stopped e It didn't rain. ete. and IIdl as in started. liked. • • • • • " a strange. frightening. Note-taker: Your trainer will give you details of what to listen for. started. and verbs that end in a single vowel + a single consonant.29 Meaning. + the base form. made. or funny encounter with an animal the last wedding you went to a 'small world' experience you once had a time when you lost something important a time when you saw a famous person by chance the first time you took a flight on your own rn Past verb forms Rules about the formation of the past simple 1 Examples a To form the past simple of regular verbs. and which refers specifically to the written form. 5 Both regular and irregular verbs form their negatives with did not (didn't) + the base form. . Decide which of the rules refers specifically to the spoken form. finished. ete. came. double the consonant. d carrycarried.

simple: --: ~ontinuous: -. Had it rained? Why hadn't the train left? 2 3 ocus on meaning C plete the timelines for each of the sentences below. Was it raining? What were they doing? ('nt) to the auxiliary verb. Someone had taken it. The train hadn't left. 8. They weren't watching.00 ~ --s go home at eight. Kim was making dinner.xrfea: . 2 It wasn't raining. .00 ~ 8.Rules about the formation of the past continuous 1 The past continuous Examples is formed with was or were + -ing (the present participle). 3 4 Negative questions are formed by adding not Rules about the formation of the past perfect 1 Examples It had rained. -. . It hadn't rained.00 ! - ~:- _ a e a general rule aboutthe meaning of each ofthese pasttense forms. The train had left. .

a black guy in his late twenties. • Which of the examples in activity E 1 show the correct choice of tense. the passenger window. J Jessica was driving. When I was a child I was going to the beach every summer. but he didn't be there. 'Shall we pick him up?' 'Shall we?' My wife was slowing down. 'El Paso. It was late. [. Answer the questions. a b c d e f g h It is unbelievable how Gandhi fighted against Britain only with his hope of peace. A freight train was running parallel to the road.rn Focus on use Read this extract from the beginning of a short story and identify: a b c d one example which tense which tense which tense of each of the past tense forms that you have been studying in this session. even though they are well formed? • Which errors in activity E 1 display a mixture of both? . He looked fine. form he uses to fill in details retrospectively. The bus drivers go on strike.We'd spent the afternoon at White Sands and my brain was still scorched from the glare. . 2 Work in pairs. That's why we decided to go by train. 'Hitch-hiker!' I said. pointing.'I said. After Iheared the news Idon't stopped crying. 3 Work in groups. Draw up a list of problems learners have with past tense forms.. He had a nice smile.. We were about sixty miles south of Alamogordo and the light was fading. Identify and correct any errors in the use of past tense forms. Ithought that he would be in the kitchen eating something. I saw a strange man. [. but are not well formed? • Which examples in activity E 1 show the wrong choice of tense. When I opened the door. He weared a military dress. J We slowed to a crawl and took a good look at him. 'Where ya going?' he said.We could see him more clearly now.. As soon as we arrived we realised that Maria's baggage didn't arrive. also heading south. My wife and I were driving south on Highway 54 from Alamogordo to El Paso. It was early evening.. o Learners' problems Read these examples of learner language. I lowered my window. but the bus still didn't have arrived. I had been waiting half an hour at the bus stop. form the writer uses to tell the main events of the narrative. form he uses to describe ongoing background activities. Last weekend I felt very bad so I spended all day on the bed. When we were finishing the desserts the doorbell rangs.

Where did you stay? e past perfect with verbs of cognition. When I was writing my assignment. d past simple questions. b the past of the verb to be (i. Ind a unit in a coursebook you are using or have used that deals with the past simple. 2 Compare your presentations with another group. the meaning. Decide how you could a the past continuous for actions that are interrupted.e. were) c reported speech statements.Classroom application Work in groups. . my computer crashed.g. form and use are clear.g. e. as in I realised I had left my wallet at home. as in Elsie told him there wasn't anybody home. the past continuous or the past perfect. e. and the use of the s"'ructure. the form. structures. Identify activities that deal with. Your trainer will assign your group one of the following present the structure so that its meaning. respectively. was.

. Compare your sentences with a partner's. When I have enough money . a b c d e f g h Once this lesson has finished . 2 Work in groups. If you want to speculate about a future possibility you can use might or may.plans/arrangements I'm moving to London next month. all written and answer the questions. routines. (be) going to. This time next year . You can use this form to talk about fixed future events: tim~tables. By the time I retire . My A-levels start next week.predictions/decisions reacting to circumstances such as offers. schedules. In five years' time . . It's going to pour down. I'll give you my photograph now if you like. 3 " The present continuous . promises and requests.intentionslpredictions based on present evidence. We might have to get a part-time job. I'm going to concentrate on my musical career. The plane leaves at 15:40.. The moment I get home today . Readthe sentences you have language reference: future forms Will ('II). 2 (be) going to . present continuous These are the three most common forms for talking about the future..30 Expressing future meaning ~ Warm-up Complete the following sentences in any way that is true for you. When I'm next on holiday .. Look at those clouds. What grammar structures can you identify? 2 Did you all use the same structures to finish the sentences? 3 If your answer to 2 was 'no'. Will ('II) . It'll be worth a fortune in a few years' time. how did the choice of structure affect the meaning? Study this grammar explanation from the coursebook used in Al and identify the grammar structures you used in the warm-up activity. As soon as I have some free time .

This time next week 1'1/ be trekking in Nepal. Then to eat a sandwich.. (NOT . e When I'm next on holiday I am spencling a good time with my family. until. the moment.ill a The moment I get home today I going to playa computer game. b Once this lesson has finished I meet my Other conjunctions which introduce subordinate friend because we go to the cinema.lea\oe s€"'aal.. c Once this lesson has finished I'll go to my house. as soon as. once.2 Jecide whether the explanations match your own e of these structures.. Consider factors such as: • usefulness • frequency • clifficulty . In five years' time I'll be staying in posh hotels. Discuss how you would explain the corrections to the learners. a The children won't go to bed. I think my life won't be much different. as soon as .\'8f'R.of form and of concept You use this tense to talk about something happening around a certain time in the future. I never will have enough money! But if I will. h By the time I retire I hope I will save enough money for buy a nice house by Black Sea. unless.) .. I won't watch TV. Discuss in what order and at what levels you would expect these structures to be first i troduced. When I leave school. The builder will have finished the kitchen walls by the end of the week. its"'e . I'm going to concentrate on my musical career. . d When I have enough money .) It'll be a mirade if she's passed the exam. Identify and correct the errors they have made in using the different future forms. I will visit many countries. we'll have had a record in the charts. Verb structures after if. When it is clear from the main clause that the sentence is about the future you don't use a future form in the subordinate clause.. 2 Work in pairs. By this time next year. maybe we take a coffee in any cafe. I'll like to start my own business. Learner problems Read these sentences that learners wrote in response to the warm-up activity above. You use the future perfect to talk about something completed by a certain time in the future. 3 Read the follOWingsentences. before.••• haloef3asseethe e. ork in pairs. f This time next year I will study for my final examination. I'll read the newspaper and prepare a nice dinner... After clauses: after. when. b What'll you do if it rains? c Where shall we go? . Decide what problems of pronunciation you would expect learners to have in producing them. the minute.. g In five years' time may be I am going to have a better job. (NOT Y'/heRl wiN .

rn Grammar presentation (1) Studythe coursebook presentation and identify: a b c d the structure that is the focus of the presentation the particular concept that is being targeted the means by which the concept is conveyed ways that the learners' understanding of both the form and the meaning is checked language focus 2 Predictions: will and won't Matt. You won't be able to find a hotel. There'll be fots of tourists. and identify: a the structures that are being contrasted b the two concepts that are being contrasted c the means by which the contrast is conveyed . 2 a What does 'II mean in It'll be hot? b What does won't mean in You won't see the city at its best? c Change this sentence into a question. Sentences a -h above describe: a things you plan to do. There'll be lots of tourists. It won't be very crowded. There'll be lots of insects. from London. b things you expect to happen. You won't see the city at its best. You'll have a wonderful time.f) the correct answer. is visiting the capital city of your country in August. D Grammar presentation (2) Studythis coursebook presentation in whichtwo structures are contrasted. You'll have to take warm clothes with you. c things you want to happen. What do you say to him? a b c d e f 9 h It'll be hot. 1 Tick (.

making a prediction. It's going to be a lot of fun. and we're probably going to go to the party around 11:00. OK?Oh. a dialogue or a monologue • a task that requires the learners to focus on the contrast • a way of checking learners' understanding of the contrast Be prepared to demonstrate your presentation. Devise a practice activity that requires students to discriminate presented in activity El. e. Do you want to come? We're meeting at the restaurant at 8:30.Voice mail Hi. b the speaker's assessment of the certainty of the future situation c the extent that the future situation is seen to be connected to the present d • the speaker's assessment of how soon the future situation is e the degree of informality . 2 Work in pairs. Thanks for ca !ling.g. Devise a short presentation contrasting will (for making decisions) and going to (for talking about plans). talking about arrangements. what are you doing tomorrow night? A group of us are going out for dinner and then to a big New Year's Eve party. Laurie. This is Laurie. This is Marcella.) a the speaker's purpose. they say it's going to snow tomorrow. e.: ich of the following factors determine the ::noice of future form? (Vou can choose more one. Listen. between the two forms Classroom application Work in groups. Your presentation should include: • a situation that contextualises the two structures. so be careful. and by the way.g. etc. So call me back. Marcella Hi. Please leave a message after the beep. Bye. 1 Does English have a future tense? 2 What are the three most common ways of expressing future meaning in English? Which two structures can be used to make oredictions? ich structure is typically used to talk about -:netables and schedules in the future? .

the modal verb)? In what context(s) would sentence b be more appropriate than sentence a? What is the modal verb in sentence c? What are the two different meanings of sentence c? Now write two orthree questions about modal verbs that you would like answered. There are eight different ones. and specifically such meanings as the necessity. the fact? In sentence b. rn Modal verbs in context Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs (or 'helping verbs') that convey the speaker's attitude to the events being talked about. and should be Auent in Englishand at least one other European language We are also recruiting cabin crew who can speak fluent Arabic for our long haul operation We are looking for tactful. or attitude to. Readthe text and identify the modal verbs. . and resourceful people who are able to interact comfortabl!:l with strangers and remain calm under duress Please note that the job can be ph!:lsicall!:ldemanding A high standard of ph!:lsicol fitnessis essential What's more. at an!:l time of the da!:l_ Previousexperience is not required Successfulapplicants must attend and pass a four-week training course before the!:l ma!:l graduate as flight attendants If !:Iou meel all our requiremenls and would like lo be considered for a posilion as a f1ighl aUendanl. We are currentl!:lrecruiting cabin crew for London Cialwick and Leeds-Bradford airports on a permanent basis Applicants will be at least 18!:Iearsold.e.31 Modality G1 Warm-up a They have been swimming b They must have been swimming. please requesl an application form.e. what is the purpose of the other verb(s)? Which sentence (a or b) states a fact and which expresses the speaker's belief about. cobin crew have to be prepared to work on an!:l da!:l of the !:Ieor. must hold a IO-!:Iear Britishor European passport. which is the lexical verb) in each sentence? In sentence a. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 How many verbs are there in each sentence? Which verb carries the main meaning (i. c She may swim. probability or desirability of the event. some are repeated. which verb is the 'attitude' verb (i.

. You must do it. You will do it.' Which of these sentences expresses the same idea? i You don't have to have previous experience. c You have to do it. e You're going to do it. d Everyjack should have a jill. You must have been a beautiful baby. I'll follow the sun. ii You mustn't have previous experience. 6 You needn't do it. d You don't have to do it. (There are at least three more. 2 As well as the 'pure' modals. [!I Modal verbs: form Rule 1 Examples a Shall we dance? What would Ido without you? b I could have danced all night.2 Read the text again and answer the questions. We mustn't say goodbye. 5 You may not do it. 5 They can be used with have+ past participle to talk about the past. The negative is formed by adding not (contracted to n't). 1 Two of the modal verbs in the text are followed by to + infinitive: which are they? 2 Why do you think the (six) others are called 'pure' modals? Think of any other pure modals that are not in the text. There is no -s in the third person singular.) 3 Decide which modals in the text express: " necessity " probability • ability • desirability • permission 4 'Previous experience is not required. Match the pure modals (1-6) with their modal phrase equivalents (a-f). 3 You can do it. there are eqUivalent phrase-like modal structures that use verbs like have or going. f You'd better do it. 4 They are followed by the infinitive without to. c We can work it out. It might as well be spring. b. 2 3 There is no do/does in the question. 4 You should do it. but they do have modal meaning. Modal verbs 1 2 Modal phrases a You're able to do it.You're not allowed to do it. e I can't take my eyes off you. or adjectives like able or allowed. These modal phrases do not follow the rules in the table above.

as we saw above. permission and desirability.Note that these are not always exact equivalents: you must do it and you have to do it. Wouldn't it be nice if your father was here? The car wouldn't start so we had to push it.' May I take one of these brochures? Excuse me. Then identifythe interpersonal meaning expressed bythe same modal verb in the other sentence. Identifyreal-lifesituations where the functions in 02 are likelyto occur. Some dogs will bite if you provoke them. 2 Writesentences includinga modal verb or modal phrase to expressthese functions. It could get cold. asking permission to take photographs . Note that these meanings are typically concerned with the way that people interact and interrelate. She can't be engaged: she's not wearing a ring. willingness (also called volition). the interpersonal meaning expressed by the same modal verb in sentence i) is obligation. for example. necessity (including obligation). For example: i You should really wear a tie: it's a formal reception. you can't smoke in here. Modal verbs: meaning and use All the pure modal verbs express possibil+ry/probability (including future predictability). ii It should be a good party: why don't you come? Sentence ii) contains a modal verb that expresses possibility/probability. prohibition. Identifythe sentence in each pairthat expresses possibility/probability. a asking permission May I sit down? Can we leave our bags here? b giving advice c asking someone to do something d offering to do something e promising f stating an intention g inviting 3 Workin groups of three. hence they are sometimes called interpersonal meanings. 1 Studythe pairs of sentences (a-f).' When I was your age I could walk on my hands. Take a pullover. And. the negative of must (mustn't) is very different from the negative of have to (don't have to). Will you please be quiet! I must phone Kate: it's her birthday. Forexample: a asking permission: in a museum. e.g. a i ii b ii c i ii d ii e i ii f ii 'What's the weather like?' 'They say it may rain. 'Who broke the window?' 'It must have been the children. These other meanings include: ability. are not always interchangeable. But they can express other meanings as well.

I couldlshotJd have just worn jeans. etc. I'll give you €50.€80 my pencil .). your pen. that the exercise focuses on c decide if the exercise is aimed at first-time presentation. Try to buy things at a discount.30 cents Try to sell your things to a partner. B No. examples 3 Move around the class.. Choose the structures that you think fit the meaning best . . . A No thanks.Classroom application Studythese examples of coursebook materials that deal with modality. probability. . T d. Of course. example A How much is your jacket? B It:s €80. but you can have it for €70. 4 Tell the class what you bought. Here is the end of a story.. In each case: a identify the modal verb (or verbs) that the exercise focuses on b identify the particular meaning(s). Who got the best price? my jacket . ... ode your sentence in what you say. e-: Now look at these other two stories.. I OK. We .. etc. could have needn't have should have shouldn't have . A €80! That's expensive.g.. e. or if it is a practice exercise. They should try to get a discount.Think of a time when something similar happened to you. So it turned out that I . You're going to sell three of your things (your book. It was only when I finally staggered up to the ninth floor that I realised that 'Aufzug' means 'lift'. as soon as I went in the room. ability.1 another student what happened. and there was a police truck towing away our car. I'll take it. and write a sentence about it using one of the structures in the box. How do you think they end? . I realised that I needn't/shouldn'thave spent all that time dressing up in a dinner jacket. I'll leave it.. It was our own fault. permission.. volition. of course. Choose three things and decide a price for each one. like everyone else..

vote in elections. Identify the rule that is being broken in each ofthe sentences in the exercise in Reflection 1. It's against the rules. 1m You can leave school. 1m You reach the 'age of majority' . You can many but you must have your parents' consent. Bye-bye. Be prepared to demonstrate to the class. a Do you can help me a minute? b What time have you to start work? c I must to go now.l in England and Wales.1iI! You can get a part-time job.At what _ Reading Finding specific information 1 Howald age can I You have to go to school! You have to pay to go on trains. read rhe rexr in five minutes. _ I!III You can buy a pet I'l. h My mother have to work very hard six days a week. If necessary. You can drink alcohol in private . 2 Work in pairs. 3 Work in groups. 3 Which age restrictions are unfair? Why) Compare in pairs.for example at home.pay on public transport U work for money 2 . Write a short dialogue (six to eight lines) to contextualise a b c it: should/ shouldn't (advice) have to/don't have to (obligation) could've. You can have beer. . You can go to prison. Review the questions you wrote in the warm-up activity. You can become a Member of Parliament. or wine with a meal in a restaurant. You can be convicted of a criminal offence. Discuss how you would present and exploit your dialogue. ask your trainer to help. can't have (deduction about the past) it 3 Work in groups. cider. Find ou[ when you can do the rhings in ex. buses. You can buy cigarettcs and tobacco. buy alcohol in a pub. You can go into a pub but you can't buy or drink alcohol there. d We no allowed to wear jeans at school. might've. e We no can do what we want. o o o do you have co be to do rhese things in your country? go to school drink alcohol leave school 0 marry 0 drive 0 vote I n buy cigarettes . l&Ii You can have a licenc~ to drive most vehicles. A boy can join the armed forces with his parents' conseilt. etc. f I mustn't do the laundry because my mother does it for me.~: Against the clock! In pairs. but you can't work for more than two hours on a school day or on a Sunday. 2 Your trainer will assign you one of the follOWing modal structures. g You can't smoking in here. Identify any points you are still unsure about.you are an adull You can You can You can in the eyes of the law. Find and correct the grammar mistake in each of the follOWing sentences. open a bank account. Discuss possible answers to your questions.

the love I would've shown.. 6 If I had only known. Type 2 and Type 3......you will never.. d . If I lost my job I would go abroad. Each has its own variations. would you let me wash your hair? h .. 8 If I could turn back time. Conditional sentences are usually divided into three basic types referred to as Type 1. if you weren't here with me? Would I make the same mistakes .. a . if he walked into my life today? i j ... S If every day could be just like Christmas . .. don't mention my name. .J Warm-up 1 Work in pairs. c ..... now: ~ Type 2: What would you do zfyou lost your job? Asking/talking about imagined situations/consequences 'if' + past + 'would' . 3 Where would you be . I'd take back those words that have hurt you ._--_ .... . 4 If you don't know me by now ... Match the beginnings (HO) with the endings (a-j) of these song lines....... If you ever leave me . Type 3: What would you have done if you had lost your job? Asking/talking about imagined situations/consequences then: 'if' + past perfect + 'would have' If I had lost my job I would have gone abroad.. ..... 1 Readthis description from a grammar reference book and answer the questions... 9 If you talk in your sleep .what a wonderful world this would be.. (And do you know who sang them?) 1 2 If I was your girlfriend ...32 Conditionals and hypothetical meaning f... 1don't want to be right.. 10 g . will you take me with you? f . . b . e . but the elements are as follows: Type 1: What Asking/talking 'if' + present If I lose my job will you do if you loseyour job? about something that is quite possible: + 'will' I will go abroad. if I could find a way . never know me.. never. 7 If lovingyou is wrong ...

Here is a list of regrets. I wish I had been nicer to my parents when I was younger. I wish I had more money/time. I wish I had not started learning English. I wish I was at home. I wish I had listened to my mother's advice. wishes for material things. I wish I had gone to a different school. Write them down and divide them into different kinds of wish (e. 2 Which conditional pattern does the structure in exercises 4. I wish it was cooler/warmer. and add two or more of your own. If only I had saved more money when I was younger! If only I had travelled more when I was younger! If only I had taken a different job! If only I had not got married! If only I had been born more beautiful! If only I had been born more intelligent! If only I had looked after my teeth better! If only I had never started smoking! If only I had gone to bed earlier last night! 2~ 4 Here are some wishes for the present or future. If only I spoke better English! If only I knew more people! If only people were more honest! If only the government would do something unemployment! If only somebody would write me a letter! about 5 Write 6 your most important wish on a piece of paper. I wish it was the end of the lesson. Report to the class: how many kinds of wish have you found. but without your name. Work in groups. I wish my family had had more money when I was small. Give it to the teacher.e. 1 Which conditional pattern does the structure inexercise 2 have most in common with? Consider the form and meaning. Practise saying the sentences. Then choose three regrets that you share. and add one or more.1 Which types express unreal (i. I wish I had worked harder at school when I was younger. The teacher wilI read out all the class's wishes to you. wishes for changes in one's situation). I wish I had left school earlier.g. hypothetical) conditions? 2 What is significant about the form of these 'unreal' types? 2 Look back at the song lyrics in A and identify: a one example of each of the three types b any sentences that don't fit any of the types c the pattern that they do follow Study the following extract and answer the questions. Choose three that you share. I wish I could sing / play the guitar. I wish I had stayed at school for longer. 5 and 6 have most in common with? Consider the form and meaning. and what is the commonest kind of wish? What did you feel was the most surprising wish? .

ore. Think of a way of presenting it so that its meaning and form are clear. I'd join a gym.e-1t\.f it will mi11) web Tf ~OL{ wiif.f onl~ ~OL{ didn't lose ~0L{r 1JO'SS?0rt \ Now we will miss the plClne Model sentence If you're not careful.01ASe-. decide what the learner is getting wrong./e-opam wov{d have.for went\ ~01A i11tlt\.you'll love this film. a :r.\OI. didn't like it. :r 1t\. If you need anything.1AVe. d If {. we wouldn't the flight. In each case.. I would've called you if I'd known you were ill. just help yourself. have missed Type 1 likely function warning Possible context parent to child who is playing with scissors 2 Work in groups.011e-~ ! f 1. If I were you.you'll cut yourself. wIAit .Learner problems Study these examples of learner errors. I'd live in the town centre if I could afford it. If you like romance. Include these stages: • • • conveying highlighting checking the meaning the form understanding initial practice • providing .. ~OL{ c If I could choose a city to live in. I'm sure I'll choose Florence. Your trainer will assign you one of the model sentences in activity El.\OI.be-e-n V~~I hi~toY~ had be-e-n diffe-ye-nt e :r wi sit\. If you'd been here on time.

some grammar books suggest a two-way division.Study the coursebook you are using with your teaching practice classes.' Is this true? . Djscuss these qL!~~tions. patterns and other ways of expressing hypothetical meaning. and answer the following 1 2 3 4 What types are taught? How do the books contextualise them? How are they practised? What information about the grammar is given to the learner? Is it clear? Is it similar to the information in section B. Do you think such a division might be more user friendly? b What do you think a 'mixed conditional' is? Can you think of an example? . Find the section where it deals with conditional questions. between real and unreal conditions. c: (Conditional~truetutes aretypicallyform~!:i with:rnodal. a Rather than three conditional types (plus zero).Yerbs. above? 5 Is this material appropriate for your learners? ~FL~CTION "\!QXkin grgups of three.

where are the speakers and what are they are talking about?) b What is the relationship between the speaker and the person (or people) spoken to? . d A virus ate my homework. we had trouble finding you.33 Language functions fi1 Warm-up a Well. ook at the cartoons and their captions again and answer these questions: . my advice toyou is toget a lesspowerful sports car. b Please turn it down .e. c Sorry we're late. For example: a present simple of the verb to be and past simple of the verb to have. a What is the context of each utterance? (i. Identify the forms of the verbs in the captions.Daddy's trying to do your homework. e I'm watching you. f Tell Luigi to be a little more careful with the pepper.

a What is the context of each utterance? (i. Sorry we're late. we had trouble finding you. where are the speakers and what are they are talking about?) b What is the relationship between the speaker and the person (or people) spoken to? . Tell Luigi to be a little more carefUl with the pepper.33 Language functions a b c d e f Well.Daddy's trying to do your homework.e. I'm watching you. ook at the cartoons and their captions again and answer these questions: . my advice toyou is toget a less powerful sports car. Please turn it down . A virus ate my homework. For example: a present simple of the verb to be and past simple of the verb to have. Identify the forms of the verbs in the captions.

whereas a 'danger' sign functions as a warning. For example. Work in pairs.rn 1 2 Context and function Every message has a purpose: this is called its (communicative) function. Decide on the function ofthe sentence in each case. Identify the cartoon captions where the choice of language makes the function explicit. identify the functions of the utterances in Al. ABC· Itl ~ o. a 'no smoking' sign functions as a prohibition.bc l23 . 4 Look at the situations below where the same sentence is spoken in four different contexts. 3 Discuss how you were able to infer the speaker's intention where the function was not explicit.

. You say: '. That's the telephone. Functions asking permission polite requests apologising and making excuses asking for and giving opinions . Would you like [an X]? typically functions as an offer.. You say: ' . c You wantto borrow yourflatmate's umbrella. asking them to pick up your child. which you think is caused by the way their computer is positioned. style and language The choice between one of several different ways of performing a language function depends on a number of context factors. 2 Put the functional exponents in their correct place in this extract from an elementary syllabus.. alongside grammar items. Can you drive? [!i 1 Function. Another key factor is the relationship between the people involved.. It's cold in here. f Awork colleague is suffering from back pain. d You can't pick up your child from playschool today. e Your local library has no DVDlending service. or the social distance between them. You say: '. Decide on suitable utterances for the contexts described in the table. These factors will include such things as whether the message is spoken or written.. a b c d I'll call the police. You phone the parent of another child who attends the same playschool and leave an answerphone message. You say: ' . Function Context and utterance inviting asking a favour a Write a short note invitingyour new neighbours for a welcome drink at your house.. such as how well they know each other. Write a short note on the subject for the library's suggestion box. For example.. b You want to have a drink with your friend after work. making a suggestion There are particular ways of expressing many functions that have become conventionalised.5 Think of two different possible contexts and two corresponding functions for each of the following utterances. These functional exponents are often included in syllabuses..

Does it include ways of expressing different functions ('functional exponents')? rn Classroom application Work in groups. either as a second language user or as a teacher. be the drawbacks of organising a course solely around lauguageflluc::tions? .. . . b On the other hand. • Choose an appropriate way of expressing this function for each of the two situations. Find the syllabus for the course. one more formal than the other. Be prepared to demonstrate your lesson to the rest of the class... Study the coursebook you are using with yourteaching practice class. please? c I had to . The functional approach to language teaching emerged as a reaction to a purely formal approach . • Work out how you would use these dialogues to present and contrast the functional exponents to a class at the relevant level. create a short lesson as follows: • Think of two situations in which the function might typically occur. the teaching of grammar forms or structures irrespective of the way they are used... where communication was impaired because of in'appropriate (rather than inaccurate) language use? . Your trainer will assign each group a language function (such as apologising) and a level (such as beginners). • Write two short dialogues (6-8 lines) which contextualise the functional exponents you have chosen. d Can I . Discuss the answers to these questions.that is..Functional exponents a What was X like? b Could you .. 3 Work in pairs. / c' Can you think of spedficinstances in your own experience. Work in groups of three. With your group. which is usually located at the front ofthe book. a What sort of problems might a learner encounter who had been taught only language forms and not their assodated functions? . f I'm sorry I didn't . please? e I thought it was ...

rn Noun types Readthis extract from a book and find an example of each of the items listed (a-i). or The X ofY.g. Your trainer will explain how. Discuss the benefits of a game like this. i. 2 Work in pairs. 'organiser' and 'controller'. i. as in The Queen of England. at least four different determiners. that a teacher is called upon tofulfil.g. roles c a countable noun. In this chapter we are going to look at two of these roles. Some are already done to help you. e. 3 Discuss how you could adapt the game for other language areas.e. Without basic classroom management skills any lesson can quickly degenerate into chaos.e. e. a noun that refers to something that is thought of as being more like a mass or a substance and therefore doesn't normally have a plural form e apronoun f an adjective that goes immediately before a noun and describes or identifies the noun g a noun that goes immediately before another noun and classifies that noun h a clause that comes immediately after a noun and serves to define or identify that noun. a a singular noun. e. such as My X's Y. One of the most important skills a teacher needs to develop is how to grade their own language so that it is appropriate to the class they are teaching. Being able to organise a class is every bit as important as understanding the nature of language or how languages may be learned. chapter b a plural noun. i. words that go before a noun and identify it or quantify it in some way . we will then go on to look at one of the biggest concerns for most new teachers. as in My brother's wife.34 The noun phrase Play the memory game I went to market. Having considered this. in some detail. a noun that refers to something that is considered to be a unit and 50 may have both singular and plural forms d an uncountable noun.e. In the previous chapter we looked at the various roles that a teacher is called upon to fulfil.g. We will conclude the chapter by briefly looking at how common technological aids can be exploited effectively in the classroom. the issue of controlling the class.

. b\CJY\dho. a SlM. Work in pairs. Being able to organise a class . .Wble. k ::r: CtI1\-lM.of t:rcti. f tim e. Use them to try to work out the principles of construction of the NP in English. b Teddrives a lorry very big and fast.st'lAde. decide how the meanings of the underlined words differ..ice. it is appropriate controlling the class to the class they are teaching .bCt~Ct~CtS j Most of Canadians speak a few French. 10v'\9 0..~ Excuse me.2 Readthese extracts from the text. Your trainer will assign you some of the above errors. the issue of 3 Readthese examples of noun phrases (NPs)taken from the text.'l1for-matiol1~ abovf thi~ ~c. c I 11ee-d ~ome..ir e Co.hool.1J l1\-'lAet-t.n BOlA gixe..voom~ floor: h Do tj0t-<.~d..l1tlve 50~ br-otl1eys tlVl-O! ~5ter-5? 5 i ::r: fi}(e..ar-pe-t 011 the..~t wlA-iet-t. t 2 ve. Assume that they occurred during controlled speaking activities and decide on an appropriate correction strategy in each case.eo.se.ns.? g The-r-e-. It might help if you ask yourself the following questions: • What element do all these noun phrases have in common? • What optional elements can go before and after this common element? a b c d e f g h the previous chapter a teacher the nature of language basic classroom management skills chaos the classthey are teaching one of the biggest concerns for most new teachers common technological aids ~ 1 Learners' problems Decide which NP rule the learner is not applying correctly in these examples.~~ -Frie. tlM.Ctn-ive. For each extract. where is the buses station? a c.MS 111.Ct~d tlM./). fette.. pI.. me. enCtI1\. d M~ sister heM sot 0.

Jason The one wilh short hair? Rosa No. j"Figure"] i it out i ~ B Can you complete these semences about the picture? 1. 3 Write three interesting statements. Jason oh. is your new roommate here? Jason !?osa Yeah. Jason Oh. For example: Time is more important than money. A Listen. Jimmy's the guy the curly hair. she's right over there. Practice the conversation. A time death war youth men humour wisdom gold health musIC B life money ~ experience silver intelligence love + women happiness peace . Identify the aspect of the noun phrase that each one targets.m Classroom tf! application Study the following coursebook exercises. Find Rosa's roommate and Rosa's brother in the picture. which one is she? !?osa She's the woman standing by the table. So. she looks nice. Rosa's the woman 2. Jason's the guy 3. the yellow pams. next to Rosa. each of which combines a word from box A with a word from box B. the woman Wilh the ponytail. Discuss your statements with a partner and the rest of your class. And who's that guy talking to her? He looks kind of weird. Rosa You mean the guy in the yellow pants? That's my brother Jimmy.

.~()es. we don't need much cheese. butth(. But we don't need many. 1 Close your eyes and imagine a house just before a party. ther~!Sll't any d Reef. please.\. Use patterns like these: A lot of people running Some Ben Now. Ben How much milk is there? Sam Only a little. .. baked potatoes A few packets of crisps Not much time an 2 Identify which of the coursebook exercises in A-D above are presentation and which are practice activities. of cQ#rse. . have we got everything we need? Sam Well. Are there any carrots? . write a poem called 'Before the party'. And there isn't any butter.re are!. ore' ur. Sam A few.ould you like me to help with thfshopping? Yes. Is there anything else?".' ushr99tns and.. 2 Write a list of things you can see. There are some onions and pot3. so that's OK. hear and smell. and we haven't got much cheese. Ben Well. pper.When do we use much and when do we use many? 3 I W_r_it_i"_9 _ [T:101 Read and listen to the conversation between Ben and Sam. 3 In groups. let's see. or S e got90me sal~ an..

It is not necessary that learners understand every word you say .. although it should remain natural. 2 how noun phrase that you have underlined is constructed and complete the table below. I mean not to the point that it becomes like pidgin or sort of ungrammatical.a e gesturElsand so onto make it really clearwhat you mean .Adjusting your language for the level of the learners you are teaching can be very difficult. and not. Head language 3 actuallysaid and 'YOU need to make sure you grade your language especially when you're teaching beginners and elementary groups. ' a How does the use of noun phrases differ in the written and the b What does this suggest about the teaching of tIns area of l5!ammar? ... This doesn't mean speaking baby talk because erm you should still try and speak at a natural pace. The first one has been done for you. The language which it is appropriate to use with a low level classwill be significantly different from the language used with a higher class. you shouldtry and choose your words quite carefully. . you know.. simplify your language. It is important that the models you give learners remain reasonably natural because learners will pick these up. but is a very important teaching skill.. But at the sat'JJe time you have to choo ..

Memorise your name. Discuss the meanings ofthese words and see ifyou agree on them. Yourtrainer will call the class register. and decide where the obstruction is occurring. it is necessary to use a special script (called phonemic script) to transcribe spoken language. . Iml Ivl Inl It! Irl Ikl as as as as as as in in in in in in man van nan tan ran can larynx Because of the mismatch between spelling and sound. For example. Think about these questions. ~ 1 Consonant sounds Consonant sounds are formed when the airflow from the lungs is obstructed by the moveable parts of the mouth. When you hear your name say 'Present'. 1 What problems might learners of English have with this activity? Why? 2 What aspect of language does the activity target? Write down the words your trainer dictates.35 The sounds of English g 1 2 Warm-up Yourtrainer is going to give you a 'new name'. but keep it secret. the sound Ibl (as in ban) is articulated by obstructing the airflow at the lips. 2 Work in pairs. Discuss what activity B3 demonstrates about the sound-spelling relationship in English. Here is a list that shows the 24 consonant sounds of standard British English in phonemic script. Then checkyour spelling with a partner. Trypronouncing these sounds. including the tongue and lips. 3 Count the letters and the sounds in each word. Forexample: letter = six letters (L-E-T-T-E-R) four sounds (I-e-tt-er) and 4 Work in pairs.

not by obstructing the airflow.)¥ toy ow so ay die ow how ey u uw 'dU e'd aI au toy so fair die how e 'd 3r . (You can feel them vibrate if you put your hand on your throat. or at the beginning of words like ago. A voiced sound is one that is made by activating the vocal cords. The vowel sound l'dl is so frequent in English that it has its own name: schwa. On the left are listed the vowels of standard British English in phonemic script. All vowels are voiced.): ought re hat A but 0: tar D pot .s. On the right are listed the vowels of North American English. pot say . no vocal cord activation is required. that is. a sent b edge c thin d thing e think f this g fixed h jest rn Vowel sounds Vowels are formed. British English I'd dear i: we eI say I fit U'd sure u look u: hoot e fed 'd glone 3: hurt .ure n nib a h hen r red yet (written as y in North American English phonemic script) Many of the consonants consist of voiceless and voiced pairs. but by modifying its passage through the mouth.did tI I shirt m men I] wing 1 let w we d3 gentle 9 get v yent these z zone 3 plea. Vowels are divided between monophthongs (single vowels) and diphthongs (a glide from one vowel to another). a Imet! i IIredl b Idekl j IInI]kl c loenl d Ihed31 e Ibre81 f IfetI I g Inekst! h Ijet! 3 Write these words in phonemic script.)1 American English we fit foot hoot fed glone hurt ought hat but fgther. for example.at t b d hin . they involve activating the vocal cords. principally through the use of the tongue and lips. such as Ipl and Ib/. It is the unstressed.p pen lin chin k kid f fin 8 thin s .s.) To produce a voiceless sound.) re A 0 155 . 2 Read these words using the list above. neutral vowel sound at the end of words like sister.

Sounds in connected speech Sounds are seldom produced in isolation.:zl e log b3:dzl f Isalbul g IjAI) frreI)bnstaIni h Iflko:ggul Idoktg 3lVO:ggul Id3.:. r u U: ra er ~X e a 3: J: ua ~r au C£ A a: 0 ea ar au [: ly ey p b t d tf d3 K 9 f V e ~ sZ f 3 m n fJ h L r w j e re p b v n d e 1] tJ s 1 k 9 3 y f ill 0 h z r J w . In connected speech (that is. Write two more film titles in phonemic script for your partner to decipher. 1 Read these film titles aloud and notice what happens to the sounds in the underlined segment when you say the title at a natural speed. any sequence of words spoken at natural speed). a b c d The My The The Last Picture Show Big Fat Greek Wedding Great Dictator Green Mile e Stand by your Man f The War of the Worlds g We are Family o The phonemic For teaching chart: chart the sounds of English are often displayed in the form of a phonemic purposes.:. a Shrek b Ben Hur c Snatch g Memento h Mystic River d Star Wars e High Noon f Blade Runner 3 Work in pairs. British English a Ibretmrenl b IkII) kOI)1 c legpleml d Id3.:'z tuwl 2 Write these film titles in phonemic script.1 Decipher these film titles using the consonant chart and the vowel chart. especially at the boundaries between words.:':Z tu:1 American English a /bretmrenl b IkII) kOI)1 c lerpleynl d Id3.zl e log b3fdzl f Isaykowl g lyAI) frreI)bnstayni h Iflkogowl Idoktgf 31vogowl Id3. many sounds tend to be altered or modified by the sounds immediately before or after them.

1 Read the three teaching techniques . 1(£1. using a pointer. bath. In each case. She next asks the learners each to write Ipl and Ibl on two separate pieces of paper. and alternating between pointing at Ipl and pointing at /bl. a What is the purpose of the technique? b What do learners need to know in order for the technique to work? Lesson A The learners are doing a speaking exercise. she silently points to these symbols on the chart: lvi.that involve the use of this chart. Band C . For example. Identify a pair of sounds -like Ipl and /bl . on hearing cap. cap. . they hold up Ipl. they hold up /b/. cab. and says the word bear while pointing at the symbol Ibl. 'Not leave'. ete. and. The teacher says. 2 Think of a group of learners that you are teaching or have taught and that share a mother tongue. She then holds up a picture of a bear. She then says the words in a random order. She holds up a picture of a van. 'I leave in a small Village'. She then invites the learners to sound out the word.thatthey easily confuse and that you mighttarget using technique C above. on hearing cab.A. and the students have to hold up the piece of paper that corresponds to the sound that they hear. using pictures for these words: pin. answer these questions. bin. and points to the symbol !II on the chart. The same process continues. Lesson B The teacher is teaching a set of words relating to transport. path. Lesson C The teacher holds up a picture of a pear and says the word pear while pointing to the symbol Ipl on the chart. One learner says.In/.

Read these invented words and try to predict the way that each one is stressed. The conversation should convey these meanings: A: B: A: B: A: B: That was nice! Shall we have another one? I shouldn't really I'm going to have another one..Then answer the questions. A: Let's invite Jack to dinner next Saturday.you surprise mel rn 1 Stress Stress is the prominence (in an utterance). Have a conversation in which you use only the word 'Well'. let's invite Jack to lunch next Saturday. Read these short dialogues aloud. or a slice of chocolate cake. let's invite Jack to dinner next Friday. You're easily convinced . 1 Which is the stressed syllable in each of these words? 2 What techniques could you use to highlight the stress? 3 Work in pairs. even if you're not. clothing. A: Let's invite Jack to dinner next Saturday. . Then answer the questions. rhythm and intonation Imagine you are in a bar or cafe. B: No. food and drink. taking turns to read sentences A and B. etc. items relating to a particular theme (such as jobs. B: No. If you're goingto insist . and you've both just finished a drink. B: No.. ~~ that is given to particular syllables (in a word) or to particular words t I Work in pairs. pawler veddle geon geonics malmish geonetics pandiful loomitive loomition geonetology geonetological imbelist imbelistic 2 Identify six to eight vocabulary. B: No. A: Let's invite Jack to dinner next Saturday.36 Stress.) in the coursebookyou are currently using with your teaching practice class. let's not invite Jack to dinner next Saturday. Decide what the results of this exercise suggest about the rules of word stress in English. let's invite Jill to dinner next Saturday. A: Let's invite Jack to dinner next Saturday.

Take turns to read aloud the following sentences so that each sentence takes the same number of beats as the first sentence (which you should read fairly slowly and deliberately). 4. Rhythm 1 Work in pairs. Don't worry about negatives .in . stress. 8. 2. Write a short dialogue (6-8 lines) between two people who have just been introduced at a party. terms of both listening and speaking? 2 Remember that some words have two pronunciations: a 'weak form' and a 'strong form'. Thank you so much. It may help to beat the rhythm with your hand. Yes. stress. 6.1 In what way does the second sentence change? 2 Why does the sentence change in this way? 4 Work in pairs or groups of three. I wonder where the twins have gone. stress. Of course she must. stress. When can we leave? 5. I think I must phone my mother today. Examples: MUST CAN 3 HAVE WAS WEAK: STRONG: Ims.they're always strong. but with a change of stress. stress. but I can tomorrow. 1. and decide what aspect of pronunciation ittargets. That was a nice dinner. stress. We haven't lost Ted. ~ 3 Work in pairs. stress. I think I'll have a shower. Discuss how this aspect of pronunciation might be connected with rhythm. 9. m'lstl ImAstl Ikn. 3. I can't come today. 1 What happens to the individual words as the sentence becomes longer? 2 Why might this create a problem for students . can. Which pronunciation do must. have we? 7. stress. Then answer the questions . she was. have and was have in these sentences? Write W (weak) or S (strong). Mark the main stressed word in each utterance. bnl I(h)'lvl IW('l)zl IWDZI /krenl /hrevl Study this coursebook activity. stress. Include at least one example of an utterance that is repeated by another speaker. • Words Words Words Words Words Words Some Some Some Some Some Some should should should should words should words should words should've words should've of the words shouldjve of the words shoQId've • take take take take take the take the take the take the taken the taken the taken the taken the • stress. . stress. stress. S Decide how you could use this dialogue in class.

We need eggs sugar milk butter . Then answer the questions. has a penthouse. h (1) Hi!!!!! (2) Hi.because of his parents. Say each of the following the punctuation pairs of sentences aloud in two different ways. ® (2) Thanks a lot.rn 1 Intonation Work in pairs. 1 What is the difference in meaning? 2 How is this difference conveyed? For example: I like Chinese art and opera. She didn't marry him . is he? (What's the capital of Mexico?) Mexico City.suddenly started running. The people who left . My brother who lives in New York has a penthouse...started running.. is he!? Dan's not English. She didn't marry him because of his PARENTS . You're a nurse. I like IChinese art and operal (= Chinese art and Chinese opera) I like Chinese art. paying attention to and other non-verbal signs. © . (What's the capital of Mexico?) Mexico City? We need eggs sugar milk butter.. You're a nurse? Dan's not English. who lives in New York. I like IChinese art Iand operal (= Chinese art and any kind of opera) a (1) (2) b (1) (2) c (1) (2) d (1) (2) e (1) (2) (1) (2) g (1) (2) The people who left suddenly . and opera. My brother. (1) Thanks a lot.

. Discuss ways in which problems with intonation might prejudice communication. but in one Speaker A sounds polite. is it? It's a lovely day.will you? . and in the other she doesn't.. Can you tell which is which? What is the difference? A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: What's your name? James.isn't it? You'll phone. 1 Listen to these two short conversations. In which questions does the person who is asking the question a) know the answer. b) not know the answer? a b c d e f You're married. Why do you want a visa? Fortourism. 4 Study the following two activities and decide what function of intonation each of them focuses on. aren't you? You're married. practise saying the dialogue in the polite way. The words are exactly the same in both conversations. Now.3 Work with a partner. practise saying the following questions in two ways . aren't you? It's not raining again. . What nationality are you? Australian.~J • Now. 2 Listen to these questions. won't you? You won't be late. Your full name? James Haddon.

missed.. lived and started. e. prestige accent of Britain). walked. isn't it? Who are you waiting FOR? How many beeble live there? IFONLY I HAD KNOWN! ~ 2 Work with a partner. therefore it is important to get pronunciation right as soon as possible. i. rn 1 Pronunciation Study the pronunciation exercises activities below and answer the questions. isn't it Who are you WAITING for? How many people live there? If only I'd KNOWN! ~ It's a nice day. the regionally neutral. She reads out a list of past tense words. Discuss these.statements and decide to what extent you agree. .e. \ c It is hard to unlearn incorrect habits. opened.e. It is bad to hit children . the students write each one in the appropriate column. Correct version Our president is very imPORtant. being understood) is more important than sounding like a native speaker. intop. She then asks students to make three columns in their books.g.ation and rhythm ('big' features). b Mispronunciation of individual sounds (the 'small' features) is less important than errors at the level of stress. It's a nice day. a The best model for teaching pronunciation is RP (Received Pronunciation. lifted.37 Teaching pronunciation m Warm-up learner pronunciation a b c d e f Our president is very IMportant. 1 What aspect of pronunciation is each activity targeting? Is it a 'small' feature (such as individual sounds) or a 'big' feature (such as sentence stress or intonation)? 2 Is the objective of the activity reception or production (or both)? '" 3 Is the feature used in context or is it decontextualised? 4 How communicative is the activity? Could non-communicative activities be adapted to make them more communicative? The teacher demonstrates the difference in the pronunciation of the -ed ending on worked. moved.. waited etc. d Intelligibility (i. headed by It!. Idl and IIdl respectively. e One of the best ways of teaching pronunciation is always to speak naturally to the learners. It is bad to heat children.

I'll take it i them Trying on Couid I try it / them on. 6 How much is this? 7 Give me a smaller one to try. Learners have to stop the teacher when they hear the change . Any good? It's a bit tight / big / small. 11£1 .. please? 3 Which expressions could be useful for buying other things? 4 Compare these twO questions. coat. No explicit pronunciation work has been included. Think of classroom solutions to the problems that students might have.e polite requests using would you mind . etc. 2 Yourtrainer will assign you one of the above areas. shirt. 2 mJ Listen to this dialogue and tick (v') the expressions you hear. Which is more polite? 1 Against the clock 1 I want to try it on.oms? 2 Listen and check your ideas. 8 Where are the fitting r0. jacket. Can I help you? What size would you like? Haveyou got this in a size 12/ a medium? I'll just have a look. Do you think I could tryon a bigger one? Paying Can I pay by credit card? How would you like to pay? Cashor credit card? Your receipt's'in the bag. shoes. -ing? f clothing vocabulary.. suit. (Learners could then do this in pairs. Repeat the sentences and try to sound exactly the same. S I want you to dry clean this suit today. Asking I'm just looking.) rn Classroom application Study this extract from a coursebook (with its accompanying transcript).please? Could you tell me where the CDs are. please? The fitting rooms are over there. e. thanks.can can can can can't can't can't can't can. Where are the CDs. Decide where you think it would be appropriate to include some work on pronunciation and what form this could take.g. ta qtinu~ Make these sentences more polite. 4 I want to pay by credit card. etc. Forexample: a can/can't Possible solution: the teacher repeats one of the words several times and then changes to the other word. scarf. shorts. 2 Where's the shampoo? 3 Give me a phonecard.

18.-. Thanks very much. Cashier Customer Cashier Customer Cashier How would you like to pay? Cash.. I'll just have a look.'§i'~. then. A Could f have a film for this camera. in blue. which relate to the teaching of pronunciation. please. if you could take it to the cash desk.~~il!!EJl~~"""'j~~~~~~~g. 3 Compare your sentences in pairs or groups. we haven't got an"yfitting rooms.. please. Your receipt's in the bag. Could I try it on.""'"~~~~-'~'="~~~~~~". please? Of course. Clockwise (Pre-Intennediate) McGowen and Richardson .17.S. Bye.w'.REFUEGImON Readthese terms. I'll see if we've got a 14. here you are.20.. 16. Do you think I could try on a bigger one? Yes..99.3 In pairs. Check that you understand the meaning of them.F"'~'":""""'~~~~~~'. 1 black and white or colour? 2 where the travel books are? 3 dry clean this jacket? 4 battery for my camera? 5 shirt costs? 6 I'm sorry. have you got this in a size 12? In blue? Yes.. and blow dry. Thanks. please. I'll take it. ~ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Could I try it on. Yes. . That'll be 15. Any good? I think it's a bit tight. please? 8 Would you like black and white or colour? A Colour.~1!..19.. can I help you? Yes. The fitting rooms are over there. Goodbye. There you are. cut. please? Can you tell me where the shampoo is?" I'd like to buy a phonecard. Great. 7 wash. 8 24 aspirin? 9 film starts? WJ Assistant Customer Assistant Customer Assistant Customer Assistant Customer Assistant Customer Assistant Assistant Customer Assistant Hello. OK. please? Could you tell me where the fitting rooms are? ~il!!EJl!-'. Better? Yes. Thank you. Can I pay by credit card? Could you possibly dry clean this suit today? Could you tell me how much this is? Can I try a smaller one. jO •• •• •• •• •• •• •• 2 integrated intelligible communicative receptive accent context English as an International Language (EIL) teachable ••RP Choose afleast three of the terms and use each one in asentence in order to sum up your own views pronunciation teaching.. Make short dialogues which include these phrases.

10 Don't use a ladder in strong winds or near power lines. 2 3 Decide if it is possible to make connections between any of your words. bear in mind 50 people die and 40. The vast majority of victims are . slip-ons or bare feet. if you had tool and hammer.000 need hospital treatment every year through domestic accidents involving ladders.you could say that a hammeris a kind oftoof. For example. available at most large DIY centres. 8 Wear shoes with dry soles and a good grip. . lock or block it first. Secure it with ropes tied from the stiles (ladder edges) to fixed objects or stakes in the ground.enthusiastic males. bolster with a wooden board. You can get a special tray to fix on the ladder for paint-pots and tools. 6 Use a shoulder-bag to carry equipment up and down. You have one minute. Lexical meaning Step class If one of your nagging DIY jobs needs a ladder. 7 Hold on to the ladder with one hand while you work. Check the rubber feet are in good condition.38 Vocabulary 1 Work in pairs or groups. On soft earth. not sandals. 5 Don't reach too far sideways . untie the ladder. move and resecure it. Consider these ten points before you prop your steps up with the Yellow Pages: 1 Put the ladder on a firm. Brainstorm as many words as you can think of that relate to the topic of DIY (doit-yourself). Identify how many you had that were the same and how many were different. paint and brush can combineto make paintbrush. level. 9 If you climb a ladder in front of a door. The Department of Trade and Industry is so concerned it produces The Ladder User's Handbook. 4 Never stand on the top three rungs. dry surface. not plastic guttering.climb down. 2 Position leaning ladders so the base won't slip outwards. 3 Rest the top of the ladder against a solid surface. Compare your words with those of another group.

through domestic accidents. in. slip-ons Vlll need hospital treatment . shoulder-bag. hold on.. 1 Match the modes of formation (1-4) with the examples from the text (a-d). available equipment guttering resecure untie user a What is the basic meaning of the affix? b Can you think of more examples of words with each affix? rn Vocabulary focus Study these three coursebook activities. not sandals.e. new words can be formed by combining old ones ... ' How does this differ from 'If one of your persistent home improvement responsibilities . On soft earth . or by adding prefixes and suffixes (such as pre. over. iv bear in mind. surface. to fixed objects vi the vast majority.. . resecure. Some 'words' in fact comprise more than one word: they take the form of multi-word units (also called 'chunks').a What is the relation between the underlined words in each of these groups of words from the text? For example: a wooden board.. e. at most large DIY centres ii bear in mind 50 people die.g. Then answer the questions.a process called 'compounding'. plastic guttering are related in the sense that they are specific types of a general class of things (materials).. down. dry.... up. treatment 2 Identify the affix (i. the rubber feet. bare feet v to fix on the ladder. paint-pots compounding (= putting two or more words together to make one) affixation (= adding prefixes or suffixes) 2 3 multi-word unit (chunk) (= two or more words that have one complete meaning) 4 phrasal verb (= verb plus particle. Phrasal verbs Borea kind of multi-word unit composed of a verb and a particle. equipment. having one complete meaning) c untie.. level. Trade and Industry.a process called 'affixation'. '? In English. Example from text a prop . The vast majority of victims b 'If one of your nagging DIY jobs . . the vast majority of victims. consider these ten points iii on a firm. the prefix or suffix) in each of the following words from the text. They are also the same word class (adjectives). Mode of formation 1 ~. bare feet vii Wear shoes .. climb down b handbook. Identify the aspect of word meaning or word formation that each one targets..or -less) .

alcohol-free made at. Spend a few minutes memorising the phrases: someone off the truth / lies someone to do something 'hello' / 'goodbye' 'thank you' someone about something g h j k I 'yes' / 'no' you're sorry a prayer the difference between two things a story / joke someone what to do and suffixes are often used to describe features of meaning other examples = no fat sugar-free.Wordspot say and tell 1 a b c d e f Do we say or tell the following things? Write them in the correct diagram below.home = produced locally you don't iron not damaged! affected by water What features could these products have? chocolates hand-made chocolates e f 9 h beer cola frying pan shoes .

text for this purpose? .g. 5 I've decided to flog the car. or one in the coursebook you are using) and choose an area of vocabulary that you could focus on. in bolster equipment 2 fixed hospital nagging prop up stiles Decide what problems learners might have in producing the above words (i. Match the slang words 1-8 to the neutral equivalents a-h 1 Chuck it to me. 3 Choose up to five words in the text that you would pre-teach before giving the text to a class of upperintermediate learners to read. the text on page 124. Lexical difficulty 1 Work in pairs. etc. a c d e f g h lost his temper throw sell drinking cigarette pounds man b stolen . in using them in speaking or writing). 8 He flipped his lid.. 7 He's a really nice bloke. Decide which of these words taken from the text in Bl might cause learners difficulty understanding. multi-word units. collocation. 6 It only cost ten qUid. Find a text (e. For example. a lexical set.2 Slang In the conversation you heard pinch his wallet.-. 2 Have you got a fag? 3 They went out boozing. How would you use the. 4 My bicycle's been nicked. Give reasons.e.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Some prehistoric ferns were as tall as trees. The wind scatters the spores on to the ground and they grow into tiny plants GRASSHOPPER Ferns have no flowers qJr seeds. 14 There have been ferns on Earth for over 300 million years. If not. He does this by rubbing the insides of his back legs against his wings Later these plants grow into new ferns. Check that your own versions match the originals. 1 Does it make sense? 2 Does it hold together? 3 Compare ideas with a partner. FERN 12 Instead they have tiny cells called spores under their leaves. Listen to the instructions and do the activity. 4 Work in pairs.39 1 2 Yourtrainerwill give you the title of a text. Read the text that has your sentence at the top and answer the questions. Ferns are primitive plants. Grasshoppers are insects. 3 Your trainer will give you a copy of the two texts. They live in fields and meadows and feed on green plants. Discuss what kinds of knowledge you drew on to be able to separate the texts and to order them. account for any differences. 13 They can hop as much as 75 centimetres. . The male grasshopper chirps to attract a mate.

or so/not: Spiders don't have wings. what's more. Itis often mixed with other metals to make a harder alloy likebrass. • linkers. Tobegin with.) Grammatical • reference devices. Later these plants grow into new ferns. are.e. The wind scatters the spores on to the ground and they grow into tiny plants a They liveinfields and meadows and feed on green plants. alloy) • substitution of previously mentioned words with one/ones or none: Some plants have flowers.copper. leaving a word out because it can be recovered from the previous text. They can hop as much as 75 centimetres. Spiders have eight [legs]. Then answer the questions. it does this) • substitution of previously mentioned clause elements. brass.metallic) or use of synonyms •• use of general words to refer to something more specific that is mentioned elsewhere (e. 3 Read the text and identify at least four different ways in which its sentences are linked. copper . as in Insects have six legs. Most insects do. Then study the two coursebook exercises and decide which aspects of cohesion each one focuses on. Pure copper is very soft. grasshopper .the insect) •• use of topically related words (e. then . to do with words)? 2 Which are more grammatical? 4 Read this summary of the main lexical and grammatical ways a text can be made cohesive.thev.I!J Cohesion a b c d e They live infields and meadows and feed on green plants.' COPPER Copper was one of the first metals to be used.e. people used pure copper which they found on the ground But they later learned how to extract itfrom ore by smelting. with do/does or did. He does this by rubbing the insides of his back legs against his wings.g. b Ferns have no flowers or seeds. metal. or words from the same word family (e. Instead they have tiny cells called spores under their leaves. Ferns have none. copper. such as therefore. 1 Which of these ways of linking sentences are lexical (i. Lexical •• repetition of words.g. especially pronouns (people . Later these plants grow into new ferns.g. " ellipsis of previously mentioned words (i.

On the contrary. 4 I had a conversation with a Malaysianwoman. 8 In the first place. who's going to pay to support a population of aged people? . .. that I am arguing for a return to the Middle Ages. 2 Manypresenters like to V~egestures. f Don't think. if not always a long one. does long life really mean happiness? And then there's the question of who decides who's going to live or die? In other words. others.. The Malaysianwoman told me a story about a presentation that went wrong. Most non-metals do not.. . a good life. They can hop as much as 75 centimetres. Idioms can sometimes have two meanings.Put these sentences in order to complete the text. 3 Using idioms in a preseAtation can cause trouble. Many metals have a silvery. not its quantity . m Coherence METAL Copper was one of the first metals to be used. all I ask is that we should be concentrating on improving the quality of life.. I h Secondly. g Let me say from the start that I don't agree with the idea that life should be artificially prolonged.. But most of the dyes used these days are made from chemicals. 1 We need to make an effort to understand how things work in other cultures. 2 Underline all the words or expressions used to connect ideas. however. Gestures help the audience to follow the flow of a presentation. use their single foot to move around.. there are already too many people in the world .and most importantly perhaps. such as the cockle. shiny surface. a b c d e Finally.. The effort is the first step to effectivecommunication across cultures..

tkis.lAtIO'l'l) e.'l'ld tke.w dCtl)" kOlArs re.i'l'l -Froi'tt o-F tke. olAt tkis i~(Je.1did i'tot !re.dllA lt0lA SkOlAid lASe.ss l)"01.'l'lt} clAitlAre.r} blAt :r tki'l'l)( lA'l'llt pe. MOLLUSCS Molluscs are animals with soft bodies. CIA(Je. :r SlAPOSe.r klAi'td we. sir} :r wOlAid be. YOlAr's -FlAitk-Fl. stay inside their shells and hardly ever move..'l'lte.I-FlActl. in what ways is the text cohesive? . to re. pr0(JrlA~~s ~01A 1Are. a AccordinKto the principles you have been looking at in this session.Xpre. Others.ve.t it)lAi'td l)"01.1~t is ~l)" opi'l'lio'l'llAbolAt tke.rtlAi'l'l~e. klAVe.re.iCtxe.e. such as the cockle.IAP0i't) trl)"i'l'l()" to SCIAre.sti'l'l(J Scotck WkiS)(l)" ~'l'll.rso'l'l SkOlAid )('l'lOWtklAt 1'Y IS IA~ss-~e.d. too. 1'l'lt-orit<.1\IIAS IA (J1A'l'l)IAS IAwe. :r'l'l tke.twe. sofIA.r IAi'tOii'tte.ve.e.. iCtst -Fe. te.Iiil)"' prodlActioi'ts 1 How cohesive is it? 2 How coherent is it? REFLECTION Read the text that you started (and which your classmates continued) in section A again and answer the questions.) Classroom application De. CCti't ckoose.Ctr Sir} :r w01Aio ii)(e. Read the text below and compare it with the Fern text from section B.i. -Fro~ O1AriitHe.} or 1A'l'll)"tki'l'l(J ii)(e.lt0lA 1Are. Some molluscs. ISlAt l)"01.Then answer the questions.'l'lot psicoi0(Jist} l)"01ACtre.Irii't(J korribie.'l'l Cti'totke. to e.2 The way that a text is organised contributes to its general coherence. Snails and slugs crawl very slowly.-FlAi i-F lt0lA tlA)(e. • o'l'lil)" Ct~'l'lIA!re. many molluscs have shells. ve. pr0(JrCt~~s slAck IAS IAMiss Worid AWlArdor tke. 1 How do the texts both begin? 2 How is the second paragraph of each one different from the first? 3 Can you generalise some generic features of this type of text? (You can refer to the copper text. be.lAse. use their single foot to move around.IASe.swe.Skowi'l'l(J tkrolA(Jk OlAr ioclAi 1\1 tklA'l'l'l'le. like the mussel. Pie.rzrO'l'le. 1\1 pr0(JriA~~ jlAst to spe.ie. so-FIA) wlAiti'l'l(J -For 1A'l'l o'l'lil)" IACce.rri-Fic storzr.1lASe.r )(ii'to o-F de.] (JrCtte. wko ilAl)"s i'l'l kis co~-For1-lAbie.ptlAbie. To protect themselves. otke. b In wh ays is it coherent? c What kind of text (or text type) does it belong to (if any)? .

China. or equivalent) for DoS positions. particularly FeE. We require both experienced teachers (Cambridge Delta. Qualified ELT teachers required.br 2 Work in groups. stating preferred destinations. Language Partners. Please send CV to Language Appointments. What aspects of your qualifications or experience would you need to highlight in applying for it? Compare ideas with a partner. Here are some possible topics: • • • • • learners teachers syllabus materials and resources working conditions . o Staying near family and friends o Travelling o Learning about a new culture and a new language o Working in a school with a good reputation o Gaining any kind of teaching experience Now walk around the room and find someone who has chosen the same three things. Interviews in London mid-July.co. Language Partners recruits for schools around Europe.40 Professional development and finding a job m Warm-up Tick the three things that will most influence you in looking for a teaching job. UK. and have opportunities for new teachers. PO Box 4839. Please send cv to Jenna James. W3. For more information contact a. All ages and levels. Then compare your list with another group's. essential.senna@spschools. University in northern China seeks EFL qualified English speaking graduate to work as an EFL and EAPtutor.languagepartners. o Earning lots of money rn 1 Applying for a job Choose a job advertisement. (Cambridge Celta or equivalent). Willingness to teach exam classes. quoting reference 53712. 207 Academy Terrace. Make a list of questions you could ask at an interview that would be appropriate for almost any teaching context.uk We run three schools in Sao Paulo and require teachers for January start. Visit our website for more information: www. Accommodation provided and good local salary. London. Local language knowledge preferred.

Course element input sessions planning teaching practice lessons teaching post-teaching feedback writing evaluations of your own lessons researching and writing course assignments experiencing the foreign language lesson tutorials with tutors course reading. e. What can you do to keep it 'well iled' and in good working condition? For example. Compare ideas with a partner. handouts.g.Professional development 1 Ratethe following parts of the CELTA course in terms of their impact on your learning. chapters from books observation of colleagues observation of practising teachers informal talk with colleagues other (what. articles. ACTION (having an experience) EXPERIMENTATION REFLECTION (planning the next steps) (reviewing the experience) THEORY BUILDING (concluding from the experience) . how can you build a reflection stage into your :ec ing experience? . That is. learning takes place through cycles of action and reflection. Study the reflective learning cycle and say how it reflects the way the CELTA course was designed and run.ork in pairs. exactly?) Very strong impact Not so strong impact Learning from experience Ihe learning principle that underpins the CELIA course is. Discuss how the learning cycle will continue in the future. essentially. one of 'reflecting on experience'.'.

For example.. your learning style will influence the way you respond to different learning opportunities. the activist may feel less enthusiastic about this aspect of the deal: · . ete. We can characterise these dispositions in this way: the the the the activist: reflector: theorist: pragmatist: 'I'll try anything once... However. a reflector. Howcanyou find out t the answers? • • • • • professional teaching organisations professional newspapers. 3 Readthe text above and decide which ofthe follOWingeacher development activities would suit an t activist. They are looking for volunteers to try out the materials in their classes . Preparesome questions about any ofthe follOWingopics.a theorist. Teachers will be asked to complete a questionnaire and write a short report on their experience using the materials.Research suggests that different people are disposed to different orientations on the learning cycle. websites.' 'What's the theory behind it?' 'How can I apply this in practice?' (adapted from The Manual of Learning Styles Honey and Mumford) In terms of your future teacher development. discussion groups books about teaching/language Diploma/MA courses REFLECTION . reading and discussing articles about language learning asking learners to complete feedback questionnaires observing other teachers team-teaching \ collaborative planning and materials production attending conferences being observed by a director of studies j conducting a small-scale research study k joining an on-line discussion group that focuses on a particular aspect of teaching I taking special responsibility for an aspect of the school's teaching programme 4 Whichof the above activities would suit you? What does this say about your preferredlearning style? a b c d e f g h Practica I steps Workin pairs or groups.' 'I'd like time to think about it. an activist would probably respond positively to this situation: Your school has been asked by a leading ELT publisher to pilot some new teaching materials that they are trialling. journals. and a pragmatist: keeping a teaching journaL or web-log (blog) learning a foreign language .

This usually means that you will be working from the same material. If you're asked to teach one page of a unit of a coursebook. but in all centres the total amount of supervised teaching will add up to six hours for each candidate. each taking their turn in the overall sequence. normally involving other trainees. therefore. to teach. For example. Liaise It's often the case that you will be sharing the lesson with your colleagues. and provides a means for putting into practice the techniques and procedures that are discussed in the input sessions. teaching.Teaching practice Teaching practice (often called TP) is a core component of the course and the one that gives the course its essentially practical nature. so that there is no obvious doubling up. or a specific language item (often called a 'TP point'). . Ask your trainer about the way TP is organised in your centre. don't simply regurgitate the contents of the grammar reference in your lesson plan. To get the maximum benefit from Tp. TP is timetabled continuously throughout the course. It is imperative. Stick to this . Each centre will organise TP differently. Yourjob is to make the teaching point accessible and memorable for the learners. At the same time. TP provides an ongoing cycle of planning. TP prepares you for the reality of the classroom.a section of a coursebook. Consult a grammar reference book (there are some listed in the Reference section) or look at the grammar reference section of your coursebook. is the person who follows on from you depending on your having taught some key vocabulary? Research Do some research into the language area you are going to teach. and reflection. don't teach the whole unit. but it will always involve each trainee teaching at least two different groups (at a minimum of two different levels). If you're asked to teach one specificuse of a grammar structure. and thereby provides an experientially driven model for your future professional development. and to ease some of the anxieties associated with it. Planning Go easy! You will usually be given. don't attempt to teach all its other uses as well. By giving you the opportunity to teach classes of real learners. You will also need to check which parts of the lesson sequence are dependent on what has gone before. that you are each clear as to which sections of the material you are doing.don't try and teach everything you know about English! If you're asked to teach six items of vocabulary. And. After the lesson. Lessons may vary in length. don't attempt more than six. the trainer will conduct a feedback session. you may find the following advice helpful.

Structure your lesson Plan around a basic lesson format that makes sense to you and that will make sense to the learners.or thirty-minute lesson it's possible to have three different activities. don't stay up all night planning a twenty-minute lesson. Remember that it doesn't create a good impression if you have to leave the room for something you have forgotten.so that some of the focus is on you. In other words. Teaching Be prepared Make sure you have everything that you need with you. or Writi.allow for the unexpected. the more chance you will lose your way. for example. Be economical Don't try and re-invent the wheel. it's also a good idea to have one extra activity 'up your sleeve'.or listening. If you are playing audio material. some is on the learners. or speaking. make sure it is set up to play at the right place. such as photocopies. At the same time. For example. think how you will vary the focus of the lesson . Also. or a new leamer. Remember that it is your teaching skills that are being developed. the beginning might be a short ice-breaker. . a middle and an end. such as one that has a beginning. the fewer opportunities there will be for spontaneity and learner participation. e. and three different types of interaction.flg. Be resourceful Don't overburden yourself with materials. not your ability as a materials writer or graphic artist.g. 2 Ask your trainer about lesson planning at your centre. or a problem you hadn't foreseen. If you have been asked to teach some coursebook material. The more 'stuff' you bring into the classroom. and that it is not pushed to the end of the lesson by lots of preparatory stages. and the end might be personalised practice. Build in variety At the planning stage. the more you attempt to 'plug every hole' in the lesson.. make sure you have sufficient copies. Don't try and put more than is realistically achievable into your lesson. This will often be specified in the TP point. a late start. such as the overhead projector . At the very least you will need a board pen.unless you feel that they add real value to the lesson. the middle might be the presentation of a grammar structure. just in case you have time to spare.Manage your time Try not to spend much longer planning the lesson than would be reasonable in real working conditions. Make· sure your plan foregrounds this core activity. Prioritise Decide what the main activity of the lesson should be: reading. If you have prepared a worksheet. and some is on a reading text or listening passage. or with technological aids. Even in a twenty. or things will go wrong. and keep your plan flexible. you don't have to rewrite it or redesign it. for example. Be flexible Don't overplan .

by answering questions that learners may try to address to you. Good lines to achieve this include: How was your day? Did you have a good weekend? What are you doing after the lesson / tonight / at the weekend? And ask the learner(s) to ask you the same or similar questions. This is a common courtesy. If there are two learners. names. don't rush. they can ask and answer these questions in a pair. Adapt Even if you think you are running out of time. or checking homework.even if only just one. and not on your supervisor or your colleagues. or reviewing the last lesson. say. It may be better to skip a stage. or your trainer. and are not sure what to do next. This is not just a question of courtesy: you will probably be asked to comment on your colleagues' lessons during the feedback session. and you are likely to be sharing the same class with your colleagues. so it is imperative that you start and finish on time. you can learn a lot about the learners by observing the way they respond to different techniques and teaching styles. Indicate to the learners that they should ask the teacher who is currently teaching them. Witty asides to your colleagues are likely to be misinterpreted by the learners. Remember that during the feedback on the lesson you will have a chance to talk through YQur 'in-flight' decisions. Look calm You are likely to feel nervous. Observe When you are not teaching but are observing the lessons of your colleagues. Focus on the learners Focus your attention on the learners throughout your lesson. Start on time The class starts when there are learners in the room . Be prepared to abandon or adapt parts of your planned lesson if you feel that these parts are simply not working as planned. organise with a colleague. Don't overrun You only have a limited amount of time to teach your lesson. professional lesson.Learn their names Learn and use the learners' management a lot easier. but you don't need to look nervous. or standing. Try and find a 'still point' in the classroom and stay there: it may be seated. Stop and consult your plan: the learners know that this is an experimental situation. only five minutes left. so they are not expecting a totally fluid. Spend this time chatting. it also makes classroom . some means by which they signal that you have. But avoid becoming involved in the lesson in any way . Try and maintain a natural speaking voice. But don't launch into your prepared lesson when the bulk of the class still haven't arrived. as if you were not really in a classroom at all. don't panic. If you are worried that you may run over time. Also. if it means getting to your main activity.for example.this helps defuse the tension: Don't panic! If you lose your way in the lesson. give them your full attention. Exploit opportunities for laughter .

You directed your attention at one half of the class only. You allowed one or two learners to dominate. 5 Readthese more positivecomments. from single words and phrases to fuller utterances. You responded naturally to what the learners said. While the learners were reading the text. " " •. Your wrap-up at the end was a nice way to close the lesson. I liked the way you made sure all the learners had a chance to participate. It was good that you gave the instructions for the task before putting the learners into their groups . •• •• •. before correcting the way that they were saying it. •• •• •• •• •. You wrote everything on the board in capital letters. You kept a sort of running commentary on what you were doing. . Finally. you kept distracting them by giving extra instructions. I was impressed by the fact that you used the learners' names throughout. I liked the way you encouraged the learners to expand on their contributions. while keeping an eye on the rest of the class. Whichones do you hope willbe applied to you? Compareideas with a partner. It was a good idea. •• •. . You added 'OK?' to virtually everything you said. here are some common criticisms that have been collected from trainers' assessments of TP lessons. •. You adopted a rather unnatural delivery.• You were very centred. You were talking to the learners while you were writing on the board with your back to them. •• •. demonstrating the task with one of the learners. you spent a lot of time helping one learner. without noticing that the other learners had finished and were chatting in Portuguese. you asked 'Do you understand?' You didn't give time for learners to answer your questions. When you realised that the learners were confused. 4 Workin pairs. you stopped the task and gave them clear instructions. and you were able to draw the learners' attention. I liked the way you provided individual help to learners when they needed it. or someone hard of hearing.3 Askyourtrainer about howTPis conducted at your centre. You set up the groupwork task nicely. You started giving the instructions for the activity before you had got their full attention. Discusshowyou could avoidthem. •. The boardwork was legible and well organised. •• •• •• •• •• •. Everything that the learners said you wrote onto the board. •• •. in a rather random way. After each new word that you presented. or going to do. but you didn't go round the groups and check that they were doing it properly. throughout the lesson.Chooseone or two ofthe followingcriticisms. You used a natural but intelligible speaking style. as if you were speaking to a child. During the pairwork stage. before they went into pairs.

. a private written log of your experience learning to becom~ a teacher.or the TP point.. I achieved my main aim partially/completely. Keep a journal You may be asked to keep a training journal . take some time to reflect on the lesson... You can use any of the reflection tasks to structure your journal. for example.. Or: @ I didn't achieve my subsidiary aims because . My subsidiary aim(s) was/were . think of it as a learning process. you do not need to use all of them . As evidence I would mention .. As evidence I would mention . Effective teachers adapt to the constraints that are imposed on them. Below there are some ways of framing the reflecting process. @ @ @ @ What What What What happened according to plan? didn't happen according to plan? happened that I didn't expect? would I do differently next time. and why? Complete the sentences.Post-teach ing Accentuate the positive Few if any lessons go as planned.) Or you may like to come back to them when you start your first job. @ @ @ My main aim in this lesson was . Think about your lesson and answer the questions... The important thing is that you can extract some action points from the lesson that you will be able to apply in the future. or the coursebook. don't disclaim responsibility for the lesson by. not only its weaknesses.. (Your trainer may assign one of these tasks as the basis for the post-lesson feedback session. Reflect After the lesson.. Even if you weren't satisfied with the lesson. Or: @ @ @ @ I didn't achieve my main aim because . there are some special journal tasks as well.. in the form of reflection tasks. so don't punish yourself if you feel that yours didn't.. blaming the learners. Try to identify the strengths of the lesson. . I achieved my subsidiary aims partially/completely. In any case. Take responsibility At the same time.that is.choose formats with which you are most comfortable.

Reflection task 3 Complete these sentences in as many ways as you can: " I was happy with the way . Write some more objectives foryour next lesson. Reflection task 5 Before the lesson. 3 I involved all the learners.. write down two or three personal objectives you hope to achieve. . What did you learn from this lesson? Summarise what you learned in the form of statements. . " I wasn't so happy with the way . 5 = totally agree) Statement 1 Evaluation o o o o o 1 1 1 1 1 I achieved what I was aiming to do. " Next time... For example: " Why " When " How 7 7 7 " How much . " I learned that " I learned that " I learned that . Reflection task 4 Mark your evaluation of the lesson on these clines (0 = totally disagree. evaluate the extent to which you achieved them. 7 ..... What are you still unsure about? Summa rise your uncertainties in the form of questions. I'd . 4 I used the time effectively. After the lesson.. 5 I used the materials/aids effectively. 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 234 234 5 5 2 I managed the class effectively..

Journal task 1: narrative Write a narrative account of the lesson. Subject* Planning Classroom management Use of resources/aids Manner and rapport Dealing with language issues Dealing with error Dealingwith individuals Achievement of aims Summary _. Grade (A..• •. I would like to do more .. I don't really want to do more . prOVidesentence stems for the learners to complete: • • • . saying what happened. Complete the table.D) Comments Reflection task 8 Work in groups. • Explain any departures from the plan. I learned .. Collect the feedback forms from the learners at the end of the lesson and compare their responses with your own evaluation of the lesson. I enjoyed it when .. Typicalquestions might be: • • " .but it is not to compare teachers. Design a short feedback questionnaire for the learners to complete in the last few minutes of each lesson... The object of the questionnaire is to give you feedback on the effectiveness of the lessons ..• What was the most important or most interesting thing you learned in this lesson? What activity would you like to do again? What activity would you not like to do again? Was there anything missing from the lesson? Alternatively. • Draw some conclusions from this experience..... • Compare this to your plan. .Reflection task 7 Write a report on your lesson. I didn't like it so much when ..

What have you learned about giving feedback? journal task 6: self-evaluation •• •• •• •• and teaching future At periodic points in your journal.a significant moment that stands out in your recall of the lesson. . or by the learners themselves. •• You should do this task with the consent of the learner concerned. for example. (l998)Beyot::i Training.such as at the end of each week ifyou are on a full-time courseanswer these questions!: •• •• •• •• •• How What How How What am I developing as a language teacher? are my strengths? What are my limitations at present? can I improve my teaching? am I helping my learners? satisfaction does language teaching give me? 1 adapted from Richards. How useful was the feedback? Was it fair? Was it balanced? Did the feedback match your own assessment of the lesson? How do you think you will take the feedback into account in planning lessons? . and Ro. and keep a journal record of his or her progress over a number of lessons. This will allow you to judge. p.by your trainer. journal task 4: recording the lesson Audio. B. J. Record your reflections on the feedback that you were given . by your colleagues. J. In Richards.or video-record a segment of your lesson (you can ask a colleague to do the recording). •• Why was this event significant? •• What did you learn from it? journal task 3: focus on a learner Choose one learner to focus on. Reflective thinking through Journal Writing. that is . You can then ask the learner to read your account and to make their own comments.journal task 2: key event Focus on a 'key event' in the lesson. to what extent your inferences were correct. Play it back. •• Record your own assessment and those of your colleagues. Analyse this section with a view to answering questions such as: •• •• •• •• How natural is my classroom language? How intelligible am I? How clear are my instructions? Do I have any obtrusive mannerisms (either vocal or gestural)? How naturally do I interact with the learners? task 5: feedback ard reflection journal Record your reflections on the lesson. CUP. 170.. and transcribe a section of it.

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