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Leadership & Leading People
• Define leader and explain the difference between mangers and leaders • Summarize the conclusions of various theories of leadership • Discuss the qualities that characterize charismatic leaders • Describe the skills that visionary leaders exhibit • Explain the four specific roles of effective team leaders • Identify the dimensions of trust
Manager Vs. Leader
Appointed and Have Formal Authority
May Have Managerial Authority and Influence Others
Manager Vs. Leader .
The Place of Leadership • Can Anyone Be a Leader? – Some people don’t have what it takes to be a leader – Some people are more motivated to lead than others • Is Leadership Always Necessary? – Some people don’t need leaders – Leaders need to be aware of followers’ needs .
extraversion . 3. Intelligence 6. honesty and integrity 4. 2. desire to lead 3. Drive 2. • – – Trait Theories Behavioral Theories Contingency Theories Trait Theories (1920s–30s) Early Leadership Theories Research that focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from nonleaders was unsuccessful Later research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership: 1. selfconfidence 5. jobrelevant knowledge 7.1.
feedback • Laissezfaire style: handsoff management – Research findings: mixed results • No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance • Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader . low participation • Democratic style: involvement. high participation.Behavioural Theories • University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin) – Identified three leadership styles: • Autocratic style: centralized authority.
but not always.Behavioural Theories (cont’d) • Ohio State Studies – Identified two dimensions of leader behaviour • Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group members • Consideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings – Research findings: mixed results • Highhigh leaders generally. achieved high group task performance and satisfaction • Evidence indicated that situational factors appeared to strongly influence leadership effectiveness .
Behavioural Theories (cont’d) • University of Michigan Studies – Identified two dimensions of leader behaviour • Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationships • Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishment – Research findings: • Leaders who are employee oriented are strongly associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction .
Behavioural Theories (cont’d) • Managerial Grid – Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions: • Concern for people • Concern for production .
The Managerial Grid .
• The Fiedler Model – Effective group performance depends upon the match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence – Assumptions: • Different situations require different leadership styles • Leaders do not readily change leadership styles – Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favourable to the leader is required Contingency Theories of Leadership .
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • The Fiedler Model (cont’d) – Leastpreferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire • Determines leadership style by measuring responses to 18 pairs of contrasting adjectives – High score: a relationshiporiented leadership style – Low score: a taskoriented leadership style – Situational factors in matching leader to the situation: • Leadermember relations • Task structure • Position power .
Findings of the Fiedler Model High Performance People-Oriented Task-Oriented Low Favourable I • Cat egor y • Lead er -Memb er Good Re lations • Tas k Str uc tur e High • Pos itio n P ow er Stro ng II Go od High Weak Moderate III Goo d Low Strong IV Go od High Weak V Poo r High Strong Unfavourable VI Poo r VII Poor VIII Poo r Low Wea k High Lo w Wea k Strong .
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) – Successful leadership is achieved by selecting a leadership style that matches the level of the followers’ readiness • Acceptance: do followers accept or reject a leader? • Readiness: do followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task? – Leaders must give up control as followers become more competent .
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) (cont’d) – Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions: • • • • Telling: high task–low relationship leadership Selling: high task–high relationship leadership Participating: low task–high relationship leadership Delegating: low task–low relationship leadership .
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) (cont’d) – Identifies four stages of follower readiness: • • • • R1: followers are unable and unwilling R2: followers are unable but willing R3: followers are able but unwilling R4: followers are able and willing .
Escondido. Situational Leadership® is a registered trademark of the Center for Leadership Studies. All rights reserved. High task and low relationship .Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model High relationship and low task High High task and high relationship STYLE OF LEADER S3 S4 S2 S1 High R4 Able and willing Moderate R3 Able and unwilling R2 Unable and willing Low R1 Unable and unwilling Low Task Behaviour Low relationship and low task High Follower Readiness Source: Reprinted with permission from the Center for Leadership Studies. California.
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Leader Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton) – Leader behaviour must be adjusted to reflect the task structure – Suggests appropriate participation level in decision making .
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Leader Participation Model Contingencies: – – – – – – – Decision significance Importance of commitment Leader expertise Likelihood of commitment Group support Group expertise Team competence .
Lead er-P articip ation M od el Employee Involvement Continuum Increased Leader Control 1 2 3 4 5 Increased Employee Involvement .
Vroom Leader Participation Model • • • • • Decide Consult Individually Consult Group Facilitate Delegate .
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • PathGoal Model – Leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in achieving organizational goals – Leader’s style depends on the situation: • • • • Directive Supportive Participative Achievementoriented .
Path-Goal Theory Environmental Contingency Factors •Task Structure Formal Authority System • • Work Group Leader Behaviour • Directive • Supportive • Participative Achievement Oriented • Subordinate Contingency Factors • Locus Control of • Experience • Perceived Ability Outcomes • Performance • Satisfaction .
• Transactional Leadership Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership • Transformational Leadership – Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements – Leaders who inspire followers to go beyond their own selfinterests for the good of the organization – Leaders who have a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers .
• Charismatic Leadership Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) – An enthusiastic. selfconfident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways – Characteristics of charismatic leaders: • • • • • Have a vision Are able to articulate the vision Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision Are sensitive to the environment and to follower needs Exhibit behaviours that are out of the ordinary .
Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) • Charismatic Leadership (cont’d) – Effects of Charismatic Leadership • Increased motivation. greater satisfaction • More profitable companies • Charismatic leadership may have a downside: – After recent ethics scandals. some agreement that CEOs with less vision. and more ethical and corporate responsibility. might be more desirable .
• Visionary Leadership Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) – A leader who creates and articulates a realistic. and attractive vision of the future that improves upon the present situation – Visionary leaders have the ability to: • Explain the vision to others • Express the vision not just verbally but through behaviour • Extend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts . credible.
Visionary Leadership Express the Vision Extend the Vision Explain the Vision .
• Team Leadership Characteristics Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) – Having patience to share information – Being able to trust others and to give up authority – Understanding when to intervene • Team Leader’s Job – Managing the team’s external boundary – Facilitating the team process • Coaching. and communicating . reviewing team and individual performance. training. facilitating. handling disciplinary problems.
Specific Team Leadership Roles Coach Liaison with external constituencies Team Leadership Roles Conflict manager Troubleshooter .
Cross-Cultural Leadership • Universal Elements of Effective Leadership – – – – – – – Vision Foresight Providing encouragement Trustworthiness Dynamism Positiveness Proactiveness .
• Malaysian leaders are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than a participative style. low team orientation. • Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass. low compassion. not energize. • Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak. low selfprotection. and high participation . high autonomy. • Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently. • Effective German leaders are characterized by high performance orientation.Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings • Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees. those individuals.
• Research Findings Gender Differences and Leadership – Males and females use different styles: • Women tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style unless in a male dominated job • Women tend to use transformational leadership • Men tend to use transactional leadership .
Source: R. Personnel Decisions International Inc. They stumbled on them while compiling and analyzing performance evaluations. . 2000. 75.” BusinessWeek.. Women Rule. Lawrence A.Where Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard ofNone the five studies set out to find gender differences. Advanced Teamware Inc. women’s and men’s scores in these categories were statistically even. p. Sharpe. November 20. Management Research Group. Skill (Each check mark denotes which group MEN scored higher on the respective studies) Motivating Others Fostering Communication Producing High-Quality Work Strategic Planning Listening to Others Analyzing Issues WOMEN * * * * In one study. “As Leaders. Data: Hagberg Consulting Group. Pfaff.
or knowledge – Coercive power – Reward power • The power a leader has as a result of his or her position • The power a leader has to punish or control • The power to give positive benefits or rewards – Referent power • The power of a leader that arises because of a person’s desirable resources or admired personal traits . skills.Current Leadership Issues • Managing Power – Legitimate power – Expert power • The influence a leader can exert as a result of his or her expertise.
loyalty. job satisfaction. and ability of a leader – Trust is related to increases in job performance. and organization commitment • Dimensions of trust: integrity.Developing Trust • Credibility (of a Leader) – The assessment. by a leader’s followers. and ability to inspire • Trust – The belief of followers and others in the integrity. consistency. organizational citizenship behaviours. character. and openness . competence. competence. of the leader’s honesty.
Providing Moral Leadership • Addressess both the moral content of a leader’s goals and the means used to achieve those goals • Ethical leadership is more than being ethical – Includes reinforcing ethics through organizational mechanisms .
structure. and style for digital communications – Performance management • Defining.Providing On-line Leadership • Challenges of Online Leadership – Communication • Choosing the right words. and required . encouraged. and encouraging performance – Trust • Creating a culture where trust is expected. tone. facilitating.
Empowering Employees • Empowerment – Involves increasing the decisionmaking discretion of workers – Why empower employees? • Quicker responses to problems and faster decisions • Relieves managers to work on other problems .
not criticized.Empowerment: Cautions • The following conditions should be met for empowerment to be introduced: – Clear definition of company’s values and mission – Employees have relevant skills – Employees need to be supported. when performing – Employees need to be recognized for their efforts .
Tips for Managers: Suggestions for Building Trust Practise openness Be fair Speak your feelings Tell the truth Show consistency Fulfill your promises Maintain confidences Demonstrate competence .
The End. Thank you! .
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