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8 av;vHk;tHkºuGr_eJ@ 1989 ck AuywGif;ykefuefcGJxGufr_ qdkwJh ta&;tcif;ESpfck[m jrefrmEdkifiH&J@ EdkifiHa&;twGif;u vuf
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1988 upjyD; w[kefxdk;}uD;rm;vmcJhwJh Armjynfjynfolvlxk&J@ ppftm%m&SifpHepf xm0&ed*Hk;csKyfa&; pdwfqENtiftm; udk
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twGuf wjcm;jcdrf;ajcmufr_awGxuf ydktEW&m,f}uD; ydktav;xm;&wJh vkyfief;}uD;jzpfvmygw,f? ppftm%m&SifawGtwGuf t&if
wHk;u 'geJ@,SOfvdk@&avmufcJhwJh wckwnf;aom }uD;}uD;rm;rm;jcdrf;ajcmufr_uawmh 60 ckESprf sm;aESmif;ydkif;eJ@ 70 ckESpfrsm;twGif; Arm
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0wDjrpf taemufzufurf;rSm aemufqHk;cHppfpnf; jyifqifwnfaqmufcJhw,f// ppfwyf&J@ toufaoG;a=um uyp (umuG,fa&;
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EdkifiHa&;awG/ awmfvSefa&;awG uif;uif;&Sif;&Sif;eJ@ vGwfvGwfvyfvyf tm;&yg;&vkyfcsifae=uwJhtwGuf ESpfzufpvHk;[m rdrdwdk@
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olwdk@tjyif ta&;ygwJh wdkif;&if;om;vufeufudkiftzGJ@wckjzpfwJh (rlvvufa[mif;) tufpftufpfat yg ygoGm;vdkufao;w,f?
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awGtay: axmufydk@vrf;a=umif;awG vHk;0jzwfawmufypfvdkufjcif;uvJ typftcwf&yfpJa&;jzpfpOfudk acsmqDxnfhay;vdkufw,f?
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1

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tajcpdkuf twdkuftcHawG/ ta0;a&mufawG=um; ‘t=urf;rJh EdkifiHa&;tHwkr_’ tawG;tac:udk qufvufjzef@jzL;aecJh=uw,f? 'De,f
pyftajcpdkuf tiftm;pkxJrSm Armjynf&J@ vufeufudkifwdkif;&if;om;tzGJ@awGuvJ trsm;pkjzpfygw,f?
1991 ckESpfOD;ydkif;rSm autdkifat (ucsif) wyfr[m 4 eJ@ yDtiftdk (ytdk@tjzL) tzGJ@wdk@ typftcwf&yfpJa&;awG vkyf=uwJh
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om;tzGJ@awGudkyg typftcwf&yfpJa&; ukefpnf tpGHxkwfa&mif;cszdk@ tm;ay;cJhw,f? 'DoabmwlnDcsufESpfckupvdk@ “vufeufudkif
vrf;pOfpGef@v$wfI Oya'abmiftwGif; 0ifa&mufjcif;” tcrf;tem;awG us,fus,favmifavmifeJ@ yGJcif;wm rvkyfrae& pvkyfvm
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(rxkaemf)/ 'DaubDat (u&ifcGJxGuf)/ yDtiftdk (ytdk@) eJ@ autif*sD (u,ef;cGJxGuf) tp&SdwJhtzGJ@awGjzpf=uw,f? typftcwf&yfpJ
a&;&cgp umvawGwHk;u udk;uef@tzGJ@[m autdkifat udk wdkufcJhayrJh aemufydkif;rSmawmh tjcm;wdkif;&if;om;tzGJ@awGeJ@ vufeuf
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umvawGwHk;u tJ'DtzGJ@awGudkwdkufcJhjyD; tckxdvJ uu=unf; !¸ef=um;csuftwkdif; ae&if;e,fajreJ@ ta0;}uD;udkoGm;jyD; aemufwdk;
tufpftufpfat (awmifydkif;) udkwdkufae&ao;w,f? 'DaubDat [m autif,l eJ@wdkufaeqJjzpfovdk uvvw uvJ autif
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ESpfawGeJ@csDwJh aemufcHta=umif;w&m;awGvJ &Sdae=uw,f?
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'DaubDat eJ@ tufpftufpftifat (trfwDat cGJxGuf) wdk@udkawmh w&m;0if 17 zGJ@pm&if;xJrxnhfwm/ 'grSr[kwf 19 zGJ@ tjzpf
pm&if;rjywm xl;qef;aeovdkygbJ? 'DtzGJ@awG[m rdciftzGJ@}uD;awGu cGJxGufvmwJh *dk%f;cGJawGjzpfvdk@ rxnfhwmjzpfr,fvdk@ wcsdK@
avhvmolawG wGufq=uw,f? 'gayrJh u,ef;jynfopf ucGJxGufwJh autif*sD/ autdkifat ucGJxGufwJh au'Dat wdk@udkawmh
pm&if;xJxnfhjyxm;jyefw,f? w&m;0ifpm&if;xJxnfhrjyayrJhvJ wjcm;0g'jzef@v_yf&Sm;r_awGrSmus xnfjh yaejyefw,f? typftcwf
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vJ wa=umif;jzpfr,fxifygw,f? tajccHuawmh wjcm;v#Kd @0Sufta=umif;w&m; wckcka=umifhxuf xHk;pHtwdkif; jrefrmppfwyf&J@
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at eJ@ &cdkifAuy udkz,fxm;jyD; 'DaubDat eJ@ tufpftufpftifat udkxnfhxm;w,f? 'ghtjyif 'D 17 zGJ@udk twef;tpm;ESpfck cGJ
xm;w,f? yxrtrsdk;tpm;udk ‘typftcwf&yfpJa&;’ tzGJ@rsm;vkd@owfrSwfjyD; autdkifat/ yDtufpft,fvfat (yavmif)/ rlv
vufa[mif;tufpftufpfat/ tufpftufpftifat/ &vvz/ u,ef;jynfopf/ uvvw eJ@ rGefjynfopf wdk@yg0if=uw,f// (&Srf;ESpfzGJ@
[m &Srf;jynfjidrf;csrf;a&;aumifpD tufpftufpfyDpD tjzpf yl;aygif;zGJ@pnf;xm;vdk@ ‘nDaemif 7 az: ’ tzGJ@ 8 zGJ@ jzpfaewmyg?) olwdk@u
usefwJhtzGJ@tm;vHk;udkawmh ‘jidrf;csrf;a&;’ tzGJ@vkd@ owfrSwfxm;w,f? yxrtrsdK;tpm;tzGJ@awG[m typf&yfoabmwlcsufawGudk
jyD;jynfhpHkwJh aemufqHk;taxGaxGtajz&Smr_}uD;qD oGm;zdk@a&S@ajy;taeeJ@om jrif}uw,f// 'kwd,trsdK;tpm;0if tzGJ@awGuawmh jyD;
jynfhpHkwJh EdkifiHa&;t&ajz&Sif;r_udk pdwrf 0ifpm;=ubJ udk,fhpD;yGm;a&;udkom vHk;0t"duxm;=uolawGjzpfw,f? yxr 8 zGJ@xJrSmvJ
wcsdK@acgif;aqmifrsm;eJ@ au'g}uD;rsm;[m 'kwD,trsdK;tpm; taetxm;buf tawmfhudkwdrf;!GwfaewmawGvJ&Sdw,f? 'kwd,
trsdk;tpm; ‘jidrf;csrf;a&;’ tzGJ@awGeJ@ ppftpdk;&=um; oabmwlnDcsufawGudk ESpfzufpvHk;u aemufxyfaqG;aEG;p&m odwfrvkdawmh
wJh tjyD;tjywfoabmrsdK; ,lq=uw,f? 'DESpfrdsK;xJ rygao; wJh/ 17 zGJ@pm&if;yg wckwnf;aom¹cGif;csufuawmh 1995 cktwGif;
typftcwf&yfpJa&; oabmwlnDcsuf&jyD; oHk;vt=umrSm tpdk;&eJ@ppfjyefjzpfcJhwJh autifyDyD (u&ifeD) jzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh ppftpdk;&
uawmh 17 zGJ@pvHk;eJ@ wu,fhvufawG@tm;jzifh tjyD;owfjidrf;csrf;a&;oabmwlnDcsuf &xm;wJhyHkzrf;aew,f//

2

a&S@ydkif;typftcwf&yfpJa&;tzGJ@awGudk ‘txl;&J’ vdk@ owfrSwfay;cJhjyD; &mxl;vpmawG/ &m&Sif&duQmawG tuef@towfeJ@
xkwfay;cJhw,f? tzGJ@tpnf;acgif;aqmifawGudkvJ ‘txl;&Jrª;}uD;’ awGtjzpfowfrSwfcef@tyfcJhw,f? odk@ayrJh autdkifat upjyD;
aemufydkif; typf&yftzGJ@awGuawmh 'Durf;vSrf;csufudk vufrcH=ubJ vGwfvyfwJh EdkifiHa&;taetxm;udkom &yfcH=uw,f? 'Dvdk
taetxm;eJ@ &yfwnfa&;[mvJ tcsdef=umvmwmeJ@tr# xdef;xm;Edkifzdk@ ydkIydkI cufcJvmaew,f// olwdk@&J@ EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_awGudk
ppftpdk;&u a&S;±dk;qkay;'g%fay;pepfokH;jyD; t}udrf}udrftxyfxyf ESdrfeif;ypfcJhw,f// qk qdkwmuawmh jrufjrufuav;pm;&wJh
vdkifpifawG ygrpfawG 'kp±dkufpD;yGm;a&;vkyfcGifhawGjzpfjyD; 'g%f uawmh ppftiftm;eJ@ ajymifajymifwif;wif; jcdrf;acsmufwmjzpfygw,f?
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