Solar Thermal P S l Th l Power f I di for India

Dr. Dr Shireesh B. Kedare B
Adjunct Associate Professor Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT-Bombay Director Clique Developments Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai

Solar Belt S l B lt

Solar Belt

Solar Belt

Solar Thermal Power : Abundance !

Concentrating Solar Power Generation G ti .

CSP Plants will become one of the leading energy technologies within the next years 630. Greenpeace/ESTIA .540 5.550 2010 2015 2020 2040 * Mojave Desert/USA (9 power plants) ** Plants under implementation (165 MW) Source: ”Solar thermal power in 2020“.990 354* 2002 365** 2005 1.000 5% of world-wide world wide energy demand Cumulated installed power in MWel / Forecast 21.

CSP Plants will become one of the leading energy technologies within the next years .

Concentrating Optics Focus Parabolic Reflector .

Concentrators Parabolic rotational solids Concentrate the irradiance up to 2 000 times 2.000 Extruded parabolic profiles Concentrate the irradiance up to 200 times 8 .

Fresnel Concentrators 9 .

Concentrator Applications Dish Stirling Systems 5 – 25 kWe Off-grid / long-term pilot plants Solar Tower Systems 5 – 100 MWe On-grid / long-term pilot plants Parabolic Trough 5 – 200 MWe On-grid / commercial operation Linear Fresnel 5 – 200 MWe On-grid / pilot plants 10 .

Parabolic Troughs Typical application: solar radiation is reflected to a linear focus (receiver pipe) which is cooled by synthetic oil Temperature range 200 – 390°C Capacity range: 10 – 200 MWe The heat is used in conventional power processes Status: 354 MWe in commercial operation since 1989 : 65 MW since 2006 11 .

120 USD/MWhe approx Investment cost between 2800 (80 MW SEGS IX) and 4500 USD/kW (13 MW SEGS I) Operation cost approx.Parabolic Trough CSP plants in the US l t i th Constructed: C d Ten Parabolic Trough Plants Sizes between 1 MWe and 80 MWe Installed between 1986 and today Status: Under operation electricity costs approx. groundbreaking January ‘06. 20 USD/MWh Under construction/development/recent: One PBT Plant 64 MWe in Nevada Nevada. commissioned ‘07 12 .

Parabolic Trough CSP plants in th US : C lif i l t i the California Kramer Junction SEGS III: 30 SEGS S GS IV: 30 SEGS V: 30 SEGS VI: 30 SEGS VII: 30 Total: 150 MWe Harper Lake SEGS VIII: 80 MW SEGS S GS IX: 80 MW Total: 160 MWe MW MW MW MW MW 13 .

Parabolic Trough CSP plants Kramer Junction in the US .

Parabolic Trough CSP plants Harper Lake in the US

Parabolic Trough CSP plants in th US : C lif i l t i the California
Net Output (MWe) Solar field Dispatchability details outlet temp (C)

I II III / IV / V VI / VII VIII / IX
16

13.8 13 8 30 30 30 80

307 316 349 390 390

3 h thermal storage Gas fired boiler Gas fired boiler Gas fired boiler Gas fired HTF heater

Parabolic Trough CSP plants in the US: The Nevada Solar-One Plant

5 Ha/MW Source: official plant website – www.net .nevadasolarone. 8 to 12/kWh Annual Generation : 2100 hr/yr Area required : 400 acres : 2.Parabolic Trough CSP plants in the US: The Nevada Solar-One Plant Parabolic Trough system commissioned 2007 Capacity : 64 MW Collector fluid: Dowtherm @ 390°C Generates steam to run Rankine cycle Capital Investment : $266 million : $4.17 Energy Cost : 21 – 30 c/kWh : Rs.16 million/MW : Rs 17 Cr/MW $4 16 Rs.

vapour at 22.7% Annual Generation: 2000 hr/yr . 204°C Cycle efficiency : 20 7% 20.4 bar.Parabolic Trough CSP p g plants in the US: Arizona Parabolic Trough system commissioned 2006 Capacity : 1 MW Collector fluid: Thermic fluid @ 300°C Organic Rankine cycle : n-Pentane.

PT based CSP at Murqab. near Dubai SolarARC S l ARC 34 PBT Murqab SolarARC 4 x 34 MW Total: T t l 136 MWe 20 .

near Dubai SolarARC S l ARC 34 PBT 21 .PT based CSP at Murqab.

Murqab site SolarARC 34 PBT Plant D t Pl t Data and project conditions d j t diti Electric capacity 34. i.0 MWel per module Thermal Storage 270 MWhth per module Fossil Backup F il B k plus 15% of solar output l f l t t Electrical output ~ 108 GWhel p.000 sq.m i.e.m/MW Lifetime over 25 years 22 .53 ha/MW Collector Area:311.e. per module (97 GWhel thereof solar only. 3.e.9150 sq. 2850 hr/yr ) Land use 120 ha i.a.

5 % (based on 20% equity capital) Payback Period of approx.3 % .Murqab site SolarARC 34 PBT Plant D t Pl t Data and project conditions d j t diti Direct normal irradiation of 2230 Loan frame 80% of invest at 5% interest rate (15 years run time) Electricity selling price of 840 – 930 AED/MWh at electricity generating costs of 500 AED/MWh Operating and Maintenance costs of 77 – 90 AED/MWh Land use free of charge 136 MWe total capacity approx. 8-9 years 23 . 435 GWhe electricity produced per year IRR20 of 15.18.

Parabolic Troughs .Components LS-1 Collector 24 .

Parabolic Troughs .Components LS-2 Collector Curved glass 2 x 2 modules Width 5 m CR ~ 100 25 .

Parabolic Troughs .Components Absorber Tube Pipe diameter 50 mm Evacuated glass cover Selective coating Temp Limit 400 C Bellows for expansion 26 .

Parabolic Troughs .Components Mechanical torque transfer Hydraulic drive Solar brain – hardware & software control Tracking system and controls .

Parabolic Troughs .Components Piping Connections on f side C far d 28 .

Parabolic Troughs .Components Steam Generator Fossil fuel hybrid 29 .

Components Steam Turbine y Steam Rankine cycle Organic Rankine cycle 30 .Parabolic Troughs .

NREL .Parabolic Trough characteristics .

.

.

Parabolic Trough – Power System : Schematic .

Parabolic Trough – Power System 35 .

Parabolic Trough – Power System 36 .

Parabolic Trough – Power System 37 .

Parabolic Trough – Power System .

Solar Tower Systems Typical T i l application: solar radiation i reflected b li i l di i is fl d by heliostats to the top of a tower (80 m) Temperature range: 350 to 1500 °C C Capacity range: 5 – 100 MWe The heat is used in conventional power processes Salt storage system Status: 10 MWe l St t long-term pilots t il t in operation 39 .

Solar Tower Systems .

Solar Tower Systems .

15 MWe) Under construction/ development: Spain: approx.Heleostats-Central Tower CSP plants i E l t in Europe Constructed: Only pilot plants (approx. 500 MWe in total Greece: pp approx. 50 MWe 42 .

5 million $5 65 o / : $5.23.2 Cr/MW .65 million/MW : Rs. Spain tG d S i Heleostat – Central Receiver Capacity : 10 MW Area required : ? Capital Investment : $56.PS10 at Granada.

Linear Fresnel 44 .

Linear Fresnel Typical application: solar radiation is reflected by facets to a linear focus which is cooled by water/steam Temperature range 300 – 550 °C C Capacity range: 5 – 200 MWe The heat is used in conventional power processes Status: pilots in operation Applications 45 .

025 MWe Absorbed heat is used to generate steam to run engine or turbine Status: A few pilots (50 kWe) in the i th past t 46 .01 – 0.Dish Systems Typical T i l application: solar radiation i reflected b a li i l di i is fl d by reflective dish (diameter up to 25 m) to a point focus Temperature range: 650 to 800 °C C Capacity range: 0.

Dish with 50kWe Steam Engine 300 m2 Sandia Dish. 1984 . US.

Dish with 50kWe Steam Engine 300 m2 Sandia Dish with Cavity Receiver .

Australia .Dish with 50kWe Steam Engine 400 m2 ANU Dish with Cavity Receiver.

45 Cr/MWe (Imptd) Rs.8-12 /kWh Status: several long-term pilots (10 – 25 kWe) in operation 50 .Dish Stirling Systems Typical T i l application: solar radiation i reflected b a li ti l di ti is fl t d by reflective dish (diameter up to 25 m) to a point focus Temperature range: 650 to 800 °C Capacity range: 10 – 25 kWe Absorbed heat is used in a Stirling engine Rs.25 Cr/MWe ( / (Ind) ) Rs.

Dish with Stirling Engine 100 m2 Dish with Stirling Engine at Test Field .

INDIA .Dish with Stirling Engine 56 m2 Dish with Stirling Engine at VIT.

Dish with Stirling Engine 100 m2 Dishes with Stirling Engine by SES for 500 & 800 MW plant at Mojave Desert. US .

Solar Concentrators: Efficiency 54 .

025 MWe Pilot 23 % 550 – 1500 °C 5 .Comparison Peak Energy 29 % efficiency Operating 800 °C temperature Typical Size Maturity 0.550 °C 10 – 100 MWe Commercial operation Pilot * Estimated values only ** Long-term price studies for solar only plants *** values for plants under commercial operation 55 .25 MWe Long-term pilot 21 % 390 °C 30 – 80 MWe 20 % 300 .

List of CSP plants (announced) .

Initiatives in I di I iti ti i India Concentrators for process heat p Scheffler cooker / concentrator Arun paraboloid concentrator Solar Bowl Thermal Power approaches Scheffler Dish with MS storage Arun with (solid) storage Imported Parabolic Trough / CLFR Imported Stirling Engine / Dish Cogeneration .

Initiatives in I di I iti ti i India Concentrators for process heat p Scheffler cooker / concentrator Arun paraboloid concentrator Solar Bowl Thermal Power approaches Scheffler Dish with MS storage Arun with (solid) storage Imported Parabolic Trough / CLFR Imported Stirling Engine / Dish Cogeneration .

Paraboloid Dish with Fixed Focus on ground 7 m2 Scheffler dish for cooking. INDIA .

Mt. India .Abu.Paraboloid Dish with Fixed Focus on ground 7 m2 Scheffler dish for cooking.

30.35. INDIA Scheffler dish for ki • Temp: 100 to 150°C p • Power capacity : 4 to 5 kW • Operating hours : 6 to 7 hours/day • Daily output : 30 kWhth / day • Capital cost : Rs.500/(kWhth/day) .000 Rs 30 000 • Cost Parameter : Rs.1.Scheffler Paraboloid Dish with Fixed Focus on ground 16 m2 S h ffl di h f cooking.000 /kWth : Rs. 4.

Fresnel Paraboloid Dish : ARUN™ ARUN™ from Clique & IIT-Bombay IIT- 160 m2 dish for Pasteurization of Milk at Mahanand Dairy. 2006 . India y. saving about 75 lit Furnace Oil on every sunny day since Feb. Latur. .

India 63 . Latur. y.Arun at Mahanand Dairy.

•Paraboloid Fresnel mirror arrangement g •Flat dish of space truss 10000 Small mirror facets.m 2 •Storage & Hx for 24 h heat supply g pp y •Optimized integration and efficiency improvement 64 . m 3 Load temperature constraint •Coiled tube cavity absorber y m given area 10 Minimum Volume 1 100 volume operating region Maximized intercept factor limits for Area limits for given volume o •Automatic two-axes tracking (100°C) 170 50 70 90 110 130 150 190 210 230 0. maximum i F i Area the S i insolation l ti Minimum Collector area. protection provided Light.1 Minimized thermalMaximum temp. t t d i the field Li ht l tl tested in th fi ld •Point focus fixed to the dish 1000 b s storage volume.constraint losses a Facing th Sun. less costly.

ARUN160TM Concentrator Steam for process heat applications Steam Drum Pump 65 .

ARUN160TM Concentrator Field Steam for process heat applications Steam Drum Pump 66 .

Tamb) + 0 } (Tm . Largest aperture area : 169 m2 Highest modular thermal output : About 700.78 – {0.Tamb) + 0. about 70 to 90 kWth for 8 to 9 hours a day Highest stagnation temperature : 1050° to 1200°C Highest process temperature : 300 to 500°C Pressurized water / Oil as thermal / storage medium Integrable with various industrial processes Back-up heating for monsoon On line data logging On-line data-logging can be provided Saves about 75 to 85 lit/d or MORE (110 lit/d!) oil Testing procedure is developed that can characterize the dish η = 0.765 – {0.4x10-5 (Tm .3x10-5 (Tm .ARUN Solar Concentrator: Improved For Fo the FIRST TIME in Indi a solar concentrator is India ol on ent to i available for Industrial Process Heat Applications.9x10-3 (sin θz) } (Tm .Tamb) /Ibn 67 .35 + 4.4 + 2.Tamb) /Ibn η of PT = 0.000 kcal/day.

Potential Fully indigenous technology At the fountainhead of Providing about 30% of industrial process heat in India by solar energy saving of about 10% of our oil imports Capable of supplying most economic solar heat for solar thermal power route through steam Rankine cycle / organic Rankine cycle / Combined gas cycle Stirling-Dish system leading to Solar Farms Experience gained leading to development of heleostats and central tower system As tracker for solar PV panels For concentrating solar PV in future g Great CDM potential and important role in reducing global warming 68 .

34.28.000 kcal / day • C i l cost : Rs.000 Capital R 28 50 000 .50.562/(kWhth/day) .550 /kWth : Rs. 3. • Cost Parameter : Rs.Improved Fresnel Paraboloid Dish : ARUN™ ARUN™ 169 m2 dish for Industrial Process Heat / Power • Temp: 150 to 350°C • Power capacity : 80 to 85 kWth • Operating hours : 9 to 10 hours/day • Daily output : About 800 kWhth / day or 700.

INDIA .Fixed Spheroidal Dish with Moving Focus 176 m2 Solar Bowl at CSR. Auroville.

793 12.000 9.U S A AN U .000 25.000 12 000 10.000 7.000 5.000 10.500 7.500 16.000 2 Rs.Comparison of Solar Systems Specific Cost (Capital cost / Area) (Rs.000 20.A us tra l ia Pa ra bo lic Tr ou gh So Sc la rB he ffl ow er l co ok er (1 6 m 2) Ar un 16 0 Ar un 70 Ar un 16 0 w ith lo w -ir on m i rr or s 71 .000 14.000 21.000 30.000 15./ m2 37.750 35.000 25.429 15.000 5.500 ./ m ) 40. 33.000 0 So la ra ir he at So er la rw at Ev er ac he ua at te er Ev d Tu ac ua be te C d ol tu le be ct or -H s ea tP ip e Sy st em Sa nd ia .

US A AN U. Au str a l ia Pa ra bo lic Tr ou la co ok rB er er gh So ow (1 6 Sy st 40909 em 48214 53571 22069 Sc he f fl l m Ar 2 Cost / Efficiency ratio (Rs.- 30.000 20.000 60.000 So la ra ir h ea So la rw at er he at er r 22140 te Rs/m 2 Ev Ev ac ua te 23616 ac ua te d tu be Co l le ct be Tu or s d 14000 -H e at Pi pe Sa nd ia.000 40.000 90 000 10./m ) 77159 35382 2) un Ar un 16 0 Ar wi th lo 72 70 un wir o n 16 m Comparison of Solar Systems 44835 25509 0 i rr or 24726 s .000 50.000 80.000 90.000 70.

/ kW th) 100.626 30.000 60.000 50. bo at Pi pe er la AN rw be So ok ra Tu Pa at So -H e te er d ua be ac tu he Sc Ev te ua ac Ar un 16 d 0 wi th ff l lo w73 la Ev co ir o n m i rr or s .010 29.084 48. st Ar ct Au Ar la l le nd lic So er (1 6 Sy ra Co Sa U.128 25.000 10.000 30.387 52.000 30 000 20.000 0 R s.667 45.000 40.450 18 450 19.000 90.747 41.963 11.000 70.538 85.Comparison of Solar Systems Power Cost (Capital cost / Power) at different operating temperatures (Rs.000 80./ k W th s 94.089 18.680 19 680 gh ow 70 A r ia US 2) al Tr ou ea or un 16 te er 0 l at rB st r un m e he ir h ia.

47 1.74 2./ k W h th 4 3 2 1 0 Solar air heater Solar w ater heater 3./kWhth) 6 5 4. Parabolic Australia Trough Solar Bow l Scheffler cooker (16 m2) Arun70 Arun160 Arun160 w ith low iron 74 mirrors .56 1.89 R s .28 Evacuated Evacuated Sandia.57 3.84 2 84 2.Comparison of Solar Systems Typical Cost of Thermal Energy from different solar thermal units at different operating temperatures (Rs. Tube tube-Heat USA Collectors Pipe System ANU.86 1.32 1.37 1.15 4.46 0.

1 0.2 02 0.6 06 0.0 00 50 100 Arun160 Parabolic Trough Arun160 with low-iron mirrors (Topr-Ta).Comparison of Solar Systems Scheffler cooker (16 m2) Evacuated tube-Heat Pipe System 0.7 SystemEfficiency E 0. °C 150 200 250 300 75 .3 0.8 08 0.5 0.4 04 0.

000 55.000 50 100 150 200 250 300 (Topr-Ta).000 30.000 60.000 20.000 45.000 .000 50.000 35. 40. °C Scheffler cooker (16 m2) Evacuated tube-Heat Pipe System Arun160 Parabolic Trough Arun160 with low-iron mirrors 76 .000 . 25.000 65.Comparison of Solar Systems Specific system cost based on Therm Power d mal Rs / kW th 70.

/ kWh th E / 5 4 3 2 1 50 100 150 200 250 300 (Topr-Ta). °C Scheffler cooker (16 m2) Evacuated tube-Heat Pipe System Arun160 Parabolic Trough Electricity Light Diesel Oil (LDO) LPG Furnace Oil (FO) Natural Gas (PNG) Arun160 with low-iron mirrors 77 . Rs.Comparison of Solar Systems Comparativ Life Cycle Cost of ve e Delivered Energy.

Initiatives in I di I iti ti i India Concentrators for process heat p Scheffler cooker / concentrator Arun paraboloid concentrator Solar Bowl Thermal Power approaches Scheffler Dish with MS storage Arun with (solid) storage Imported Parabolic Trough / CLFR Imported Stirling Engine / Dish Cogeneration .

4 % LEGENDS P=60 P 60 T=350 MW=1 No RH.1 MW SOLAR THERMAL POWER PROJECT 1. No RG 1.9 192 46 WS 1.ST.4 2521 46.1 3 1 MW 1.9 3046 350 Solar Boiler 5.4 MW HTF EV 3.2 SH WS 0.9 60 3046 400 75.4 MW 60 SOLAR FIELD H.4 MW Efficiency: 18. C ST HTF PH 1.9 65 1134 260 0.9 60 2785 276 0.5 MW 1.9 65 198 46 Mass [Kg/S] P [bar] h [KJ/Kg] T [0 C] .1013 C.8 MW Ppump = 12.3 % P = 1 MW 1.ST.1013 4. WS 1.1 KW Power Output: 1 MW Solar Boiler Heat i/p = 5.

8 MW Efficiency: 21% LEGENDS P=60 T=400 MW=1 No RH.6 192 46 WS 1.6 65 1134 260 0.3 % P = 1 MW 1.1013 C.63 MW 1.1013 3.8 MW HTF EV 2.ST. No 1. C ST HTF PH 1.6 2554 46.6 3180 400 Solar Boiler 4. WS 1.8 MW 60 SOLAR FIELD H.49 MW Ppump = 10.6 65 198 46 Mass [Kg/S] P [bar] h [KJ/Kg] T [0 C] .2 KW Power Output: 1 MW Solar Boiler Heat i/p = 4.ST.6 60 2785 276 0.64 2 64 MW 1.6 60 3180 400 75.2 SH WS 0.1 MW SOLAR THERMAL POWER PROJECT 1.

3 % P = 1 MW 1.4 65 198 46 Mass [Kg/S] P [bar] h [KJ/Kg] T [0 C] .33 MW HTF EV 2.ST.2 SH WS 0.4 3303 450 Solar Boiler 4.9 KW Power Output: 1 MW Solar Boiler Heat i/p = 4.4 60 3303 400 75.32 MW 60 SOLAR FIELD H.4 2585 46.4 192 46 WS 1.4 65 1134 260 0.1 MW SOLAR THERMAL POWER PROJECT 1.1013 3. No RG 1.72 MW 1.ST.1013 C.4 60 2785 276 0.3 MW Ppump = 8.1% LEGENDS P=60 P 60 T=450 MW=1 No RH. WS 1. C ST HTF PH 1.32 MW Efficiency: 23.3 2 3 MW 1.

1 MW SOLAR THERMAL POWER PROJECT 1.8 % LEGENDS P=30 P 30 T=350 MW=1 No RH.ST.73 35 990 260 0.73 35 196 46 Mass [Kg/S] P [bar] h [KJ/Kg] T [0 C] . WS 1.73 3118 350 Solar Boiler 5.4 MW Ppump = 6 KW Power Output: 1 MW Solar Boiler Heat i/p = 5.73 30 2832 276 0.3 % P = 1 MW 1. C ST HTF PH 1.1 MW 30 SOLAR FIELD H.1013 C.ST.1 MW Efficiency: 19.73 192 46 WS 1.2 SH WS 0.5 MW 1. No RG 1.73 2539 46.1013 4.73 30 3233 400 75.2 3 2 MW 1.1 MW HTF EV 3.

5 35 196 46 Mass [Kg/S] P [bar] h [KJ/Kg] T [0 C] .2 SH WS 0.1 MW SOLAR THERMAL POWER PROJECT 1.ST.1013 3.6 MW Efficiency: 21.6 MW 30 SOLAR FIELD H.5 2568 46.5 192 46 WS 1.1013 C.15 KW Power Output: 1 MW Solar Boiler Heat i/p = 4.6 MW 1.5 30 3233 400 75.8 2 8 MW 1. C ST HTF PH 1.3 % P = 1 MW 1.5 35 990 260 0.2 MW Ppump = 5.9 % LEGENDS P=30 P 30 T=400 MW=1 No RH.5 30 2832 276 0. No RG 1. WS 1.6 MW HTF EV 2.ST.5 3233 400 Solar Boiler 4.

2 460 Series2 Linear (Series1) Linear (Series2) .5 21.0 1.6 1.6333 R2 = 0.5 23.9962 2.8 1.0 300 320 Series1 340 Cycle Efficiency = 0.4 14 1.9868 1.5 1.0 20.7 Mass Flow = -0.0 22 0 21.5 22.0 23 0 22.9 19 1.0333 R2 = 0.005xTemperature + 3.047xTemperature + 2.23.5 20.3 360 380 400 420 440 1.

Cycle Efficien cy [% ]

25 23 21 19 17 15 300 19.8 18.4 21.9 21 9 21 23.1

320

340

360

380

400

420

440

460

Temperature [C] Pressure=30 Bar
350 19.8 18.4

Pressure=60 Bar
400 21.9 21 450 23.1

30 60

25 Cycle Efficiency [%] E y 23 21 19 17 15 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 Degree of Superheat [C] Pressure=30 Bar
75 30 60 18.4 125 19.8 21

23.1 21.9 21 9 21 19.8 18.4 18 4

Pressure=60 Bar
175 21.9 23.1

Comparison of Solar Systems
Scheffler cooker (16 m2) Evacuated tube-Heat Pipe System

0.8 08 0.7 SystemEfficiency E 0.6 06 0.5 0.4 04 0.3 0.2 02 0.1 0.0 00 50 100

Arun160 Parabolic Trough Arun160 with low-iron mirrors

(Topr-Ta), °C

150

200

250

300
87

aperture at W/m2/K Lat < 20° Effective aperture at Lat > 20° Optical efficiency.0 10 1.4 04 0.8 – 0.7 07 0.765 0 765 2 0.0 10 .9 0.8 1.581 0 581 0.Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Technical Comparison f I di T h i lC i for India Typical concentration ratio Heat loss coefficient.6 – 0.7 07 0. ηo Scheffler system Parabolic Trough Arun160 with low-iron ith l i mirrors 150 100 400 0.35 0.77 0. Effective Ul.

83 7 83 – 8 00 – 11.6 56 2.m / MW Land required Ha/MW Capital Cost Rs.50 DishStirling 0./kWh Imported PT 20 MW 9.50 3.Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Parametric C P t i Comparison f I di i for India Scheffler Arun Power Collector Area Sq.000 2.00 7.500 2.2.5 8.00 * With annualized cost / capital cost = 13% and O&M @2% pa.75 18.3 Cr 6.00 9 00 – 13.5 20 Cr 8.33 8 33 – 12.5 17 Cr 7 2.67 9.500 – 10.4 Imported CLFR 20 MW ? ? ? 14 Cr 5.75 12.450 4./MW Hrs/day Ratio Rs.5 85 2.35 8.Cr/(MWh/d) Energy Cost* Rs.5 10 – 12 50 12.025 MW 6750 3 16-20 Cr 8 2 .5 MW 12. no profit .50 5 MW 8.5 to 3.85 6 85 2.

Initiatives in I di I iti ti i India Concentrators for process heat p Scheffler cooker / concentrator Arun paraboloid concentrator Solar Bowl Thermal Power approaches Scheffler Dish with MS storage Arun with (solid) storage Imported Parabolic Trough / CLFR Imported Stirling Engine / Dish Cogeneration .

Co-generation with process heat applications li ti .

Co-generation with VAR-application 92 .

Co-generation with Multiple effect Desalination G 93 .

Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Research i R h issues f I di for India Optimization of Process Heat and Cop gen systems Storage material at high temperature g g p Optimum sizing of storage. turbines Organic Rankine cycle PT: Evacuated tube and its coating High temperature receiver for central tower Thermal material for central tower Stirling engine .

industrial components Technical quality. Reliability and Operating experience of indigenous systems vs imported systems Capital cost and Cost of maintenance of indigenous systems vs imported systems Testing standards Testing facility and demonstration plant – IIT Bombay .Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Technology i T h l issues f I di for India Infrastructure available and cost in India for manufacturing: Labour.

hours /year Operating temperature affects solar collector efficiency as well as turbine ll ff ll b efficiency Design suitable f indigenous D i i bl for i di maintenance Storage sizing and cost S i i d Are we going to put more plants for experimentation / R and D ? i t ti d .Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Comparison i C i issues f I di for India Cost and hours /day.

Energy cost estimates : Reduction due to increased installations .CSP .

CSP .Energy cost estimates : Reduction due to increased installations .

CSP .Energy cost estimates : Reduction with respect to time .

Solar Thermal Power Technologies : Policy issues f I di P li i for India Apt and positive policy initiative ! Strategy for indigenous technology development ? Completely imported plant l Completely indigenous plant α-Plant β -Plant Combination of t h l i ? C bi ti f technologies Hybrid systems ? Co-gen systems ? ???? .

Kedare B Adjunct Associate Professor Department of Energy Science and Engineering. IIT-Bombay sbkedare@iitb.com bk d @ il .Thanks for your attention ! Queries and suggestions are welcome. Mumbai sbkedare@gmail.ac.. Dr Shireesh B. Dr. Ltd.in Director Clique Developments Pvt.

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