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VERBS in English

VERBS in English

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Published by: Luisa Houses on Feb 05, 2013
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VERBS in English

Let´s review some important points about verbs:
• The verb that is the most important verb in a verb phrase is the main verb. El verbo más importante en una oración, o frase verbal (dos o más verbos juntos), es el verbo principal.

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The dog eats bones. main verb The dog is eating a bone. main verb

• A verb such as “be”, “have” or “do” that combines with another verb in order to change the tense or to form negative and question sentences, is an auxiliary verb. Un verbo como “estar”, “haber” o “do” que se combina con otro verbo para formar tiempos compuestos (más de una palabra) o para formar oraciones negativas y preguntas (“do”), es un verbo auxiliar.

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The dog is eating a bone. aux. The dog doesn´t eat fish aux.

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The dog has eaten a bone aux. Does the dog eat fish? aux.

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• A verb such as “can”, “will”, “must”, “may”, “could”, “ought”… that expresses possibility, obligation, ability… is a modal verb. Un verbo como “can”, “will”, “must”,”may”… que expresan una determinada actitud del hablante hacia lo que está diciendo, expresar posibilidad, obligación , permiso, capacidad… es un verbo modal.

I can dance. modal (capacidad en el presente)

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I could dance when I was four years old. kkkkmodal (capacidad en el pasado)

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• A verb such as “to cut yourself” that describes actions in which the subject and the object of the verb are the same, is a reflexive verb. Un verbo como “cortarte” que describe una acción en la que el sujeto (persona que realiza la acción) y el objeto (persona que la recibe) son la misma persona, es un

verbo reflexivo.

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I cut myself when shaving this morning

reflexive

• A verb such as “blow up”, “put something off” that includes an adverb or preposition, is a phrasal verb. Un verbo como “explotar”, “retrasar algo” que incluye un adverbio o una preposición se llama verbo frasal. We put the meeting off because of the bad weather. Kkkkkkkk phrasal

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• The most basic form of the verb (for example “be”, “come”…), in English usually preceded by “to”, is the infinitive. La forma más básica del verbo (por ejemplo “ser”, “venir”…) en inglés normalmente precedido por la preposición “to”, es el infinitivo.

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I want to go. Infinitive

• A form of the verb which is used as an adjective or to help form some tenses: is the participle (the past / present participle). Una forma del verbo que se utiliza como adjetivo o para ayudar a formar algunos tiempos es el participio (participio de pasado o de presente). Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle

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I have eaten my dinner Present Perfect Tense

eat…………… ate……………eaten

• A form of the verb which shows if something happens in the past, present or future is the tense (the present / past / future tense). Una forma del verbo que nos muestra si algo ocurre en el pasado, presente o future es el tiempo (tiempo presente, pasado o futuro).

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I play football on Friday. > Present Simple Tense “juego” I played football last year. > Past Simple Tense “jugué” I will play football next summer. > Future Simple Tense “jugaré”

• A form of the verb (such as “is writing” ) that tells you that an action, state, etc is / was / will be continuing is a continuous or progressive tense (the present / past / future continuous tense). Una forma del verbo (“está escribiendo “) que te dice si una acción o estado está / estaba / o estará en desarrollo es un tiempo continuo (el presente continuo, pasado continuo o futuro continuo).

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I am watching TV now. > Present Continuous Tense “estoy viendo” I was watching TV when you arrived. > Past Continuous Tense “estaba viendo” I will be watching TV tomorrow. > Future Continuous Tense “estaré viendo”

• A form of the verb (such as “have finished”) that describes actions, states, etc which happened in the past and have some present effect, or which are seen from the point of view of the present, is the perfect tense (the present / past / future perfect tense). Una forma del verbo (como “he acabado”) que describe acciones, estados, etc, que comenzaron en un momento del pasado y tienen algún efecto en el presente, o que se ve desde el punto de vista del presente, es el tiempo perfecto (el presente perfecto / pasado perfecto o futuro perfecto).

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I have broken my leg. > Present Perfect Tense “he roto” I had broken my leg when he saw me last summer. > Past Perfect Tense “había roto” He will have finished his homework when we arrive. > Future Perfect Tense “habrá terminado”

• A form of the verb that expresses doubt, uncertainty, wishes, etc, is the subjunctive. Una forma del verbo que expresa duda, incertidumbre, deseos, etc, es el subjuntivo.

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I wish you were here. “estuvieras”

• If the subject of a sentence performs the action (for example “the dog chased the girl.”), the verb / sentence is active (the verb is in the active = an active sentence). Si el sujeto de una oración realiza la acción (por ejemplo, el perro persiguió a la niña.”), el verbo / la oración es activa. • If the subject of a sentence does not perform the action but is affected by it (for example,” the girl was chased by the dog.”), the verb / sentence is passive. Si el sujeto de la oración no realiza la acción sino que la sufre o padece, (por ejemplo, “la niña fue perseguida por el perro.”), el verbo y por tanto la oración es pasiva. main verb chased

subject Active Sentence > The dog

object the girl.

Passive Sentence >

The girl passive subject

was

chased

by the dog. agent

passive verb Aux. (to be) the same tense as the active verb Past participle of the main verb

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