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The Complete Guide To:
Broadband GETS PERSONAL
Mobile WiMAX is upon us, bringing a whole new kind of broadband service experience with it.
Carriers gain real-world WiMAX knowledge VoIP and quality go hand-in-hand The emergence of OFDMA
By Dan O’Shea
cations systems division at Samsung Electronics. Each of them brought a different perspective, Smith, that of a telco that is testing the water with commercial pre-WiMAX services and gathering information, but holding off on bigger commitments while waiting to see what Mobile WiMAX can offer; Hoadley, that of an equipment vendor that has been foraging around in the forest of developing standards looking for the right commercial opportunities; and Song, that of an equipment and device vendor that is on the very forefront of what Mobile WiMAX may offer, getting ready to help Korea Telecom launch broadly available commercial WiBro service this spring. We talked on the panel about the future of WiMAX, in admittedly most vague visionary terms—I kidded Song about the “WiBro robot” he showed a photo of when explaining what kinds of end-user terminals could eventually carry WiBro. He said it was roughly the size of an iDog and would follow you anywhere. (Note to Song: I was serious about wanting one for Christmas this year.) It was the kind of general banter that you see at any panel, that is, until we got the audience involved in the question and answer session. People from the gallery began firing all sorts of intelligent and extremely specific questions at the panelists: What is the business model for Mobile WiMAX where there is already 3G? How many base stations do you need to build in an average city, what can you charge for service and where is your break-even point? Where do customer premises equipment price points need to be for Mobile WiMAX to become a viable broadband alternative—how do we get there and when? How can you spend money to build a WiMAX network and still compete with municipal networks that will offer service for free? Who among the telecom outsiders will bid on spectrum at auction—Microsoft, Apple or Google? The panelists had answers for some of those questions, and others were just too hard to answer adequately in our format of discussion, but the number and specificity of the questions both surprised and enlightened me. It was an indicator that the whole level of debate about WiMAX has been elevated across the telecom industry. People don’t necessarily want to talk about future possibilities—about what names they will give to their WiMAX robots—but what they can do now, how they can fit WiMAX into their current understanding of their own business models. The audience raised important questions that the WiMAX Forum should strive to answer so that as many companies as possible can get involved in the market as soon as possible. Around the world, people are craving a WiMAX education, and they want it now—because the future is now. ◗
Editor-in-Chief Dan O’Shea
ust two weeks ago at the TelecomNext trade show in Las Vegas, I had the privilege of moderating a panel on “The Future of WiMAX” that included Bill Smith, chief technology officer of BellSouth; John Hoadley, vice president of advanced technology and wireless networks at Nortel Networks; and Hung Song, vice president of the global marketing group in the telecommuni-
The Complete Guide to WiMAX April 2006
com. No other product lets carriers and service providers so quickly offer broadband services across diverse customer bases—and so profitably. Wireless to the MAX PacketMAX™ 5000 is the industry's highest density. The PacketMAX 5000 is the world's first carrier-class broadband wireless base station to be WiMAX Forum Certified and provides unsurpassed subscriber density.THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO Contents 2 MOBILE WIMAX: THE EVOLUTION BEGINS Mobile WiMAX promises to bring with it a whole new kind of broadband service experience—personal broadband. 15 OFDMA PREPARES TO MOVE ON Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing was way ahead of WiMAX and 3G in terms of offerings on the market.408. QoS.719. WiMAX Starts with Aperto. All rights reserved. 13 WIMAX PUTS SERVICE QUALITY ON DISPLAY Many bank on VoIP to be the WiMAX killer app. The current standstill has been caused by vendors awaiting ratification of standards. Aperto Networks 598 Gibraltar Drive Milpitas. The WiMAX era has arrived with new PacketMAX™ 5000 from Aperto Networks. div For more information on PacketMAX solutions.9977 or visit www. and reliability. and highest performing base station. but service quality will be key to the success of this—or any other WiMAX-enabled—offering.apertonet. CA 95035 © 2006 Aperto Networks. call +1. highest capacity. . 8 LEARNING FROM EXPERIENCE Carriers and vendors gain insight into how consumers will use WIMAX through trials and commercial rollouts. 17 Q&A: DONNA CARLSON Principal analyst at Sky Light Research talks about what WiMAX will accomplish in 2006.
as well as new thinking about how we view broadband. carriers are continuing to migrate to new forms of broadband access. creating a more structurally open and operationally efficient network environment. is already changing. in which automated network management and remote self-service capabilities are changing how broadband service is activated and administered. there is the migration to the era of customer self-maintenance.” Subramanian said.” said Sai Subramanian. For the last year or more. That name isn’t so much an alter ego. there is more soon on the way. Fixed WiMAX being among the latest. And leading the charge for mobile substitution. “A lot of them have never had a landline connection to their name. in the broadband access realm. And at the access level. then maybe you just aren’t young enough to know better about how the nature of communications. the so-called act of “cutting the cord. long before the IEEE ratified the 802. Carlton O’Neal. By Dan O’Shea The telecom industry is at one of those richly interesting points in its history where many different types of migration seem to be happening at the same time. What they are used to is mobile services. Mobile substitution of landline service. In the network core. “Beginning this year.16e standard on which Mobile WiMAX is based in December 2005.” Subramanian said. What will happen with Mobile WiMAX is that you will have a personal broadband service that is wrapped in a device. ‘Who is your personal broadband provider?’” If it seems a stretch for the average communications consumer to start thinking in those terms about broadband. and it can change broadband in the same way that [personal communications services] changed the cell phone market. is a young demographic market segment—18 to 34-year-olds (though the trend is most intense among 18 to 25-year-olds). it is clearly Mobile WiMAX that you are talking about. Yet. Subramanian and many other people in the WiMAX Forum and in the industry were calling Mobile WiMAx by another name: personal broadband.MOBILITY Mobile WiMAX: THE EVOLUTION BEGINS T 2 The next step for broadband wireless technology will help usher in a new era of applications and devices. for the most part. “If you are talking about a technology that can turn wireless into a broadband phenomenon. In the service provider back office. And many people in the WiMAX community are betting that Mobile WiMAX will do what Fixed WiMAX and other fixed forms of broadband access have not been able to do—inspire a whole new way of thinking about and defining broadband service a the broadband user experience. People will be asking each other. and you probably never will see that happen.16e standard. as well as an indicator of exactly how it may change our current concept of broadband technology and access. as it is a much better descriptor of what the technology actually provides to its users. “It’s a younger demographic. vice president of marketing for Alvarion.” has been on the rise for the last few years. and by extension broadband. vice president of product management for Navini Networks. the iPod generation.S. and the idea is going to a retail store and buying a phone with the The Complete Guide to WiMAX April 2006 . based on the IEEE 802. market alone is expected to be around 10%. and mobile substitution in the U. The concept of broadband will go up a notch and become disconnected from location. “Mobile WiMAX will broaden the market for broadband everywhere in the world and make it the kind of market that it should be. as the WiMAX Forum and its member companies look to make Mobile WiMAX. added. one that is counted in number of people connected rather than in the number of households connected. there will be a move to the idea of personal broadband. carriers are migrating to IP multimedia subsystem architectures that are simplifying how different types of communications traffic are treated. a commercial endeavor by sometime early next year.
Most laptop PCs now can be purchased not only with the typical Ethernet high-speed landline connection port. the nature of existing mobile service also is changing. at the same time that Mobile WiMAX is emerging and personal broadband is taking shape. right? It will be a matter of user preference. voice over IP.16e and will April 2006 The Complete Guide to WiMAX 3 . The migration to richer hand-held “[The killer app for WiMAX] will be whatever people are doing at the time they’re connected. It will be like what originally happened in the PC market—the applications will come from the explosion of devices that are positioned to take advantage of them. but also with integrated Wi-Fi connections and service activation software. There’s the whole emergence now of viral videos. “The initial applications for personal broadband will be some of the same things that you do with a wired broadband connection.” O’Neal added. data. and even traditional TV programming. Samsung is said to be working on a UMPC version that will have WiBro connectivity. and that’s really no big shakes. downloading music.” New types of devices are still emerging as Mobile WiMAX marches toward the personal broadband future. and that killer app will be whatever people are doing at that time that they are connected. “Broadband systems kind of augur each other. Germany. The device. Some laptops even have integrated or cardbased 3G services packaged with them. However.” M eanwhile.” Alvarion’s O’Neal said. “You’ve got all these access methods and devices. based on the standard in South Korea that is based on 802. and new contentbased services—not just games or. most recently. As Subramanian pointed out. 3G phones. Navini’s Subramanian said. everywhere” communications and entertainment device. 3G networks and devices are starting to catch on to the idea that consumers want video content. to be capable of being removed from their living rooms and their cable TV or landline broadband connections. There’s a lot of storeand-forward video possibilities. sending the occasional photo. Something like that is a Mobile WiMAX application. “The video iPod is kind of a revolution in itself.” Having said that. data devices and storage devices like iPods are all converging in various ways.service already connected to it.” O’Neal said.” —Carlton O’Neal. Alvarion devices capable of voice. there will be an amazing proliferation of applications that come. as mobile data traffic is increasing on the 3G networks of the traditional mobile service providers. touted by Microsoft as an “anywhere. “That’s because it is helping to shift the paradigm in the way that people are consuming enter- tainment. laptop personal computer sales have surged year after year to the point where sales of laptops have now moved ahead of sales of desktop PCs. The popularity of a device like the video iPod is just one example of that trend. includes software such as Sling Media’s store-and-forward content solution and Intel chips with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity. not buying a phone and then waiting for someone to come out to your house to connect it or to wire your house. It is a trend that Hollywood and the rest of the community that develops and produces much of the TV and other video content we enjoy may be well ahead in understanding. music services. “There will be a killer app for WiMAX. the kinds of applications that consumers may use personal broadband for may not be so far removed from exactly the kind of applications they use a broadband landline connection for today—Internet access. Meanwhile. but the idea is also that the user can perform that task in their preferred way.” And the future will not revolve only around whatever Apple Computer thinks of next. and the software giant unveiled its first UMPC last month at the CeBit trade show in Hanover. video and other applications has been in progress for a while now. having the mobility while performing these tasks will be a huge change for most people. but also mobile TV and other kinds of video programming. and as they are all converging on the market. at their preferred time and place. as Mobile WiMAX and the concept of personal broadband become more broadly commercially applicable over the next year or so. The Ultra-Mobile Personal Computer (UMPC) has been in development at Microsoft since at least 2002. and that can be another killer app in the way that people will want to share things.
AS4030 AS MAX OEM Alvarion BreezeMAX PacketMAX WalkAIR. V3000 wireless hub LMS Family Space time processing technology Libra MX Ultima 3.MOBILITY SKY LIGHT RESEARCH’S WiMAX PRODUCT GRID Vendor Multiservice Proprietary WiMAX-2004 WiMAX-802. AWE.16e Current IP Mobile– CDMA Current IP Mobile– Flash OFDM WiBRO Adaptix AirSpan Alcatel Alvarion Aperto Networks Arraycom Axcera Axxcelera Cambridge Broadband Ericsson Flarion/ Qualcomm Harris IPWireless Motorola Navini NextNet Nortel PointRed Technologies Proxim Wireless Redline Samsung Siemens Soma SR Telecom Trango Broadband UTStarcom Vyyo WaveRider/ WaveWireless Wavion WiLAN ZTE AS4020 ASWipLL. CPE chips in existing terminals 450 MHz W-CDMA macro base station WayMAX @vantage SoftAir System AirStar Angel (named changed Symmetry ONE to Symmetry ONE) Access 5830 and FOX WayMAX Family road map Road map Symmetry MX V251 Wireless Modem. eMGW BreezeAccess Breeze2000 PacketWave iBurst Motion 2100 AS. Libra families ZXBWA-3E Road map ZiMax 450 MHz CDMA 4 The Complete Guide to WiMAX April 2006 Source: Sky Light Research Information up to date as of March 17 MovingMedia 6000 TD-CDMA .16 Road map RAS bs.5) AB Max (5.MAX road map Evolium WiMAX base station BreezeMAX road map PacketMAX Motion Axity (UMTS) AB Access VectaSTAR ExcelAir 70 ExcelMAX (3.8) VectaMAX OEM Airspan Road map RadioRouter ClearBurst MB NodeB Base station MOTOwi4 Canopy products MOTOwi4 UltraLite products RipWave MX Road map LG/Nortel joint venture RipWave BS and modems LG/Nortel joint venture Expedience Road map with Airspan MicroRed Tsunami AN100 TeraMAX RedMAX Tsunami MP.
wherever you see Wi-Fi today. WiFi. “You will see a very quick migration away from the typical handset as a cellular voice device. and it evolves very fast from there. Leap ahead.” —Chris Knudsen. “Mobile WiMAX eventually will be integrated into laptops and all other kinds of devices. Future UMPCs likely will include some form of Mobile WiMAX connectivity. chief technology officer of Intel Corp’s service provider group. Remote farms or villages are best connected using fixed CPEs with large high-gain antennas while mobile users in downtown business districts would like to use familiar PDAs. Earlier this year. visit: www. you will have services with greater spectral efficiency. multi-band WiFi/WiMAX radio enabling connectivity for a full spectrum of mobile and ultra mobile PC devices.intel. All rights reserved. Intel confirmed that it was developing for release a mobile WiMAX PC card for its Intel® Centrino® mobile technology-based platforms. Combining WiFi and WiMAX on tomorrow’s devices promises to bring ultimate mobility to users worldwide. All different kinds of access methods are driving that. The bottom line.com/go/wimax . April 2006 The Complete Guide to WiMAX 5 .” Chris Knudsen. “We expect to see wide variety of user devices from fixed outdoor CPEs to handsets. All different kinds of access methods are driving that.” Arno Kolk. There are many different applications. the Intel logo. Intel demonstrated a single chip. “You will see a very quick migration away from the typical handset as a cellular voice device. yes. Leap ahead. said. Intel WiMAX. “It starts with a PC card being added to some laptop. and Intel is leading the industry to make this vision a reality. Intel. laptops or smartphones. Additionally. each best served with a different device. added. you will see WiMAX tomorrow. and devices will come together. vice president of marketing for manufacturing firm Elcoteq.©2006 Intel Corporation. Why. Intel. Intel. For more information on how Intel is driving global WiMAX adoption.” Navini’s Subramanian said..be a profile within Mobile WiMAX. With Mobile WiMAX. logo and Intel Centrino are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.
is creating an integrated Wi-Fi/WiMAX chipset because the company believes that making wide area connectivity and local area connectivity available in the same integrated package is another thing that will help service providers deliver new broadband services more economically.” Intel’s Knudsen said. but all the big iron vendors will have some way of addressing Mobile WiMAX. “It changes the whole idea of a satellite radio. You will get away from the network being the main thing and to devices that are intelligent and personal and reliable. so it makes a lot of sense. These two business cases overlap at the edges and will inevitably compete with each other to some degree.” Still. PDAs or smartphones Soft handoffs No Yes Source: Senza Fili Consulting. Mark Whitton.802. Operators of 3G networks are getting some experience with mobile broadband that companies waiting for Mobile WiMAX may take a little longer to acquire. everywhere” connectivity. which will drive up volume. and the complexity of implementing layers of services on top of each other.16. PDAs or smartphones Laptop PCMCIA or mini cards.” That kind of scenario may truly rely on the availability of “anywhere. the relationship between Mobile WiMAX and 3G is still pretty rough around the edges.” Although Wi-Fi and WiMAX are very cozy partners. Some people view Mobile WiMAX as directly and overwhelming competitive to 3G. driving cost out of the devices. for many service providers and vendors. although several of the major equipment vendors opted to pass on the Fixed WiMAX opportunity. “There has been some waiting on the sidelines with Fixed WiMAX. adding. Likewise. such as BellSouth.000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 6 Percentage of broadband subscribers 5 4 3 2 1 Thousands of subscribers 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 0 New fixed broadband WiMAX subscribers Percentage of total broadband subscribers Source: iSuppli Corp. 3G was designed to deliver ubiquitous voice in a mobile environment and is building upward from this strong base to also deliver higher-bandwidth services to highly portable devices. “There is a lot of capex involved in building networks and subsidizing devices. “To label 3G and WiMAX as purely competitive or purely complementary ignores the subtle strengths and weaknesses of the unique wireless technologies involved. and carriers should have more ways of making money from these devices. Then. they are now assembling their strategies in order to attack the Mobile WiMAX opportunity. to the degree that several service providers. said. are only recently taking a more active interest in the WiMAX Forum’s Mobile WiMAX certification efforts just as they are starting to heat up. particularly in large-scale wireless mesh architectures. “Wi-Fi and WiMAX are very similar from a standards point of view. the market drivers will start to take effect. Mobile WiMAX seems worth waiting for. One thing is certain: 3G is out on the market and beginning to enter a maturation phase while Mobile WiMAX is still a work in progress based on a standard approved only a few months ago. and they are both IP. taking advantages of the eventual Mobile WiMAX capability for mobile handoffs at vehicular speeds. It carries with it the burden of backwards compatibility.MOBILITY TYPES OF ACCESS TO A WiMAX NETWORK Definition Devices Locations/ speed Single/ stationary Multiple/ stationary Multiple/ walking speed Multiple/ low vehicular speed Multiple/ high vehicular speed Handoffs 802.16e 2004 No No Hard handoffs Hard handoffs Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Fixed access Outdoor and indoor CPEs Nomadic access Portability Simple mobility Full mobility Indoor CPEs. while others see it as a broadband solution that is more a direct relation and next-generation alternative to location-dependent broadband services. PCMCIA cards Laptop PCMCIA or mini cards Laptop PCMCIA or mini cards. “WiMAX is focused on dramatically dropping the cost per megabit for wireless broadband. “Why couldn’t you have a car that is synchronizing up with all kinds of different database as you are driving? It’s getting map information or downloading music. vice president and general manager for WiMAX at Nortel Networks.” he said. Intel. “Some will FORECAST OF WORLDWIDE WiMAX SUBSCRIBERS FOR FIXED WIRELESS BROADBAND ACCESS 10. like at least one or two other chipset developers.” O’Neal said.” Alvarion’s O’Neal even sees the potential for cars as broadband devices. 6 The Complete Guide to WiMAX April 2006 .” he said. while simultaneously delivering a real and significant increase in end-user bandwidth through the magic of OFDM and MIMO. on behalf of the WiMax Forum “You will see new devices that are richer on features and new form factors.
but soon we’ll see at least a low penetration of Mobile WiMAX. We’re building high performance networks now for subscriber growth and market share expansion. Our Expedience® pre-Mobile WiMAX system operates on licensed frequencies and is the carrier’s choice for accelerating market share and business proﬁtability worldwide. Suite 270 Minneapolis. developing the advanced technology for future standards compliance.16e chips are only now starting to appear. The 2. it could be a complete replacement. but the only kind. an independent lab in South Korea as it first certification testing house for Mobile WiMAX profiles.5 GHz frequency.. the industry really can foresee a time when “Mobile WiMAX eventually could replace wired broadband—not now. Meanwhile. Carriers and vendors want to make it as easy as possible to install to give it a competitive advantage that separates it from earlier generations of residential broadband services. VoIP. people were asking if mobile telephony really could replace landline. 9555 James Ave. The first phase most likely will address gear in the 2.nextnetwireless. and in 20 years. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. The product development and pre-commercial phase for Mobile WiMAX is expected to extend for the rest of this year. NextNet is accelerating the path to industry standards by delivering on the promise of Mobile WiMAX features today. MN 55431 952-929-4008 www. The forum recently chose TTA. we believe in performance and the power of the proven business case. The testing plan is still being worked out. “Mobile WiMAx eventually could replace wired broadband—not now. with product certification at the WiMAX Forum expected to happen late this year and early next. They can’t afford to wait while their competitors capture market share! At NextNet. would be next. NextNet and Expedience are registered trademarks of NextNet Wireless. many people believe. Inc. April 2006 The Complete Guide to WiMAX . “About 10 years ago. ”—Paul Sergeant. BellSouth and others. “It’s the glue that takes care of the roaming between different access networks. “The 802. but soon we’ll see at least a low penetration ..” With important telecom technology migrations all coming together at once. Many equipment vendors and carriers said they believe that the 2. it could be a complete replacement. Maybe it’s the simplicity of a NLOS plug & play solution that doesn’t require users to install software or to conﬁgure their computers. Motorola personal broadband isn’t just one kind of broadband. the telecom industry is still working on those two other important migrations. the self-service evolution and the IMS evolution.” This also could drive some consolidation in the vendor community during the product development phase of WiMAX. Self-installation is fast becoming a must-have capability in broadband wireless access systems. BellSouth owns a healthy stock of 2. All Rights Reserved. it will be much bigger.3 GHz licenses.S by Sprint Nextel. and some will have OEM arrangements with other vendors..” Sergeant said. “There is a significant demand for 802.S.have their own systems. even though Mobile WiMAX trials really haven’t gotten started yet. Inc. senior marketing manager of alternative access for Motorola.16e-based systems already. In 10 years. the frequency that is being used for WiBro in South Korea and which also is being targeted for usage in several other countries. As a principal member of the WiMAX Forum™. but sources from WiMAX Forum member companies said there are likely to be two initial phases for Mobile WiMAX certification testing. S. including mobility.5 GHz spectrum in some countries had been barred from being used for a service with mobility—something which many people blame the proponents of GSM mobile service—but those restrictions are now being lifted. In 20 years. “IMS will be essential to Mobile WiMAX. Both will contribute significantly to the success of Mobile WiMAX. In the U.” ◗ Accelerate Your Broadband Opportunities Today’s carriers realize that the broadband wireless race is on.” At the same time.” Sergeant said. and we’re leading the way.” said Paul Sergeant.com ©2006 NextNet Wireless. What’s fueling this mass-market acceptance? Maybe it’s the convenience of a wireless IP gateway that supports all IP-compatible broadband applications. video streaming and gaming. Clearwire. Call NextNet today and let us help you accelerate your business plan.3 GHz spectrum band. which is owned in the U.
She said then that the company is aiming to meet a goal of having 22 base stations deployed in the 2.3 GHz and 2. Gulfport.5 GHz profiles. By Dan O’Shea cations Services (WCS) spectrum band. offering access speeds of 1. though.3 GHz and 2.5 GHz ranges.. Steele.5 GHz former Multi-channel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS) band. and most recently in DeLand. Also in late January.” even though WiMAX Forum-certified equipment is not yet available in 2. Palatka. Miss. also said When AT&T recently proposed to acquire BellSouth. Ga. WiMAX will continue to evolve. The company owns spectrum licenses in both the 2. in January. but one question that was not being asked was: How will these companies. laptop cards and other subscriber access gear is not yet crowding the shelves at all the big-box consumer electronics retailers. telecom industry observers talked about the potential far-reaching implications for a number of different technologies and markets: Will BellSouth adopt AT&T’s architectural approach to IPTV? How will the two companies’ various hardware and software vendors be affected? Would the combined entity accelerate implementation of IP multimedia subsystem components and its pursuit of fixed/mobile convergence? These are all important questions that will affect the future of the companies. Fla. their vendors and their customers. Miss. BellSouth issued a further request for proposal for broadband wireless equipment in the 2. if they complete their proposed merger. carriers and vendors are getting valuable experience from trials and commercial deployments to help them improve the user experience.CONSUMER EXPERIENCE Learning FROM EXPERIENCE As the industry awaits Mobile WiMAX. integrate their strategies for WiMAX? With the deal likely to take a year or more to close. as well as the 2. it may be a while before we know the answer. handsets. and AT&T and BellSouth each probably will continue to learn from the broadband wireless experience they are already gaining through their own separate trials and commercial rollouts. WiMAX Forum-certified customer premises equipment...3 GHz Wireless Communi- W 8 The Complete Guide to WiMAX April 2006 . New Orleans. and has since deployed in Biloxi. The company initially deployed service last August in Athens. senior director of wireless broadband for BellSouth.. said in late January that the carrier’s broadband wireless expansion plan called for it to continue aggressively deploying base stations and building out new markets through 2006 and 2007. Susan Steele. BellSouth has been particularly busy with broadband wireless. In the meantime.3 GHz range by 2007 to comply with minimum use requirements for the WCS spectrum formulated by the FCC.. but that has not stopped service providers and vendors from gathering information that will help them shape the experience on end users to come. Fla.5 Mb/s. what Steele at the time referred to as a “WiMAX RFP.
“Price is a huge issue.WiMAX CPE PRICING POTENTIAL As volume increases. Steele did not say where and how soon BellSouth plans to commercially deploy the equipment. was looking for a wireless upgrade alternative that could match 3G. there was another service provider megamerger—the union of Sprint and Nextel—that had broadband wireless and WiMAX as one of its footnotes. Nextel already was pursuing tests and field trials of pre-WiMAX broadband wireless systems. with 52. Later. in mid-2002. To top it all off. self-installable CPE PCMCIA card for laptops First certified products PCMCIA card for laptops. at least to some small degree.000 customers signed up.. (It was the primary vendor for one of the first public trials of WiBro with Korea Telecom at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit last November. “The agreement with Samsung will help align technologies and validate requirements for ROAD MAP FOR WiMAX USER DEVICES 802.16-2004 standard. Sprint’s experience with the 2.5 GHz spectrum has been star-crossed. the company began trials with both Navini and IPWireless but has never committed to a broad commercial rollout (Though it recently extended its trial with IPWireless).—for the trials.16-2004 WiMAX 802.S. The RFP was intended to detail the importance of price and speed-to-market requirements. OFDM is the technology specified in the IEEE’s 802. The company originally began offering MMDS services at least seven year years ago.16e WiMAX 2006 First certified products Outdoor CPE Indoor.) Barry West. smartphone 2009 Source: Senza Fili Consulting. on behalf WiMAX Forum April 2006 The Complete Guide to WiMAX 9 . Sprint Nextel said late last year that it was teaming with Samsung Telecommunications America to test technologies based on 802. different AT&T technology executives lamented the shortage of viable and available spectrum in which WiMAX could be deployed in the U. among others.5 GHz spectrum. and in Atlanta over the last couple of years. chief technology officer of Sprint Nextel. Also. In its earliest trials.” she said. said the relationship would provide the carrier with important information about infrastructure and handsets by testing Samsung terminals in lab and in field environments but also would provide guidance for developing future services. last summer. which Samsung pioneered in South Korea. and though the New Jersey trial only involved a single pre-WiMAX base station and a couple of enterprise customers.J. Meanwhile. presumed to include WiBro. Sprint signed on with Motorola to do an 802. The decrease in price will be rapid as equipment manufacturers try to get a stronghold on the consumer market. Even before AT&T and BellSouth announced their planned deal. and their marriage made Sprint Nextel the single largest owner of 2. just before the merger with Nextel closed.16e technology trial and to contribute to the development of a Mobile WiMAX solution. the Atlanta trial was expanded last summer to involve several sites. The merger with BellSouth would seem to help solve that spectrum problem. but the solution never caught on and in 2001. Both Nextel and Sprint owned spectrum in the 2. “We’d like to get the responses and choose vendors to get something in our lab by the second quarter. which was an- nounced in early 2005 and closed last August. indoor self-installable CPEs 2007 2008 Mini PCMCIA card for laptops PDA. Sprint stopped actively marketing the service. CPEs will decrease. Before their merger.5 GHz band. the carrier giant worked with spectrum “on loan” from the FCC. including solutions using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) from Navini Networks.” she said.16e. Sprint also has a WiMAX-related partnership with Intel. and the bar has been set in broadband by DSL and cable modems already. IPWireless and Flarion Technologies. AT&T also has been pursuing its own strategy for WiMAX. $ 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2004 CPE ASP 2005 2007 2010 Source: Sky Light Research that BellSouth would be working within the WiMAX Forum to coax the group to work on these profiles. which operated an iDEN network. Company executives said at the time that they were looking for a broadband service solution that could be offered to customers somewhere near the $20 per month range. In public speeches over the last two years. Nextel. N. The company launched trials in Middleton.
Navini and others to offer a wide variety of services and bandwidth classes to both businesses and consumers for a range of monthly fees. It serves 29 mar- kets in the U. Denmark and Mexico. according to its Web site. CEO of MVS. Avantel’s executive vice president of marketing. which itself is owned by Clearwire.5 GHz spectrum and serves other markets in Belgium. Some of its clients include Avantel (a joint venture of MCI).7 million VoIP minutes per month across Mexico City.net. Wash. service provider founded by Craig McCaw. working with vendor NextNet Wireless. probably is the second-largest owner of licenses in 2. Guadalajara. Irish Broadband has used equipment from Alvarion. “We are thrilled with the rapid uptake—our subscriber base is growing beyond our expectations. to launch voice over IP and data services earlier this year. Clearwire. “We are evaluating multiple options for 2.net. has been particularly busy of late. We are experiencing the mass-market appeal of this technology firsthand and are happy to report that we are already ahead of our forecasted unit sales by 20%. deploying Aperto Networks gear as part of a national network buildout that . and access speeds are about 1. Monterrey. over 3. MVS.6 million calls per month.S. generating more than 3. Clearwire’s Mexican partner. Ireland. over the 2.5 GHz spectrum. Miguel Calderon. service providers have been particularly aggressive deploying preWiMAX services. among others.” he said.5 Mb/s for downlink and 256 kb/s from uplink. Clearwire typically offers service between $30 and $37 per month.5 GHz applications and fostering strategic relationships with ecosystem partners that are vital to progress on next-generation wireless broadband access and infrastructure. MVS. and call volumes are on the rise.” After Sprint Nextel.” In Europe. Toluca and Mexicali. Iberbanda in Spain has been similarly aggressive.5 GHz spectrum. Jose Antonio Abad.CONSUMER EXPERIENCE future wireless offerings. said in January that average call volume was 1.net is a carriers’ carrier. the Kirkland. Alestra (a joint venture of AT&T) and its own ISP Ego. The company has been quietly but busily launching networks over the last three years in several countries. said after the launch..
deployed a solution for the local police force that enables police officers to access and send information from their cars over a high-bandwidth wireless connection. police are even able to access a video streaming feed to monitor security at a local high school. such as MPEG video. Ukraine.” ◗ WIMAX SERVICE TYPES Service Type Unsolicited grant services (UGS) Description UGS is designed to support real-time data streams consisting of fixed-sized data packets issued at periodic intervals. and are proud to be a charter board member of the WiMAX Forum. rtPS is designed to support real-time data streams consisting of variable-sized data packets that are issued at periodic intervals. Source: WiMAX Forum and Westech Communications white paper Real-time polling service (rtPS) Non-real-time polling service (nrtPS) Best effort (BE) Fixed and Mobile WiMAX Airspan’s AS.5 GHz. with only a handful of actual WiMAX Forum-certified systems commercially available so far. In one situation.5 GHz. April 2006 The Complete Guide to WiMAX 11 . NextNet customer Evertek. Though the industry is still very early in the evolution of WiMAX. The trial and commercial rollouts are giving all of the service providers in many countries necessary experience in selling broadband wireless to the masses. 3. 2. and 4-Channel Beam forming Smart Antennas • Operates in all key WIMAX Bands (2.began in early 2005. such as FTP.3 GHz. nrtPS is designed to support delay-tolerant data streams consisting of variable-sized data packets for which a minimum data rate is required. “We were thrilled that we did not have to wait for WiMAX technology. Roxanne White. Fixed and Mobile WIMAX Base Stations • Full support for 256 FFT OFDM and 512 and 1024 FFT SOFDMA • Supports 2 x 2 MIMO. and Islamabad.9 GHz) Airspan Networks is the new leader in Broadband Wireless and WiMAX systems. a wireless ISP in Sioux City. said. Service providers in Kiev. Iowa.7 GHz. such as T-1/E-1 and VoIP.MAX product line for Fixed and Mobile WiMAX includes four distinct Base Station types and Indoor and Outdoor CPEs and a 16eUSB USB Device. BE service is designed to support data streams for which no minimum service level is required and which can be handled on a space-available basis. 4. EasyST The World’s First Indoor WiMAX Modem • Add-on Wi-Fi AP and 2 port VoIP IAD with Battery Back up • 4 x 90 Degree Auto Selecting 7. general manager of Evertek.5dBi antennas • +24dBm Output Power • Support for Switched Diversity. these service providers have banked important information about what their customers are willing to pay and how they want to use the service. also recent deployed Aperto’s system at 3. and Uplink Sub-channelisation • SIM Card support for Operator ID / Frequency Selection HiperMAX and MicroMAX-SDR The world’s first Dual-Mode. They are also already bringing broadband to the table for applications that can’t be addressed in other ways. Pakistan.3-3.
Alfaro said his company has been working closely with vendor NextNet Wireless to ensure its capability to offer a quality VoIP service. we are able to offer QOS and allot specific resources for their VoIP calls. By Dan O’Shea Juan Pablo Alfaro believes in the benefits of WiMAX.VoIP WiMAX Puts Service QUALITY ON DISPLAY J 12 Depending on where you live. This would have been impossible with any other wired application. a necessity or both. “Getting wiring permits in our cities is almost impossible. “The issue of VoIP and QOS in our network is a major concern. He isn’t just sitting around waiting for them to mature. vice president of business development for NextNet. we envisioned building a single network for all ISPs that could benefit from the fact of sharing Capex with multiple operators. all just to sell what was basically the same service.” Alfaro said MetroVia is very focused on bandwidth management. measurement and traffic shaping in its network and in cooperation with its ISP customers. The general director of MetroVia/Unitel in Guatemala watched four different cellular companies busily build out their separate networks in Guatemala City. going with a wireline technology was not necessarily an alternative.” That is accomplished with the help of a NextNet system capable of distinguishing and defining different layers of service. “Also. each of them setting up their own 60-meter antennas at every potential cell site location in the city. but can you do real ‘IP telephony’ with all the quality features over that con- The Complete Guide to WiMAX April 2006 .“Voice over a broadband wireless system is still something that the industry is relatively new at. Quality is key in both environments.” Alfaro said. there is intense competition. there are many service providers that have rapidly begun offering VoIP over broadband wireless connections. while in other markets.” MetroVia has two ISPs on their network offering Internet access today. “In a competitive market situation. Asia and Eastern Europe. “It did not make any economic sense to build an independent network for every operator.” said Chuck Riggle. In some markets. we have been able to provide services in all the different zones—metropolitan areas as determined by our municipality—of the city from day one. For MetroVia. “You can do VoIP over any kind of connection.” The reasons that Alfaro gives for going wireless are exactly the reasons most people in the WiMAX community believe that quality VoIP can be a killer app in a developing country. “Each ISP uses bandwidth differently. there are simply no alternatives.” Alfaro said. VoIP could be a killer app. basically agreed to work together to traffic shape all protocols needed for applications beyond surfing and e-mail. the quality of service has to be like what you would get from a landline telco. The company saw an opportunity to become a broadband wireless service provider using a wholesale model that would encourage competition in the market for services like voice over IP (VoIP). the economics of deploying a plug-and-play application over a wired application are much better.” he said. and we have. Instead. “Our vision was to build a single WiMAX network for all to share. in Latin America.” he said “For registered ISPs with VoIP products registered in our network. Thanks to our wireless network. Far and wide. and one of which will be offering a VoIP product over the network. And quality isn’t necessarily something that carriers and users are willing to sacrifice.
“The Applications Working Group in the WiMAX Forum came up with different application configurations and defined how much latency or jitter is acceptable for different services. real-time polling service and unsolicited grant service. senior marketing manager for alternative access for Motorola. you want to have a way of managing that nailed-up connection on an end-to-end basis.nection?” asked Paul Sergeant. In a network with different kinds of applications and expectations for performance. movie download Peer-to-peer Source: WiMAX Forum and Westech Communications white paper to be careful.” The WiMAX Forum created service quality types that are relatively similar to existing quality types for wireline packet service quality types. Even if whole real-time polling service Ripwave MX Industry’s first dual mode product line TM Available now! Navini Ripwave MX Modem and PCMCIA Card TM Navini Ripwave MX Base Stations and Antennas TM Navini Ripwave MX Element Management System TM www.com April 2006 The Complete Guide to WiMAX 13 . how the service flows are actually managed is not.” NextNet’s Riggle said. QOS was not part of the very first wave of WiMAX Forum certification testing late last year and early this year. but several vendors have been adhering to these quality expectations for a while. While those service types are defined. video conference Real Time? Yes Yes Application Type Interactive gaming VoIP Video Phone Music/speech Bandwidth 50 – 85 kb/s 4 – 64 kb/s 32 – 284 kb/s 5 – 128 kb/s 20 – 384 kps > 2 Mb/s < 250 byte messages > 500 kb/s > 500 kb/s > 1 Mb/s > 500 kb/s Streaming media No Video clips Movies streaming Instant messaging Information technology Media content download (store and forward) No Web browsing E-mail (with attachments) No Bulk data.navini. For WiMAX. available bit rate. such as best effort. Meanwhile. variable bit rate and constant bit rate. the real-time polling service type is designed for bursty traffic containing variable packet sizes—that corresponds directly to the nature of most video applications. as it is designed to support real-time data streams that have predictable packet sizes.” said Elvis Tucker. non-realtime polling service. “There is a difference. the corresponding service quality types include best effort. “QOS is not mandated in the standard either. That’s where vendors need WIMAX SERVICE CLASSES Service Type Interactive gaming VoIP. “QOS wasn’t part of [first-wave] certification testing. director of solutions and alliances for Aperto Networks.” The top-level service type in WiMAX— unsolicited grant service—is the one that targets high-quality voice communica- tions.
” he said. MetroVia’s Alfaro is eagerly anticipating the benefits of standards. Aperto’s Tucker notes that users who are increasingly getting used to the idea of being able to watch TV on their mobile phones ultimately may not tolerate shaky or distorted video. it’s important to note that the worldwide market for VoIP and video over IP is still relatively young. “We have one that is even running Vonage’s service over its network. “In Guatemala.” Although service providers like MetroVia and VNSL are getting a jump on the competition.” he said. From us you will get all the local knowledge and services needed for producing your innovations in lucrative markets around the world. including voice and video. he added. Brazil.cover the whole lifecycle of communications network equipment and terminal devices. high-bandwidth application. Step in our garden and let us fertilize your growth. whose company also has deployed VoIP networks for many carriers worldwide. “There are plenty of issues that need to be settled before WIMAX gives us all the benefits we expect from it. we are the only partner you need. As the need for establishing local product supply without huge investments keeps growing. VoIP is being deployed as part of a multi-service mix for specific customers in specific types of markets. and I would say that video is in the 20% to 30% range. “I’m not sure that WiMAX will be a direct replacement for something like cable TV but maybe for streaming applications or specialized video applications.’ WiMAX will be integrated into our network as it becomes an interoperable standard. “When you see that kind of growth. “In some ways.com or www. As for the evolution of WIMAX. ‘he who strikes first. Applications requiring some promise of quality have taken off well ahead of WiMAX Forum-certified products becoming a massmarket phenomenon. I believe WIMAX is the way of the future simply because of the ease and practicality of having a portable Internet access application that allows us to service clients efficiently without truck rolls or waiting times. India or China. “It requires a lot of bandwidth and can’t really tolerate much latency. VSNL in India and CSM in Indonesia “WiMAX is the way of the future simply because of the ease and practicality of having a portable Internet access application that allows us to service clients efficiently. with much more room to grow and mature. for instance.VoIP seems right for some video applications. product certification and interoperability. Last month. we say.” Tucker. In electronics manufacturing services for communications technology business.elcoteq. Having said this.” In many cases.” But.” he said. video is even a more sensitive application than voice.specially tailored for telecom products .” Tucker said. “You see numbers like 1 million new VoIP users being added every quarter. Our services . “Voice is the second-largest application we see after Internet access. Contact us: sales@elcoteq. with limitless possibilities of access and undenied restrictions of usage. “What is it? I think WIMAX as the standard we all imagine as the perfect mobile. estimates that at least 50% have some form of voice applications going over their networks. Russia.” ◗ Welcome to our global garden.” Tucker said. is not here today. MetroVia each deployed Aperto’s recently WiMAX Forum-certified system for multiple services.com 14 The Complete Guide to WiMAX April 2006 . strikes twice. “The great elusive WIMAX. you realize that WiMAX will only continue to benefit from that.”—Juan Pablo Alfaro.” NextNet’s Riggle added. but he knows that the broadband wireless success story is already being told. we have set a network of 13 plants on four continents at your service.
16e standard. 8. After Qualcomm announced announced its acquisition of OFDMA’s biggest gest booster—the former Bell Labs spinoff Flarion Technologies—in August 2005.3 GHz and other frequencies. OFDM technologies occupy nomadic. “But the industry as a whole is moving toward standardization. Thus. too. aren’t subject to the same intensity of multipath distortion faced by a single-carrier transmission—the data is traveling slowly enough that the effects of the distortion become negligible.5 GHz frequencies that are available and in use in many countries worldwide. however.” said Paul Sergeant. or subcarriers. but the 802.16e standard—it’s actually S-OFDMA. said Mike Pisterzi. However. “If a vendor is comfortable with a non-standard technology and a small customer base. Adaptix has its own second-generation OFDMA Motion product line available with deployments in Asia. OFDM technologies have been so readily embraced by the standards bodies for both the broadband wireless access industry and the cellular industry.16-2004 standard that created the foundation for Fixed WiMAX.” T hough often mistaken for one another.16e standard are still in the developmental phases. forming the backbone of Mobile WiMAX and the 3GPP’s new standards for 3G long-term evolution (LTE). OFDMA. including 5 MHz. OFDM was implicit in the 802. orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access vendors made quite a splash. “OFDMA is mandatory in the 802. more recently. fixed and one-way transmission standards. the relentless push to commercialize OFDMA as a proprietary technology has ceased. Why? OFDM pioneer Adaptix has a simple answer: standards.” Although many products based on the 802. 7 MHz. attuning the technology to the particular demands of mobility. ranging from TV transmission to Wi-Fi as well as well as Fixed WiMAX and newer multicast wireless systems like Qualcomm’s Forward Link Only (FLO).” Pisterzi said. or scalable OFDMA. that’s fine. The advantage here is that those individual slow signals.25 MHz up to 20 MHz. By Kevin Fitchard In the last few years. S-OFDMA allows for an increase in range of channel bandwidths from 1. as well as 2. Pisterzi said. that pursuing the technology independently of the WiMAX Forum or the two major 3G standards bodies—3GPP and 3GPP2—is pointless.5 GHz and 3. and OFDMA was written into the 802. each spaced apart at precise frequencies. promising high-capacity. OFDM and OFDMA are actually two different variants of the same technology.16e is not directly backward compatible to 802.16 effort created an industry standard around them. To continue to target niche markets with proprietary technology makes little sense. with potential profiles from the WiMAX Forum targeting the 2. April 2006 The Complete Guide to WiMAX 15 .16e specification ratified last December by the IEEE and will pave the way for Mobile WiMAX solutions. The difference between OFDM and OFDMA is that OFDMA has the ability to dynamically assign a subset of those subcarriers to individual users. The potential for Mobile WiMAX is simply enormous. it’s betting the farm on its upcoming release of its third-generation technology. Furthermore. senior marketing manager for alternative access for Motorola. adds true mobility to the mix. and it is also one of the reasons why 802. However. and we’re all doing it. “So.75 MHz and 10 MHz. Both divide one extremely “fast” signal into numerous “slow” signals. Those initial WiMAX Forum profiles also will cover a wide range of bandwidth channel specifications. if a standardized version of that technology would grab the mass markets as well as niches. The numerous subcarriers are then collected at the receiver and recombined to form one high-speed transmission. designed to meet the guidelines that have been laid out for Mobile WiMAX and the IEEE’s 802. mobile broadband access well ahead of when WiMAX and 3G services were expected to be available.16-2004.OFDMA OFDMA Prepares TO MOVE ON I The technology’s different flavors have been around for some time. we are doing OFDMA. that hype has died off. CEO of Adaptix.
>BUSINESS MADE SIMPLE Business Made Simple.” Whitton said.16-2005 is an ideal solution for mobile. “Where conventional smart antenna systems deliver performance gains by adding complex. The platform is intended to pick up where the latest UMTS uplink and downlink upgrades leave off. Qualcomm is definitely gung-ho on the underlying technology itself. a broadband wireless technology that not only has mobility but really fast mobility (the typical example is that of a user maintaining a constant data connection while riding a bullet train). Qualcomm is pursuing both OFDM and OFDMA.11n standard for the evolution of wireless LAN.OFDMA “Mobile WiMAX. Nortel already plans to have a prototype built by the end of the year. Jeff Belk. Regardless of Flash’s future as product line. or 802.16-2004. portable and fixed implementations of WiMAX. ready for lab tests. meaning the future of wireless technology and its billions of users is headed in OFDMA’s direction. said the vendor will continue Paul Sergeant of Motorola to support the existing product line and its existing customers but offered no insight as to whether it would continue to pursue the portfolio or simply wrap the technology up in its other OFDMA efforts. Nortel unveiled its LTE product line.20 standard. is really misnamed. Qualcomm senior vice president of marketing. Cellular system vendors have jumped all over the new specifications. shoehorning years of research in OFDM and related technologies like multiple input/ multiple output (MIMO) and smart beam forming into the new standards track. thanks to WiMAX technologies made possible by Nortel. Qualcomm isn’t quite so definite. and it is essentially a superset of 802. with significant performance advances like MIMO and scalable OFDMA. The preliminary specs call for a complete shift in 3G standards away from wideband-CDMA to OFDM.16-2005. vice president and general manager for WiMAX at Nortel Networks.” On the 3G side. Innovation and beyond. And with its $600 million acquisition of Flarion completed in January. c o m 16 The Complete Guide to WiMAX April 2006 . “We’re not committing to just one product. France in February.” Belk said.” ◗ IMPOSSIBLE > MADE SIMPLE What was once improbable is now reality. Nortel. the 3GPP recently finalized the initial list of requirements for 3G mobility and coined the term LTE. “Qualcomm has the scale to examine a broad range of technologies. Qualcomm is lending the weight of its $1 billion annual R&D budget to further development of Flarion’s OFDMA technology toward the IEEE 802.” said Mark Whitton. That’s why 9 out of 10 Fortune 500 companies rely on Nortel. the Nortel logo. As for Flarion’s Flash OFDMA technology. costly and bulky equipment to the tower top. n o r te l . “802. and the Globemark are trademarks of Nortel Networks. using OFDM for its multicast technologies and in its pursuit of the 802. MIMO takes advantage of smaller and simpler changes in both the devices and the infrastructure to deliver performance improvements well beyond what even the most complicated smart antennas can deliver. called high-speed OFDM packet access (HSOPA) at the 3GSM World Congress in Cannes. and carrier trial equipment ready by 2007.
Some vendors chose to wait for Mobile WiMAX. Donna Carlson of Sky Light On talk from some corners about VoIP being a killer app for Fixed WiMAX: VoIP is available on many broadband wireless networks. there are things like power management.16e is probably going to be using some form of smart antenna technology. On the use of smart antenna technology in Mobile WiMAX systems: It’s a given that anyone building a system based on 802. The agency’s WiMAX product grid can be found on page 4. but the WiBro profile within Mobile WiMAX. Donna Carlson. ◗ April 2006 The Complete Guide to WiMAX 17 . and that is something that I am really interested in seeing. Then. There will have to be a lot of different profiles created. we will see how quickly the technology progresses. whereas data and other types of services will be driving applications in countries that are in more developed regions. The hurdles may have more to do with the inherent complexity of 802. Its reports follow the market’s course from point-to-point and point-to-multipoint LMDS and microwave equipment through to Fixed WiMAX and the nascent and future development of the Mobile WiMAX market. On other potential market hurdles in the evolutionary path for Mobile WiMAX: I think you could add spectrum availability to the top of the list of hurdles. don’t you think? You don’t really know what you are going to have and what you are working with until you get it on the bench. Spectrum licensing is still a challenge in a lot of countries around the world. So. other mobile broadband technologies are progressing. of course. At the same time.Q&A Donna Carlson SKY LIGHT RESEARCH O Sky Light Research has done numerous reports over the last five years tracking and forecasting various developments in the broadband wireless and WiMAX markets. At the same time. The first wave of certification for Fixed WiMAX equipment was really focusing a lot on interoperability of outdoor systems. talked with Telephony editor-in-chief Dan O’Shea about the WiMAX dynamics at play as 2006 unfolds.16e standard (last-minute changes delayed Fixed WiMAX certification earlier this year): That is kind of customary with standards or with any kind of certification process. but there are still a large number of vendors of Fixed WiMAX systems that have built a road map for 802. and so Mobile WiMAX is not just evolving in its own window. It sort of depends on what you think you need to change once the pilot projects have been developed. so I don’t think there was is expected to be a real end-user market push for that. Whether that is some variation of smart beam forming or MIMO (multiple input/ multiple output) remains to be seen.16e. There are things like HSDPA (high-speed downlink packet access). and that will. drive volume and adoption up.16e. I don’t think that WiBro will provide a full picture of what we can expect from Mobile WiMAX. There is some question about how soon we will see full mobility hand-off at vehicular speeds. that we’ll see won’t be Mobile WiMAX. On Fixed WiMAX versus Mobile WiMAX: I think it’s always been clear now that the customers for Fixed WiMAX and the customers for Mobile WiMAX are really two completely different groups of customers. a principal analyst at Sky Light Research who just recently joined the firm. It could be an application that is driving deployment in countries in less developed markets.16e to Mobile WiMAX: Keep in mind that the very first mobile model On whether there still could be adjustments to the 802. Mobile WiMAX promises new economies of scale that will drive down price. The certification for Fixed WiMAX equipment and the current deployments are showing that. That is a big concern. and it is inevitably going to be a main application of broadband wireless networks in the long run. On the evolution of 802.
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