Class - XII Section (a) Reading Unseen Comprehension Passages (1

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1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
The doctors clamouring against reservations for OBCs have demanded that merit be the sole criteria for admission to medical and engineering colleges. Then, how is it that they haven’t objected either to the NRI quota or candidates who procure admission on the basis of capitation fee? Does this not affect quality ? Reservation was introduced in the Kolhapur State as early as in 1902 and in the State of Mysore in 1921 . In Tamil Nadu, where the human health index is much better than in other states, there is as much as 69 per cent reservation. Let us take for a moment that upper caste doctors are meritorious. But is this of any help to thenation when many of them use elite institutes as springboard to go abroad for higher wages. Nearly 70 per centof doctors from AIIMS doctors go abroad. How are these elite institutes, under such circumstances, serving the interests of the common people ? On the other hand , it has been in Tamil Nadu that a good number of SC/ST/OBC doctors, who procured admission into colleges due to the reservation policy, stick to their stste or hometown, resulting in better healthcare services. 2. Reservation is not a phenomenon exclusive to our country. The American MNC,IBM, voluntarily in traduced reservations for Blacks in 1930 . In Malaysia there are reservations not just in jobs but also in contracts , licences and company shares for Malays. Reservation for the depressed and weaker sections exist in many countries like Brazil, South Africa, Japan, Netherland and Ireland. There is 50 per cent reservation for Blacks and women in the medical faculity of Harvard University. And the Whites have never made an issue of being eligible only for 50 per cent of the seats. In fact, it is the handful of anti- reservationist doctors, who taik of disintegration of society on account of reservation, who are really responsible for creating dissension and obstacles in the ways of social justice of the OBCs.The media have, of course, played a negative role. But it is a reality that Indian society is constituted on caste lines .If the anti reservations are so concerned about the disintegrationof society on caste lines, they should first lead the struggle against social discrimination. 3. Reservation get a job or admission even if they get less percentage of marks, In one of the cases a person was in Indian Revenue Service. He saw that candidates getting high marks in a competition were not necessarily successful in the field. Merit, as it is being presently understood, does not include honesty, hardwork and patriotism. In the American school system, besides the syllabus, students have to undergo practical training in social

are the benefit of reservations. (b) Write down the procedure on the basis of capitation fee. The only people tailing of merit today are those who have studied in public schools or whose children study in such schools. 5. There is a vast difference in quality between the teachers of public and government schools. what is wrong if such students ask for concession of a few marks? 6. Reservation will bring unity and integrated in society. Value point:Reservation was introduced in the Kolhapur State as early as in 1902. As and when equal and compulsory education is introduced in the country. It is true that reservation is not a permanent solution to the vexed problem of our society. etc.. parents who send their children to corporation/ government schools are mostly uneducated . Dalits and OBCs will not stake their claims to reservation. in the state of Mysore in 1921. Ans.4. and marks are added in the certificate based on performance in thus area. services. 7. so that they may integrate with the mainstream. where the human health index is much better than in other states. there is as much as 69 percent reservation. Under such circumstances. On the basis of your reading the passage. But the problem here is that the among them start taking advantage of the policy. (c) What ideas do you know about reservations in Malaysia and Harvard University? . We have no objection if the poor among the upper caste people. too. In Tamil Nadu. They not only teach the children themselves at home but also provide coaching for them .the government has already launched many schemes. Reservation in elite institutes will enable people from different social strata to come together and established bonhomie among them . Parents who can afford to send their children to public schools are mostly educated. The expenditure incurred on education in public schools in 50 to 100 times more than those of corporation/ government schools. Value Point: merit be the sole criteria for admission to medical and engineering colleges. Reservation is not a pancea for the economic backwardness of the country. These children have to lend a helping hand to their parents after schools hours . answer the following questions: (a) Why were the Indian doctors clamouring against reservation? Ans. Reservation is only a concession given to socially and educationally backward people. For this purpose . On the other hand .

Ans. are given the benefit of reservations. (f) What way out has been suggested in the passage about reservation? Ans.s visit to Vidarbha. value points: The expenditure incurred on education in public schools in 50 to 100 times more than those of corporation/ government schools.solution (a)eligible d. We have no objection if the poor among the upper caste people. Ans. and marks are added in the certificate based on performance in this area. (a) the best possible(para-2) (b) academically able(para. In American school system.Ans. (e) Point out the difference in Public as well as Government University. There is 50 percent reservation for Blacks and women in the medical faculty of Harvard University (d) What view is taken by the Indians and Americans about merit? Ans. too.There is a vast difference in quality between the teachers of public and government schools. value point: In Malaysia there are reservations not just in jobs but also in contracts.value points: In india reservation on caste lines and reservationists get a job or admission even if they get less percentage of marks. The government appears to have woken up to the problem of acute agrarian distress. 8. In a flurry of activity surrounding the prime minister.5) (c) a fine remedy(para. licences and company shares for Malays. On the basis of reading the passage. etc. besides the syllabus. trace words that are similar in meaning to the following:. students have to undergo practical training in social service. PASSAGE-------------2. educated Ans-expenditure c.5) (d) money spent (para -4) Ans. . Value Points : Reservation is only a concession given to socially and educationally backward people so that they may integrate with the mainstream. (b)Ans.

Even so. speculative hoarding has indeed resulted in an artificial short fall. if the Finance Ministry agrees. Speculation has been added by a number of decisions of the government such as removal of control on the movements of agricultural.term issues0 but of a legacy of debt that cannot be borne. This is indeed welcome. without recognizing why even the current limited flow has taken the farming community into a debt trap. The evidence on inflation is clear. However the government also adopt policies that militates against long term redressal of the agrarian crisis that underlies farmer’s distress. as reflected in this year’s budget for example. While aggregate inflation on an annual point to point basis(as measured by the official Wholesale price index) stood at just 5. Reports and studies from various sources. fuel and sugar and as much as 35 percent in the case of pulses. symbolized by the spate of farmers’ suicides over thelast few years . In most cases lower demand resulting from limited purchasing power among some sections of the population has ensure that poor agricultural performance has yet to result in a short fall in supply related to demand. to insure them against crop failure so to prevent the legacy of debt from becoming an unbearable burden for many more. on farmers’suisides and their proximate causes have analysed the issue to the bone. drainage and flood control. These are significant steps forward. and a hike in expenditure to restructure the provision of a host of extention and a support services to improve agricultural productivity. The first of these is a fiscal policy stance that precludes the adoption of measures that are crucial to revitalize agriculture. thse measures are being virtually ignored. With the government focused on fiscal deficit reduction rather on raising India’abysmal tax-GDP ratio and expanding much needed expenditures.the government had declared its intent to seek remedies for the crisis affecting the peasantry. though the response should have come sooner. Rather the emphasis. 2006. Low farm gate prices. rising input cost and anadequate increases in productivity have combined to make interest and debt repayment commitments too onerous to bear. and. lowering of input cost through subsidies where necessary. The package being put together now recognizes that the immediate problem is not one of eccess to credit or the level of the interest rate (though these are indeed medium. What was missing was concerted action on the part of the Centre. The second is the decision to use free imports as a means to dampen inflation. the rate of inflation in the case of indivisual essential commodities was much higher: Between 9 and 10 percent in the wheat. including government commissions. : Massive public investment in rural infrastructure. is on increasing the flow of credit to rural areas. commodities and liberalization of rules relating to the operation of the private traders and agri- . A factor underlying these trends is long term deterioration in agricultural performances. The explains the government’s decision to writeoff debt ay least in the case of marginal and small farmers.24 percent over the week ending June 10. including irrigation.

to militate against long term red ressal of the agrarian crisis that underlies farmers distress. Therefore. If not. the small relief being offered the prime minister of farmers in the worst affected areas would amount to little other than temporary relief and a declaration of concern. It has also allow custom duty free import of sugar till the bignning of the next crushing season which start in October. b) How the government can help for their redressal? Write atleast two major steps. the crisis effecting the peasantry.business firms. . On the basis of reading passage answer the following questions. drainage and flood control. E.distressed peasantry with attended implications for private expenditure needed to sustain and improve agricultural production. But it could also adversely affect revenues garnered by the already. What is needed is to directly curb speculative activities. while dampening price in inflation during Second Plan Years. worsen the agrarian crisis and the distressed condition of farmers in the medium term. And it has put a ban on exports of pulses this efforts to enhance domestic supply with import may be successful in dempening in inflationary expectations and holding the price level in the short run. a) What is the actual problem of agrarians in Vidarbha? Ans : VALUE POINTS : Acute agrarian distress.led agricultural strategy. Reliance on imports to dampen price increases can. provision of a host of extension supports services to improve agricultural productivity. Reliance on PL-480 imports in the 1950s and early 1960s. it has now decided to permit private actual users of wheat like flour millers biscuit manufacturers and bread makers to import wheat duty free till the next rabi harvest.. was partly responsible for the inadequate yield growth that preceded the aggrarion crisis of the mid-1960s. simbolised the spate of farmers suicides over the last few years.g. Beside deciding February to import wheat to replenish dwindling government stocks. Ans : VALUE POINTS : Intent to see remedies for the crisis.Precludes adoption of measures that are crucial to revitalizes agricultural including irrigation. reverse policies with regard to freer agricultural trade that have brought in large private players driven by opportunities for profit and combine this with an investment. which in turn have resulted in the failure to procure adequate government stocks at the minimum support price where applicable. The government have sort to augment supply with imports. First.

The government has sought to respond to the situation by seeking to augment supply with imports. d) Mention the steps initiated by the government to tackle the situation? Ans : VALUE POINTS : to permit private actual users of wheat like flour millers.free.led agricultural strategy. 3. .Second.the small relief offer by prime minister of farmers in the the worst affected areas would amount to little other than temporary relief .which in turn have resulted in the failure to procure adequate government stock s at the minimum support price where applicable. allowed customs duty.Find words from the above passage that are similar in meaning to the following: (a) havoc(para -1) farming( para-1) (b) To shut off( para -3) (c) Collection (para-6 (d) Ans : (a) flurry (c) garner (b) militate (d) agrarian . reverse policies with regard to freer agricultural trade that have brought in large private players driven by opportunities for profit and combine this with an investment. c) In what does the hoarding create a problem for all? Write down the solution. Ans : VALUE POINTS : Speculation has been aided by a number of decisions of the government such as removal of controls on the movements of agricultural commodities and liberalization of rules relating to the operation of private traders and agribussinessfirm. biscuit manufacturers and bread makers to import wheat duty free till the next rabi harvest. a ban on exports of pulses. e) What solution has been put forth by the writer in the concluding para? Ans : VALUE POINTS : to directly curb speculative activity.to use free imports as a means to dampen inflation.

this can slow down the growth of foodgrains output in the country and. as farmers have to often sell their produce immediately after the harvest at prices that are lower than MSP. For the dual pricing system to yield desired results. Therefore. especially in the central and eastern regions where there is a large potentialas the growth of food grains output has barely kept pace with population growth since the mid-90s. over the five year period ending 2001-02 when there was a steep rise in procurement price resulting in accumulation of embarrassing large stock of food grains of over 60 million tones with the government. at the discretion of the department of food . Even though this may take exports competitive and raise domestic consumption of food grains in the short run. dual pricing system can be sustained only through non-price interventions such as infrastructural support for regional dispersal of growth in foodgrains output. which can help to step up much needed public investment in agriculture. consumption of foodgrauns in the country was reduced. depending on market For example. unless immediate measures are taken to strengthen public support for irrigation. The experience of green revolution underlines the importance of assured MSP including the farmers to step up their own investment and effirt and derive full benefit from available infrastructure. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: It is reported that the government is close to finalizing a system of dual pricing for the public procurement of food grains. . it needs to be backed by several other policy measures.PASSAGE-3 2. on this account. This also calls for more effective public procurement of food grains at MSP in these regions. as at present. according to a working group of the Planning Commission. The proposed dual pricing ststem is a better alternative than total marketisation of foodgrains trade by disbanding altogether public procurement at MSP. There would be two basic elements to this system: Afixed Minimum Support Price (MSP) covering the cost of cultivation. technology. in particular. Such a dismantling could lead to a crash in market prices of foodgrains in years of food harvest. by at least five million tones per annum. it may undermine food security by sapping producer incentives. and variable procurement prices. extension and credit in thr rest of the company. Since the impetus for crop diversification would be greater in the infrastructurally.recommended by the Commission on Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP). the surpluses procured. The new system by assigning a greater role for private trade can improve the efficiency in the distribution of foodgrains and susdtantially cut down subsidies.developed regions like the north-west .

meat. (a) What are the two elements of dual pricing system for procuring foodgrains? Ans : VALUE POINTS : A fixed Minimum Support Price (MSP) covering the cost of cultivation.The new system requires better market intelligence forecasts as well as concurrent analyses on prices and sales in markets in India and abroad Questions. as at present. vegetables and fruits are used by the consumer (d) What is the result of ecological degradation in the north-western region of India ? ANS: VALUE POINTS : The depletion of soil nutrients and water table driven down to unsustainably Low levels (e) In order to boost the dual system what urgent measures are needed to be taken? ANS: VALUE POINTS : .milk. depending on market conditions in different seasons and regions of the country. (b) How will the above proposed system benefit the nation? ANS: VALUE POINTS: It would enable to the country to more effectively cope with emerging challenges in agriculture . eggs.the proposal also recognizes the greater ability of our economy .to meet temporary shortages of food grains through imports. in the post – liberalization era . edible oils . (c) Mention atleast four non food grain item used by the consumer ANS: VALUE POINTS : Non food grain items such as sugar . at the discretion of the department of food. recommended by the Commission on Agriculture Costs and Prices(cacp) and variable procurement prices. fish.

The coming of automation is bound to have important social consequences . a surplus b. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. They are widely used in Industries and in Universities . dual PASSAGE. In the future ‘automation’ may enable human beings for more leisure than they do today. Trace words from the passage that are the synonyms of the following (a) Extra (para-3) roles(para-5) (b) extract(para3) (c) a driving force (para-5) (d) Two Ans. which can help to step up much needed public investment in agriculture. Now there is hardly any sphere of human life where computers have not been pressed in to service of man. .Improving the efficiency in the distribution of food grains and substantially cut down subsidies. impetus d. Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning . depletion c. We are heading fast on the close of this present century towards a situation when a computer will be as much part of man’s daily life as a telephone or a calculator. or they can count the number of times the word “and” has been used in the Bible. Because they work accurately and at high speed . These machines can be put to varied uses. they can provide information on the best way to prevent traffic.they save the research workers hard work. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us had been called ‘automation’.4 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: One of the greatest advances in modern technology has been the invention of computers. (f) How we can sustain the dual pricing system? ANS: VALUE POINTS: Only through non price interventions such as infrastructural support for regional dispersal of growth in food grains output . For instance.

Some years ago an expert on automation . for many international misunderstandings are caused simple through our failure to understand each other. These machines can be put to varied uses. by providing a machine with a patient’s systems. Sir Leon said that in future. Ordinary people would than be able to use them to obtain valuable information. There no possibility that human beings will be “ controlled by machines”. Car drivers can be given alternative routes when there are traffic jams. with the help of his blood picture. for the tedious task of compiling and checking lists of figures could be done entirely by machines. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us had been called”automation” Q.3 What was the prediction of Sir Leon about the computers in future? . Thougth computers are capable of learning from their mistakes and improving on their performance. lead independent lives or” rule the world” by making decision of their own. computers would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. Q. Q. For instance. Similarly machines could be used to keep a check on a patient’s health record and bring it up to date. They can never . Doctors will there for have immediate access to a great many facts which will help in their work.as it were. Bookkeepers and accountants too could be relieved of dull clerical work. Computers could be plugged into a national network and be used like radios.1 what is the greatest advancement in modern technology? Ans. people going on holiday could be informed about weather conditions.2 Explain Automation? Ans. pointed out that it was a mistake to believe that these machines could ‘think’ . the invention of computers. Sir Leon Bagrit . Computers are the most efficient servants man has ever had and there is no limit to the way they can be used to improve our life style and life. Value Points: Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. a doctor will be able to diagnosis the nature of illness. Computers will also be able to tell the exact the age a man is going to live. they need detailed instructions from human beings to operate. It will also be possible to make tiny translating machines. It is impossible to assess that importance of a machine of this short. Computers will also be used in ordinary public hospital. This will enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other without any difficulty or to read foreign publication. Value Points.

Past experience has tahght us that certain accomplishments are beyond attainment. Most of us fail in our efforts at self improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. tell the exact age of a man. to do physicat exericese every mornimg and to read . drive carefully. car drivers use for alternative routes.Mentally.4 Name the areas where computers can be effectively used? Ans. patient. use for clerical work. it is only because we have so often experienced the frustration that results from failure. We also make the fundamental error of announcing our resolution to everybody so that we look even more foolish when we slipback into our bad old ways. Value Points: used like radio. If we remain deep rooted liars.5 Find word in above passage which convey the similar meaning for i) Difficult or complex ii) Collect or arrange iii) Another choice Ans.Ans. computer s would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. do a thousand and one job abut the house. Q. and take the dog for a walk every day. Q. Value Points: in the future . Aware of these pitfalls. at least most of us could compile formidable lists of ‘do’s and ‘don’ts’.s systems. this year I attempted to keep my resolution to myself. used in ordinary public hospitals.5 i) complicated ii) compiling iii) alternative PASSAGE-5 The New year is the time for resolution . The same old favourites recur year in and year out with the children. be nice to people we don’t like. I limited myself to two modest ambitions.

Isat in my room for a few evenings with my eyes glued to a book. I have just bought a book entitled ‘How to Read a Thousand Words a Minute’. One night. I still haven’t given up my resolution to do more reading. Q. Iapplied myself assiduously to the task. Value Points: because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out.2. Q. However. Perhaps it will solve my problem. Value Points: look even more foolish when we slipback into our bad old ways. the time I spent at exercises gradually diminished. I went downstairs and sat in front of the television pretending to read.1. The next morning the whole family trooped into watch the performance. Nevertheless. The self discipline reqired to drag myself out of bed eleven minutes earlier than usual was considerable.I sat down at the breakfast table in an exhausted condition. my enthusiasm waned . That was really unsettling but I fended off the taunts and jibes of the family good humouredly and soon everybody got used to the idea. but on the second. An overnight party on New year’s eve provided me with a good excuse for not carrying out eiter of these new resolution on the first day of the year. In fact. I argued that if I spent less time exhausting myself at exercises in the morning. Why most of us fail in our efforts for self-improvement? Ans. It was this that betrayed me. Why is it a basic mistake to announce our resolution to everybody ? Ans. Find out the words in the above passage which convey the similar meaning to the following: (1) Overwhelming (2) Drawbacks (3) Decrease . but Ijust have not had time to read it. The daily exercise lasted only eleven minutes and I proposed to do them early in the morning before anyone had got up. Little by little the eleven minutes fell to zero. Resisting the hypnotizing effect of television. Q. After jumping about in the carpet and twisted the human frame into uncomfortable positions. Q. for I soon got back to the old bad habit of dozing off in front of the screen. I would keep my mind fresh for reading when I got home from work. By January10th I was back to where I had started from.4. Value Points: An overnight party on New Year’s Eve provided the writer with a good excuse for not carrying out either of these new resolutions on the first day of the year. Why did the writer not carry out his resolution on New Year’s Day Ans. feeling cold and lonely. I managed to creep down into the living room for two days before anyone found me out. That proved to be my undoing. however.3.more in the evening.

Ans.(1) Formidable (2) Pitfalls (3) Wane ..

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