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*gr%d jyD;cJhwJh 2003 ckESpf atmufwdkbmvwHk;u a*smf*sD,mEdkifiHrSm “ESif;qDawmfvSefa&;” vdk@ emr,fausmfoGm;wJh awmfvSefa&;w&yf jzpfcJhygw,f? 'g[m 2003 ckESpftwGif;rSm tatmifjrifqHk;awmfvSefa&; jzpfcJhjyD; a*smf*sD,morw tuf'0yf&SAmhemaZ; udk jzKwfcsEdkifcJhygw,f? &SAmhemaZ;[m ,cifqdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkorw rpfac;*dkbma&Smh &J@ trmcH vkyfaz:udkifzuftjzpf qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpk}uD;udk +zdKcsypf&mrSm ta&;ygolvJjzpf/ qdkAD,ufEdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;vJ jzpfcJhzl;jyD; tar&dueftpdk;&tqufquf&J@ tm;ay;axmufcHr_&xm;vdk@ wkdif;jynfudk xifovdkrif;vkyf tkyfcsKyfaeoljzpfygw,f? ESif;qD awmfvSefa&;udk acgif;aqmifqifE$JcJhol vuf&Sd a*smf*sD,morw rpfac;vfqm;umh&SfADvD udk 0g&Sifwefydk@pf owif;axmuf a';Apftpf*fae;&Swf u awG@qHkar;jref;cef;wckvkyfcJh&mrSm olu 'DawmfvSefa&;&J@oifcef;pmawG/ odk@r[kwf avScg;xpftqifh qihfudk tckvdkxkwfjyoGm;cJhygw,f? Ù twGif;xJ0ifv_dufpm;yg? qm;umh&SfADvD[m oljzKwfcscJhwJh tpdk;&xJrSm twGif;vlwa,muftjzpf 0ifa&muftvkyfvkyfcJh w,f? ol[m tar&duefjynfaxmifpkrSm Oya'ynmoif,lcJhjyD;aemuf 1995 rSm trdajrudkjyefvmcJh+yD; &SAmhemaZ; &J@ tm%m&ygwDxJ 0ifcJhjyD;aemuf ygvDrefxJa&mufcJhw,f? ol[m EkdifiHa&;e,fxJpa&mufuwnf;u Oya'jyKjyifajymif;vJa&; awG v_H@aqmfwm/ }udK;yrf;wmawG vkyfcJhw,f? 2000 ckESpfrSm w&m;a&;0ef}uD;jzpfvmawmh 'gudktoHk;csjyD; EdkifiHa&;&efzuf awGudk wdkufcdkuftm;pkEdkifcJhygw,f? Ù EdkifiHa&;tajccHpcef; wnfaqmuf&mrSm tpdk;&r[kwfwJhtzGJ@tpnf;awG (tif*sDtdkawG) udk toHk;csyg? qm;umh&SfADvD [m 1990 ckESpfrsm;aESmif;ydkif;rSm a*smf*sD,mEdkifiH&J@ w&m;Oya'awGudk topfjyefa&;zdk@ tJovdk tif*sDtdkawGeJ@ wGJvkyfcJhw,f? olu tar&duefa&S@aetoif;udk a*smf*sD,mEdkifiH vmzdk@zdwfac:jyD; a*smf*sD,mw&m;ol}uD;awG a&G;cs,fa&;udk }uD;=uyfapcJhw,f? tar&duefa&S@aetoif;u w&m;a&;pmar;yGJawG pDpOfvkyfudkifay;cJhjyD; 'gudk ¶kyfjrifoH=um;uae wdkuf¶dkufxkwfv$ifhjycJhw,f? 'DjyKjyifajymif;vJr_awG[m a*smf*sD,mEdkifiHrSm t&yfzufvlr_a&;toif;tzGJ@ (Civil Society) xGef;um;tm;aumif;apcJhjyD; wqufwpyfwnf;rSm tm%m&ygwD&J@ tm%mtajccHudk tm;eJoGm;apcJhygw,f? Ù acwfrSDjyD; rD'D,mvkyfief;udk u|rf;0if/ EdkifiHwumrSm tquftoG,fawG aumif;aumif;&SdwJh EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ zefwD;yg? qm;umh&SfADvD u ol@tzGJ@udk a*smf*sD,mpum;eJ@ “umrm&m” vkd@ emr,fay;xm;w,f/ “awmfavmufjyD” vdk@ t"dy`g,f& w,f? 'DtzGJ@[m qm;bD;,m;tzGJ@wzGJ@udk erlem,ljyD; zGJ@xm;wmjzpfygw,f? 'Dqm;bD;,m;tzGJ@[m 2000 ckESpf
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