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~ 2013 ~
For Project Developers, PV Professionals, Investors & Stand-alone users
PHOTOVOLTAIC LOOKOUT 2013
Launched on 7th DEC 2012
DISCLAIMER This is a Reference Guide for Investors, project Developers and PV professionals. This Document is a result of editing, compilation and research from related sources done by Bepmax Solar Pvt Ltd. This is a Promotional document intended to provide information and trends in solar industry, so Bepmax Solar Pvt Ltd is not responsible for any assurance and loss (if) to user of this document, sources and analysis formats. We recommend consulting in a situation of Confusion. Free Information if copied will include its original source/Author/Document. This Document is propriety of Bepmax Solar Pvt ltd and the information provided should not be used for re-sale purpose or Selling after Printing purpose. This is a free document and the CD will be provided to potential investors, analysts and Consultants on request to Bepmax Solar via mail.
~ INDEX ~
1 Technology market
1.1 PV Panels – Types, Comparison and Top Manufacturers……………………….. 1.2 Inverters – Type and Top Manufacturers…… 1.3 Trackers & Mounting Structures 1.4 Certifications & Standards CD attached which contains the .pdf file of this reference guide with many more files like Govt. Policies, Drafts, and Excel sheets for financial assessment, MNRE documents and Orders, Datasheets of Top Ten Solar Panels and Inverters, and many.
2 Utility Scale Projects
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Site Selection Factors and meteorology Selecting Technology & EPC Determining Generation and Losses Project Development Stages Operation and Maintenance Project Financial Model A Typical study on 1MW Plant
Where Are you
3 Photovoltaics in Small Scale
PV Applications in small scale Grid Connected and Stand-Alone Systems Government Subsidies and Tax benefits Registration Procedure for SI, RESCO and other with MNRE 3.5 Steps to Register the Solar Project 3.6 Benefits of using Solar
4 A lookout on REC
4.1 REC Mechanism 4.2 Different Project Models of REC.
1 . CIGS) Thin-film PV is the fastest growing sector of the solar cell manufacturing industry. The trade-off for less expense with polycrystalline cells. These panels are square in shape with a mosaic-like structure. a-Si. is their lower efficiencies over mono-crystalline silicon modules. Poly-crystalline solar modules are made from a block of silicon that contains multiple crystals. The poly-crystalline modules are much cheaper to produce than mono-crystalline due to their less stringent crystal structures. therefore requiring less semiconductor material. There are three leading manufactured thin-film PV modules presently: CdTe or Cadmium Telluride thin-film currently has the lowest Wp (watt peak) production cost due to a balance between ease of production and higher cell efficiency (currently 6 – 11%: limited to 31% maximum).1 TECHNOLOGY MARKET 1. They are extremely durable and have the highest commercial power conversion efficiencies. growing the single crystalline structure in the manufacturing process is time consuming and extremely expensive.1 PV Panels – Types. plastic or metal. Thin-film cells are manufactured by applying very thin layers of semiconductor material to inexpensive materials such as glass. Comparison and Top Manufacturers PV Panel Types Hybrid Crystalline Silicon Mono-Si Poly-Si a-Si Poly Crystalline Panels are being used most and are the most reliable panels Thin Film Family CIS / CIGS CdTe Mono-crystalline silicon solar modules are the workhorse of the solar industry. however. However. Thin-film PV (CdTe. making them far less expensive than crystalline silicon modules. Thin-film semiconductors absorb light more easily than c-Si.
Microcrystalline technology is used as an upgrading technology to boost the amorphous silicon products to efficiencies of around 10%. yet they have the highest efficiencies Irradiance Temperature effect Output Transportation Mounting Structure Land Required Inverter Cost Stabilization Availability Health Hazards Power Degradation Plant maintenance Repair Market Coverage 2 . and averaging around 10%. CdTe Not Guaranteed 6-9% Better performance with diffuse radiations Lesser effect of temperature High and Variable High Cost More structures required. CdTe) High in initial 5-7 years Highest maintenance required Difficult due to complex structure 11% Hybrid Models are less known. Comparing photovoltaic technologies Parameter Handling Power Efficiency Crystalline Mono/Poly Better protection against breakage 12-19% Used particularly for Normal radiations Temperature can effect Output High and stable Low Cost Fewer Mounting structures required and Light weight AL structures can be used at best 5-5. and this does not currently work on steel.5 Acres/ MW High Inverter Flexibility High Cost per Watt Stable output from initial stages onwards Easily Available Made From Non-Toxic Materials(Si) Less Less maintenance required Relatively easy 88% Thin Film a-Si. There are difficulties in controlling the uniformity of the active layer on larger formats.CIGS and CdTe Panels yield More Production and Give good results in Diffuse Radiation a-Si or Amorphous Silicon thin-film uses a highly a proven but slower layer deposition manufacturing process which results in lower efficiencies (currently 6 – 8%: limited to 12% in-lab). CIGS. also high quality structures required 7 Acres/MW Limited Inverter Flexibility Low than Crystalline Stability achieved after 4-6 Weeks Limited Supply Toxic materials used for thin film (Cds. CIGS or Copper Indium Gallium Selenide thin-film has been able to reach the highest efficiencies in production: 13 – 14% max.
Thin Film Thin Film m-Si. Company Solland Solar Siliken LDK Solar Vikram Wiosun A2peak CNPV Latitude Solar JA Solar CSUN Module Efficiency 16.5 1. 5. Datasheets # 1. 2. Support. 9.63% 15.67% 15. Source: Solar Plaza. it is inversely proportional to land used.0 1. 10.2 2. P-Si m-Si. P-Si m-Si. 6. 10 .54% 15. Top Ten Manufacturers By capacity. Top Ten By Module Efficiency (Poly-Si). P-Si m-Si.8 2.4 2.40% 15. 3. P-Si. P-Si m-Si. 6.5 Country China Various Various Various China Various China China China China Type m-Si.The Top Ten Efficiency of PV Panel is stated as production per m2 .24% Module Type Sunweb SLK72P6L-305 LDK-200P-24(s) Eldora 280 (300) E300P P3-235-60 (250) CNPV-300P Latitude P6-60/6 (250) JAP6-60-250 CSUN295-72P Cost per Wp. Technical History and Power Output are some factors to be kept in mind while selecting A PV panel. Thin Film m-Si. Source: Solar Plaza # 1.7 1.00% 15. 4. Availability. 4. 7.0 2.29% 15.30% 15.3 2. 5. 2.70% 15.9 1. Company LDK Solar Sharp Solar Suntech First Solar JA Solar Canadian Solar Trina Yingli Green Hanwa Solarone Jinko Solar Capacity ( GW) 3. P-Si m-Si. P-Si m-Si. 8. 3. 8.50% 15. 9. 7. P-Si 3 . P-Si.
Few inverters are compatible with thin film panels in comparison of crystalline Micro-Inverter 100 – 400 W Used In Test Projects Central Inverter Examples:- 4 .2 Inverters – Type and Top Manufacturers Basic Types.25 MW DESCRIPTION Commonly u s e d i n m e g a w a t t -scale p h o t o v o l t a i c power plants in India and foreign countries. Typically used for domestic rooftop applications. as compatibility with each other is necessary. Your Inverter output is your Final output of Production TYPE Central Inverter POWER 100 kW – 2. They offer multiple controls at a more basic level compared to central inverters. reducing module mismatch losses and simplifying plant maintenance. By size and Way of use Inverter is heart of solar power Plant. May be in a grid-tied or stand-alone mode. hence. A single inverter controls a large portion of the plant. String Inverter 5 – 40 kW Domestic Inverter 1-5 kW Inverter selection has to be done after selecting PV Panels. A single inverter controls a single or limited string of modules.1.
7. MPPT is Maximum Power Point Tracking The Top Ten Top Ten by Efficiency (100 kW).00% 97. 4.String & Domestic Inverter Examples:- Most of the Domestic Inverters also Referred as kW inverters includes Charge Controller and MPPT feature.20% 97. 2. 10.60% 97.00% 98.10% 98. Source: Solar Plaza and Datasheets # 1. 3.00% Ingecon Sun 100 TL Suntrio-TL100K PVI-110.00% 97. Company Ingeteam SAJ New Energy Power One ABB Samil Power SMA ELTEK TBEA Sungrow Santerno Efficiency Model 98.00% 98. 8. 5. 9.40% 98. 6.60% 97.0-TL PVS800-100kW Solar Ocean 100TL Sunny Central 100TL Theia TL -100kW GC-100k3 SG-100K3 TG 100 NA 5 .
10. (v) Data Logging and SCADA Facilities for Plant Operation and Production Overview SCADA Technology Offered by Inverters SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. (ii) converting the DC power into AC power. Company SMA Power One Kaco New Energy Satcon GE Energy Ingeteam ABB Schnieder Electric REFU Sptunik Eng. 4. photovoltaic inverter become essential to convert this DC into AC power for either direct AC applications or feeding into the grid. 2. (iii) in case of grid-tied inverters. Country Germany USA Germany USA Global Spain Global Europe Europe Switzerland As all commercial photovoltaic modules today generate only DC power. 6. 5.Top Ten by Sales. from mechanical regulators and analogue control wires to fully-digital controllers over fibre optics. and (iv) offer safety and protection to and from the photovoltaic system. which are then connected to the photovoltaic inverter. This tremendous progress in industrial control technology has made available low cost and highly reliable control hardware and software for power plant automation and utility control. synchronizing the output voltage and frequency to match the grid parameters. 6 . 9. 8. # 1. SCADA technology has come a long way. 7. 3. The functionality of photovoltaic inverters includes: (i) maximizing the output power from the modules by maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Photovoltaic modules are usually connected in series and then in parallel. a term used by industry as a blanket term for the control systems employed across industrial plants and the electrical grid.
Production. Plant Supervision. Daily Weather report. Example: Hierarchical Diagram showing the Data Acquisition from Field level To Corporate Office by “Brilliance Solar Inverters & SUNIQ.Most of the central inverters are bundled with SCADA Software and Data logging Equipment. etc. are Some features of SCADA used in Solar Plants 7 . Voltage and Current Levels. by GE Energy”. Inverter Output.
PV Panel E N S W W Mounting Structure EARTH 8 .P = 19 – 20 o o TILT Angle M.P = 23 o -25 o R. so if you are situated in north of equator than u will see sun in southern direction.J = 25 o – 27 o Delhi = 30 o PV modules must be mounted on a structure. it is situated in Northern Hemisphere. So the panels should be leaned according to the tilt angle depending on the location in south direction. so the sun will be seen towards south Direction.H = 21 o – 23 o Gujarat = 23 o -25 o M. Mounting structures may be fixed or tracking.M = 17o-19 o A.1. to keep them oriented in the correct direction and to provide them with structural support and protection. Taking Example of INDIA.3 Trackers and Mounting Structures Theory of Mounting Structures Generalised tilt Angles T. The Fact Behind this is that sun rises from EAST at the Equator and sets at WEST at equator.
but many other approaches are used as well. Also the Cost of Single Axis Trackers is high and it requires More Land than Normal. For Indian sites. The sun's position in the sky varies both with the seasons and time of day as the sun moves across the sky. Dual Axis Trackers – Adjustment of Tilt. These trackers are based on hydraulic Technology. a movable mirror that reflects the moving sun to a fixed location. Solar powered equipment works best when pointed at or near the sun. Fixed Structures are Cheaper and require less maintenance. so a solar tracker can increase the effectiveness of such equipment over any fixed position. The tilt angle and orientation is generally optimised for each PV power plant according to location. Seasonal Trackers – This type of tracker have the facility of adjusting the face according to season to season. There are many types of solar trackers.Need of Sun Tracking A solar tracker is a device for orienting a day lighting reflector. of varying costs. facing true south. One well-known type of solar tracker is the heliostat. at the cost of additional system complexity. Though the project cost increases by 20% but the productio n increases by 25% annually General Types Mounting Structures Trackers Fixed Structures Seasional Trackers Single Axis Trackers Dual Axis Trackers Galvanised Steel Structures Aluminium Structures Fixed Structures: -Fixed mounting systems keep the rows of modules at a Fixed tilt angle while facing a fixed angle of orientation. By using this tracker there will be 7 to 9% Increase in Production. Production increases by 36% annually by using Dual axis trackers 9 . they are very costly and requires much Space. sophistication. Single Axis Trackers – This Type of trackers provides a facility of Adjustment of Tilt and Angle of Orientation according to the Movement of Sun. solar photovoltaic panel or concentrating solar reflector or lens toward the sun. and performance. the optimum tilt angle is generally between 10º and 35º. This helps to maximise the total annual incident irradiation And total annual energy yield. So this Provides Annual increases of 25% In Production. Single axis Trackers are the best. Azimuth and Angle of Orientation with back tracking is done by using this trackers.
Comply with the national Electric Code (nEC). Comment The standard certification uses a 2. The modules perform to at least 90% of the manufacturer‘s nominal power. durability.S. High dielectric strength. IEC 60364-4-41 Protection against electric shock.400 Pa pressure.400 Pa conditions. 2).1. 2). Safety Class III – Low voltage applications. 3). Safety Class 0 – restricted access applications. (UL) is an independent U. Insulation thickness and distances.4 Certifications & Standards PV Module Standards TEST Description Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – design Qualification and type approval. Mandatory in the European Economic Area. IEC 61215 These standards are accepted in India and one should buy products with the same standards IEC 61646 En/IEC 61730 PV module safety qualification. IEC 61701 Resistance to salt mist and corrosion Conformité Européenne (EC) UL 1703 The certified product conforms to the EU health. safety and environmental Requirements.S. but an additional test specifically considers the additional degradation of thin Film modules. Part 2 of the certification defines three different Application Classes: 1). Underwriters Laboratories Inc. 3).based product safety testing certification company which Is a nationally recognised Testing Laboratory (nrTL). 4). Module safety qualification. oSHA and the national Fire Prevention Association. 10 . Certification by a nrTL is mandatory in the U. Safety Class II – General applications. Required for modules being installed near the coast or for Maritime applications. Module safety assessed based on: 1). Modules in heavy snow locations may be tested under more stringent 5. Thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – design qualification And type approval. Mechanical stability. very similar to the IEC 61215 certification.
Generic standard Immunity for industrial Environments. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Generic standards. Commercial and lightindustrial environments. Electronic equipment for use in power installations. Radio disturbance characteristics. Emission standard for industrial environments. Information technology Equipment. Immunity for residential. Emission standard for residential. Generic standards. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). commercial and light-industrial Environments. It is Mandatory in India to Procure Panels and Inverters according to Government recognized certifications and standards otherwise your application for setting utility scale plant will be rejected and you will not get subsidy in case of Captive standalone user En 61000-6-1: 2007 En 61000-6-2: 2005 En 61000-6-3: 2007 En 61000-6-4: 2007 En 55022: 2006 En 50178: 1997 EC 61683: 1999 11 . Generic standards. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Photovoltaic systems – Power conditioners – Procedure for measuring efficiency. Limits and Methods of measurement.Inverter Standards TEST Description Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).
otherwise transmission can be a bottleneck for your Project It would be good if there is would be a facility of broad road accessing location and the estimate the distance of Location from nearest metro city. The land should be nearby 66KVA or More Substation.3 Acres of Land Check whether Development is allowed on Land. 1.2 Utility Scale Projects 2. civil aviation or reserved area. Slope etc. Distance from Substation and Cost of land are the first three factors to be considered before selecting a land 3 4 5 6 Adequate Land 7 Legal Factors and Surroundings 8 Water and Electricity Availability 9 Distance From Substation 10 Transportation 11 Cost 12 . Always this factor would be the first parameter to keep in mind. Rocky. Any obstacle blocking sun and terrain needs to be studied Check weather south direction has any obstacle. Depending on which the Mounting Structures can be decided Per MW Requirement Mono-Si – 5 Acres Poly-Si – 6 Acres Thin Film – 7.5 Acres of Land Dual Axis Trackers – Add. If not get permissions for the same or use the alternative way This is to be the most priority parameter to be kept in mind.5 Acres Single Axis Trackers – Add. If located get Permissions from concerned Agency Check whether Plenty of Water and Electricity is available. Check whether land is not located in forest. And study the horizon Check the record of natural calamities on location of land Do soil test on Land. Flat.1 Site selection Factors and Meteorology Key Parameters for Selection of Land # 1 Parameter Solar irradiation Land Terrain and Nearby Shadows Clear Optimization and Horizon Storm and Earthquake history Soil Test Comment This is most important factor. 2. first you should have irradiation data of land. The land cost should not be more than 15 Lacks per Acre to get a good Investment returns. 2 Solar Irradiation.
usually an hour (I) or a day (H). and long wave radiation (greater than 3 µm) is emitted by the atmosphere. meteorology. For the purpose of this report. agriculture. IMD and so on were compared. oceanography and ecology. The data is available for horizontal surfaces and must be suitably converted for inclined solar collectors. Data maybe for beam. and for a horizontal or inclined surface. The solar spectrum. The most common measurements of solar radiation is total radiation on a horizontal surface often referred to as „global radiation‟ on the surface.3 to 3 µm. or the range of wavelengths received from the Sun are depicted in the figure below. environment. Diffuse Radiation – the solar radiation received from the Sun after its direction has been changed due to scattering by the atmosphere. Irradiation (J/m2) – the incident energy per unit area on a surface. It is measured by a pyrehiliometer. solar collectors for heating. collectors or any other body at ordinary temperatures. agrology. Short wave radiation is received from the Sun. Diffuse Radiation in simple word is the Radiation which hits the earth after passing through cloud. hydrology. NASA. It is measured by shading Pyrenometer. Monthly average daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface is represented as H. Thin film panels give good performance in such kind of conditions The primary requirement for the design of any solar power project is accurate solar radiation data. solar radiation data are a fundamental input for solar energy applications such as photovoltaic systems for electricity generation. It is also referred as direct radiation. and complete and accurate solar radiation data at a specific region are of considerable significance for such research and application fields as architecture. in the range of 0. relative humidity and temperature. limnology. chemical and biological processes on the earth‟s surface. Total Solar Radiation – the sum of beam and diffused radiation on a surface. and hourly total radiation on a horizontal surface is represented by I. Data may be instantaneously measured (irradiance) or integrated over a period of time (irradiation) usually one hour or day. while others used the number of rainy days. measured over one hour periods and averaged over the entire month.Site Meteorology and Measurements Solar radiation basics and definition Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical. Definitions and terminology Beam Radiation – solar radiation received from the Sun without being scattered by the atmosphere and propagating along the line joining the receiving surface and the sun. solar air conditioning climate control in buildings and passive solar devices Several empirical formulae have been developed to calculate the solar radiation using various parameters. All these sources specify global irradiance. 13 . diffuse or total radiation. found by integration of irradiation over a specified time. It is essential to know the method used for measuring data for accurate design. The symbol G is used to denote irradiation. sunshine hours and a factor that depends on latitude and altitude. Irradiance (W/m2) – the rate at which incident energy is incident on a surface of unit area. It is also important to know the types of measuring instruments used for these measurements. It does not have a unique direction and also does not follow the fundamental principles of optics. industry. It is measured by Pyrenometer. Some works used the sunshine duration others used the sunshine duration. data sources such as NREL. Besides.
The stations are depicted on the map below (Fig ). Solar radiation is measured using Pyroheliometers and pyranometers. Below Factors are need to be assessed while conducting site meteorology Solar Irradiation Horizontal and diffuse irradiation Site meteorology Your Generation mainly depends on the Meteorology Factors mentioned to right Wind Speed Air temperature Sunrise and Sunset Measurements may be direct or indirect. Unfortunately. in most areas of the world. In India. measured at the outer surface of Earth‟s atmosphere. Indirect methods use satellite data. Direct methods are those involving the use of devices such as Pyroheliometers and pyranometers at radiation stations. in a plane perpendicular to the rays Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) . large scale measurements are carried out by the India Meteorological Department at 45 radiation observatories with data loggers at four of these stations. Inverted pyranometers and Sunphotometers are used for measuring reflected solar irradiance and solar spectral irradiance and turbidity respectively. obtained from the IMD Pune website. Another method of acquiring data is through mathematical modelling and extrapolation of data using variables such as sunshine hours. This modelled data generally is not very accurate for 14 . that is.The solar constant is the amount of incoming solar radiation per unit area. the angle of incidence of solar radiation with the normal of the collector is zero throughout the day.Solar Constant . solar radiation measurements are not easily available due to financial. or extrapolation to arrive at values for radiation at a place. technical or institutional limitations. A Thermoelectric Pyranometer with a shading ring is used for measurement of diffuse radiation. Ångström and Thermoelectric Pyroheliometers are used for measurement for direct solar radiation and global solar radiation is measured using the Thermoelectric Pyranometer.It is the direct component of the solar radiation incident normal to the collector. the number of sunshine hours. The solar radiation data should be measured continuously and accurately over the long term. cloud cover and humidity.
wind speed and direction. Further inaccuracies arise in micro-climates and areas near mountains. WRDC (World Radiation Data Centre) and so on. The following are the key features of the some data sources considered Meteonorm Provides data of more than 8. the data needs to be purchased. Time periods 15 . detailed knowledge of atmospheric conditions and adjustments to produce reasonable results. several reasons. Some of these agencies provide data free of cost and with others. or snow cover. this data can be accessed free of cost online Sources Sources of radiation data Radiation data is available from various sources. and can be obtained by specifying the coordinates of the location. NREL. sunshine duration. The measured parameters are monthly means of global radiation. such as IMD. large bodies of water. Meteonorm. NASA.055 weather stations. Models require complex calibration procedures. humidity. Also. The data is available in near real time for daily averages and for 3 hour intervals. temperature. The third source of radiation data is satellite measured data such as that provided by NASA. days with precipitation. precipitation. NASA data is available for any location on Earth.
direct. At all these stations. The user may import data for use in the models. measurement of global solar radiation is being carried out while at a few selected stations other parameters like diffuse. Srinagar. precipitation and wind speed are available. net. and hence RETScreen data is also free. RETScreen RETScreen is Canadian software which holds a complete database for any location in the world. 3TIER 3TIER provides custom reports enabling assessment for commercial and utilityscale solar projects.1961-90 and 1996-2005 for temperature. the main ones being the WRDC and the NASA irradiance data. Based on a satellite derived 11 to 13-year time-series. Pune. humidity. fortnightly airborne soundings are made with radio metersondes to measure directly the vertical distribution of the infrared radiation flux and radiation cooling from surface up to a height of 20 Km or more in the free atmosphere. but they have data till 1997 and 2005 respectively 3TIER Provide the Present date Data and meteorology and are best and accurate. They had a charge for this service. at New Delhi. Data loggers have been introduced at four stations viz. Thiruvananthapuram. Calcutta and Bhuvaneshwar. These data are available free of cost. IMD IMD has 45 radiation observatories recording various radiation parameters. NASA and WRDC data are available free of cost. Jodhpur. Radiometersonde ascents are being conducted regularly at Maitri. Jaipur and Thiruvananthapuram. Satellite data is used for areas with low density of weather stations. These are monthly averages from 22 years of data. Patna. this product includes the intensity and variability of irradiance values and additional data on wind Speed and temperature Data from RETScreen and NASA are available for free. This organization provides Full View Solar Site Climate Variability Analysis (CVA) which describes a complete picture of the solar resources at required site. Interpolation models are provided in the software to calculate mean values for any site in the world. This data is not freely available. optimised for using the best available data at each location from about 20 sources. Temperatures and wind velocities are also provided probably with good reliability. Besides the measurements on the surface. New Delhi. the Indian Antarctic station also. But for large scale projects 3TIER meteorology consultation in must 16 . and must be purchased along with the Meteonorm software. netterrestrial and reflected radiation and atmospheric turbidity are also measured. Nagpur. Global solar energy data is available for 1195 ground sites. NASA NASA provides over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters.
he can have a good idea of the expected yield averaged over the long term. In any given year.o Variability in Solar Irradiation In terms of irradiation. Source SolarGIS © 2012 GeoModel Solar s. At least 10 years of data are usually required to give a reasonably confident assessment of the variation. the total annual global irradiation on a horizontal plane varies from the long term average due to climatic fluctuations. To help lenders understand the risks and perform a sensitivity analysis. 17 . it is important to quantify the limits of the inter-annual variation.r.Solar Irradiation map of India. This can be achieved by assessing the long-term irradiation data (in the vicinity of the site) Sourced from nearby MET stations or satellites. the solar resource is inherently intermittent. This means that though The plant owner may not know the energy yield to expect in any given year.
When ordering a large number of modules. Some manufacturers Provide 10 Year Warranty on Workmanship.2. The conditions listed in both the power guarantee and product guarantee are Important. Amorphous silicon modules generally perform better under shaded conditions than crystalline silicon modules. depending on the local light conditions. Many of them show a better response in low light levels. Power guarantee – In addition to the product guarantee. it should be realised that each technology has examples of high quality and low quality products from different manufacturers. Many developers employ the services of an independent consultant for this reason. When choosing between high efficiency-high cost modules and low efficiency low Cost modules. and vary between manufacturers. Different technologies have a differing spectral response and so will be better suited for use in certain locations. multi crystalline silicon and thin film amorphous silicon. When choosing modules. with 5-6 years being the usual duration. most manufacturers grant nominal power guarantees. the following key aspects should be considered: The aim is to keep the levelled cost of electricity (LCoE) at a minimum. the cost and availability of land and plant components will have an impact. So far no module manufacturer has offered a power output guarantee beyond 25 years. Some companies guarantee a longer period.1 Selecting technology and EPC Contractor Module Selection Source and Reference: utility scale solar power plant by International Finance Corporation This makes choosing a module a more difficult process than it may first appear. They do provide good Production and also are technically sound 18 . Chinese Modules from good Manufacturer are the best Choice for Economic project. These vary between manufacturers but atypical power guarantee stipulates that the modules will deliver 90% of the original nominal power after 10 years and 80% after 25 years. The value of the temperature coefficient of power will be an important consideration for modules installed in hot climates. Cabling and support structures per MWp installed than low efficiency modules. it is recommended to have a sample of modules independently tested to establish the tolerance. When choosing between module technologies such as mono-crystalline silicon. High efficiency modules require significantly less land. Product guarantee – Manufacturers provide a product guarantee ensuring that modules will be fully functional for a minimum of 3 years. The degradation properties and long term stability of modules should be understood.
100 kW) until a replacement is obtained. With central inverters. High efficiency inverters should be sought. For sites with different shading conditions or orientations. If a fault arises with a string inverter.Inverter Selection Source and Reference: utility scale solar power plant by International Finance Corporation Criteria Project size Description Size influences the inverter connection concept. The way the efficiency has been defined should be carefully considered. oversizing inverters slightly could be required. If modules of different specifications are to be used. The national grid code might require the inverters to be capable of reactive power control. inverter mean Time between failures (MTBF) figures and track record should be assessed. This may favour string inverters in Certain locations. only a small proportion of the plant output is lost. which is the level of harmonic content allowed in the inverter‘s AC power output. In that case. The grid code also sets requirements on THD. Central inverters are commonly used in large solar PV plants. Spare inverters could be kept locally and replaced by a suitably trained electrician. then string or multi-string inverters are recommended. The additional yield usually more than compensates for the higher Initial cost. The replacement cost is 4% of the total project cost MPP range 3-phase or single phase output Module technology National and international regulations Grid code Product reliability Module supply Maintainability and serviceability System Availability Modularity Shading conditions 19 . A wide MPP range allows flexibility and facilitates design. Ease of access to qualified service and maintenance personnel. and availability of parts is an important dimension to consider during inverter selection. String inverters might be more Performance In a Solar project Inverter needs to be replaced at 12th or 13th year. in order to Minimise mismatch losses. High inverter reliability ensures low downtime and maintenance and repair costs. a large proportion of the plant output would be lost (for example. If available. The compatibility of thin-film modules with transformer-less inverters should be confirmed with manufacturers. A transformer inverter must be used if galvanic isolation is required between the DC and AC sides of the inverter. The grid code affects inverter sizing and technology. national electrical regulations might set limits on the maximum power difference between the phases in the case of An asymmetrical load. Ease of expanding the system capacity and flexibility of design should be considered when selecting inverters.
these may not always be available. Adhere to the conditions described in the module manufacturer‘s installation manual. A good quality mounting structure may be expected to: Have undergone extensive testing to ensure the designs meet or exceed the load conditions experienced at the site. it is important to consider the additional liabilities and cost for validating structural integrity. Allow the desired tilt angle to be achieved within a few degrees. Consideration must be given to the risk of soil movement or erosion. The topographic conditions of the site and information gathered during the geotechnical survey will influence the choice of foundation type. custom-designed structures may be used to solve specific engineering challenges or to reduce costs. installation efficiencies can be achieved by using commercially available products. This apart. will affect the choice of support system design as some are more suited to a particular foundation type. Purchasing good quality structures from reputable manufacturers is generally a low-cost. Pre-cast concrete ballasts – This is a common choice for manufacturers having large economies of scale. Allow for thermal expansion. using expansion joints where necessary in long sections. Specialist skills and pile driving machinery are required. large scale installations that can be quickly implemented. Outdoor/indoor placement and site ambient conditions influence IP class and cooling requirements. Foundation options for ground-mounted PV systems include: Concrete piers cast in-situation – These are most suited to small systems and have good tolerance to uneven and sloping terrain. Driven piles – If a geotechnical survey proves suitable. data logging. and remote control requirements define a set of criteria that must be taken into Account when choosing an inverter. Mounting Structure Selection Source and Reference: utility scale solar power plant by International Finance Corporation Mounting structures will typically be fabricated from steel or aluminium. This option has low tolerance to uneven or sloping terrain but requires no specialist skills for installation. Plant monitoring. Some manufacturers provide soil testing and qualification in order to certify designs for a specific project location. systems should be designed to ease installation. so that modules do not become unduly stressed.Installation location Monitoring/recording/telemetry suitable. This. In general. It is suitable even at places where the ground is difficult to penetrate due to rocky outcrops or subsurface obstacles. They do not have large economies of scale. Allow field adjustments that may reduce installation time and compensate for inaccuracies in placement of foundations. 20 . Minimise tools and expertise required for installation. low-risk option. in turn. Alternatively. a beam or pipe driven into the ground can result in low-cost. If this route is chosen.
Selecting the Consultant There are many to execute a project with assigning consultant/ Contractor. erection and commission of plant from concept to production. Earth screws – Helical earth screws typically made of steel have good economics for large scale installations and are tolerant to uneven or sloping terrain. Does Government Liaising work and takes responsibilities of required permission and transmission Will be responsible for supply. They can arrange debt financing on behalf of Developer OR takes responsibility of Debt and Equity financing both. deign. 21 . This includes all technical and civil works They can maintain the plant very well according to contract years. Category 1 (All – in – one) This type of consultant has got its own Technical Team or has tie-up with Experience EPC player. deign. erection and commission of plant only technical side. These require specialist skills and machinery to install. But first we categorise the consultants. Prepares the project Feasibility report on behalf of client and also takes responsibility of project accreditation. This includes all works Will be responsible for overall maintenance. manpower allocation and other process Category 2 (The EPC) They will be responsible for supply.
Strategy 4 Arrange Finance. 22 . Strategy 3 Arrange the Finance and hire Category 2 and Category 4 type of Consultants to commission the Project. Also arrange the finance on own. a civil consultant and Commission the project. Strategies Taking the above four category of consultant there are different strategies for a developer to go with. Category 4 (The Non-technical) They would be only responsible for Non. Do Government legalities and take permission. Strategy 5 Hire Category 3 and Category 4 type of Consultants and Procure the Equipments on own. an electrical consultant. Strategy 2 Developer does the permission work and arranges the finance. Government Liaising and permissions and paper work for Client. Hire a design Renewable consultant. Strategy 1 Only arrange the Equity/ Margin required and leave all up to category 1 consultant. commission and maintenance. Negotiate with Manufacturers and procure the Equipments and Hire Category 3 Type of Consultant for Erection. negotiate with Manufacturers and do the needful Procurement. The whole technical side will be responsibility of Category 2 type consultant. Some of these also provide Debt Finance Consultancy also.technical works like Land purchasing and legalities. Below are few of them. Strategy 6 Hire a Category 4 consultant for permission work.Category 3 (Erection Contractor) These types of Players are only responsible for erection and commission works. Purchase land from Land Consultants.
This 'low irradiance loss' depends on the characteristics of the Incident angle Low irradiance 23 . Procurement. For tilted Pv modules.000W/m2). erection and Commissioning 2. Due to mountains or buildings on the far horizon. buildings or overhead cabling. these losses may be expected to be larger than the losses experienced with dual axis tracking systems. Negotiate and select your Consultant Financial Closure and Government Permissions. mutual shading between rows of Shading modules and near shading due to trees. The conversion efficiency of a Pv module generally reduces at low light intensities. This causes a loss in the output of a module compared with the standard conditions at which the modules are tested (1. The incidence angle loss accounts for radiation reflected from the front glass when the light striking it is not perpendicular.FLOW Chart for Selection and Execution Select Your Strategy and Prepare an EOI document for invitation of consultants to provide their offers Short list. for example. Plant design.3 Determining Generation and losses Losses in a PV Plant Source and Reference: utility scale solar power plant by International Finance Corporation LOSS Air pollution Description The solar resource can be reduced significantly in some locations due to air pollution from industry and agriculture.
Electrical resistance in the cable between the modules and the input terminals of the inverter give rise to ohmic losses DC cable resistance (I2r).module and the intensity of the incident radiation. crystalline silicon modules reduce in Module temperature efficiency.5%. The characteristics of a Pv module are determined at standard temperature conditions of 25°C. This loss can be relatively large compared to other loss factors but is usually less than 4%. Inverter performance Inverters convert from DC into AC with an efficiency that varies with inverter load. Losses due to ―mismatch‖ are related to the fact that the modules in a string do not all present exactly the same Module mismatch current/voltage profiles. Most Pv modules do not match exactly the manufacturer‘s nominal specifications. For every degree rise in Celsius temperature above this standard. This loss increases with temperature. The module quality loss quantifies the impact on the energy yield due to divergences in actual module characteristics from the specifications. Wind can provide some cooling effect which can also be modelled. generally by around 0. Modules are sold with a nominal peak power and a guarantee of actual power within a given tolerance Module quality range. rainfall frequency and on the cleaning strategy as defined in the O&M contract. Losses due to soiling (dust and bird droppings) depend on the environmental conditions. If the cable is correctly sized. module temperatures can rise appreciably. this loss should be less than 3% annually. unless there is unusually high Soiling soiling or problems from snow settling on the modules for long periods of Time. This includes transformer 24 . In high ambient temperatures under strong irradiance. there is a statistical variation between them which gives rise to a power loss. The soiling loss may be expected to be lower for modules at a high tilt angle as inclined modules will benefit more from the natural cleaning effect of rainwater.
environmental conditions. The performance of a Pv module decreases with time. The ability of a Pv power plant to export power is dependent on the availability of the distribution or transmission network. tracking Auxiliary power motors. Degradation MPP tracking Curtailment of tracking Yield loss due to high winds enforcing the stow mode of tracking systems. Power may be required for electrical equipment within the plant. The downtime periods will depend on the quality of the plant components. the owner of the Pv power plant will not own the distribution network. therefore. This may include security systems. The inverters are constantly seeking the maximum power point (MPP) of the array by shifting inverter voltage to the MPP voltage. If no independent testing has been conducted on the modules being used. Typically.AC losses performance and ohmic losses in the cable leading to the substation. and that it will occur during periods of average production. monitoring equipment and lighting. Unless detailed information is available. Alternatively. this loss is typically based on an assumption that the local grid will not be operational for a given number of hours/days in any one year. Downtime is a period when the plant does not generate due to failure. 25 . a maximum degradation rate that conforms to the module performance warranty may be considered. Different inverters do this with varying efficiency. diagnostic response time and the repair response time. relies on the distribution Downtime Grid availability and disruption network operator to maintain service at high levels of availability. He. It is usually recommended to meter this auxiliary power requirement separately. design. then a generic degradation rate depending on the module technology may be assumed.
This parameter has been included to draw attention to the risk of a Pv power plant Grid Compliance Loss losing energy through complying with grid code requirements. You will get the result in minutes.Temperature. all you need to take care is that your inputs should be accurate. How to determine Generation Solar Simulation Software like PVsyst and RETscreen are available Through which the losses can be determined and changes depending on studies. The output of PVsyst is more accurate.7 for example. Air.05 or Higher is the best software used in solar industry for simulation and has immense options and user-friendly 26 . These requirements vary on a country to country basis. PVsyst 5. Select your Panels and inverters. Create a shading Diagram and that‘s it. you have to just input the Site Co-ordinates. Irradiation data. Please refer section 2.
2. Utility Scale Projects REC Based Project PPA With State Government According to their Policy Registration with SLDC for transmission and Metering PPA in Scheme of JNNSM PPA with State Agency at APPC rates and Accrediation Some State Governments have a scheme of reverse bidding for tariff and PPA.4 Project development Stages Contract for Sale OR PPA If you are planning for a utility Scale Projects in India than these are your Options. REC Registration Registration With NLDC for Net Metering Requirements for Power sale or PPA # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Requirement Land Project Pre-Feasibility Report Technical Tie-up (If Any) Margin Money EMD and other securities Project Debt and financial Closure Stage Prior to PPA Prior to PPA Prior to PPA Prior to PPA Prior to PPA After PPA 27 .
This process is the first process to be done for checking viability of project and the Report for the same has to be submitted first for Getting PPA. DEBT Options. Related land Clearance Documents and its Distance from Substation Pre-Feasibility Report On proposed Technology and Technical Information of Equiptments Capability in terms of Finance and Size of Plant Rough Plan of Development and estimated time of Completion Annual Generation Estimation Report 28 . Total area and Related Documents of Ownership Site Meteorology in Detail Club the study on all the factors shown in figure Altogether in a report which is called a Prefeasibility Report.What Does Pre-feasibility Contains? Refer the Chart for Contents of Pre-Feasibility. Financial model and Plan Land Location.
depending on various initiatives taken up by local governments for industrial development. Consultation with these local bodies 29 . only required permissions out of which is mention needs to be taken Archaeological Department Consultation and approval from the relevant archaeological department will confirm that the land acquired for the project is not of historical significance. a project may fall under the jurisdiction of governing bodies for small villages. Pollution Control Board Consent from the local pollution control board may be required with respect to wastewater management and noise emission control. Fire Safety Authority Consultation and approval from the relevant authority may be required with respect to relevant fire safety requirements during construction and operation of the project. Planning Department All permissions are not mandatory. It may also be prudent to confirm that the land to be developed has not been reserved for future forestry operations. consultation with the irrigation department May ensure water availability during construction and operation. Local Governing Bodies In some areas. particularly during the construction phase of the project. Forest Authority Consultation and approval from the relevant forest authority may be required if trees are to be felled to prevent any shading of PV plant. The project will normally require prior approval from the relevant planning department at town and district levels. Irrigation Department In addition to confirming that land is not subject to any relevant reservation.Other Required Permissions Source and Reference: utility scale solar power plant by International Finance Corporation District Advisory Committee A clearance may be required from the district collector confirming that the project would not have an adverse impact on its surroundings. Industrial Development Corporation Early consultation with such authorities at state level may yield indirect benefits to the project.
The approvals are likely to be mandatory requirements of the public works department of the state in which the plant is built. From Concept to Construction (Major Works) # ACTIVITY DETAILS Project writing Selection Of land Getting PPA with State Agency Other required Permissions Selecting EPC Project Finance Bank Guarantee Designing the Project EXECUTIVE PROJECT SYSTEM DESIGN AND APPROVALS Site Details Energy Estimation Electrical Schematics Mechanical Schematics Inverter Details & Confirmation Module Manufacturer Details & Confirmation Mounting Structures Details and Confirmation 30 .alone diesel generators can be utilised with prior permission from the pollution control board. This normally specifies and confirms the point and voltage level of connection. SLDC/NLDC In addition to the power purchase agreement. Their approval can facilitate work in the construction and operation phases Construction power requirements This specific licence is normally obtained from the state distribution utility for obtaining power required during construction of the plant.is key to getting consent for the project from the local population. These are required through the life cycle—from pre-construction to postcommissioning—of the project. Otherwise. Electrical Inspectorate Electrical inspectorate approvals ensure safety on all electrical installations. stand. a grid connection permit from the transmission utility is required for exporting power.
Confirmation of Other BoS Site Survey & Contour Mapping Soil Test Water Analysis Boundary Fencing Electric Resistance Test Arrangement of Electricity for Construction from State Board or Using Diesel Generator Arrangement of Adequate Water for Construction SITE PREPARATION DESIGN LAYOUT Structure Foundation Design Structure Layout Design Inverter Layout Design Lightning & Earthing Mat Layout 360/11Kv Transformer Layout Design Cable Trenches & JB Layout Plumbing Layout Monitoring System Wiring Layout Civil Works Vendor Finalization Site JCB Levelling Foundation marking with levels Bore wells & Pumps Site office and Warehouse Control Room Construction Plumbing Works Statutory Permissions for Civil Works Area Grading. Including General Protections. AUXILIARY SERVICES 31 . Invertors housings. and auxiliary services allocation (including inverters) Middle Voltage Electrical installation IN housings Low Voltage Electrical installation IN housings. SECURITY. Inverter and Transformer Installation CIVIL WORKS INVERTERS HOUSES. Internal Roads Inverter selection and Finalization Transformer Finalization Transformers Housings.
Topographical survey for proposed area & Civil drawing for Array yard 1 2 3 4 5 6 32 . Earthing & Other Utilities Installation Switchyard Design & Approval Vendor Offers and finalization Sub-station Civil Works Utility Approval Switchyard Installation SWITCHYARD COMMUNICATIONS Communication systems installation Communication systems programming Installation tests Grid Connection CONNECTION & TESTING Some of the Required Designs & Drawings # Name Of Drawing Drawing Of Civil work and Array Yard Map showing the results of Pre-Construction survey of the project site showing location of control room. General layout drawing of solar PV power plant locating control room building. Module yard. Power evacuation arrangement. Switch gear room. Foundation details of lightning conductors. Internal roadways. yard lighting. switch gear room etc. Drainage system. lightning conductors with its corresponding earth pits and cable trays. Yard lighting posts. Array yard.ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Modules Cabling Cable connection to the DC connection boxes (including fuse protection) Cable connection from DC protection boxes TO the inverters. Water distribution line mentioning all lines and levels General equipment layout drawing for control room. transformer bay etc. Installation of the DC protection boxes AC cabling FROM inverters TO transformers Middle Voltage cabling Lightning. Transformer bay. gate. Fencing. General layout of solar PV module yard locating Earth Pits & Earth continuity. cable trenches.
lintel. tie beam. plinth protection Details of power conditioning unit/Inverter (bill of material. column. schematic diagram. roof beam with roof. wiring diagram. Internal layouts etc.7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Array yard layout Module structure foundation drawing Approach roadway and pathway Water arrangement for module cleaning Water sewage and drainage system Fencing to Yard Watch towers Scope of civil work for core area land development Model mounting structure and design data Drawing of electrical work for Array yard 16 17 18 19 20 Drawing for cable trenching and wiring Drawing for Junction box Drawing for array yard lightning Array Yard lightning protection Drawing for earthing system for array yard Power Control Unit 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Drawing for main control unit Drawing for unit control room Drawing for security cabin and Gate Drawing for DC bus panel Drawing for AC bus panel Drawing for circuit Breaker Drawing for DC battery & Charger Drawing for protection system Drawing for auxiliary power supply Drawing for string monitoring & system Drawing for web box & Remote monitoring system Drawing for lighting fixtures Power control unit for Main control room 33 34 Drawing for control panel monitoring desk Structural details of construction works includes foundation. parapet. and water storage tank with supporting structure details.) Drawing for Cable and wires layout Drawing for control electrical wiring Drawing for auxiliary power supply 35 36 37 38 33 . chajja.
39 40 41 Drawing for DC battery and Battery Charger Drawing for control room lighting fixture Line diagram. SECURITY. block diagram& circuit diagram for surveillance camera desk Drawing for land development plan for 1MW unit control room & Main control room Earthing system for switchyard Drawing for Lightning arrestors Drawing for transformer Circuit breakers for Main control room Drawing for isolators of switchyard & Main switchyard Switchyard lightning for 1MW unit Switchyard single line diagram for 1MW unit control room Switchyard single line diagram of main control room Switchyard for unit control room & Main control room 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Utility & communication drawings 51 52 Material drawing of whole project Drawing for surveillance includes cabling and placement of related equipments Project Timeline. AUXILIARY SERVICES ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION SWITCHYARD COMMUNICATIONS CONNECTION & TESTING 20 30 40 Day No 50 60 70 80 90 100 34 . Reference of 1MW Plant Work 10 EXECUTIVE PROJECT SYSTEM DESIGN AND APPROVALS SITE PREPARATION DESIGN LAYOUT CIVIL WORKS INVERTERS HOUSES.
This will be your commissioning report DC Current Test Performance Ratio Test 35 . The power plant operates as designed and its performance is as expected.Commissioning the Project Follow Below steps for a successful commissioning of Project. IEC 62445 Criteria The power plant is structurally and electrically safe. IEC 62445 Criteria Open Circuit Voltage Test Short Circuit Voltage Test Areas of Commissioning Check Module Strings and its Performance Checking of Inverter Cabling. its AC/DC Voltage levels and Mountings Transformer Voltage Check and Cabling Check Switchgear Check Test Check the Lightening Protection system Test Check Earthing Protection System Interface Test results with Monitoring Systems results Post Connection Test For better practices a report on test results and procedure must be made. The power plant is sufficiently robust (structurally and electrically) to operate for the specified lifetime of a project.
Provision. consumables and Spares for Replacement Health and Safety measures Building maintenance Security personnel management Management and maintenance of resources and Materials Structures Inverters Transformer Monitoring Management Insurance General & HR Material management 36 . Planned O&M O&M service Solar PV Panels Activities Cleaning of Modules Module Junction Box check Check of Connectors. as well as keeping the plant operating at its optimum level. 2) Unplanned O&M – Carried out in Response to Failures.5 Operation and Maintenance Operation and Maintenance be categorized in two sections 1) Planned O&M – Planned in advance and aimed at preventing faults from Occurring.2. Module Defect and Cracks and other Checking of Earthing Lugs Checking in deformation and Imbalance in level of structures Cleaning air filters Checking Cables and Loose connections Performance Monitoring Voltage level Checks Cabling Checks Weather and Radiation Monitoring Every Day Generation Monitoring Performance Monitoring Continuous Surveillance Monthly maintenance Plan Every Day MIS Daily Reporting to Higher Authorities Expert Visit on Breakdown All risk Insurance for Plant Insurance for Workmen All Housekeeping Activities Procurement of Required Stationary.
Always have a support agreement with Inverter manufacturer. which are under constant operation. Repairing equipment damaged by intruders or during module cleaning. Other common unscheduled maintenance requirements include: Tightening cable connections that have loosened. this should be balanced against the likely increased contractual costs of shorter response times. Rectifying SCADA faults. The majority of unscheduled maintenance issues are elated to the inverters. Although the shortest possible response is preferable for increasing energy yield. the key parameter when considering unscheduled maintenance is diagnosis. Depending on the nature of the fault. As such. it may be Possible to rectify the failure remotely – this option is clearly preferable if possible. This can be attributed to their complex internal electronics. as most of the break downs and issues are due to malfunctioning of inverter 37 . Rectifying tracking system faults.Unplanned O&M Source and Reference: utility scale solar power plant by International Finance Corporation Unscheduled maintenance is carried out in response to failures. Replacing blown fuses. speed of response and repair time. Repairing mounting structure faults. Repairing lightning damage.
6Project Financial Model Capital Cost Capital Cost of Project involves the Total expense done in setting up the project from concept to production.35%of the capital cost of assets. Legal and Permissions Cost Other Contingencies Out of these LAND cost should not be involved in calculations of return as it is an appreciation asset. Return on Equity – In a project where you have invested 20% of the total project cost as equity or a part of expense.The Amount of Money an Investor/Developer invests as a margin required other than debt or to acquire debt. If a Project has taken debt. This typically involves following LAND Cost Cost of all supply Design and labour Cost Erection Cost Process. than every year payment of Principe + Interest is considered in expense Depreciation – The decrease in value of assets is called depreciation. If cost of an item is Rs 100 for which Loan/Debt is given 80 Rs than the LTV ratio is 80/100 or 80% Margin Money / Equity . Annual Interest . 38 . So RoE is the rate per year you get your investments back.For Solar Debts are available at an Annual interest rate of 89%.The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is a financial term used by commercial lenders to express the ratio of a loan underwritten to a value of an asset purchased. This means if you have taken 100 Rs Loan than your annual interest will be Rs 8-9. For an example if Project cost is 10 Cr and to acquire loan/debt of 8 Cr you should have or Invested 2 Cr which is Equity of Developer or Margin Money Invested. In Gujarat you can avail depreciation of 6% on assets for first 10 years and 2% on remaining useful years. During these period you will Pay every year interest + Principle according to decided amortization schedule. Loan/debt tenure – The Period for which you have taken debt/loan for your project is called loan tenure. LTV Ratio . Ex 7 years or 10 Years. when this project goes into production you will earn something. In financial terms it is calculated as RoE = Net Profit after Tax -----------------------------Equity Invested Insurance Cost – Every year insurance Premium is about 0.2. In case of Accelerated depreciation you can involve 80% depreciation first year itself in your book of accounts.
Every Year Instalment – Online or use the spread sheet contained in CD with this manual and calculate the Amortization schedule. Let‘s say it‘s A Step 2 – Divide your generation by 1000. You now get your Revenue from CDM. etc. Step 4 – Add all your Operational Expenses which includes O&M every year. O&M Cost decided with EPC Transportation Cost Salaries Other Fixed costs like Telephone.Degradation – This is a phenomenon in which the Power output of a PV panel Decreases every year at an average of 0. Operational Expense – This is a periodical expense needs to be done to maintain. the RE generators can get CDM benefit on RE they produced. housekeeping. Let‘s say the Total Operational expenditure as D Step 5(Net Profit) – Let‘s Say its E E = A+B – C – D Step 6 . Salaries. The Figure of Principle + Interest paid each year is to be taken in account and let‘s say it‘s C. This CDM can be traded for which one can get 5 to 8 Euros (According to Present rate). Revenue from Sale – The amount generated from sale of total electricity according to the Agreement rate of sale/kWh. Insurance. from which Applicable taxes are to be paid and the final amount after paying taxes is your Profit after Tax. Let‘s Say its B Step 3 .Take 6% of the Project cost as Depreciation and Subtract it from E. Multiply it by rate of sale. internet. Purchase of Spares and Contingencies.7 Follow these steps (Yearly Calculation) (Indian rupees) (1 Euro = 71 Rs) Step 1 – Calculate your average generation. How to make a Simple financial Model A Draft Financial Model is provided in Attached CD in excel format Example for the same is given in section 2. Also includes the purchase of items and other contingencies. operate your Plant. the Amount generated will be your Net Profit in Book of Accounts. Purchase of Spares and other items An excel sheet of Simple financial model and CERC financial model sheet is included in the CD with this document Carbon Credit/ CDM benefit – According to Kyoto Protocol. Multiply that CDM no‘s with 568(8 Euros). 39 .7% to 1% depending on the quality and type of PV panels. You will get your Revenue from sale of Electricity. The operational expense includes. Per 1MW of Energy produces I CDM is availed. and the number which you get is your no of CDM.
4 30.1 23.6% 31.3 6.4 31.0 27.2 3.4 22. New tariff order This is only a Reference project and explanations are only in brief SITE Location and Meteorology Location: Bajana.2 29.7 4.: Surrendranagar.2 99.36 0 Month Air temperat ure Daily solar Win Relative radiation Atmospheri d humidit c pressure spee y horizonta d l % 33.7 31.7 100.5 99.0 30.5 3.2% 58.7 5.4% 28.31 5.0 °C-d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 °C-d 368 389 570 635 687 623 580 568 582 615 511 419 6547 Source: NASA & RETscreen International January February March April May June July August September October November December Annual Measured at (m) 21.2 4.0 m/s 3.26 19.7 28.8% 61.0 3.7 33.4 28.1 100.5 100.46 Unit Latitude Longitude Elevation Heating design temperature Cooling design temperature Earth temperature amplitude Frost days at site °N °E m °C °C °C day Climate data location 23.8 3.2 99.7 A typical Study on 1MW Plant Based on Gujarat’s Solar Policy.2.0 34.2 6.0% 71.5 31.9 99.9 24.65 5.2 99.2 5.7 71.61 37.0 Heatin Coolin Earth g g temperatur degree.3 3.8 4.4 10.6 99.8 100.1 30.5 33.0% 73.4% 38.5 100.4 32.3% 27.7 2.5 5.8 3.31 kPa 100.0 28.4 40.46 73 16. Dist.8 32.0% 29. Gujarat Latitude 23.0 40 .3 3.7 4.6% 43.6 25.4 29.7 28.6 100.4% 44.6 39.0% kWh/m2/ d 4.5 0.7 4.0 2.4 3.degreee days days °C °C 21.7 6.2% 32.4 4.7 / Longitude 71.
As a promotional measure for solar power which is still in its nascent stage. For wheeling of power to consumption site at 66 kV voltage level and above. 41 . Gujarat The land is located at the Main road and the distance from Ahmedabad 103 Kms which facilitates the transportation. No cross-subsidy Surcharges would be levied in case of third-party sale. this clause will be applicable to solar Plants of capacity greater than 4 MW. the wheeling of electricity generated from the Solar Power Generators to the desired location(s) within the State shall be allowed on payment of transmission charges and transmission losses applicable to normal Open-Access Consumer.SUN Paths Diagram Courtesy: PVsyst 5. Substation Type: 66 kV There will be no Wheeling charge According to Government:At 66 kV voltage level and above: As per the scope of the current Discussion Paper.05 Land Feasibility (Brief) General Characteristics The Land is near Bajana Village of Surrendranagar District . Nearest Substation The distance of substation from Land is 7 Km.
we can get electricity easily without adding any infrastructure. so no shadows and no Blocking of sun as there is No constructed building or infrastructure near land which blocks the sun. all solar energy power plants will be considered as ‗must run‘ facilities. no river of lake and No mountains. Also government has the facility of proving a special line of water if needed. History and Surroundings. we can get plenty of water. so the same will be useful in Construction.00 am to 6. The Electricity Required Will be taken from Gujarat Electricity Board OR Diesel Generator Can be kept in case of scarcity of Electricity There is plenty of water available as there are 7 wells in land and as the area around land is farming area. In past 20 years. a 4. we have taken only 330 days as useful days of production The ideal time is 7. Other Out of 365 days in a year. 42 . According to reports there was no damage. Availability As there is a nearby substation and nearby village having electricity in all areas. No storm has been recorded in history of this land There is no forest area near to land. 2015.30pm.7 Richter scale earthquake was experienced over land and nearby area. Also there are no Water blockage problems. The control period proposed for the solar energy tariff order is from 29th January. 2012 to 31st March. and the power generated from such power plants will be kept out from the merit order dispatch principles. This is the average time considered as sunrise and sunset timings of every month are different. Type Of soil and Terrain The type of soil is yellow type of Semi rigid Soil and has a good properties of holding structures The terrain is flat and there are no mountains in nearby district. Considering the nature of solar energy. So there is much less possibility of having a natural calamity or natural hazard.
Technical Plant Size Land Contour Technology PV Panels Total No of panels Inverter Total No of Inverter Structures 1MW Flat Poly-Crystalline Jinko Solar JKM 250P-60 4000 SMA Sunny Central 1000MV11 with multi MPPT feature 1 Galvanised Steel Fixed Structures Generation Typical PVsyst Loss diagram and Production Every Year Datasheets of most used Panels & Inverters are included in the CD with this Document 43 .
400% 97.400% 85.200% 90.200% 94.800% 84.200% 82.600% 84.200% 86.800% 92.200% 98.800% 96.000% 95.000% 83.400% 93.600% 92.400% 89.Overview Table E_Array is the energy output which u get before you power is feed in inverter.800% Generation 1714076 1700363 1686651 1672938 1659226 1645513 1631800 1618088 1604375 1590663 1576950 1563237 1549525 1535812 1522099 1508387 1494674 1480962 1467249 1453536 1439824 1426111 1412399 1398686 1384973 44 .000% 87. Your actual generation will be E_Grid 25 Year Generation (Degradation @ 0.600% 96.600% 88.8% every year) Year No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Performance Ratio 100% 99.400% 81.800% 88.600% 80.000% 91.
7 20256950 20094890 19932842 19770781 19608733 19446673 19284612 19122564 18960504 18798455 12722833 12612196 12501568 12390931 12280295 12169666 12059030 11948401 11837765 11727128 11616500 11505864 11395235 11284599 11173962 45 .4 919074 911285 903496. firstname.lastname@example.org 942440.6 794453.6 786664.50 for next 13 years If you want the same financial model on system using single axis tracker.2 965806.4 926862.8 848974.4 934651.com Step 1 & 2 – Revenue Year No Generation Revenue from Tariff Revenue from CDM ( 1CDM =8 euros) Total Revenue 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1714076 1700363 1686651 1672938 1659226 1645513 1631800 1618088 1604375 1590663 1576950 1563237 1549525 1535812 1522099 1508387 1494674 1480962 1467249 1453536 1439824 1426111 1412399 1398686 1384973 19283355 19129084 18974824 18820553 18666293 18512021 18357750 18203490 18049219 17894959 11827125 11724278 11621438 11518590 11415743 11312903 11210055 11107215 11004368 10901520 10798680 10695833 10592993 10490145 10387298 973595.2 872341.2 958017.4 825608.6 880130. other specified products or in other financial terms and Heads than fell free to mail us.25 for 12 years and 7.Financial Analysis Project Cost ( Excluding Land) Equity Debt Loan tenure Interest Rate Insurance Premium Operational Expense including O&M Escalation In Op-ex Project Life Tariff 9 Cr 1.2 Cr 10 years 8% 315000 annually 6 Lakhs 3% Annually 25 years 11.6 887918.6 895707.8 950228.4 817820 810031 802242.2 864552.2 856763.4 833397.8 Cr 7.8 841186.
4 962823.5 881120.9 991708.4 737924. 4 & 5 (Net Profit) Year No Total Revenue Every Year Principle + Interest Insurance Operational Expenditure Net Profit (without Tax) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 20256950 20094890 19932842 19770781 19608733 19446673 19284612 19122564 18960504 18798455 12722833 12612196 12501568 12390931 12280295 12169666 12059030 11948401 11837765 11727128 11616500 11505864 11395235 11284599 11173962 10730123 10730123 10730123 10730123 10730123 10730123 10730123 10730123 10730123 10730123 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000 600000 618000 636540 655636. Taxation. PAT and Actual PAT FACT Depreciation MAT Income Tax Equity Investment FIGURES 6% for 10 years 2% for next 15 years 18% for first 10 Years 30% For next 15 years 1.3 760062 782863.9 806349.3 855456.2 675305.8 830540.2 907553.6 1021460 1052104 1083667 1116177 1149662 1184152 1219676 8611827 8431767 8251178 8070022 7888304 7705985 7523058 7339516 7155319 6970468 11601483 11466656 11331111 11194811 11057741 10919886 10781206 10641693 10501305 10360025 10217833 10074687 9930573 9785447 9639286 Step 6 .Depreciation.8 Cr Table in next Page 46 .8 934780.4 716431.3 695564.Step 3.
16% 41.9 447894.49% Land Value Calculation Area 1 Acre 6 Acres( 1MW) Purchase Cost 10.59% 47.Year No Net Profit (without Tax) Depreciation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 8611827 8431767 8251178 8070022 7888304 7705985 7523058 7339516 7155319 6970468 11601483 11466656 11331111 11194811 11057741 10919886 10781206 10641693 10501305 10360025 10217833 10074687 9930573 9785447 9639286 5400000 5400000 5400000 5400000 5400000 5400000 5400000 5400000 5400000 5400000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 1800000 Profit Before Tax ( In Book of Accounts) TAX Actual Net Profit ROE ( Return on Equity) 3211827 3031767 2851178 2670022 2488304 2305985 2123058 1939516 1755319 1570468 9801483 9666656 9531111 9394811 9257741 9119886 8981206 8841693 8701305 8560025 8417833 8274687 8130573 7985447 7839286 578128.62% 41.34% 40.3 382150.000 Escalation Every Land Cost after year.51% 39.47% 44.3 2940445 2899997 2859333 2818443 2777322 2735966 2694362 2652508 2610392 2568007 2525350 2482406 2439172 2395634 2351786 8033698 7886049 7737966 7589418 7440410 7290908 7140907 6990404 6839361 6687784 8661038 8566659 8471778 8376368 8280419 8183920 8086844 7989185 7890914 7792017 7692483 7592281 7491401 7389813 7287500 44.00% 45.00.18% 41.74% 42.54% 46.3 282684.93% 44.1 480603.00% 37.67% 38.05% 40.12% 47. Estimated 25 years 10% 9849733 10% 5909840 47 .29% 42.84% 38.81% 42.8 415077.15% 48.9 545718 513212.000 60.84% 43.99% 42.00.38% 43.63% 43.4 349113 315957.07% 46.
3 Photovoltaics in small Scale 3. AC and DC boxes. The same types of solar ―KITS‖ are been manufactured and supplied. Balance of systems.2kW. The same Bepmax is marketing. 5 kW and 10kW.1 PV applications in Small Scale Here we are talking about the PV system which generates Electricity. Inverters. It includes PV panels. Typical Applications of PV kits are described in below chart Residence For Rural areas Club houses & Party plots For power to Telecom towers PV KITS Industry Rooftops Commercial Offices and Complex Schools and Colleges Common Lighting for Flats 48 . These are available in different sizes of 1kW. There are Systems Available in market which are pre-configured and Plug and play. 2.
3. 49 . They are available in 2 types: Stand-Alone with battery backup In house Grid Connected The use of these standardized kits gives the benefit of optimizing the energy production and the costs involved in setting up such small scale power plants. These Solar Kits are Pre-Engineered and uses Tier-1 Solar Modules.2 Grid Connected and Stand-alone Systems For Applications involving Residential and Industrial where Electricity is to be Generated from solar and has to be used for own purpose Solar Kits are been used. These pre-engineered kits are PLUG and PLAY type & ready to install with all necessary accessories and hardware which can be installed in many kinds of site conditions.
This electricity availability from this system is during daytime when sun is available. Cost of this system is less Cost of this system is high due to involvement of batteries in it. In less or No utilization stage. So the electricity can be utilized only at day-time There is wastage of electricity when there is less or No utilization. Also Battery sizing can also be done depending upon requirement.In house Grid Connected Stand alone with battery backup In a stand-alone Solar PV system the main objective is to utilize the solar energy during day time and also to charge the battery bank when generated solar energy is more than the load demand & use the stored energy during night time or during periods of low solar power. Also it has to be delivered to continuous load. A typical Example on roof 50 . charge or Electricity can be stored in batteries for further utilization.
5 5 10 15 20 Area Required (Sq. which has been designated as central official body for managing funds granted under this scheme. Shadings and Clear south direction with Horizon (sunrise and set times) before you plan to set solar KITS on your rooftop 3. one can avail the capital subsidy benefits of a MNRE scheme also. Before this the project proponent needs to appoint a consultant for proper pre-feasibility study of the proposed project.3 Government Subsidies and Tax benefits Subsidy of 30% is available from MNRE on both with and without battery models on benchmark cost of Rs 270/Wp on battery model and Rs 190/Wp on without Battery model. The application forms are available for download at official website of MNRE. Solar systems can be used to fulfil even smallest capacity power requirements because of the flexible sizes in which solar photovoltaic panels are available these days.mtrs) 10 25 55 100 155-160 200-220 Always check your open space.Space Required Size of Plant (kW) 1 2. The findings of this study are required at various stages of application form filling. Once the project gets approval. From State level the application will be preceded to central level for final approval from PAC (Project Approval Committee). Since a household system is typically an off-grid. For claiming subsidy under "MNRE off-grid and other application scheme" two set of complete and duly signed application forms need to be submitted to State Renewable Nodal Agency. funding can be claimed through NABARD which has already got affiliation from IREDA. This reduces the capital cost of the system straight away by 30% along with the tax saving benefit in form of 80% accelerated depreciation for 1st Year 51 .
Multipurpose community centres. other small buildings.V. Group houses.Campus/factory lighting Street lights. Radio. security lights. conference halls etc. Bus stands. corridors. Health centres. Individuals. Parking areas. Resorts etc. canteens. 2 Solar power pack (1 kWp ) Lighting for offices. 18 W panel 1 light 37 W panel 2 lights 74 W panel 4 lights (20W DC fan can also be used in place of one light) (ii) Portico (iii) Canteens (iv) Guest Houses (v) Toilets etc. clinics. 1 Solar Lighting Emergency lamp. shops. Hospitals. stores yard Garden/Security lights Rs 81/watt with Battery Rs 57/Watt without Battery Automatic ON/OFF From dusk to dawn (10 hrs. Guest houses. Parks & Play fields. Farm houses. T. Bus shelters. Rs 81/watt with Battery Rs 57/Watt without Battery (c) Street lights . parking areas. Back-up supply for houses. Petrol bunks. etc. Security light Rs 81/watt with Battery Rs 57/Watt without Battery (a) Lantern (Portable Light) -Security lights at the gate Farm operations at night. (74 W) . A. Rs 81/watt with Battery Rs 57/Watt without Battery 52 . Places of worship. Nursing Homes. Resorts. Corridors. INDUSTRIES INDIVIDUALS SOLAR PHOTO VOLTAIC (SPV) -Emergency lamps in factories. offices. Pest catcher in farms/gardens (b) Home lights (i) Parking Areas Lighting for offices. garden lighting. Emergency lamp.Approach road.) Small shops.Reference Table for Subsidies BENEFICIARIES / ENERGY SOURCES LOCAL BODIES/ INSTITUTIONS COST/ SUBSIDY SL. parking areas. etc.
blinkers Solar Traffic signals 500 Wp (min) SOLAR THERMAL -- -- 9 B.3300 per Sq. Rs 81/watt with Battery Rs 57/Watt without Battery 6 Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) up to 250 kWp Administrative Buildings.Watering of plants/ gardens/orchards. petrol bunks. Farm Houses. stores yard Street lights. bus stands. Resorts etc. Primary Health Centres. Security lighting. Approach road. Breweries. bus shelters. 25000 LPD (Litres per Day) (iii) Pre-cooking in Canteens (iii) Drying of Agro Produce in Small Scale. Bungalows.m for ETC (Evacuated Tube Collector) 53 . Street lights for local bodies. Dyeing etc. Public toilets. security lights. 3000 per sq. Washing. parking areas. Demo Solar Buildings Mansions. lighting for residential colonies. Chemical. . Rs. Traders enterprises Shopping complexes.Temperature level up to 80oC (ii) Boiler Feed Water Heating (ii) Hostels.3 Illuminated Hoardings up to 1 kWp Illuminated Hoardings / Bill Boards Advertising Agency. Bathing. Garden lights parks & play fields. Community centres. Resorts etc. Resorts etc. garden lighting. Cooking (subject to quality of water) Rs. Lodges. Pharmaceuticals. Nursing Homes etc.Drinking water supply Small scale irrigation Drinking water supply. Drinking water supply. Small scale irrigation . Colleges. -- Traffic Police -- 1 Solar Water Heating (i) Process Industries viz. Residential buildings. (i) Hospitals. Rs 81/watt with Battery Rs 57/Watt without Battery 7 Street light control system with 5 Wp SPV module to control 100 street lights Campus. -- Rs 81/watt with Battery Rs 57/Watt without Battery 5 SPV Water Pumps 200 to 3000 Watts (up to 3 HP 30 m depth) (more effective with drip irrigation) . factory lights. Corporative Offices Office.m for FPC (Flat Panel Collectors) . -- Rs 81/watt with Battery Rs 57/Watt without Battery 4 SPV Power Plant (1 kW and above) Lighting for offices (higher load) campus. Resorts. Offices.Capacity 1005000. Traffic Police Garden / Security lights Rs 81/watt with Battery Rs 57/Watt without Battery 8 Solar Road Studs.
Passenger cars Rs. 2 Solar Air Heating (i) Drying Agro products (iv) Pilgrim centres (i) Fish Drying (Temperature range: 80 to 100oC) (ii) Drying of Fish (ii) Drying of Appalams. transport with the factories Urban/Rural transport. passenger car. 4000 for low speed vehicle Rs 5000 for high speed vehicle 54 . Battery Topping 5 II Energy Efficient Buildings (climate responsive architectural concept) Office. other type of buildings Houses BATTERY OPERATED VEHICLE Van. Tourist sites etc. Self Help Groups involved in Food processing Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Not applicable Rs 2400 per sq. Hospital. Hotels. Domestic cooking with Box type or Dish type cookers. Restaurants item (iii) & (iv) for canteens Noon-meal Centres. Vadagams etc.(iv) Dish washing etc. Commercial complexes etc. Community centres. Hospitals with mainly community cookers. factory buildings. RS 2100 per sq. (iv) Any other application requiring low temperature. for single axis tracking Rs. Topping of Batteries in home lights 4 Solar Stills (Distilled Water) Laboratories. 6000 per sq. Autorickshaw. Office buildings. for double axis tracking system (iv) 10000 persons) Batteries of Topping in street lights. (iii) Drying Agro products in Small Scale in co-operative Societies. 3 (i) (ii) Solar Cooker Box Type (5 persons) Dish Type (15 persons) Community cookers (iii) (50 persons) Steam cooking (1000 to Item (i) & (ii) for families. Campus use. Hostels.m (iii) Preheating of withering air in Tea Industries. for manual tracking Rs 5400 per sq. Community Kitchens. Road sides.
the mission envisages providing capital and interest rate subsidies with an objective to make the solar off-grid projects commercially viable and workable on a sustainable basis. and innovative entrepreneurs and accordingly factors in the parameters. It will also ensure optimum and effective use of the subsidies. The grading would also facilitate rapid up-scaling of the scheme 55 . Need for accreditation The Mission envisages that the scheme would be implemented through multiple channel partners so that there is a scaling-up of projects across geographies. it is important that only credible channel partners are involved in the mission‘s implementation. which will facilitate increased penetration of solar technology in the country. For the successful. the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has envisaged an alternative route wherein channel partners can directly submit their project proposals to MNRE. resulting in an increase in the number of off-grid solar projects. this route of submitting projects. wide-scale and meaningful implementation of the mission. RESCO and other with MNRE The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) is one of the eight National Missions launched by the Government of India as part of the India‘s National Action Plan on Climate Change. The immediate aim of the mission is to focus on promoting the use of renewable sources of energy and setting up an environment.4 Registration Procedure for SI. This will also function as a tool to monitor performance capability over time. JNNSM aims to promote ecologically sustainable growth. while addressing India‘s energy security challenge. To scale up the said program and increase participation of capable entities as well as reduce transaction time. customer. suppliers and community groups. The grading will also enable the channel partners to showcase their capability in executing projects to various other stakeholders like lenders. This publicly available and highly credible benchmarking exercise can act as a powerful tool for effective promotion of best-practices in this sector. In order to achieve this objective. the mission has envisaged that such entities get an accreditation by reputed rating agencies for submission of projects directly to MNRE. The accreditation process would categorize various entities into grades which would help in identifying those channel partners which have the capacity and capability to undertake these projects. incentivize efficient players and at the same time penalize weaker performance. For the entities submitting proposals and seeking subsidies. In order to ensure that only capable and wellmeaning channel partners are allowed through this new route. This would enable a quicker turnaround in project approval process as compared to submitting proposals through the State Nodal agencies. directly to the ministry will provide one more channel and ensure faster turnaround for appraisal of projects & disbursal of subsidies. the grading process also envisages the participation of start-ups with requisite technical skills. scientific framework and a commonly applicable scale. in line with the objective of the mission. The grading would also provide a tool for comparison of these channel partners on a rational. Further.3.
The framework was also validated using a comprehensive testing exercise which involved testing the framework on a sample list of entities identified by the Ministry. The framework was finalized based on the feedback from all the above stakeholders. Framework Development A framework was developed based on discussions held with various stakeholders to incorporate their views and opinions on the current scenario of the sector. system integrators. the best practices adopted by entities and the expectations of these stakeholders. Interactions were conducted with manufacturers. industry associations.in an inclusive mode and enable knowledge sharing between channel partners and project developers. The Ministry has adopted the framework and the framework would henceforth be used for the grading of the channel partners. bankers. Framework for assessment of System Integrators 1 Promoter Track Record A Solar Capacity installed B Promoters' relevant track record C Quality of second tier management team 2 Technical Expertise and Adequacy of Manpower A Technical Expertise B Adequacy of Manpower 3 Quality of Supplier and Tie-Ups A Quality of suppliers B Supplier feedback 4 Customer and O&M Network A Customer Feedback B O&M capabilities Performance Capability Grading Financial Strength 1 Sales 2 Return on capital employed 3 Total Outside Liabilities/ Tangible Net worth 4 Interest Coverage 5 Net worth 6 Feedback of bankers on conduct of account and integrity 7 Current Ratio Framework for assessment of RESCOs 1 2 3 4 5 Promoter track record Promoter‘s qualification and technical competence Monetary value of capacity Installed Promoter's track record Quality of management Tie-ups with system integrators Project Management Capability 56 . as well as government officials involved in the solar sector.
This matrix will assess the entity on two broad parameters. quality and ability to manage receivables 9 Quality of customers 10 Collection capability Performance Capability Grading Financial strength 1 Net worth 2 Bankers Feedback 3 Financial Flexibility Project Related Assessment 4 Gearing 5 Debt Service Coverage Ratio 6 Interest Cover 7 Project IRR Process for grading Channel partners desirous of applying for CFA directly to MNRE would need to obtain a grading from the credit rating agency selected by MNRE. 57 . PAC will take necessary action. Eligible channel partners which will be considered by MNRE for providing subsidy under this scheme. Product Scale: The grading would be done on a 5x3 matrix (5x3). performance capability and financial strength.6 7 8 O&M capabilities and tie-ups Quality of EPC contractors and equipment suppliers Supplier/EPC feedback Customer concentration. Step 3: The entity will approach the Ministry for accreditation based on the obtained rating and the Ministry will do the needful Step-4: After accreditation the entity will submit project proposal to Project Approval Committee for approval. Step-5: After approval of Project the entity will implement the project and approach the Ministry for release of CFA Step-6: The Ministry will get the project inspected through third party and release the CFA Features of the Grading Product Definition: The grading will reflect ―The performance capability and financial strength of the channel partner to undertake off-grid solar projects‖. Following mentioned steps would be included in grading an entity by a credit rating agency: Step 1: Any entity interested to become channel partner will approach any of the rating agencies like CRISIL and ICRA Step 2: The rating agency will assign rating to the entity based on financial and technical strength.
For grading fees. The channel partners who wish to get themselves graded under this scheme can contact the credit rating agencies listed below. to offer them an opportunity to move up the grading scale. Visit their websites for more Information 58 . for all other entities the grading will be valid for a period of one year. please visit the website of the respective rating agencies CRISIL and ICRA are the Rating agencies.Financial Strength High Performance Capability Highest High Moderate Weak Poor SP 1A SP 2A SP 3A SP 4A SP 5A Moderate SP 1B SP 2B SP 3B SP 4B SP 5B Low SP 1C SP 2C SP 3C SP 4C SP 5C Validity of Grading The grading will be valid for a period of two years for entities with the highest performance capability (graded 1A/1B/1C).
5 Steps to Register the Solar project First of all we recommend to see whether you size of project is eligible for subsidy or not. who will supply and install solar system 59 . As for residence subsidy is only available up to 1kW solar pack but if anyone wants solar for their flats common lighting than subsidy is available up to 100kW as it is considered in commercial If you are the owner of the project than you can follow below steps Registration Procedure Document and Project proposal format is included in the CD attached with this document Select you size Check if subsidy is available for your size and entity Approach MNRE Registered SI Approach unRegisteres SI Do your own paper work for Subsidy SI will directly submit proposal to MNRE They will prepare your Project proposal and will approach registered state agencies In this case you have to prepare proposal and have to approach state agencies After the project is passed than your subsidy will be deposited in SI's account and they can provide you back After the project is passed subsidy will be directly be deposited in your account After the project is passed subsidy will be directly be deposited in your account SI = System integrator.3.
3.80.00.mtrs 5kW System without battery.000 ` 101400 60 Sq.800 `319200 9000 `70200 4.000 `1.80/Unit(kWh) 12.000 `1.6 Benefits of Using Solar Benefits Decreases your Electricity bill You will be on when power cuts off Long life of panels and low maintenance 30% MNRE subsidy available and 80% Accelerated benefit for 1st year Example Entity State Electricity rate with taxes Annual Units used Annual Bill Space Available Proposed Size of Plant Proposed Type Overall cost with Consultation and installation Subsidy Available Tax benefits from 80% AD benefit from 1st year Actual Cost after Savings Units generated every year Savings on electricity Bill every year Break Even Useful life of Solar Commercial office on top floor with terrace rights ` 7. As office being closed at night hours.00.5 years 25 Years 60 . `6.
` 13400 Valid Period – April 2012 to March 31st 2017 61 .―The State Electricity Regulatory Commission (SERC) should…. and shall be guided by … the promotion of co-generation and generation of electricity from renewable sources of energy Section 66 .1 REC Mechanism What is RPO? Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) – A mandate for obligated entities (OEs) to purchase a percentage of the total electricity consumption Mandated by Electricity Act 2003 Section 86(1) (e) . a percentage of the total consumption of electricity in the area of a distribution licensee” Section 61(h) – The CERC shall…specify the terms and conditions for the determination of tariff. a penalty of maximum cost of REC shall be imposed on the Entity.The CERC shall endeavour to promote the development of a market (including trading) in power in such manner as may be specified and shall be guided by the National Electricity Policy Obligated Entities like 1) Distribution companies 2) Open access Consumers 3) Industries Consuming Captive Power Have to fulfil their RPO for which they can do the following Process – Generate their own renewable energy – Purchase energy from RE sources that comply with RPO regulations – Purchase Renewable Energy Certificates(RECs) In case an obligated entity does not meet its RPO. and even a single REC remains Unsold on the exchange. for purchase of electricity from renewable energy sources.4 A Lookout on REC 4.` 9300 Ceiling Price . It is Valid for 365 Days from the date of issuance. What is REC? REC means Renewable Energy Certificate which is equal to 1MW energy produced of 1000kWh. This Certificate can be traded to Obligated Entities through Indian Energy Exchange (IEX) and Power Exchange of India Ltd (PXIL) REC Price (Source: REC registry) Floor Price . specify.
(v) metering 62 . so the price will come down to `4600 . REC Registration Procedure Reference and Source: www. It is aimed at addressing the mismatch between availability of RE resources in state and the requirement of the obligated entities to meet the renewable purchase obligation (RPO). (iv) Connectivity details with concerned licensee (STU/DISCOM).recregistryindia.Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) mechanism is a market based instrument to promote renewable energy and facilitate compliance of renewable purchase obligations (RPO). The application for accreditation shall contain (i) owners details. (iii) Generating Station details. An application for availing accreditation shall be made by the generating company to the host State Agency.in Accredation Registration Issuance of REC Redemption of REC Accreditation STEP 1: The applicant shall apply for Accreditation on the Web Based Application and shall also submit the same information in physical form with the State Agency. as defined under Clause 2(1) (n) of the CERC REC Regulations. (ii) operator details (in case the owner and operator are different legal entities). (ii) operator details (in case the owner and operator are different legal entities). (iii) Generating Station details. (vi) Statutory Clearance details.` 6500 Minimum Required Capacity – 250kW Objective . The application for accreditation shall contain (i) owners details.nic. (vii) Undertaking of not having entered into PPA on preferential tariff for the capacity for which participation in REC. (v) metering details. The applicant shall apply for Accreditation on the Web Based Application and shall also submit the same information in physical form with the State Agency.Future Expectations on Prices It is an Assumption that Prices of REC will be halved after March 2017. (iv) Connectivity details with concerned licensee (STU/DISCOM).
Confirmation of Metering Arrangement and Metering Location d. Undertaking of 'Availability of Land' in possession for setting up generating station b. the State Agency shall intimate in writing to the Applicant for submission of any further information. if any) as determined by the Appropriate State Electricity Regulatory Commission from time to time. In case. STEP 4: After conducting the preliminary scrutiny. the Applicant has multiple RE generation projects then.details. Power Evacuation Arrangement permission letter from the host State Transmission Utility or the concerned Distribution Licensee. The reasons for rejecting the application for accreditation shall be recorded and intimated to Applicant in writing within 2 working days from date of receipt of the completed application by State Agency. Undertaking for compliance with the usage of fossil fuel criteria as specified by MNRE h. as the case may be c. Confirmation of compliance of critical equipment with relevant applicable IEC or CEA Standards g. STG. WTG. for any future correspondence. the State Agency shall conduct a preliminary scrutiny to ensure Application Form is complete in all respect along with necessary documents and applicable processing fees and accreditation charges. to further consider the application for accreditation or reject application. Date of Commissioning of RE project for existing eligible RE Project or Proposed Date of Commissioning for new RE for accreditation e. STEP 3: After receipt of application in physical form for accreditation. Details of application processing fees/accreditation charges 63 . the State Agency shall verify and ascertain availability of following information: a. The State Agency shall undertake preliminary scrutiny of the Application within 5 working days from date of receipt of such Application. Undertaking regarding Off-take/Power Purchase Agreement f. (vi) Statutory Clearance details. The RE Generation Project shall comply with the requirements of Connectivity standards for Grid Connectivity at particular injection voltage/grid interface point as specified by State Transmission Utility or concerned Distribution Licensee. as the case may be. STEP 2: The State Agency shall assign a unique acknowledgement number to the Applicant for each application for accreditation of its RE generation project. separate Applications will have to be submitted by the Applicant for each RE generation project. if necessary.1 : Application for Accreditation of RE Generation Project). STEP 5: While considering any application for accreditation of RE generation project. Proposed Model and Make for critical equipment (say. PV Module) for the RE Project.1. (vii) Undertaking of not having entered into PPA on preferential tariff for the capacity for which participation in REC scheme is sought as per the CERC REC Regulations and (viii) any other relevant information as per the enclosed format (FORMAT. The Application made for accreditation of RE generation project shall be accompanied by a non-refundable processing fee and accreditation charges (one time and annual. Accreditation of each RE generation project shall be carried out separately.
a.2. Registration STEP 1: The applicant shall apply for Registration on the Web Based Application and shall also submit the same information in physical form with the Central agency.2. STEP 3: After receipt of application in physical form for registration. the reasons for rejecting the application for accreditation shall be recorded and intimated to Applicant in writing. the State Agency shall also intimate accreditation of particular RE generation project to the following entities. STEP 7: If accreditation is granted.1 : Application for Registration of Eligible Entity). from time to time. The distribution company in whose area the proposed RE generation project would be located. (iv) generating facility commissioning schedule (v) any other relevant information as per the enclosed format (FORMAT. the Applicant has multiple RE generation projects then. (iii) certificate of accreditation by the State Agency. While registration of each RE generation project shall be carried out separately. An application for availing registration shall be made by the RE Generating Company to the Central Agency. unique number once assigned for a particular Eligible Entity shall remain same for all RE generation projects of the said Eligible Entity to be registered with Central Agency. A sequential number series shall be followed for distinguishing each RE generation project of the Eligible Entity to be registered under the unique number assigned to particular Eligible Entity. as defined under Clause 2(1) (b) of the CERC REC Regulations. after duly inspecting/verifying conditions elaborated in Step 5. shall grant 'Certificate for Accreditation' to the concerned Applicant for the proposed RE Generation project and assign a specific project code number to that effect which shall be used by the such Applicant (Eligible Entities) for all future correspondence with the State Agency. by order. as defined under Clause 2(1) (b) b. STEP 2: The Central Agency shall assign a unique acknowledgement number2 to the Applicant for each application for registration of its RE generation project. In case. The process of accreditation shall normally be completed within 30 days from date of receipt of complete information by State Agency.STEP 6: The State Agency. The application for registration shall contain the following information as submitted for Accreditation of the RE Generation project: (i) Owner details (ii) RE Generating Station details. In case accreditation is not granted at this stage. The Central Agency.1 : Application for Registration. (iii) certificate of accreditation by the State Agency. the Central 64 . The host State Load Despatch Centre c. The Application made for registration of RE Generating Company with the Central Agency as Eligible Entity shall be accompanied by a non-refundable registration fees/charges and annual fee/charges as determined by the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission. for any future correspondence. The applicant shall apply for Registration on the Web Based Application and shall also submit the same information in physical form with the Central agency. (iv) generating facility commissioning schedule (v) any other relevant information as per the enclosed format (FORMAT. separate Applications will have to be submitted by the Applicant for each RE generation project. The application for registration shall contain the following information as submitted for Accreditation of the RE Generation project: (i) Owner details (ii) RE Generating Station details.
the Central Agency shall verify and ascertain availability of following information: 1. STEP 5: While considering any application for Registration. The reasons for rejecting the application for registration shall be recorded and intimated to Applicant in writing within 2 working days from date of receipt of the completed application by Central Agency. Details of payment of registration fees/charges STEP 6: The Central Agency. The process of registration shall normally be completed within 15 days from date of receipt of complete information by Central Agency. if necessary. A Valid Certification of Accreditation by State Agency 2. after duly inspecting/verifying conditions elaborated in Step 5. The application for issuance of certificate shall include (i) Energy Injection* Report duly certified by the concerned State Load Despatch Centre (ii) Registration Certificate and shall be made in the specified format (FORMAT. The host State Agency b. Date of Commissioning or Proposed date of Commissioning or Commissioning Schedule for new projects. the Central Agency shall also intimate registration of Eligible Entity for particular RE generation project to the following entities. STEP 7: If registration to Eligible Entity is granted. STEP 4: After conducting the preliminary scrutiny. the Central Agency shall intimate in writing to the Applicant for submission of any further information. the reasons for rejecting the application for registration shall be recorded and intimated to Applicant in writing. as defined under Clause 2(1) j of the CERC REC Regulations Issuance of REC STEP 1: The eligible entity shall apply for Issuance of REC on the Web Based Application and shall also submit the same information in physical form with the Central Agency. In case registration is not granted at this stage. The host State Load Despatch Centre c. a. The Central Agency shall undertake preliminary scrutiny of the Application within 2 working days from date of receipt of such Application. to further consider the application for registration or reject application. Undertaking that it has not entered into any Power Purchase Agreement at preferential tariff as may be determined by the Appropriate Commission 4.3.1: "Application for Issuance of Renewable Energy Certificates to the Eligible 65 . 3. The Power Exchanges. shall grant 'Certificate for Registration' to the concerned Applicant as 'Eligible Entity' confirming its entitlement to receive Renewable Energy Certificates for the proposed RE Generation project and assign a specific entity-wise and project-wise code number to that effect which shall be used by the such Applicant (Eligible Entities) for all future correspondence with the Central Agency.Agency shall undertake preliminary scrutiny to ensure Application Form is complete in all respect along with necessary documents and applicable registration fees and charges.
STEP 5: While considering any application for issuance of Renewable Energy Certificate. The application is accompanied with fees & charges. The application shall be accompanied by applicable fee & charges. The reasons for rejecting the application for issuance of Renewable Energy Certificates shall be recorded and intimated to Applicant in writing within 2 working days from date of receipt of the completed application by Central Agency. The duly certified Energy Injection report by the concerned State Load Despatch Centre is attached for the same period for which application is made towards issuance of Renewable Energy Certificate by the Eligible Entity. the Central Agency shall intimate in writing to the Applicant for submission of any further information or seek clarification. referring to Unique Number assigned to the concerned Eligible Entity at the time of registration. As part of preliminary scrutiny. STEP 2: The Central Agency shall assign an acknowledgement number to the Eligible Entity for its registered application request for issuance of Renewable Energy Certificates. the Central Agency shall ensure fulfilment of following conditions: The application is made in the format specified by the Central Agency from time to time. if necessary. the Applicant (Eligible Entity) shall quote the unique Registration Number assigned to it by Central Agency at the time of registration. The application for issuance of certificate shall include (i) Energy Injection* Report duly certified by the concerned State Load Despatch Centre (ii) Registration Certificate and shall be made in the specified format (FORMAT. Note :.1: "Application for Issuance of Renewable Energy Certificates to the Eligible Entities"). The application shall be accompanied by applicable fee & charges towards issuance of certificates as determined by CERC from time to time. STEP 3: After receipt of application in physical form for issuance of renewable energy certificates from the Eligible Entity. An application for issuance of Renewable Energy Certificate shall be made by the Eligible Entity to the Central Agency. STEP 4: After conducting the preliminary scrutiny. While making application for issuance of RECs. The status of Registration of the Eligible Entity with the Central Agency has not expired. to further consider the application for issuance of Renewable Energy Certificates or reject application.3. for any future correspondence. The status of Accreditation of the Eligible Entity with the Central Agency has not expired. the Central Agency shall verify and ascertain availability of following information: 66 . The eligible entity shall apply for Issuance of REC on the Web Based Application and shall also submit the same information in physical form with the Central Agency.Injection shall include self-consumption of the Captive Power Plant if it is separately metered and measurable. the Central Agency shall undertake a preliminary scrutiny within 2 working days to ensure that the Application Form is complete in all respect along with necessary documents and applicable fees and charges.Entities").
Confirmation of Compliance Auditor report. STEP 8: In case the Eligible Entity is not fulfilling any of the conditions mentioned under Step-5 and fails to provide necessary information/clarification in the matter within stipulated timeframe. the information contained in regular Energy Injection Report furnished by concerned State Load Despatch Centre shall be considered as final and binding for the purpose of issuance of Renewable Energy Certificates. the Central Agency shall also intimate about such issuance to the concerned State Agency. if any. the reasons for rejecting the application for issuance of RE certificates. with the Energy Injection Report submitted by the SLDC. In case of any discrepancy. Central Agency shall seek necessary clarification from concerned State Load Despatch Centre before issuance of the Renewable Energy Certificates. the Central Agency may reject the application and shall intimate to the Eligible Entity. STEP 6: The Central Agency shall only issue Renewable Energy Certificates to the Eligible Entity after confirming. However. STEP 9: Upon issuance of RE Certificates to Eligible Entity. the claims made by the Eligible Entity. in the Energy Injection Report enclosed by the Eligible Entity along with Application and regular Energy Injection Report received by Central Agency from concerned State Load Despatch Centre. in case energy units reported under Energy Injection Report by concerned State Load Despatch Centre exceed that claimed by Eligible Entity for same period then. Verification of the time period for which the Central Agency may have already issued Renewable Energy Certificates to the concerned Eligible Entity. Details of fee & charges made for issuance of certificates. Redemption of REC STEP 1: The total quantity of Certificates ('Solar' and 'Non-Solar' separately) placed for dealing on the Power Exchange(s) by the eligible entity shall be less than or equal to the total quantity of valid Certificates held by the eligible entity 67 . The denomination of each REC issued would be as per the CERC REC Regulations and 1 REC would be taken as equivalent to 1 MWh of energy injected into the grid. in writing. Verification of Renewable Energy Certificates claimed by the Eligible Entity from the duly certified Energy Injection Reports by the concerned State Load Despatch Centre in respect of concerned Eligible Entity. It is clarified that any fractional component of energy as per the Energy Injection Report can be accumulated and would be considered for issuance of RECs as per the CERC REC Regulations. STEP 7: The Central Agency shall issue the Renewable Energy Certificates to the Eligible Entity within fifteen (15) days from the date of receipt of application form along with complete information necessary for processing of application for issuance of RECs.
The certificates will be extinguished by the Central Agency in the 'First-in-First-out' order. which has placed offers on that Power Exchange.as per the records of the Central Agency. STEP 4: The Central Agency shall check the combined maximum bid volume in the Power Exchange(s) for each eligible entity against the quantity of valid RECs for that entity for both 'Solar' and 'Non-Solar' Certificates. the Central Agency shall advise the Power Exchange(s) to exclude such bid(s) while working out the Market Clearing Price and the Market Clearing Volume. STEP 2: During the time the bidding window opens in the Power Exchange. In case the combined maximum bid volume placed for dealing in the Power Exchange(s) exceeds the quantity of valid RECs held by the eligible entity as per the records of the Central Agency. The Central Agency shall send a report to Power Exchange(s) confirming the availability of the valid RECs with the eligible entity. STEP 3: On closure of the trading window. to the Central Agency for verification of the quantity of valid RECs available with the concerned eligible entity for dealing on the Power Exchange(s). the eligible entities shall place their offers and the buyers1 shall place their bids through the trading platform of the respective Power Exchange. the Power Exchange(s) shall send the maximum bid volumes for each of the eligible entity. The total quantity of Certificates ('Solar' and 'Non-Solar' separately) placed for dealing on the Power Exchange(s) by the eligible entity shall be less than or equal to the total quantity of valid Certificates held by the eligible entity as per the records of the Central Agency. on any Power Exchange authorised to deal in renewable energy certificates by CERC. 68 . STEP 5: The Power Exchange(s) shall work out the Market Clearing Price and the Market Clearing Volume taking into account the advice received from the Central Agency and send the final cleared trades to the Central Agency for extinguishing of the RECs sold in the records of the Central Agency. then. The renewable energy certificates shall be dealt in the Power Exchange within the price band as specified by CERC from time to time. The Eligible Entity shall place for dealing of renewable energy certificates. The renewable energy certificates shall be dealt in the Power Exchange within the price band as specified by CERC from time to time. both 'Solar' and 'Non-Solar' Certificates.
35 (CDM) = 12.2 Different Project Models of REC Model 1: Sale to Distribution Licensee and REC is availed Project X Units Generated PPA with Discom at APPC rate X/1000 = REC Availed Power Sale through Grid Visit website of IEX and pxil to see analyse the pattern of sale of solar REC’s and the trade rate.56(CDM) = 16. In Gujarat the rate is Appx `3.3(REC) + 0. So per unit you can get (Till 2017) Minimum/Unit = 3(APPC) + 9.96 69 .65 Maximum/Unit = 3(APPC) + 13.4 (REC) + 0. 2) REC sale .`9300 to `13400 3) CDM Benefit – 5 to 8 Euros per every 1MWH produced.4. Sell of REC to obligated Entities Through IEX or PXIL In this Model you can earn in three ways 1) APPC rate per unit – which is different for all states.
Model 2: Built – Operate and Sale to 3rd Party with REC availed 3rd party could be industry or agency.
X Units Generated
PPA with Discom at 3rd party rate
X/1000 = REC Availed
Power Sale through Direct mains
Sell of REC to obligated Entities Through IEX or PXIL
In this Model you can earn in three ways 1) 3rd Party PPA rate per unit – Assumed to be `5.30 2) REC sale - `9300 to `13400 3) CDM Benefit – 5 to 8 Euros per every 1MWH produced. So per unit you can get (Till 2017) Minimum/Unit = 5.30(PPA) + 9.3(REC) + 0.35 (CDM) = `14.95 Maximum/Unit = 5.30(PPA) + 13.4 (REC) + 0.56(CDM) = `19.46
Model 3: Captive use and REC availed Case Considered: Industry in Gujarat using Power of GEB (Gujarat electricity Board) and feeds the RE generated power in Grid
Pays APPC rate for X-Y units
Deducts Y Units from Generated X units
Y Units Usage
REC Availed and Sold
Produces X amount of Units through
If you need a detailed report on any of these models with figures on any scale of project than mail us
In this Project you can have lots of benefit 1) You can get REC benefit or fi you are obliged entity than you can used it for your own. 2) You can deduct your own usage from what u produced, so on each unit deduction you will get profit equal to Present rate of electricity for Commercial/Industrial which in any state will not be less than 7. 3) As explained in Above Flow chart the remaining unit after deduction can be traded (Only After having PPA with DISCOM) at an APPC rate. 4) You can get CDM benefit
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•Turnkey Projects •Solar project Consultation •Feasibility Analysis •Financial Analysis
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It relates Human day to day life as well as country‟s/states facilities as well as plays an important in financial cycles and creating large manpower requirement and thereby reducing poverty. We Here are with a motto “Energizing Nation. In and All. Enlightening LIFE “.com info@bepmax.A letter from Managing Director Energy and Energy production has a wide playing role in today‟s life. We are working in many verticals for solar industry which includes EPC services. The day is not far for reaching the same at 50%. I recommend that this field is the future of tomorrow‟s world. Investment & Adaption of Solar is a profitable approach with your dedication towards environment and helping keeping the Globe clean. Commenting on clean energy. Most of the countries are using renewable sources as 15% of their total energy requirement. Project Consultation.com 73 . Bhupesh K Shah MD & CEO Bepmax Solar Pvt Ltd md@bepmax. Finance Consultation and also in nearby future we would be in a new vertical called Project developer.
Lets earn and lets help our environment and keep the beauty of Nature alive. Also I would like to thanks my M. Mr.D. In this Reference manual PHOTOVOLTAIC LOOKOUT we have tried to put a light on solar business by adding many brief topics of this industry.A letter from Vice-President RENEWABLES. Who might have thought before 18th century that people would invest in Sun? But today Solar is the fastest growing Energy sector.com 74 . it sound very onomatopoetic and Pleasant as there is a work NEW & ABLE involved in it. New and everlasting. Work-ABLE. In addition of investment you are helping nature. We are Dedicating this to the people and their effort for making solar successful. feasi-ABLE and Sustain-ABLE adding up. Also I expect more policies from other states like Gujarat. No-doubt it‟s the best investment industry in which you can have long returns and a tag of “ Producer of Clean energy” I am also thankful to Indian Government for aggressively taking this field ahead and we expect more from you.Shah for Motivating me towards this field and making this happen Rishi R Patel Vice president-Operations Bepmax Solar Pvt Ltd Editor and Compiler of Photovoltaic lookout rishi@bepmax. Let‟s build.com info@bepmax. Cheers to all guys who is in industry and also to those who want to be part of Industry.
com www.Bepmax Solar Pvt Ltd Contact us at: +91-9825050867 +91-9428503868 email@example.com 75 .bepmax.
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