Most frequently used Scales  Nominal Scale  Ordinal Scale  Interval Scale  Ratio Scale

employee id numbers etc. bank account numbers.credit card numbers. In a Nominal Scale numbers are no more than labels and are used specifically to identify different categories of responses.  These scales are just numerical and are the least restrictive of all the scales.  Instances of Nominal Scale are . .  It consists of assignment of facts/choices to various alternative categories which are usually exhaustive as well mutually exclusive.Nominal Scale  This is a very simple scale.  It is simple and widely used when relationship between two variables is to be studied.

 How do you stock items at present? [ ] By product category [ ] At a centralized store [ ] Department wise [ ] Single warehouse  Daily turnover of consumer is? [ ] Between 100 – 200 [ ] Between 200 – 300 [ ] Above 300 .way of maintaining stocks and daily turnover.Nominal Scale  Following example illustrates  What is your gender? [ ] Male [ ] Female  Another example is .a survey of retail stores done on two dimensions .

.Nominal Scale              A two way classification can be made as follows Daily/Stock Turnover Method Product Category Department wise Centralized Store Single Warehouse 100 – 200 200 – 300 Above 300 Mode is frequently used for response category.

 It is more powerful than a nominal scale in that the numbers possess the property of rank order.ORDINAL SCALE  Ordinal scales are the simplest attitude measuring scale used in Marketing Research. The ranking of certain product attributes/benefits as deemed important by the respondents is obtained through the scale. .

Such scale makes no attempt to measure the degree of favourability of different rankings. on their importance in a microwave oven. .ORDINAL SCALE  Example 1: Rank the following attributes (1 .5).  Company Name  Functions  Price  Comfort  Design The most important attribute is ranked 1 by the respondents and the least important is ranked 5.

Grade C. .If there are 4 different types of fertilizers and if they are ordered on the basis of quality as Grade A.  Example 3 .ORDINAL SCALE  Example 2 .If there are 5 different brands of Talcom Powder and if a respondent ranks them based on say. Grade D is again an Ordinal Scale.  Median and mode are meaningful for ordinal scale. Grade B. and so on. an Ordinal Scale results. “Freshness” into Rank 1 having maximum Freshness Rank 2 the second maximum Freshness.

or numbers unlike in Ordinal. . are equal in case of Interval Scales.INTERVAL SCALE  Herein the distance between the various categories unlike in Nominal. A very good example of Interval Scale is a Thermometer.  An Interval Scale has an arbitrary Zero point with further numbers placed at equal intervals.  The Interval Scales are also termed as Rating Scales.

 Researcher can comment on the magnitude of differences. but cannot determine the actual strength of attitudes towards an object.INTERVAL SCALE  Interval scale is used to measure psychological attributes. .  Changes in concepts over time can be compared if the researcher continues to use the same scale in longitudinal research.

INTERVAL SCALE  Illustration 1 . Less Known Few Low Poor 1 1 1 1 Company Name Functions Price Design Overall Satisfaction 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 Well Known Many High Good Very Satisfied Very Dis1 Satisfied 2 3 4 5 .How do you rate your present refrigerator for the following qualities.

INTERVAL SCALE  Such a scale permits the researcher to say that position 5 on the scale is above position 4 and also the distance from 5 to 4 is same as distance from 4 to 3. The Standard Deviation (a measure of dispersion) can also be calculated. .  The data obtained from the Interval Scale can be used to calculate the Mean scores of each attributes over all respondents.  Such a scale however does not permit conclusion that position 4 is twice as strong as position 2 because no zero position has been established.

a score of 4 in one quality does not necessarily mean that the respondent is twice more satisfied than the respondent who marks 2 on the scale. For example scales for measuring physical quantities like . A Ratio scale has a natural zero point and further numbers are placed at equally appearing intervals. In the above example of Interval scale.RATIO SCALES  Ratio Scales are not widely used in Marketing Research unless a base item is made available for comparison. etc.length. . weight.

if they are obtained through open-ended questions. and the ratios of the numbers on these scales have meaningful interpretations.RATIO SCALES  Ratio scale possess all the characteristics of an interval scale. Data on certain demographic or descriptive attributes. will have ratio-scale properties .

Since starting point is not chosen arbitrarily. namely zero.RATIO SCALES  Consider the following questions :  Q 1) What is your annual income before taxes? ______ $ Q 2) How far is the Theater from your home ? ______ miles  Answers to these questions have a natural. For example we can say that a respondent with an annual income of $ 40.000. . unambiguous starting point.000 earns twice as much as one with an annual income of $ 20. computing and interpreting ratio makes sense.

 Attitudinal constructs can be classified: Affective attitude ( feelings). Behavioral attitude ( Action). Rating. Choice. . Sorting. Cognitive attitude ( thinking).  Attitudes can be measured by Ranking.Measuring Attitudes  Attitude is an enduring disposition to consistently respond in a given manner to various aspects of the world.

 The questions generally asked are in the following way:  Food advertising leading to obesity among children- Agree Yes Important Disagree No Not Important .Simple Attitude Scaling  It has purely nominal properties.

Category Scale  Has nominal properties.  How important were the following in your decision to visit Agra: Very imp  Climate  Cost  Historical  Family oriented Somewhat Not much . if 3 categories are used.

LIKERT SCALE  Most versatile. 1 Strongly disagree 5 Strongly agree 4 Agree 3 Indifferent 2 Disagree . Here the respondents are asked to indicate a degree of agreement and disagreement with each of a series of statement.  It was developed by Rensis Likert. popular & simple to use. Each scale item has 5 response categories ranging from strongly agree and strongly disagree.

 A typical Likert scale has 20 . first a large pool of statements relevant to the measurement of attitude has to be generated and then from the pool statements.  Likert Scale has interval properties as zero here is assumed. Some element of attitude & feeling is there. This total score of respondent reveals the particular opinion of a person. .30 statements.LIKERT SCALE  Each degree of agreement is given a numerical score and the respondents total score is computed by summing these scores. While designing a good Likert Scale. the statements which are vague and non-discriminating have to be eliminated.

We have these options 1 Unpleasant Submissive 7 Pleasant Dominant 2 3 4 5 6 . We have options SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE  This is a seven point scale and the end points of the scale are associated with bipolar labels.Suppose we want to know personality of a particular person.  Suppose we want to know personality of a particular person.

highly versatile. reliable and generally valid. The big advantage of this scale is its simplicity.  When Semantic Differential Scale is used to develop an image profile. On the basis of these responses profiles are made. . Individual can score between 1 to 7 or -3 to 3. it provides a good basis for comparing images of two or more items. but it is also sensitive to small differences in attitude.SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE  Bi-polar means two opposite streams. This scale helps to determine overall similarities and differences among objects. The method is easy and fast to administer. Mean and median are used for comparison. We can analyse for two or three products.

Semantic can be converted to numerical to analyze better. to identify categories.Suppose we want to know personality of a particular person. We have options Numerical Scales  It has numbers as response options rather than “semantic space” or verbal descriptions. .  Likert.

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