This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Submitted To: Dr. Rajendra Kumar
Lecturer Course: CLHR
London School of Commerce
Shamsul MMH Chowdhury ID: 0146 MSMS1006 Semester 6, In 2008 London School of Commerce
Date of Submission: January 11, 2008
Date: 11th January, 2008.
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Senior Lecturer, London School of Co mmerce, London Subject: Submitt ing the assignment. Dear Sir: I am asked to prepare a formal report/case study on Current Issues in Law and HR, and I tried my best to provide all the relevant information about these issues (Creat ing a learning organizat ional culture, and the role o f HR; The ro le and funct ion o f HR; seeking qualificat ion for immediate requirement). I believe I’ve done my jo b effectively and this report has contributed significant ly to my better outstanding of the HR of 21st century. The assignment reviews on HRD, SHRM, and HRIS. This Analyt ical and informat ive Study o f Human Resource seeks to break new ground on a subject which is widely discussed in virtually every area of management and total organizat ion activit y.
If you need any more informat ion concerning this assignment, please let me know.
Thanking you, Sincerely,
Shamsul MMH Chowdhury ID: 0146MSMS1006
Current Issues in Law and HR Page Introduction (“Creating a learning org. Culture”) HRD in Changing Org.”) Recruitment Policy and staff selection Staff Hiring The process of recruiting On-the-job training Off-the-job training Advantage of off-the-job training Disadvantage of off-the-job training Discussion on seeking qualification Conclusion Reference 01 02 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 08 09 10 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 16 17 18 18 18 18 19 21 22 . Culture Organizational Culture tables Potentially relevant work-environment factor Workforce Investment Human Resource Information System Conclusion Reference Introduction (“Evaluate HR role and function”) The Role and Function of HR Department HR Role and function in details HR in MNC HR role and function in risk management HR role levels in Citigroup HR role in management HR role in MNC and global context Conclusion Reference Introduction (“Seeking Qualifications for immediate.
information techno logy. individualism and self-sufficient. forma l rules.1) “Creating a learning organizational culture” HR systems can make a difference to the creation of such a culture. Wit h their prior concern regarding the management structure specially deal wit h human resources like select ion process.A. • Management of workforce diversit y . In Mexico. co mmunicat ions. Globalizat ion makes narrower to the people as well. Schein proposed that. qualit y. interviewing. The organizat ional culture has varied country to country based on their socia l and others external issues. managers keep their distance. • Product innovat ion • Strategy innovat ion • Process innovat ion and the abilit y to successfully introduce new techno logy. such as inventory management software. Increasing compet it ion. relat ionships. decisio n making etc. manufacturing and delivering products and services. Now-a-days the mult inat ional co mpanies are introducing their brand in glo bally with their variet y o f products and services. manage every thing on time. For instance. suggest that organizational culture is become very essent ial in the organizat ion than it was in the past. induct ion process and others related HR issues. (2002). • Cross-cultural management of global enterprise and mult i nat ional partnership. Co mpanies are focusing the demographic issues and cultural barriers when they designed their products or service. and various workforce developments have created a greater need for: • Coordinat ion and integration across organizat ional units in order to improve efficiency. The product colour and flavour are not exact ly same as well. Introduction The world is getting smaller day by day in terms of business perspect ives. And in the German workers never arrive late. and speed o f designing. acquisit ion. globalization. Kotter and Heskett (1992) proposed four funct ion of organizat ion culture – • Organizat ional identit y • Sense-making device • Collect ive Co mmit ment • Social-system stabilit y Organizational Identity Collective Commitment Social System Stability Sense making Device Source: Kotter & Heskett (1992) Schein (1992) as given by Baker K. Unilever are spreading it s products every where in the world. its popular beaut y soap “Lux” is every where in the world almost. mergers. For example.
Foreign invest ment helps to create available emplo yment sectors and area. as mult inat ional co mpanies grow their staffing and development system change. For example.• Facilitat ion and support of teamwork In the organizational culture all these are very important issues to perform and run an organizat ion. 2002). to rationalise production systems and to make innovations in HR polic y as well as providing new jo bs. HR is a very important element in the organization. Governments in most countries encourage MNC invest ment and FDI because co mpet it ive pressure encourage domestic firms to beco me more efficient at adopting new techno logies and products. Various HR pract ices wit h other business strategies help to enhance firm performance. “The only thing o f importance that leaders do is create and manage culture” and “the unique talent of leaders is their abilit y to understand and work within culture”. HR helps to conduct a new culture in the organizat ion. Managing the businesses and organizat ions required proper HR funct ion active in the organizat ion. mo st of the foreign co mpany open their call centre in the other countries to minimize cost. HR is primarily concerned wit h progress of an organisation’s abilit y to adjust to changing environmental cont ingencies (Wright and Snell. in the organizat ional culture leadership play an important role. 1998). That creates a new door to that country and creates new jo bs. Schein says. In changing organization culture HR systems can contribute. Culture in the organizat ion is a compet it ive strength and key to compet itive success (Dea l and Kennedy. Without proper HR a MNC and any large organization cannot run. HRD in Changing Organizational Culture Globalizat ion makes the world little and give access every where. Source: Palthe and Kossek (2002) Journal Organizational Change Management . 1982 as given by Palthe and Kossek. However. As discussed before different countries have different rules and po licies in HR. In creation organizational culture HR system also play a vital role.
MacDuffie. 2006 “Human Resource Development International” These problemat ic areas of the organizations affect its culture. Human resource development in the organizat ion mo ves the organizat ion to the success. Spector (2002) finds that emplo yees in low-control jobs are less healthy than those in high-control jo bs. Lepak and Snell (1999) suggest the theory of HR allocat ion. 1987. Potentially relevant work-environment factors • Role overload • Role conflict • Role ambiguit y • Job control • Social support • Stressful work events • Hassles • Monotony • Expectations/physio logical contracts • Uncertaint y • Supervisor behaviour • Person-environment fit Source: Gilbreath & Montesino. 1995. the patterns of HR practices and interact ions are assumed to affect organizat ional change and performance. as given by Palthe and Kossek. HR strategy is a very important factor in changing culture.In the funct ioning HR modes. The HR modes include: • Internal development • Acquis it ion of HR • Contracting emplo yees. HRD role in the organizat ion ident ify the barriers to performance and sound operation. The organizat ions culture needs to be init iat ive. 2002). through always not directly measured. However. the evidence suggests that emplo yees in low-control jobs engage in less on-the- . Inducements for fully operational the HR strategies are also level likely to be driven by external and internal catalysts rather than locus of change culture itself (Meyerson and Mart in. 1994. HR systems contribution in creating organizat ional culture is vast. An organizat ion might have severa l problems which destroy the culture inside the organizat ion. HR problems such asTable 1. The better HR is the organizat ions key and competit ive advantage. Job control by HRD can make difference in the organizat ional culture. Numerous HR strategy implementations are likely to be incremental and localized at the group level o f analysis. Strong organizationa l culture was implicit. as given by Palthe and Kossek. 2002) where job securit y was generally part of the system. However. and rewarding them for teamwork/group work and high commit ment behaviours. In addit ion SHRM focused on high-performance work system (Arthur. but reinforced by HR practices select ing emplo yees for cultural fit. and • Building alliance Form the theory it is clear that the decisions to “making” versus “buy” human capita l ult imately depends on the uniqueness to an organizat ion.
1998. emplo y as few emplo yees as possible. discretion over work tasks. and that HR practices relat ing to rewards and performance management ma y contribute to the development of continuance co mmit ment. In this issues emphasizing the importance of . the provisio n of secure emplo yment or training and career development opportunit ies. as given by Gilbreath & Montesino.’s analysis of the high performance literature and the HR pract ices chosen by researchers as constituting HRM wit hin the studies indicates that the ‘top four’ pract ices were ‘training and development. As adapt ing the new process like lea n production strategy the production process become cont inue. According to Hawley and Taylor (2006) HRD is a different label o f training and educat ional activit ies. anger and personal failure (Jex. Within the Business Association there is no definit io n o f HRD but the kinds o f act ions promoted by associat ions under the rubric of HRD include worker training. pacing. Nevertheless. Dwyer and Ganster. In other hand. Creating a supportive work environment HRD can minimize the problem. 2004). developed a survey-based measure o f jo b control by using that aspects o f jo bs emplo yees lack o f control. a partnership o f emplo yers. HRD professio nals can learn managers about the necessary o f jo b control for emplo yee healt h. business organizat ions and workforce development providers tasked wit h the development of local implementation plans for the specific aspects of the HR strategy” (Hawley and Taylor. On the job overload may occur problem in the HRD. it is recognised that effectual connections procedures are a vital aspect in successful change init iat ives (Armenakis and Harris. “Boselie et al. and arrangement of the physical environment. 2006). scheduling of rest breaks. 1969. work-based learning with youth and invo lvement with government workforce programmes (Hawley and Taylor.jo b learning (Taris and Feu. the US government’s primary workforce development legislat ion. HRD can manage their emplo yee in system. 2002. gives a special ro le to the Workforce Invest ment Board. career development and organizat ional development). 2008). Work sat isfact ion is the main t hing in HRD. “The Workforce Invest ment Act. lower qualit y o f performance and feelings of tensio n. Emplo yees will keen to work for a good emplo yer. and increased heart rate. management education. performance management (including appraisal) and careful recruitment and selection’. 2004 as given by Conway and Monks. they po int out that core elements of “strategic HRM” that are also benefited to emplo yees such a list might include: ‘good basic pay (level and equitabilit y). Role overload is correlated with heavy smoking. work procedures and policies. Williams and Cooper (2002) argue that “organisat ional muscles develop when people are stretched and challenged but are damaged when they are stretched too far”. If the emplo yees are not satisfied wit h the work place or emplo yer the result will never be good. Human resource development includes three separate areas of activit y (training and development. 1991. That system is less expensive and act ive – short term – to increase overtime rather than to hire more emplo yees. HRD professional can help in t hese problemat ic areas. and job dissat isfact ion. contingent pay and reward schemes. but best place to work for too. diversit y and work–life balance’” (Conway and Monks. 2006). emplo yment securit y. 2008). as given by Gilbreath & Montesino. hypertensio n. work them to full capacit y and replace them when they burn out. In addit ion. Sales. 2006). including the variet y o f tasks performed. HRD professio nal can undertake mo nitoring activit ies to create a good organizat ional culture. 2006. Goodman and Truss.
promotion. and include jo b history (transfer. as given be Tansley. Newell and Williams. A. warning and suspensio ns. From the select ion and recruit ing to managing. accidents. Using HRIS in the organizat ion HR information management practices can allow both greater efficiency in current HR management and at the same t ime it reduce overhead costs by mechanisat ion and process automat ion through the subst itution o f the human agency (Tansley. paying. experience and competencies. Newell and Williams. nurtured and developed.supportive social relat ion.. 2001). Human Resource Information System (HRIS) provides electronic database that storage and retrieval HR data that is potentially available to authorized persons. 1993. ERP system is adopted in the organizat ion to change its culture of management where HRIS is also included. Knowledge Management is the core . Although HR system have so me challenging area but it is the main part of an organization. G. where emplo yee socializat ion is just a start (Gilbreath. B. & Montesino. educat ion and training records.. In order to maintain and develop better organizational culture HRIS provide co mputerized HR informat ion system that will work for HR specialist. current and historical pay details. pensio n. HRIS can provide organizat ions “an opportunit y structure” (Preece. To provide best service organizat ions need emplo yees wit h knowledge and experience. late arrival. medical and disciplinary records. HRIS element can be use with the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system in an organizat ion. and Boumans. HR data are extensive and variet y. invo lvement. as given by Tansley. 1991. If their knowledge is effect ively explo ited then it is vital that they develop their co mmit ment. In addit ion Human Resource Informat ion System (HRIS) can act in creat ing organizationa l culture. Within an organizat ion. HRIS change the culture of an organizat ion by tracking all the jo b relevant informatio n keeping together in a database system. Newell and Williams. At the select ion process the emplo yees must be carefully selected. 1990. emotional exhaustion and healt h co mplaints (Landeweerd. ho lida y ent it lements. 1996. 2001). depressio n. IT brings difference in the organizat ional culture so do HR.). skills and expertise. pensio ns data and terminat ion records. HR act to give the organizat ion those emplo yees. so in that matter HR need to be more act ive and carefu l cho ices about the way they control and manage emplo yees and their organizational tasks (Tansley. If the organizat ions’ “greatest asset” exploring success then the HR specialist measure the skills and competencies o f emplo yees needs to be explo ited. to sacking an emplo yee HR is active every where. 2006). An organization is run by the emplo yees (Huma n Resource). In creat ing a learning organizat ional culture HR system play a very important role in such a process. HRIS works in very confident ial way. Grant. In ever y types of organization HR play the major role. absence. HR can make difference in mo st ly every part of the organization. P. Newell and Willia ms. J. performance assessment details. In knowledge based organizat ions. and emplo yee and employers relat ionship can make difference in a culture. 2001). N. training. M. knowledge intensive and emplo yees’ knowledge and skills as the main source of compet it ive advantage (Prahalad and Hamel. Organizat ion’s every act ivit ies can be controlled by the HRIS. etc. knowledge and skills. Because of supportive st yle helps to protect emplo yees from tension. 1994). such emplo yees are described as the organizat ion’s “greatest asset”. abilit y. achievement. 2001). U.
2004). HR manager has options like locals. 2002). competencies and co mmit ment (Thite. attitudes. Human social and knowledge processes within an organizat ion affect the cultural values. expatriates. Through right philosophy and system HR can act a leading role in an organization. assignment terms. culture and language. and stabilit y and act ivit y in the workplace. compensat ion. HR systems need to make decisio n fro m where to hire emplo yees in MNC.competency and strategic intent of an organization. home-country nat ionals. when organizat ion go internat ional they need to create a structure that providing balance. HR creates difference in the organizat ion using SHRM and HRIS with organizat ional culture (Palthe and Kossek. handling spouse and dependent matters. Conclusion It is clear that HR system has crit ical ro le to play in creat ion o f an organizat ional culture. HR informat ion system makes difference in keeping all the history of the emplo yees in the organizat ion in database. third country nat ionals.. Where as the Human resources is a widespread in everywhere o f an organizat ion so to maintain and control them in an effective manner will definitely add value towards organizat ional success. Organizat ion’s polic y rules and funct ion are the organizat ions culture in that HR contribut ion is major. immigrat ion. tax administration. HR syste m run actively to give them jo b sat isfaction and lo yalty with the organizat ion. relocat ion. HR role and funct ion in the organizat ions is the main representative to the others. Skilled and experienced emplo yee search is the responsibilit y o f HR. In the UK every company look for emplo yees with excellent knowledge and skill. Successful learning organizat ions are able to focus and keep the best talent in the organizat ion by entering into their psycho logical contract. 2004). They also need to consider about the appraisal and pay system and consider the salary as different countries have different pay rules and system. M. At the time o f evaluat ion and promotion these system helps HR manager to decide the best one among the emplo yees. More over. Also discussed on how the HR system can influence to creating organizat ional culture. train up them making familiar them with the organizat ion culture. An organization’s main core competency is it s workforce and knowledge management. Especially the labour intensive organizat ions are more concern about their HR management. and motivate the m to generate and share knowledge in return for nurturing and nourishing their pro fessio na l skills (Thite. In global staffing HR have to face so me pressures like candidate selections. . A total credit file o f all the emplo yees co mes in the HRIS. People with excellent knowledge can switch any t ime if they do not get value for sharing knowledge. Essent ially. In a learning organizat ional culture HR system can make a vast difference. Human Resource Informat ion System and Strategic Human resource management both are very active system and important instrument in creating organizational culture. extend HR challenges and system abroad. the case studies about the human resource development activit ies and problemat ic area of HR.
2. Oxford.A. Kotter JP. W. and Boumans. Vol. 543 – 63. No. 4. “Effect ing HRM-st yle pract ices through an integrated human resource informat ion system”. and Cooper. R. 11. Wright. 4. E. T. (2002) Emplo yee control and occupational stress. Human Resource Development International. A. The Learning Organizat ion. “Toward a unifying framework for exploring fit and flexibilit y in strategic human resource management”. 10. 67. ``The role o f the CEO in the management of change: the case of informat ion technology''. D. Personnel Review. and Monks. (1999). pp. in Galliers.287 – 308 3. J. pp. Williams. Journal of Organizat ional Change Management. 2nd ed. Current Directions in Psycho logical Science. 28 – 44 . Butterworth-Heinemann.H. and Snell. 485 – 508 11. 24(1). and Feu. 133 – 6. pp. 13. “HR practices and co mmit ment to change: an emplo yee-level analysis”. (2006) “How Business Associat ions Use Inter-organizat ional Networks to Achieve Workforce Development Goals: Implicat ions for Human Resource Development”. E. 3. No. Vol. and Baker. pp. 1-18 5. 16. 8. 1. Thite. 30. B. (Eds). 23. 138. and Snell. S. NY. & Montesino. 2001. 756-72. pp. A. (2008). 11. 563 – 571 6. No. Palthe and Kossek. B. pp. pp. D. (1994) The effect of work dimensio ns and need for autonomy on nurses’ work satisfact ion and healt h. J. 2002. 9. Strategic Informat ion Management. pp. (2004) Learning and strain amo ng newco mers: a threewave study on the effects of jo b demands and control. Mohan (2004). E. pp. Gilbreath. Vol. 4.3. VOL 18 NO 1. U. N. (2006). “Strategic posit ioning of HRM in knowledge-based organizat ions”. Leidner. “Subcultures and emplo yment modes: translat ing HR strategy into practice”. Hawley and Taylor. Academy o f Management Review. Vo l. Schein. S. Conway. Spector. New York. 7. K. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT JOURNAL. (2001). “The strategic management of human capital: determinant and implications of different relat ionships”. 351 – 370 14. Academic o f Management Review.. Newell and Williams.Reference: 1. Heskett JL (1992) Corporate Culture and Performance. S. The Journal o f Psycho logy. Journal o f Occupational and Organizat ional Psycho logy. P. (1998). No. P. (1992). Vol.. The Free Press. L. (2002) Managing Workplace Stress: A Best Practice Blueprint (Chichester:Wiley).72 – 85 12. 207 – 17. Human Resource Development International. No. Lepak. G. Vol. 9. Taris. 9. P. “ Expanding the HRD ro le: Improving Emplo yee Well-Being and Organizat ional Performance”. Landeweerd. M. pp.A. Tansley.
The HR role and funct ion is the major part in an organizat ion. Human resource management is now the main po int of view in every co mpany. HR role and function is a major player influencing organizatio n and HR strategies ay both corporate and other company stages. 2003). G. . Modern version o f the managing human evo lved as so called personnel management with a view to imposing control and has now shifted to commit ment-oriented strategy as HRM. Payroll and Benefits records Admin Employment Classification and Compensation Payroll Benefits Worker’s Compensation Human Resource Information System Organizational Learning and Development Employee Events Workforce Planning Source: Christopher Mabey. HR department is responsible for recruiting. Strategic Human Resource Management. the personnel management is renamed by the emergence of HRM in US and UK (Jayawardena and Seneviratne. The Role and Function of HR Department – HR roles and functions are the major part in an organizat ion. Salaman. payro ll. HR roles and funct ions are wider than these. training. In the 1980s.. considering EEO.2) Critically evaluate the role and function of HR departments within organizations and discuss ways that they can improve their strategic value Introduction Managing labour is an inevitable outcome of the organization. (1996). HR role and function are given below: HR Role and Functions within the Organization Recruitment Employee Relations and Communications Professional Staff Contract Administration Personnel. emplo yment procedures to maintaining database of the emplo yees and record them and review them when required. HR funct ions help to control the organizat ions structure. benefits and firing. HR role is not just recruit emplo yees and train up them. It is more then recruit ing. HR funct ion work to increase its power and influence at corporate level and other organizat ional levels.
labour-management relat ions. workers compensat ion claims. supervisory newsletter. co llective bargaining. emplo yment interviews. jo b evaluat ion. Health and Safet y Emplo yee assistance. Emplo yee Services Educational Assistance.HR role and funct ion is more details and board within an organizat ion. UK . Harlow. Labour relat ions Contract administration. testing administration. supervisio n o f department staff Compensat ion Salary and benefit surveys. accounts payable. severance benefit s. Wages and benefits Salary/wage plans. 2nd Edit ion Prentice Hall. More details HR Roles and Funct ions are given below: HR Role & Funct ion in an Organizat ion Administration Strategic planning. co mplaint/grievance procedures. total package costing. Source: Hollinshead & Leat. (1995) Human Resource Management. M. drug testing. Separations and terminat ions Rights upon terminat ion o f emplo yment. Count y Broad relat ions. County approved leaves o f absence. advert ising. departmental budgets. Training and development County-wide needs assessment. safet y records and other administrative files. organizat iona l evaluat ion. unemplo yment compensat ion. light duty assignments for temporary periods. post-offer emplo yment testing. OSHA-related compliance. safet y compliance and training.. grievances. exit interviews. rights upon return to work. Performance appraisal Computer-based or manual evaluat ion systems. Benefit s orientation for new and transferring emplo yees. incidents investigat ions. Record-keeping Emplo yee files. lit igat ion files. co mpliance with timeliness standards. background invest igat ions. Leaves of absence State and/or Federal Family and medica l Leave rights. Recruit ment Job posting. supervisory training. development of supervisory and management skills. emplo yee service awards. policy reco mmendat ions. emplo yee training and workshops. job descript ions Emplo yee relat ions Disciplinary processes. Fiscal Staffing budgets.
fair emplo yment pract ices. HR contributes in all stages at managing risks wit hin the organizat ion and contributes to ensuring ‘jo ined-up thinking’ between different organizat ional ro les. Human Resource Management basically used in three approaches. as given by Jayawardena and Seneviratne. on the implementation o f the Cit igroup requirements. These studies show that HR funct ions are linked direct ly to implementation o f organizat ions emplo yee needs and goal of the organizat ion. According to Tyson and Fell (1995) recognized that more work need to be done to gain emplo yee views o f HRM from different research tradit ion. Funct ion o f HR is to motivate the skilled and knowledgeable emplo yees to share their knowledge and skills to develop organizat ion’s strategy and improve strategic value (Thite and Mohan. HR’s role and function is to extend policies and guarantee that HR managers have a clear concept of their responsibilit ies. wages and benefit s. H. and diversit y and the avo idance of discriminatory behaviour (Armstrong. HR tools and techniques like team-working and empowerment. HR play major roles in monitoring the implementation of HR policies throughout the overseas subsidiaries. remuneration and career management. 2003). HR role/funct ion in an organizat ion is very important (Torrington. and Keegan. 2004). Where there is a strong tradit ion o f co llect ive bargaining. HR ro le and functions can have a posit ive impact on the knowledge management. the role of HR in an organization is to facilitate the diffusio n o f learning through workshops.The bigger the organizat ion. Like. In that sense HR is to develop and sustain a knowledge sharing culture. training and development. Taylor. This study suggests that the HR process and funct ion have a crit ical ro le in achieving strategic value. recruit ment and terminat ions. (2006). HR Ro le and Funct ion in Risk Management . HR count that knowledge management is a core competency for an organizat ion. HR helps wit h training. HR is represented at decisio n-making stage and on specialist company-wide committees – such as. are essent ial within an organizat ion. pensio ns. record keeping. According to Armstrong (2000). 2000). 2005). healt h and safet y. pro motion. management successio n. flexible skills are used to implement HR funct ion in an organization. “The first approach is simply to retitle personnel management to capture the new fashio n… The second approach is to use HRM as a way o f re-conceptualising and reorganizing personnel roles and describing the work of personnel depart ments…The third approach argues that HRM is dist inct ively different and offers a new approach for management” (Guest. projects and tasks. HR concerns simple but effect ive tools .In relat ion to people management issues. the HR role is focused on the achievement of sat isfact ion outcomes from ongo ing organization process. 2004). A. Because fro m recruit ing HR is every where. Human Resource Management (HRM) has concerned wit h the design o f the human resource funct ion in organizations. In the MNC and Corporate department HR departments funct ion is significant. and to co-ordinate the preparation o f organizat ion strategies and plans.98. HR issues such as healt h and safet y. HR factors are accounted when organizat ion strategies being drawn up as well as implemented with good success. the more scope there is to emplo y people to specialise in particular areas of HRM. performance appraisal. emplo y emplo yee relat ions specialists to look after the collect ive relat ionship between management and emplo yees (Francis. HRM has to provide explanat ions for the systems o f human resource roles and funct ion for the application of those practices in certain groups (Weber and Kabst. Hall. This funct ion applies in value of. such as. 1999:97. HR works with the audit function.
May lead a small group of HR professio nals. strategy formulat ion Vice President HR for the business or funct ional area. Generally will report direct ly to the HR GM/VP and lead senior HR Professio nals. HR superintendent Technical expert ise is developed and honed. implementation. implementation with HR director responsibilit y for some strategy formulat ion.such as ‘traffic lights’ to indicate risk levels. business Group HR advisor. as instance. It sees the Investors in People process as a tool helping to direct ly manage HR risks and supporting the Turnbull guidance. HR role in Cit igroup is given below: HR Role levels in Citigroup Role Typical experience Main focus of role Example role tit les HR Professio nal Entry level through Main focus is day to HR officer. to 3 years day and transact ional HR generalist. 3-7 years Main focus is a Senior HR advisor. Generally does not supervise others. since it seems. Professio nal relevant HR blend of tactical Senior experience elements with generalist/representative. experience responsible for HR General manager HR. CIPD). Specialist relevant experience blend of strategy HR manager. It appears. at how appraisals are conducted and how they fit with object ive-setting. In this system. learning the HR advisor technical aspects of the HR role. 7+ years Main focus is a Principal HR advisor. Senior HR Approx. HR processes can be set into a risk management framework (Risk and performance. for example. experience in nature and on HR representative. Typically the top HR role in the business unit or the top . at the risks inherent in manpower planning and the management develo pment process. strategic HR specialist. typically in area(s) of expertise. HR Genera l More than 10+ Strategic Management years relevant HR partner and chiefly Chief HR officer. HR Management/ Approx.
payment. unaccepted behaviour. Knowledge management centre. Recruit ing emplo yees for the store. In the UK supermarket like J Sainsbury’s and Tesco. the HR department is always act ive with store operation. In this stage HR mean a concentration on training and development to improve the skills of emplo yees (Carter and Scarborough. science centre. training. HR act different ly. HR also helps to develop policies to motivat ion. absence. In the management role HR is act ing differently. HR funct ion is invest igat ing the case and take necessary act ion. firing all are the HR funct ion in these supermarket. Source: Web 2 The role of HR in Strategy: The role of HR funct ion in strategic concerns include the overall philosophy o f the organizat ion towards the value o f its people. absence. and minded. stress. as given by Wangcowham). warning. 2005). Source: cipd. induction. for example. 2001. the mindset of CEO.funct ional lead in the business unit or funct ional area that crosses business unit boundaries. checking previous work history. Building a good working relat ionship is crit ical.uk/ NR/rdonlyres/B6D2A96C-552A-4C22-A8CB-BD38E531A3C4 HR personnel take care of the emplo yees as the guardian of emplo yee’s wellbeing. discipline. According to Stiles (2001) . HR role and funct ion in this level help the organization to create a learning environment. are reported to the HR manager. that will mot ivate staff to gain and share knowledge and provide better service to the organization (Minbaeva. discipline.co. HR function and ro le is every time act ive and using in an organizat ion. etc. Knowledge based organizat ion like technical support centre. and the working relat ionship between the Chief Execut ive and the mo st senior HR person. Any incident related to HR reported to HR manager.
Huselid et al. Hall. 1996. (2005) suggest that one of the main reasons is that why HR are not involved in Strategic planning is that they are not displaying the required competencies. appo int line mangers into the HR funct ion. (2005) argue that. Another way Barney and Wright (1998) as given by Torrington. operating over 200 different markets. Control of substance hazardous to Health regulat ions 1999. HR function is to maintain and ensure the Healt h and safet y matter in the workplace. HR manager need to use business and financial language to describe the rational for HR roles in terms o f added value. There are several acts on Health and safet y such as. & Taylor. The evidence shows that HR managers have to prove themselves before going to the board so that’s why building key co mponent is necessary (Torrington. such as Coca-Co la is a firm proof. the HR funct ion needs to prepare itself by judging strategically. Other MNCs. shops and railway premises act 1963. as senior managers and board members appear to have limited knowledge o f research linking people management/personnel management and performance. & Taylor. In the Sainsbury’s. they need experts in glo bal assignments to success in the glo bal market ing. Healt h and Safet y at Work Act 1974. Because Gillette feels that they will better understand the need for a glo bal perspective in the HR funct ion (Harvey. co mpensat ing. Companies like Gillette implemented an internat ional-trainee program that exposes candidates for globa l assignments. 2001). Offices. HR role in the glo bal perspect ive and it influence strategic staffing and leadership development policies and practices in the MNC (Harvey. 2001). and Noise at Work Regulat ions 1989 (John Forsaith and Nick Townsend. 1996). .the power of the Chief Executive in select ing who should be appo inted to the board. as given by Novicevic and Harvey. Roya l Mail all t ypes o f organizat ions in the UK focus on Health and Safety rules and give details induct ion on H&S on the first day o f the emplo yment. and appraising managers assigned overseas (Tung. In the Great Britain all the organization need this as an essent ial act. Coca-Cola train up manager in glo bal perspect ive. act as a business manager first and an HR manager second. 2000). 2001). HR funct ion is to maintain all the H&S matter and laws and make the work place safer for the emplo yees. ident ifying a funct ional missio n and strategy and invo lving line management in the development and implementation o f Human resource strategy. More over. 2001). training/developing. Personal protective equipment at work regulat ion 1992. In the HR funct ion. IBM offers rotating glo bal assignments to develop worldwide management centres (Novicevic and Harvey. select ing. 1994. Gillette Co. HR function in a MNC and glo bal concern are different from it s tradit ional organizat ional ro les in administering HRM programmes and processes invo lving ident ifying. to focusing on the growing importance of human resource and impact of global leadership. Gillette increase internat ional experiences wit h internat ional-trainee program. Factories Act 1961.. Health and Safet y (First Aid) Regulat ions 1989. Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulation 1997. In that situation most of the MVCs focus on the IHRM. 2005). In the HR ro le in strategy Guest and King (2001) as given by Torrington. & Taylor. 1997 as given by Novicevic and Harvey. B. Tesco. Hall. that impact on overseas performance and they have develop a glo ba l mindset. Hall. Management of Healt h and Safet y at Work Regulation 1999. there is an opportunity for HR managers/directors to nourishing new ideas to Chief Execut ives. HR role in MNC and glo bal context: HR funct ions are also active in MNC and globa l context. and o ffer well-developed change-management skills that can be used immediately(Towers.
But Strategic human resource management describe it better to create strategic value in an organizat ion. and record absenteeism. HR funct ion is very wider in an organizat ional perspect ive. However. In 1992 Dow installed 35. HR manageme nt funct ions are able to support the organizat ion to achieve the knowledge transfer in an organizat ion. HR role and funct ions are to provide perfect person in the perfect place. HR roles and funct ion in internat ional perspect ives are also discussed in this study. Developing glo bal HRM system gives co mpany’s success. providing total jo b descript ions. Encouraging teamwork. The policies and ways used by the organizat ion are to set out the standards to which the firm seeks to desire. Human resource management create workplace culture. This is not as easy as it sounds like. MNCs engaged in glo bal staffing to increase the impact of leadership. An important part of the maintenance o f staff. HR designed the funct ion to ensure that the right people are in the right jobs to help fulfil the business's object ives. grievance procedures. HR ro le is motivate and give incentives to the emplo yees. This study also addressed the factors concerning the ro le o f HR management functions in knowledge based organizat ion. co mpany flat. incent ive travel. creating contracts of emplo yment.Conclusion – This study has addressed the factors related to the role of HR management funct ions in an organizat ion. that also reduce turn over and absenteeism too. for example. HR function is not only recruit ing and training its wider than it seems. workplace culture helps in organizat ional culture to improve its self strategically and create value. providing retent ion. funct ions o f the management. Ensuring Health and safet y in the workplace. person specificat ions. An important funct ion of the HR is to motivate the emplo yee to share their knowledge and skills in the organization. HR could be tempted to think that purely increasing wages/salaries are the way to motivate those emplo yees. This development is shifted to emplo yees by the global HRM system (Novicevic and Harvey (2001). The central view in the academic literature is o f HR funct ion and role that has never had muc h power in the organizat ion to influence strategy. At first glance. disciplinary procedures. creating authorit y and accountabilit y. a co mpany phone. reducing staff turnover and minimis ing absenteeism at work is ensuring these staffs are appropriately motivated. Dow Chemical. . principles and values. MNCs go beyo nd glo ba l management staffing toward global emplo yee invo lvement. possibilit y o f promotion. This gives the entire emplo yee same po licies. all t he emplo yees are not motivated by wages. but other nonfinancial matter like co mpany car. mo ving to other branches wit h more responsibilit ies all t hese issues could mot ivate emplo yees to work freely in the organizat ion.000 workstations across the global to communication through the same database system. HR informat ion system is also working to record data of all the emplo yees and incidents in the organization like a credit history of all the emplo yees.
B. L. Harlow. 34. UK. Strategic human resource management: a guide to action. Waber and Kabst.. CIPD. Tyson.586 – 599 14. “The crit ical ro le o f HR Management Funct ions in the Transfer of HR Knowledge” Universit y of Sheffield 13. (2003). Salaman. Christopher Mabey. (2000). Human resource management: Need for Theory and Diversit y. “HRM pract ice and MNC knowledge transfer”. C. Vol. Matara. “Strategic posit ioning of HRM in knowledge-based organizat ions”. John Forsaith and Nick Townsend.uk . S. M. pp. 155 – 179 17. 4.co. Armstrong. S. 19th October. 627 .650 16. 1. The Handbook of Human Resource Management. No. Jayawardena and Seneviratne. Towers. Thite.bized. pp. Issue 6. Vol. England. P. Oxford.co.uk/educators/1619/business/hrm/lesson/hrm1. Waber and Kabst. 28 – 44 11. (1995) Human Resource Management. 6th Edit ion. Minbaeva. Mohan (2004). pp. 11. No. Web 2: http://www. in People Management. pp. 9th International Conference on Sri Lanka Studies. 2nd Edit ion. (2001). 5. D. Personne l Review. & Taylor.co. (2005). Torrington. 8 – 44 7... Vol 16.15. Hall. cited on 26th November. England. htm 15. “The impact of the board on strategy: an empirical examinat ion”. (2004). D. Strategic Human Resource Management. pp. no 3. (2006) “The changing face o f HRM: in search o f balance”. Blackwell Publishing. pp. Francis. (1995) "A focus on skills. A. 38. Web: cipd. (1996). and Keegan. 42-45 8. (2004). England. M.15. The Learning Organizat ion. not organisat ions". Human Resource Management Journal. Issue 2. G. Vol. (1996). “Human Resource Management: a post – modern reading”. 12. (2005).uk/ NR/rdonlyres/B6D2A96C-552A-4C22-A8CB-BD38E531A3C4. Management review. 2nd Edit ion. cipd. 1251 -1268 18. 171-173 9. The Health and Safet y Administration Handbook. Vol. Management review.. 5. International Journal o f Human Resource Management. Sri Lanka. Human Resource Management. 2007 12. Harlow. Novicevic and Harvey (2001). Vol.. Issue 2. pp. Pp. Journal of Management Studies. H. “The changing role of the corporate HR funct ion in global organizat ions o f the twent y-first century”. pp. Hollinshead & Leat. Human resource management: Need for Theory and Diversit y. Stiles. and Fell. 231–249 6. Wang-cowham. Oxford. Prentice Hall. 171-173 3.. (2000). London 10. Vol. pp. 8.Reference: 1. Blackwell Publishing. A. 2. B. No. Prent ice Hall.
. and know the y • Fresh perspect ive you • High training time • Lower cost • Higher training cost • Low cost in training • Resent ment fro m inside • Peer to boss move • Brings in new idea • Low fresh perspect ive • Can boost emplo yee morale Source: Sparkes. Introduction Qualificat ion is the asset of an emplo yee and it’s an asset to the organizat ion too. obtain emplo yees wit h different backgrounds to provide a diversit y of ideas. corporate image. Then it’s co me to two types o f recruit ing processes 1) Internal environment recruitment and 2) External environment recruit ment. Different company’s have different rules and po licies to operate an organizat ion. and encouraging them to apply for jobs wit h an organizat ion. The impact of recruit ment fro m these – Hire Internally Hire Externally • You Know them. But it is st ill in veil that seeking qualificat ion for immediate recruit ments of the can be advantageous. Seeking qualificat ion has so me disadvantages too. J. In an organizat ion there are several recruit ment sources such as. state and alumni associations. acquire skills not possessed by current emplo yees. The qualified staffs have academic knowledge and pract ical view that helps in the organizat ion. To perform immediately organizat ion should have choose the qualified and experience people who could cope up wit h place and operate instant ly. If co mpany hire qualified people they feel that he might be able to manage the situat ion and cover the lack o f the organizat ion. pro motion po licies. and with appropriate qualifications. in suffic ient numbers. Recruit ment might be based on skills and knowledge o f the staffs and their approach toward the problems. Most experience emplo yees are the fact on the problem so lving and situat ion handling. Other way. fill entry-level jobs. (2001) . regional EEO office. Internal environment of recruit ment like human resource planning. They have several opportunities to move.3) Seeking qualifications which are well beyond the immediate requirements of the job can be advantageous as the organization will not have to spend as much on staff development in future. they might be not stable wit h the organizat ion. firm’s knowledge of emplo yees. Recruitment Policy and selection staff – The recruit ment is the process o f attracting individuals on a timely basis. seeking the qualit ies o f the staff the company hire an emplo yee but later find that they need training and explanat ion on that field. Qualified staffs are not always good for the organizat ion. communit y organizat ions. they can explore any problem quickly and find the solut ion. lega l considerations. Seeking qualificat ion is the major rule o f the organizat ion especially for immediate requirements. current/former emplo yees. Nepotism. professio nal associat ions. External environment of recruitment like labour market condit ions. and church organizat ions. For fast they are to solve the problem. So the advantage o f qualified staff is. Mult icultural associat ions.
that helps to get invo lved in the organizat ion. This means that qualified people cannot be perform well because it’s depends on organizat ion to organizat ion. Because most the inst itutes providing training program.The process of human resource planning to recruit emplo yees from various sources: THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS External Environment Internal Environment Human Resource Planning Alternatives to Recruitment Human Resource Planning Internal Sources External Sources Internal Methods External Sources Recruited Individuals Source: Hallinshead & Leat (1995) In the recruit ment system the HR role is to find out the best emplo yee who can provide best output to the organizat ion. Seeking qualification in the real perspective is good. Only training can improve the staff better performance (Dessler. G. workshop. staff learning program all these provide better help to the emplo yees act better to the organizat ion. From above discussio n it is clear training is must and training. policies and strategies. On-the-job training and Off-the-jo b training. An organizat ion cannot just recruit emplo yee seeing the qualificat ion. Practical experience required to perform better. Experienced emplo yees like 5 years experience in marketing and management field are best know as qualified for a jo b in management and marketing field. Academic qualificat ion is not only better qualification. Emplo yee co mpetency is the impact in the recruit ment process. Organization can arrange two types of training session. 2003). Seeking qualificat ion is well approach to recruit emplo yees. Emplo yee’s skills and competencies are essential at the time o f select ion process. But this doest means that he is good at work field. On-the-job training or side-by-side training is one of the best training methods for immediate requirement of emplo yees. seminar. A graduate or post graduate candidate means he got academic experience about the organizat ion management and specific field. management structure. On- . Training is necessary for the emplo yees.
Depending on the training course. The emplo yees wit h extra qualification and gigs are over qualified and HR face difficult ies to recruitment them. Overhead projector. trainer fees or extra equipment are incurred. the emplo yees might not take the course seriously and this might hamper learning 3. Off-thejo b training program is a full training program and more expensive than On-the-jo b training program. OJT is appropriate foe developing proficiency skills and relat ively ease to learn processes. That emplo yee is Master’s in account ing and inno vate new so ftware in account ing. video etc) might not be available and so this would mean courses might be basic or substandard 2. If the course has been designed by staff member it can be delivered to fit in with the emplo yee's regime and workload. Extra Audio or Visual aids to aid learning (whiteboard. If the organizat ion emplo ys qualified emplo yees as immediate requirement the OJT is the best way to train up the emplo yees. The training can be On-the-job training program or off-the-job training program. so it does not affect productivit y 2. this would help them to feel more relaxed 5. all is provided in-house and in works time 3. Emplo yee rivalry and banter may mean that emplo yees bypass the course and undervalue its content as they think they know better or have better ways o f doing it . projector.the-job training is planned. OJT allows the new-hire opportunit y to develop a working relat ionship wit h an exist ing work structure (Web: 3). The person developing the course would be able to gauge the level o f abilit y and content for the course to be taught. The co mpany can arrange o ff-the-jo b training program to train up the emplo yees. As emplo yees are familiar with the trainer and the environment they are being taught in. Emplo yees can learn fast fro m the OJT. On-thejo b training is the fast learning process. The emplo yee needs training to understand the work environment and structure and strategy of the organization. and conducted at the emplo yee’s worksite. Off-the-job training program has both advantage and disadvantages (Web 4): Advantages of off-the-job training 1. On-the-jo b training is the primary method used for broadening emplo yee skills and increasing productivit y. 6. If the co mpany hire a qualified emplo yee and send to the field he might fail to give output as the co mpany want. So the qualified emplo yees also need training. The course would be more relevant and adaptable to the needs of the company Disadvantages 1. On-the-job training reduces training cost and the training process is fast. Can work out extremely cost effective as no hotel fees. But later found that in the real situation his qualificat ion is not working in the organizat ion. Such as. organized. As a member of staff ma y be delivering the course rather than an experienced trainer. an accountant with higher qualificat ion comes up for a job as an accountant in the organization. emplo yees are ample to meet other emplo yees perhaps fro m other branches or departments they would not have normally met 4.
After few mo nths the co mpany found that she cannot produce anyt hing worthy. Nishii. If resources are limited. and new concept. So qualified emplo yees who got the training and adoptive can give the better support and output rather than a layman. Another way.4. This process saves co mpany’s expenditure on training and staff development (Huselid. the emplo yees start to provide better output. workshop. staff learning program. The company must need to fo llow the recruit ment procedures. Qualified people emplo yed for the immediate requirement is good. In that procedure HR consider about the emplo yees’ stabilit y and interest to work with the company. At the recruit ment procedures company cannot proceed with the qualified peoples. 5. For example. 1995). In so me cases. From staff development. M. After review all the emplo yees’ qualit y and history of emplo yment then co mpany decide who will be best for the selected posit ion in the organization. Mustafa F. skill or need for training. seminar.. To develop her skills the company has to send her to the staff development program. Because of the globalization every day people innovate new process. Only the training. Through the staff development the company can make their work force up to date. If the company seek for qualified people and train them and match them wit h the organizat ional culture then the emplo yees can produce better output fro m their skills. qualified peoples are experienced and skilled. 2007). they might not be able to gauge the exist ing abilities. . decisio n-making strategy makes the emplo yees up to date about the modern technology and system. and so emplo yees attending the course might already know what is being taught already. knowledge. When emplo yees know and get training fro m the development program the emplo yees beco me more effective at work. Özbilgin. new ideas. that helps to work with the same standard. The company emplo yed her in the immediate requirement of the job thinking that she is qualified and has enough skills in that area. because the co mpany has to fill the vacancy and require emplo yee in urgent requirement. Maria was a market ing officer in a mult inat ional co mpany. equipment available ma y be different than that used by t he emplo yees and this would be counter productive 7. So more output can maximise company’s productivit y and co mpany can meet its target (Lisa H. She leaves that job and jo ins a loca l company as a manager market ing. qualified people failed to work in some organizational structure. Qualified emplo yee can straight go to the work without prior training program. If the need for training has not accurately been gauged this would result in the work space being wasted where it could have been utilis ed more productively 6. Depending on the teaching skills of the emplo ye e training the members o f staff. Emplo yees may feel devalued if they are sent on an internal training course to improve skills rather than learn new ones and so courses have to be selected and promoted to the emplo yees very carefully and sensit ively Seeking qualificat ion is not bad but the training is necessary at all the time. She cannot match herself wit h the company’s strategy and working environment. The company cannot stop staff development in the future.
Qualificat ion is must. . EEO (Equal Emplo yment Opportunit y) is the government law to prohibit the discriminat ion and protect civil right. religio n. In last summer Sainsbury’s offer healt h and safet y training programme. In the McDonalds they usually provide side-by-side training (Web 6). nat ional origin.During the selection process company need to consider the legal issues in staffing.A. Fast food giant McDonalds also provides training to there emplo yees. The Civil Right Act of 1991.. If the company neglect any candidates they might face laws such as. amo ng other things. Tit le VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which prohibits emplo yment discriminat ion fro m age.E. Training provide up to date data and management approach that helps to manage the organizat ion more successfully (Becker. The organizat ions those hire qualified emplo yees als o provide and send their emplo yees for training programme to other countries and cit ies. B. Sainsbury’s also provides training programme to develop their emplo yee. Wit h these organizat ion also must fo llow these rules to avoid liabilit y (cipd.co. but the training too. such as • Discriminat ion • Affirmat ive act ion • Negligent hiring Discriminat ion is the big issue in t he UK as well as most of the countries. prohibit s disabilit y and pregnancy. emplo yees get and share their ideas to develop. and Huselid. race. 1998). state and federal laws. Because introducing new techno logy in the organizat ion or management strategy or marketing plan should need regular update through training.uk) – • Develop clear policies on hiring • Develop clear policies on discipline • Develop clear policies on separation • Be familiar wit h local. generate problems and solve them (Web 7). In the programme emplo yees carried out a comprehensive review on Tesco’s exist ing po licy in relat ion to training skills and development of staff. M. provides monetary damages in cases o f intent ional emplo yment discriminat ion (Web5). prohibit discriminat ion against qualified individuals wit h disabilit ies. Section 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. UK’s largest supermarket chain Tesco provides training to their emplo yees. Last summer Tesco Academy carried out a training programme. Tesco Academy designs and delivers training to the emplo yees. All the organizat ion adopts the training and staff development programme. sex. If the co mpany just refuse an applicat ion because they need qualified emplo yee. These things are not possible to know earlier by any of qualified people. that direct to negligence in hiring emplo yees. which. Qualified emplo yee can manage the organizat ion with skills. Organizat ions in most of the countries provide training to develop their staff and increase productivit y. Training will let the emplo yee knows up to date regarding the organizat ions and co mpet itors as well. Title I and tit le V of the Americans with Disabilit ies Act of 1990 (ADA). . earned experience and academic theory. In the training.
More they developed their staff more chances grow to success. Due to globalizat ion management need more talented skills and experience. The rules and policies are changing every day. But emplo y qualified emplo yee to avoid staff development is not a well focused concern. invented. World is mo ving fast with globalization. Staff development programme is must. now Enterprise Resource Planning. 2003).. New process invented. In supply chain management emplo yees learn six-sigma. the total training will ensure the qualit y and continuous organizat ion’s productivit y. To apply these new processes there is no alternat ive but training. Conclusion To perform well in an organizat ional operation there is no alternative for qualified or adaptable staff. All t hese things are not possible to know by a qualified person. Seeking qualificat ion is good process. qualification required to handle this duty. Then the emplo yees wit h these qualit ies apply for the jo b and HR chose the best person for that posit ion. . lean manufacturing etc. Seeking the right person for right posit ion is one very important job o f HR department. G. HRD provides the jo b description to the emplo yees then emplo yees know about their dut ies. new techno logy co ming. Company must need to spend on staff development to survive in the fast moving market. HR describe that they are looking to someone to fill a posit ion and the candidate should be qualified as experience in the related field. For these training is required. reliabilit y and its performance (Dessler.Moreover.
Huselid.co. Mustafa F. 44 – 47 2.asp cited on 7th Jan. 7. 9th ed.ht ml cited on 7th Jan. 38. October. and Huselid.E. 08 11. (1995). 11. B. Academy of Management Journal. 18:11. . No. pp. J.bnet. 07 4. Web: http://www. 07 9. 635–72. People Management.uk. cipd. Web:http://jobfunct ions. Productivit y.Reference: 1. 08 10. Vol.uk/skills/trainer/tsstudy. and Corporate Financial Performance’. M. (1998). G.businessbureau uk.co.trainingreference.com/thankyou. Human Resource Management. Nishii. Özbilgin. “High performance work systems and firm performance: a synthesis of research and managerial implications”. 3. M. New Jersey. Upper Saddle River.co. pp. Hollinshead & Leat. pp. 08 5. Human Resource Management. pp. Web: http://www. 20.au/careers/management/training_and_progressio n. (2001) “Job’s a good un”. 12. Prentice-Hall. (1995) ‘The Impact of Human Resource Management on Turnover.eeoc. 6. 08 8. 1883 – 1894 7. Web: http://www. 16 No.com. 53-101.uk/personnel/emplo yee_relations/on_the_jo b_training. The Internat ional Journal of Human Resource Management.ht m cited on 19th Nov. Vol. M. Prentice Hall. Becker. 1. Harlow.gov/abouteeo/overview_laws. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Journal. Web: http://www. UK. ht m cited on 2nd Jan.aspx?&q=On+the+jo b+training&pro m o=100511&docid=61216&view=61216 cited on 19th Nov. Dessler. cited on 22nd Nov..A. Lisa H.mcdonalds. Sparkes. (2003). ((2007) 'Global diversit y management: towards a conceptual framework'. Vol.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?