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construction management good practice
Ground floor, Milner Place 32 Princess of Wales Terrace Parktown, Johannesburg Postnet Suite 240 Private Bag X30500 Houghton, 2041 Tel. (011) 274-6200 Fax. (011) 642-2808 www.shf.org.za
G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
When a social housing institution, co-operative or private property developer has to decide on an approach for the delivery of housing, it must ask itself which strategy fits best, given its own and the client’s developmental objectives and constraints. One can deliver housing through any of the following scenarios:
• Acting as building “client” or developer, but outsourcing the development
function on a design-and-build (“turn-key”) package basis to a professional external developer
• Acting as developer, retaining overall management of the development
function in-house, employing professionals for design and supervision, and using a main contractor for the actual construction work (“design by employer” method)
• Acting as “main contractor”, employing sub-contractors and/or
community-based labour to carry out the actual construction work; responsible for supervising and controlling the construction process and activities, including all the required resources The final choice of the approach will be determined by factors such as:
• The internal skills available and capacity to manage the respective options • The extent and cost of external expertise available to assist in managing
the various options
• Developmental objectives (often in conjunction with sponsor and other
stakeholder requirements) such as local economic empowerment and availability of local skills
• The risk “appetite” of the social housing institution, co-operative or
private property developer These guidelines focus on the scenario where a social housing institution, co-operative, private property developer or contractor acts as a “main contractor”, taking on all the attendant risks and responsibilities that normally accompany the main contracting function. A main contractor plans, organises, co-ordinates, controls and leads activities on site during
S H F BP5 2006
the actual construction process, including the management of resources, from the date of taking possession of the site until the final handover of completed units to the client. The guidelines take into account the decisions and actions that need to be taken during the construction planning and implementation phase, as these have an impact on the effectiveness of the hand-over of stock to the client, as well as the future management and maintenance of stock. The Social Housing Foundation is confident that this guide will be widely used and will assist the development and growth of those social housing institutions, co-operatives, private property developers and contractors acting as “main contractors”.
Managing Director, Social Housing Foundation
but these should be used in conjunction with the more comprehensive existing materials contained in other publications such as: • The SHF’s Social Housing Institutions Operations Manual (together with accompanying training materials) • SHF Best Practice Booklets • Manuals and guidelines produced under the Support Programme for Social Housing’s Capacity-Building Programme • Manuals and guidelines produced by NASHO 3 . For the convenience of users of this manual.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT n Note: The topics of property development and property management are covered by extensive existing literature and guidelines developed by others. brief introductory notes on important general aspects of the property development and construction processes are given.
Social Housing Foundation Postnet Suite 240 Private Bag X30500 Houghton. and Afesis-corplan • CSIR BOUTEK • The Department of Construction Economics at the University of Pretoria • Social Housing Institutions across the country. 2041 Tel: +27 (11) 274-6200 Fax: +27 (11) 642-2808 www. or have been borrowed from the work of. and the information contained herein has been derived from sources believed to be accurate and reliable. the following people and organisations: • The Social Housing Foundation (SHF) • The Support Programme for Social Housing (SPSH) • The Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) • The Urban Sector Network (USN) and its affiliates.za Edited by Wordsmiths Design and Layout by MANIK Design Studio DISCLAIMER Great care has been taken in the preparation of this document. and Andrew Moore of Rooftops Canada • The General Motors SA Foundation (previously Delta Foundation) The authors nevertheless take full responsibility for any errors that may remain. or for as investment decisions based on this information. omission or opinion expressed. in particular Planact and the Development Action Group (DAG).shf. This publication was made possible through support provided by the Norwegian Embassy Copyright © Social Housing Foundation 2006 4 . The Social Housing Foundation does not assume responsibility for any error.S H F BP5 2006 Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution to this volume by others.org. Parts of the text are based on consultation with. especially the eMalahleni Housing Institution • The Masisizane Women’s Co-operative.
pricing and costing What is included in a main contracto’s price build-up? Building up rates and building price from first principles Estimating costs of material.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Contents What you will find in these Guidelines Housing Project Development Phases – where do these Guidelines fit in? c page 7 scope and purpose housing project development phase 8 Why is good construction-management practice important? How should the entity behave when acting as a “main” contractor? The construction process why? 9 how? 10 the construction process 11 11 11 11 14 15 19 20 What is construction? What are the main objectives of a construction project What does a main contractor do? Composition of a construction team Common risks that need to be managed by the main contractor Factors that determine success in construction How can the entity learn more about being a contractor? Decisions that the entity acting as contractor should be involved in before construction Choice of construction technology (structure and finishes) 21 21 Planning for execution of work Deciding on the implementation approach and the construction methodology Site establishment. temporary works and services. rates. detail cost estimates Estimating. cost estimating. labour and plant Planning and programming of the works 26 26 34 36 36 37 39 39 58 Executing the work Site layout and organisation Material supply and management Management of labour 70 70 74 90 5 . general management requirements (preliminaries) Preliminary cost estimates vs.
to medium-density housing and community facilities project Construction of the houses Organisation of the contruction Construction of the community facilities experiences 124 125 125 126 132 Masisizane Women’s Housing Co-operative. inspections. Port Elizabeth 138 138 Badiri House. Midrand. approvals and certificates Health and safety Security Contract administration Construction cost management Cash-flow management (income and expenditure) Construction finance (operating or working capital) 92 94 101 105 107 107 110 113 114 Community-based construction Reasons for community involvement in development projects Community-based construction – the “development team” approach 116 116 116 Training Training objectives Planning and preparing for training Who should be trained? Pre-construction training “Hard” building skills training 121 121 121 121 122 123 The experiences of some entities acting as “main” contractors Wattville/Tamboville – low. Gauteng Introduction Organisation of the contruction 134 134 135 General Motors SA foundation – medium-density housing in the Eastern Cape Missionvale Community Housing Initiative and Sakhasonke Village. Hillbrow (high-rise inner city refurbishment) 139 6 .S H F BP5 2006 page Management of plant. tools and equipment Managing sub-contractors Required tests.
technical advisors.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT w What you will find in these Guidelines The purpose of the guidelines is to assist users in employing good construction management practice in the construction of lowand medium-density housing projects. professional teams and subcontractors) 7 . by any of the following parties: • A social housing institution acting as a “main contractor” • A co-operative acting as a “main contractor” • A private property developer acting as a “main contractor” • A contractor acting as a “main contractor” • Service providers to any of the above (support organisations. This guide is intended for use in the pre-construction and construction phases of housing development.
adjudicating tenders. 8 . and closing out the process financially and administratively These guidelines deal with Phase 5 above. calling for proposals or tenders.Extending the appointment of professionals for further work stages. and whether to proceed 3. and awarding and signing construction contracts 5.Conceiving the development idea or concept and initiating the project.S H F BP5 2006 h Housing Project Development phases – where do these Guidelines fit in? The housing project development process can be divided into the following broad phases: 1. Pre-contract detail design development and technical documentation phase . conducting cost estimates and feasibility studies. including gaining control of a site that suits the idea 2. obtaining municipal approval to start building. and securing funding 4. Construction procurement or tender phase – Deciding on tender and contracting strategies and options. Implementation or post-contract construction phase . from the perspective of managing the physical process on site as a main contractor rather than managing it as part of the development function. refining and finalising designs.Managing the actual construction process from site handover to the contractor(s) to taking on the completed units. Pre-design feasibility or development appraisal phase .Preliminary studies are conducted to determine if the idea is viable. Project initiation and validation phase . preparing technical documentation. initiating marketing (if applicable).
long-term financial viability. Effective construction management. which leads to smoother running of projects with fewer problems. within budget. professionals. and support organisations. materials and equipment in producing affordable housing to people with low income • Maintaining high standards of quality and workmanship to ensure that beneficiaries live in pleasant and well-functioning buildings. integrity. therefore. together with marketing and adequate capitalisation. good reputation and good customer relations. people’s time. is an essential tool in ensuring the sustainability of the construction entity. communities and funding agencies • Building trust and good relations with suppliers. This.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT w Why is good construction management practice important? Good construction management practice is essential in maintaining efficiency. costeffectiveness and control on projects. in turn. subcontractors. delays and disputes 9 . helps to maintain and protect projected profits. and of good quality) with clients. Other reasons for practising good construction management include the following: • Ensuring the most efficient and effective use of scarce and costly resources such as money. and managing entities enjoy low-maintenance requirements and expenses for the ultimate benefit of paying occupants • Maintaining high standards of health and safety on building sites • Setting an example and being a role model for aspiring entrepreneurs and development organisations in the community • Building a reputation for dependable service (on time.
Establishing and maintaining differentiated functions and accountabilities becomes difficult where some or all of the same people from the organisation are involved in both functions (as is often the case). on the other. suppliers and labour) are managed by other members or employees of the entity responsible for managing the construction process. This could mean. 10 . and that construction-related activities and resources (subcontractors. and to organise its operational structure or project in such a way that accountability resides where it appropriately belongs. design risk and accountability rest with the design team. for instance.S H F BP5 2006 h How should the entity behave when acting as a “main contractor”? Where an entity acts as developer only. it will normally employ professional consultants and a main contractor to do the design and construction work respectively. Acting as both developer and main contractor often places an entity in a position in which it is important to draw a clear line between the two responsibilities. This also requires an operational structure to be in place. In this case. and management of the construction process. that the external design team reports to those members or employees within the entity that are responsible for managing the development process. Acting as a main contractor only requires an entity to focus on the management of construction process. while construction risk lies with the main contractor. so that staff who fulfil dual or multiple roles can clearly differentiate between the actions required for management of the development process on the one hand. in order to clarify the roles and responsibilities of each of the members or employees. It is advisable to draw up function charts and organograms before starting a building project.
tender and contract documents. to process and assemble materials and components on site (sometimes partly off site). specifications. according to design and specifications. and promoting job creation and local economic development. and determine own working capital and cash-flow requirements for the work to be done 11 . What are the main objectives of a construction project? The main objectives of each construction project (based on the principles of project management) are to erect the building or facility in accordance with the design and specifications. and appropriate plant. storage. by means of a managed process. and legal and physical conditions under which it will have to be carried out • Using the above interpretation to: • estimate the likely cost (for tendering. securing entrances and ensuring efficient movement of vehicles) • plan and schedule the execution of the work. in order to fully understand the project requirements. risks. skills transfer. construction is the use by a contractor of supervised labour. administration and service facilities. such as achieving buy-in through participation. equipment and other constructional aids. More specifically. capacity building. and to complete it: • within the budget (allowable cost) • on time (within the specified and agreed contract period or legitimate extensions thereof) • to an acceptable and agreed standard of quality and workmanship The above are the “technical” objectives of a project.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT t The construction process What is construction? Construction can be seen as the conversion of “raw” resource inputs into defined functioning outputs. into a completed functioning building. budgeting and cost-control purposes) • determine and allocate resources to the different phases of the work • plan a functional site layout (placing of material stockpiles. What does a main contractor do? Acting as the main contractor on a building project involves the following: • Interpreting the project drawings. with the most effective use of resources and control of risk. There are usually other “softer” objectives as well. establish quality control measures.
NHBRC or bank inspectors. monthly and overall contract-period basis • Planning and co-ordinating ordering. storage. UIF. and generally managing labour relations in the work place • Submitting all required statutory returns (taxes. paying workers fairly and on time. a site office. what work to do in-house with own core personnel. protection. security. including providing safety clothing to workers and visitors. equipment. including transporting to site. at workshops and on other premises. water. temporary works and installations are regularly inspected and serviced • Drawing up and executing environmental site management plan. delivery. datum levels and boundary pegs pointed out by the employer or principal agent at the beginning of the contract • Arranging all temporary service connections required for effective execution of the work. and what work to outsource to subcontractors • Calling for quotes and tenders from suppliers. for example.S H F BP5 2006 • Deciding. and protecting for the duration of the contract all benchmarks. project engineers. plant such as mixers or batching plants. and making sure plant. obtaining completion guarantees in favour of the employer or client • Organising and paying the premiums for all the necessary insurances on a building project • Ensuring compliance with industrial health and safety regulations and requirements on site. dismantling and removing on completion • Calling for inspections by municipal building inspectors. to ensure reimbursement of actual expenses incurred • Planning and programming the execution of the work on a daily. electricity. reinforcing steel. and safe handling of materials • Co-ordinating the work of different sub-contractors (and managing any conflict between them) 12 . and tower cranes where required. worker ablutions. where required • Ensuring compliance with employment legislation and procedures. and sewer lines before covering them up • Arranging for all required tests. weekly. erecting. making and submitting to a laboratory concrete crushing strength cubes. such as storage huts. and supplying the results to the engineer to prove compliance with specifications • Arranging for on-site re-measurement of all provisionally measured work before covering it up. maintaining. sub-contractors and plant-hire companies • Negotiating prices and contracts with these service providers • Where required. for example. local authority levies) • Taking custody of. as part of work planning and resource allocation. receipt. and sewerage • Fencing the site and arrange necessary security • Providing (hired or owned) all temporary site facilities. of work such as foundation trenches.
as well as a drawing-receipt register to ensure that work is being carried out in accordance with the latest drawings and/or instructions • Assisting with pricing variations and site instructions with cost implications • Keeping a site diary and other records (covering rainfall. incidents. removing rubble regularly. neat and safe building site • Generally maintaining efficient administration of the contract. plant and equipment on site) • Submitting well-motivated claims for extras and requests for extension of the contract period • Hosting site meetings • Cleaning and protecting all completed or partly completed work. number and categories of personnel. and maintaining a clean. both on and off site • Managing risks related to the construction process Costruction Management Triangle Quality Cost Time 13 . and ensuring sub-contractors do the same • Practising continuous internal costing and cost control • Keeping a site book for instructions.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT • Calculating and submitting claims for interim progress payments from the employer and/or funders for own work completed.
co-ordinate. co-ordinate supply materials.S H F BP5 2006 Composition of a construction team The diagram shows the composition of a typical construction team that needs to be managed by the main contractor (some of the team members are employed directly by the main contractor). pay for work done Labour-only sub-contractors Contract. supervise. pay for work done Supply & fit sub-contractors 14 provides Project Pay overheads Main contractor Participates in planning . Approved plans Permanent service connections Loan agreement Local authority Temporary Service connections Subsidy agreement Employer Professional services Draws paid via employee Building contract Inspecti ons ta s co to agen (no nt t co rol ntr ac t) Funder (s) Professional team Ac Orders Payments Head office in Adm por t p su Ad sup min por t Managers Site Supply Materials suppliers Su pp ly Site establishment Plant-hire companies provides Site admin and management pr ov ide s Community pay wages prov Recruit. Labour ides Contract.
This summary serves as a checklist for the construction manager. and hands-on management to ensure sub-contractors perform Sub-standard quality of workmanship: • Evaluation and selection of sub-contractors with known reputation for good work (check references – do physical checks of work rather than just telephonic confirmations) 15 . and the contractor will have to rely on proper selection. especially controls and monitoring • Acquiring necessary competencies and skills How to counter: • Putting in place clear HR and personnel-management policies and procedures • Selecting competent staff • Providing training and support (identifying real training needs is very important here) • Monitoring progress. With small and emerging sub-contractors this will. where possible. Risk! Under-performance of in-house staff with regard to: • Management of the process. Below is a summary of the most common risks that face main contractors in the execution of construction contracts. both during the planning and the execution phase. This usually involves the main contractor providing back-to-back payment guarantees to the sub-contractor. however. regular and fair payment. performance guarantees from sub-contractors issued by a bank or insurance company. to make sure the most common risks are being taken into account. conducting appraisals and providing counselling where appropriate • Having good contracts with performance clauses • Using a “stick” and “carrot” system (sanction and incentives) • Taking care with succession-planning Risk! Under-performance or non-performance of worker teams and sub-contractors with regard to: • Completion of the works • Sub-standard quality of workmanship and materials supplied • Delays and late completion How to counter: Non-completion of the works: • Obtain.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Common risks that need to be managed by the main contractor The main contractor should at all times be aware of all the risks involved. in many cases not be possible.
For example. quote. however. At the beginning of the contract. bricklayers must build small sample face-brick walls somewhere on site displaying an acceptable and agreed standard. Remember that retention is a reserve for fixing possible latent defects. and not for covering the cost of visible patent (current) defective work Delays and late completion: • • • • • Perform evaluation and selection as before Levy penalties for late completion Insist on realistic and detailed programmes of work Monitor progress regularly Order materials timeously and ensure work is not delayed because of materials shortages on site roofs are up before plastering walls. as long as the plaster is then protected against drying too quickly (causing cracks) by spraying it with water or covering it with plastic sheeting • Re-schedule work when necessary. written order. fixed prices for the duration of the project Get bricks delivered in pallets rather than tipped Specify standard materials of known quality where possible Always try to obtain physical samples of materials and check their quality before ordering 16 .S H F BP5 2006 • Provide training and mentoring • Provide good supervision • Provide clear documentation (drawings. If the roof is delayed. it is good practice to wait until Risk! • • • • • Under-performance of suppliers with regard to: Late delivery of materials Unavailability of materials Quality of materials Price fluctuations Short deliveries How to counter: • Choose reliable suppliers • Ensure timeous ordering of materials • Have formal ordering procedures (negotiate. This will prevent arguments down the line about what constitutes an acceptable standard • Do not pay for defective work until it has been rectified. These samples can then be used as references for all permanent face-brick work. check deliveries and delivery notes) with a proper follow-up system • • • • Negotiate. for instance. it may be necessary to plaster in the meantime. specifications. site instructions) • Provide samples. to keep to the programme. as far as possible.
lack of maintenance) Incompetence or lack of training in proper use and handling How to counter: Theft on site: • • • • Take out insurance Provide safe storage Maintain site security Have proper control systems and procedures for receipt. obtain cessions of ownership and proof of insurance (preferably do not pay for materials off site) Risk! Unavailability of working capital at the right time (cash-flow problems) due to: • Delays in subsidy and loan draw-downs • Poor cash-flow management • Unexpected expenses not provided for in contingency allowances • Problems with overdraft and credit facilities How to counter: • Build up and keep some cash reserves • Secure overdraft facilities while things are going well.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Risk! Damage to and/or loss of materials and equipment through: • • • • • Robbery Pilfering and fraud Negligence Neglect (no proper storage. not when you are already in crisis 17 . issuing and checking on the usage and wastage of materials on site of the works can be locked securely) • Do not bring valuable materials to site or instal them too early (before that section Waste and breakage: • • • • Training and supervision of staff to ensure careful and responsible handling Monitor consumption against allowances Issue just enough for specific tasks to site teams at a time Reduce handling to a minimum by judicious placing of stores facilities and planning of the work Responsibility for materials: • On site: Make sub-contractors responsible and accountable • Off site: Inspect.
Some specific advice is as follows: Latent defects: • • • • • Put in place a retention/construction guarantee Get NHBRC registration where applicable Make sure there is adequate supervision Insist on proper specifications and designs Be aware of the law and your legal rights 18 . theft. damage. cost and time required for the work • Disputes around materials lost through excessive wastage. etc). coincides with your cash requirements (dates for paying wages. wrong setting out of works. call for inspections timeously.S H F BP5 2006 • Comply with funder requirements: Plan work so that achieving payment milestones. and replacement of defective work • Working with large amounts of cash on site and in transit (wages) – this is to be avoided as far as possible by opening bank accounts for all service providers and paying via electronic funds transfers (EFTs) • Conflict among sub-contractors or in the community regarding who should get the work and be part of the construction team • Interference by local politicians (or would-be politicians) and other vested interests and powers How to counter: Most of the above are dealt with in these Guidelines. if any. supplier accounts. ensure procedures are followed and that paper work is one correctly • Push for payment – it is usually necessary to follow-up on processing of payments personally. and to put pressure on the people doing the processing • Monitor cash-flow requirements continuously. and make arrangements for obtaining payments or credit facilities in good time Risk! Industrial action and other disputes: How to counter: • Ensure compliance with legislation and agreements • Foster good human relations • Put in place fair practices and clear employment criteria General risks: • Inexperience of workers • Inadequate security on site • Vandalism • Dealing with latent defects • Bad weather • Breakdown of co-ordination between trades (and resulting disputes) • Underestimation of resources.
for instance. allow for work stoppages caused by the kind of weather conditions to be expected in accordance with the season • Plan a construction sequence to ensure. for instance. that storm water will not flood foundation trenches or other parts where work must proceed in order to stay on programme Inadequate co-ordination of trades: • Ensure planning. shortage of materials) • Meeting critical deadlines • Satisfying the local authority inspectors and the NHBRC • Support of the developer/employer and the professional team 19 . construction manager. and corrective action (including re-programming. additional resource allocation. organisation and monitoring • Clear delineate areas of responsibility in contracts and works descriptions • Provide complete drawings for each trade Factors that determine success in construction Success in construction depends on: • The organising and leadership ability of those in charge (project manager.) when deviation occurs • Timely ordering of materials and labour • Ability to motivate the trades • Effective co-ordination of trades • Insistence on quality • Maintaining good labour relations • Coping with unforeseeable factors (for example. etc. regular monitoring of progress. inclement weather. that roofs are up as soon as possible for phases completed during the rainy season • Protection – ensure. site agent) • The planning and allocation of adequate resources at the right times • The accuracy and timely availability of professional documentation and guidance • Field experience • Planning • Realistic programming of the work.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Bad weather: • In your schedule.
The International Labour Organisation (ILO). Chudley. with a team of workers. and other organisations in the industry. the Mitchell’s Building Construction series. Nunnally. Gauteng. and it may still be possible to obtain copies from one of the promoters. and acquire some good books on the subject. universities and technical universities/technikons. MacKay. finance. ceramic tiling and other materials) provide technical brochures to assist in the proper measurement and use of their materials. Seeley. This document provides starter guidelines only. Authors who deal with building construction as well as management aspects. Langdon and Everest. and a very readable series of publications by the British Aqua Group. however. Most university libraries keep copies of these. the CSIR’s BOUTEK division and its predecessor.S H F BP5 2006 How can the entity learn more about being a contractor? Simplistically. Willis. These are often obtainable from the larger building supply stores. requires a combination of management skill (planning. it should send staff members on training courses offered by private colleges. cement. leadership and control). also developed a series of manuals for the Contracting Entrepreneurial Training Programme (CET). commerce and human relations. and experience in the fields of technology. The Clay Brick Association does the same for the use of its member’s products. Spence Geddes. include: Calvert. Locally. with support from Ntsika Enterprise Promotion Agency. produces handy booklets on how to build simple structures. construction appears to be a matter of putting materials and components together according to a drawing. co-ordination. Harris and McCaffer. Proper construction. organising. law. Davis. If the entity is involved in large-scale and continuous construction as a contractor. 20 . knowledge. and the Urban Foundation published a booklet called Home Builder’s Handbook. the Black Construction Council. published over the years many useful papers and booklets with good practice guides. and the Department of Public Works. or you can order them from the CSIR direct. Many materials manufacturers (of roof sheeting and tiles. subscribe to technical journals (check with Brooke Patrick Publications for available titles). the National Building Research Institute (NBRI). It may also be worthwhile (for a fee) to subscribe to a good product catalogue library such as Archi-text. Everett. The Concrete Masonry Association (CMA) based in Midrand. Cashbuild. paint. and on the use of concrete masonry building units (bricks and blocks). tools and equipment. Building-materials supplier. Construction should not be underestimated because of unregulated entry into the construction market.
and the contractor can guide the decision-making parties on how to achieve their objectives.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT d Decisions that the entity acting as contractor should be involved in before construction Choice of construction technology (structure and finishes) Introduction Although design and specification is normally the domain of architects and engineers. it is usually implemented by substituting people for machines • Labour-based construction. with the secondary objectives of job creation. Each institution must examine its priorities and set its own criteria in this regard. thereby providing employment and training opportunities for both unskilled and semi-skilled labour. labour-based rather than plant-based construction It is always a challenge for an institution developing any form of social housing to balance its primary objective of providing quality affordable accommodation. empowerment and local economic development. • Labour-intensive construction implies the use of as much labour as possible. In practice. aims at changing the technology employed in the construction methods. Various products (with different specifications) are available on the market. The contractor should also share its experience with regard to technology required in various designs and specifications. Where the entity acts as contractor. for example. contractors can play a useful part in giving practical advice. The contractor should be open to sharing information with regard to the quality of the product or the practicalities pertaining to the applications of such specifications. by distinguishing between labour-based. labour-intensive and community-based construction Labour-based construction is different to labour-intensive construction. however. labour-intensive and community-based construction. Labour-based. The labour-based approach to both the design and construction of engineering services enables the unskilled worker to instal the complete service with minimal reliance on 21 . it is imperative that they are actively involved in design and specification decisions from the start. and the practicality of the proposed technology to be used. in order to ensure: • Cost-effective construction and an affordable end-product • Low-maintenance facilities • Socio-economic and empowerment objectives are promoted through the choice of construction technologies to be employed.
Singleskin block walls. commercial and financial support and instruction. and the most familiar method to bricklayers. However. with or without the aid of mechanical excavators and concrete mixers). Specialised mechanical excavators are normally used for the narrow ribs or beams in the ground.S H F BP5 2006 plant. although quick to erect and the cheapest option. become fully fledged contractors Technical considerations Foundations Conventional strip footings under walls. Construction plant and hi-tech tools are used only where appropriate • Labour-based construction benefits a community by creating employment and facilitating the acquisition of technical skills. The structural integrity of the walls can also be compromised if the blocks are not built with properly filled beds and joints. could in due course. while ensuring that cost and quality compare with those of plant-based construction. but this is not very practical. If. especially if not detailed correctly. are problematic with regard to water penetration. These could also be dug by hand. 22 . Walls Conventional brick or block walling is labour-based (even more so if the bricks or blocks are manufactured on site). and reinforced pads or bases under columns in framed structures can be labour-intensive (excavations and concreting by hand. with adequate technical. The emphasis in labour-based construction is on employment. training and development. the activity becomes community-based • Community-based construction in a sensitive and non-imposing manner aims at the use of labour-based projects to promote the emergence of local entrepreneurs who. however. There are countless patented walling “systems” on the market. discuss with an architect and/or engineer the suitability of such product for your purposes. Some foundation raft companies have initiatives where they rent out equipment and provide training and assistance to local teams or emerging sub-contractors to construct the rafts. Engineers often specify integrated floor and foundation raft systems for stand-alone houses. especially because of their effective performance in poor soil conditions and the speed at which they can be built. Competent technical advice (and “market” feedback) should be obtained before purchasing any system or product. the community also participates in the administration and management of the project. can also be problematic. even with such approval. Beware of products without Agrément or MANTAG or NHBRC approval. Fixing of window and door frames and roof anchors. from so-called “drystacking” blocks (interlocking blocks with no mortar beds and joints required) to complete composite wall panels pre-fabricated on site or in a factory off site. and check its acceptability to the end-user public.
Plaster and paint 23 . use good quality externalpaint. Face brick is ideal from a maintenance point of view. and colour of mortar in joints). and if bought from a reputable manufacturer. should provide adequate resistance to water penetration. Face bricks vary widely in cost and quality. and is not much more expensive than a good plaster-and-paint finish. within the bounds of affordability. face bricks offer adequate resistance to moisture absorption. If this option is selected. Plaster and paint may offer more variety and scope for re-decoration. should be durable and should have low maintenance requirements. Wall finishes should provide attractive facades. It is also more difficult to repair damage (matching later batches of bricks. as with paint colours. preferably thicker-textured or elastic types of coatings that will cover minor cracks.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Wall finishes Internal wall finishes should provide good cover (plaster basis with paint) and the paint should be washable (although this is more expensive) in order to reduce the maintenance requirement of the house or unit once occupied. but periodic re-painting will be required. Usual practice is to re-paint every five or six years. and to clean face-brick walls defaced by graffiti. and should be carefully selected and incorporated into designs that make aesthetically acceptable use of them – remember this cannot be changed later. This could become quite expensive in taller buildings because of the need for scaffolding. When used in double-skin construction. External finishes.
and covered in in-situ concrete to form a ribbed structure. The blocks are light enough to be handled manually. and smaller slabs. it is more practical to cast an in-situ solid slab. Always get quotes for both options and discuss the options with your engineer before deciding on the type of slab. and if there is movement or moisture in the underlying structure. Truss components are first nailed together. Structural floors (slabs) in multi-storey buildings There are two basic types of slabs: a solid in-situ concrete slab and a composite slab. both inside the structure and in the atmosphere. 24 . and are lighter than those made on site. The other option is to buy engineered trusses from a specialist who provides the design. provided there is access for a mobile crane for off-loading and placing the heavy pre-cast beams or “planks”. The composite slab is often the quickest and most cost-effective solution. This can time-consuming and labourintensive. Building solid slabs is also a more labour-intensive method. solar radiation and moisture.S H F BP5 2006 Some experts recommend. This “consolidates” the painted surface after the initial reactions with oxygen. Lightweight galvanised steel truss systems can also be considered. there could be expensive-to-fix problems such as discolouration. but this can be time-consuming. These trusses are of better quality. supply and. erection as well. Roof structures Conventional trusses can be made on site in a jig (which provides employment). This is covered with an in-situ concrete topping and is used for simple rectangular single-span structures. pending the effectiveness in certain applications. but these are expensive. Another type of composite slab makes use of concrete hollow blocks packed in narrowly spaced parallel rows on a flat steel deck. Cement-based paints with mixed-in pigments such as “Cemwash” or “Earthcote” provide attractive and durable options. say up to seven or even nine years. and then bolted tight once erected. For shapes that are more irregular. jigs and amount of space available. and therefore provide employment. Certain patented wall coatings claim to last the life of the building (“Marmoran”. so the finishes can be applied by local labour. This method also requires more cutting on site and increases the amount of material wastage. if required. that the first re-painting be done within 3 years of completion. “Gamma-Zenith”). cracks and spalling. and makes it possible to stretch subsequent re-paintings to longer intervals. because production is limited by the number of carpenters. however. and some suppliers provide equipment and training on site. The composite slab consists of a pre-fabricated component placed to span from support to support.
there is little difference between different roofs under normal circumstances. and are readily available at competitive prices. and could be prone to leaks if the pitch is too flat. ask a quantity surveyor to help. 25 . although fashionable and attractive. with virtually no maintenance requirements. which is a tedious and costly exercise. or long-length profiled metal and fibre cement sheeting. They will have to be patched and replaced several times during the lifetime of a building. where the estimated escalated costs of each option over the lifetime of a building or occupancy period (initial. however. even if it is pre-painted. metal sheeting is prone to rusting. They do. Life-cycle cost comparisons should be made. Profiled sheeting can be put on flatter pitches. although pre-painted corrugated sheeting appears to have made a comeback. or if there is poor workmanship during installation. but they are expensive. Ceramic tiling is more durable. Wooden windows. come in many standard sizes and shapes for every application. In areas with high winds. and require regular and expensive treatment against ultra-violet light (the sun) and moisture penetration. With a bit of preparation and training. can make rooms very hot if there is not an insulated ceiling underneath. cleaning and maintenance) are discounted to a present value and compared. are expensive. Tiles require steeper pitches (meaning more brickwork in gables). tiles may be damaged from time to time.) Windows Steel window frames are most commonly used because they are strong. they can also be manufactured on site or in the local community. durable. easily damaged during construction. (If you do not know how to do this. Aluminium and PVC windows are attractive and durable. and can span longer distances without support. and more support in the form of trusses and battens spaced closer together. Flooring Carpeting and vinyl flooring wear out and are easily damaged by occupants. Maintenance-wise. The user public seems to prefer tiles. On the other hand. but also costs more. periodic replacement. require good protection against rust by periodic re-painting. they require more edge treatment (fascias and bargeboards) to appear acceptable.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Roof covering You will need to choose between concrete and clay tiles. and in corrosive industrial or coastal atmospheres.
and a main contractor carries out the actual construction work without any responsibility for design. Construction of multi-storey buildings significantly increases the complexity of operations. where the professional team works for the entity. It requires more resources (plant. plastering. plant and equipment and constructional aids needed). roofs. securing land and funding. carrying out the social survey and market assessment. the entity as contractor will have to carefully study the drawings. which prevents the commencement of certain building work immediately after the casting of slabs. It may then engage contractors on either a “design and build package”. specifications and bills of quantities. and initiating the marketing itself.S H F BP5 2006 p Planning for execution of work Deciding on the implementation approach and the construction methodology Introduction Construction of single-storey buildings is usually quite simple. Higher levels of skills from the contractor and sub-contractors are also required. to avoid damaging or dirtying completed work on the lower floors. Before construction starts. Unless the site is geologically suspect. Acting as contractor on these projects requires fewer resources and less skilled labour. such as determining the nature and scope of the project. as is dealt with by these Guidelines. however. consider site location and conditions in order to work out the approach to implementation. Programming the sequence of work is more complex. Aspects to be decided on include the following: Which approach to physical implementation is best suited to the type and size of project? Should we use sub-contractors rather than directly employed labour. only rudimentary structural design of foundation may be required. In a situation where the entity acts as “main contractor”. or is there a need to employ local labour/community-based construction teams directly for the main part of the work such as brickwork. and vertical transportation equipment such as hoists and cranes). Allowance must be made for propping and back-propping of slabs. only using sub-contractors for specialist work such as plumbing and electrical work and perhaps glazing? 26 . Final finishing is done from the top floors down. other carpentry work and tiling. erection and inspection (notably for prefabricated timber trusses). or the “design by employer” method. constructional aids such as scaffolding and form-work. there are many issues to consider in addition to the normal development functions. and draw up lists of work to be done and resources that will be needed for each phase (labour and skills requirements. providing the roof construction is properly certified in terms of legislation pertaining to roof design. Who does what? The entity acting as developer will assemble all the pre-construction parts of the project.
it may be prudent to employ a small full-time core team of skilled people and general workers who can do basic work that sometimes falls into the gaps between different types of sub-contract work. the SHF. provide plant. it is best not to employ full-time staff. should we engage the services of a professional construction manager. materials and working capital? Guideline: In the early stages of its existence. but to do all the work with sub-contractors. it may also become necessary to appoint site agents (who are responsible for hands-on management of construction work. for instance tackling one project at a time as the opportunity for new stock-development arises. Although the entity can make do in this way for a while. In this case. the NHFC and others. the internal priorities of an entity are to have a competent CEO and financial officer or manager in place. with some support staff. If the entity is going to build continuously for a long time. it becomes imperative to appoint a full-time construction or project manager who will be responsible for the management of one or more projects simultaneously. Instead of a full-time team. from the areas in which projects are carried out. For projects of up to 200 units. careful co-ordination between different trades. the entity could also train and employ community-based labour teams to perform this kind of work. and good monitoring and reporting systems and procedures are very important. and the CEO or operations manager will take responsibility for managing the construction process. The number and size of construction projects determines whether a full-time in-house construction manager is necessary. As the number of construction projects (and units under construction) grows. for example under an extended stock-development programme. while we. It is usually more costeffective to appoint such a person on a fixed-term contract basis. the CEO’s attention tends to shift to dealing full-time with strategic management and internal office administration.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Guideline: If the entity acts as contractor only occasionally. managed by a professional construction manager under contract. How will we manage the construction work? Should we employ our own full-time in-house contract manager and clerk of works. good communication. or should we extend the brief of the normal professional team to include organising. Examples would be excavating and concreting foundations before the brick-laying subcontractors arrive. with outside help from stakeholders such as provinces. as main contractor. co-ordination and supervision of the various labour teams and/or sub-contractors on site. the cost of a full-time inhouse construction manager or project manager is not justified. Clear allocation of responsibilities. and are based on site) who report to the project manager or construction manager. 27 .
S H F BP5 2006
Should we opt for labour-intensive/labour-based construction as described earlier (possibly resulting in a longer construction period and some quality issues), or a more mechanised approach with greater use of plant (which is more cost- and time-efficient, and results in better quality of certain elements)?
The entity should aim for maximum employment without sacrificing production, quality and affordability. For example: compaction of filling under floors can be done by hand (if the areas are relatively small), however, it would be more economical and appropriate to compact larger areas such as parking areas with small petrol-driven compactors, which also make the level of quality of compaction much easier to achieve.
Plate-compactor for compaction of large areas
Bomag roller for compaction of large areas
Wacker for compaction of small areas and narrow widths
What is the most effective horizontal transportation method on site for different sites and different types of materials – wheelbarrows, dumper trucks?
Moving materials around by wheelbarrow is labour-intensive and works well on smaller sites. For larger sites, it slows down production, and increases the labour requirement beyond cost-effectiveness. It may be better to hire a dumper truck or two for bulk carting of materials from stockpiles to the area of work, and to use wheelbarrows only for the short distances to the final position. A very useful piece of plant to have on larger sites is a tractor loader backhoe (TLB), which is a modified tractor with a hydraulically operated front loader scoop and a rear excavating bucket. Its intended function (for which it is very versatile and cost-effective) is to excavate long trenches and holes for manholes, and to load excavated material and rubble onto trucks for carting away. However, many site agents use it as a generalpurpose carrier for moving cement, aggregates, mixed concrete and mortar, window frames and even workers in the front loader scoop. The machine is not designed for this purpose and its load-carrying capacity is too small to justify its running costs when used in this way.
G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
Wheelbarrows for horizontal transportation
Dumper truck for horizontal transportation
What is the most effective method of vertical transportation on site – with mechanical hoist, tower or mobile crane, scaffold plank ramp, mechanical conveyor, bucket and rope?
For single-storey buildings, materials required higher up (at the top of walls or on the roof), can simply be passed by hand from the ground up onto scaffolding erected for bricklaying and plastering, and from there onto the required level. For double-storey buildings, scaffolding could still work. If there is space it is a good idea to build a ramp up the side of the building or over the steps of stairways to the first floor, made of scaffold frames and planks, so it can be used by people with wheelbarrows. For low-rise multi-storey buildings (three to four storeys), a small mechanical hoist is the best solution for a single large building. For a number of buildings spread over the site this becomes uneconomical, and it is better to go back to ramps built over the steps of stairways. If buildings are quite close to each other however, it may be possible to connect them by temporary bridges, and share one hoist between buildings by supplying the bridge (see sketch below). For medium-rise tower blocks (five- to 12-storey blocks of flats), a fixed tower crane (or one that moves along a short track), with a jib (the “arm” that lifts the load) long enough to reach all the buildings is the most effective solution. Cranes are expensive to erect, hire and operate, and should only be on site for the required period. There is no point in having a crane standing idle at thousands of rands per month while you are still excavating for foundations. Discuss your requirements with an advisor from the crane-hire company, and match its lifting capacity with your requirements to keep costs down. Mobile cranes are too expensive to have on site full-time, and are usually only hired for specific days (or even hours) for lifting heavy components in spaces that cannot be reached by other means, for example, lifting a 300 kg safe door over the roof into a second-storey office.
S H F BP5 2006
Mobile crane for vertical transportation
Tower crane for vertical transportation
What types of constructional aids are needed (for example, different types of scaffolding, support work and formwork)?
The general understanding in the industry is that the main contractor provides heavy-duty external scaffolding for use by sub-contractors such as bricklayers and plasterers, while the sub-contractors provide their own trestles and planks for internal work such as plastering, painting, and nailing up ceilings. The entity working with small or emerging sub-contractors may have to provide the internal support work as well – remember to check and cater for this in your cost estimates. Steel pipe frames and props for scaffolding, or support work for formwork are strong, durable and reasonably priced, and are still the most commonly used. If the entity is going to do a lot of building, it is a good idea to invest in a basic set of frames, props and planks. Scaffold planks must be proper saligna (gumtree) scaffold boards at least 50 mm thick. Old pine roof timbers will not do, and are dangerous, as they are usually full of weak spots caused by knots and other defects, and rot more easily when exposed to moisture. Scaffold planks are very expensive and should be well looked after. They must always be cleaned before being stored between jobs. Frames and props must also be cleaned, and working parts such as threads of telescopic props must be kept well oiled or greased. Regular painting will also extend their life. If the price of new equipment is too steep for your entity, keep an eye open for second-hand sales and auctions. Be careful though when buying used frames, especially
Steel props for support
as their insurance does not cover them for the latter. will only erect flat decks excluding edges or other vertical formwork. There are versatile lightweight aluminium support systems on the market. Timber formwork for flat slabs 31 . It should be avoided as far as possible. but they are costly and are not as strong as steel. The most common and economical type of formwork for flat concrete slabs is standard steel pans. or formwork made from shutter board is expensive and time-consuming to erect. which can be re-used many times if properly cared for. Timber formwork. Some. Likewise. and used only for elements where standard steel formwork will not do the job. there are standard steel panels clipped together to form “boxes” for column formwork. Formwork is only needed from time to time for short periods. as the contractor must then provide the vertical formwork. Another alternative is to employ sub-contractors who supply and erect their own formwork. and it is therefore more cost-effective to hire it when needed.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT when they have thick coats of shiny new paint on them – the paint may be all that holds a rusty old pipe underneath together. The contractor must check the design and ensure that column sizes specified correspond with these standard panel sizes. This can be a nuisance. though. and has limited re-use.
For large volumes and deep excavations such as in cut and fillover site. and do general lifting and carrying around the site (see illustration of TLB at work). meaning you pay for transportation and idle time out of proportion to the value of the work to be done. or by means of pneumatic hand-held breakers. Large quantities of solid rock may have to be blasted with explosives. it is best to get a multi-purpose machine such as a combination “tractor-loaderbackhoe” (TLB) that can be used to dig trenches and do bulk excavations. using machines is more productive and economical. Small quantities of rock or old concrete encountered in foundations can be broken up and removed with picks and crowbars if there are seams to get into. Excavation by hand Excavation by tractor-loader-backhoe (TLB) 32 . This is specialised work. On small and medium-sized excavations. load excavated material onto trucks. For longer runs of trench excavation (strip footings for long buildings. excavating by hand is generally best (and provides more employment). and basements. The machine may only be required for an hour or two. and the most appropriate machine for the job should be hired. or sewer trenches). There are many different types of specialised excavating and earthmoving equipment. To have an excavator on site for a day is expensive.S H F BP5 2006 Illustration of conventional steel pan formwork for flat slabs Deck panels Box floor centre hanger bracket Box floor centre Flat Deck Formwork Fastrike props and box floor-centres can be used with either pressed or coined deck panels for quick and easy erection and dismantling of soffit formwork Scaffold tube lacing Fastrike prop 50x50 Band and plate coupler Steel column box Guideline: For small volumes. and then trim by hand. permits and extra safety precautions will be required in urban areas. it is most economical to take out the bulk of the material by machine.
but slow and not effective for larger quantities.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Concrete and mortar – to mix on site (by hand or by mechanical mixer) or to buy ready mix? Guideline: According to conventional wisdom it is more economical to mix on site. Delivery trucks run on a schedule. from small portable drums with electric motors to those operated by crank. and cannot afford to stand around while concrete is laboriously transported by wheelbarrow from the point of off-loading to where it is needed on site. dispatched into hoppers from where it is fed into the mixing plan. Mix by hand Batch plant on site for bulk mixing requirements Ready mix for delivery to site Mix with concrete mixer 33 . Quality control is also more difficult with site mixing. and aggregates are shovelled directly from stockpile into the mixer with dragline and bucket. For large projects. concrete pours must be well planned and efficiently executed. it is often more economical in the long run because of he time saved. it is most economical to set up concrete batching plants where cement is delivered and stored in bulk in metal silos. to large petrol-driven machines that can yield up to a cubic metre per batch. If ready mix is used. Batching is done by weight rather than volume. Mixing by hand is labour-intensive. Mechanical mixers provide better consistency and quality in the mixing of concrete. and contractors are notoriously unable to estimate properly for the true costs of site mixing once all the waste factors and breaks in productivity have been accounted for. They come in all shapes and sizes. This is sometimes a fallacy. Although the cost of hiring a concrete pump may seem prohibitive at first. but it does provide more employment for manual labour. and is more accurate.
prepare reports and other documentation for site meetings. it is advisable to hire rather than purchase plant. finance charges/loss of interest on capital. insurances) even when the machine is not working and recovering those costs. name boards. and supported with temporary works and services. The construction process needs to be planned. and for starters. and what is required on a specific project (for example. whereas if you hire you can get the right machine for the job. coordinated. maintenance and repairs. The contractor must usually provide sureties that will make available funds for completion of the contract should the contractor 34 . general management requirements (preliminaries) Contract preliminaries (prelims) or preliminary and general (P&G) Construction is about more than just labour and materials.S H F BP5 2006 Plant and equipment – to own or to hire? Guideline: Careful calculations are required (see also pricing of plant in the section on Estimating and Pricing further along in this document) to determine which option is more economical. draw up programmes and keep them updated. temporary works and services. Owning also brings about a certain inflexibility and potential mismatch between what you have. The contractor must provide competent staff on site to manage and supervise the work. and delivery and repairs during emergency breakdowns could be unreliable. and keep track of when progress payments are due. sheds for safe storage of materials and tools. If you hire on the other hand. keeping up to date with the latest models. maintenance and repairs are your responsibility. transporting around. power. supervised. The contractor needs water. certain fixed plant such as concrete batching plants and vertical hoists or tower cranes (sometimes also referred to as site establishment). The rental company is responsible though for all the “hassle” of owning plant – insurance. you pay for the rental company’s overheads and profits. Site establishment. lighting. temporary works such as scaffolding. especially larger. fencing and security. plant and equipment. assist the professional team in checking for correct setting out and levels. hoardings. more expensive pieces that are only needed from time to time. There must be site offices for meetings. Owning plant means you carry the fixed annual cost (depreciation. ablutions for the workers on site. traffic-diversion equipment and timbering (support) to carry out the work. the mixer you own may be too large or too small for a particular project to be practical and cost-effective).
All of the above are usually priced separately from the direct labour and material costs. The contractor is also responsible for security of the site (fencing. and take out insurance for damage or loss of the works. Site offices Storage sheds Storage containers 35 . and are collectively referred to as preliminaries or preliminary and general. and third-party liability. and cart away the rubble. He must provide samples of materials for approval by the employer or architect. access control and guarding). regularly clean the site.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT fail to do so. loss or injury to workers. protect the completed works against damage.
Once the decision. and materials ordered. and financial viability studies can be done. and estimate the construction cost accurately. We can further distinguish between price and rates. based on the preliminary estimates. is a business decision: what amount (including some profit) does the contractor want to sell his/her labour. material. therefore. it becomes necessary for the contractor to measure the quantities. Price usually means the total amount at which the contractor will erect the building or erect a certain portion of the work. and finance charges. rates. town planning and surveying. including land. these distinctions help in estimating likely sub-contract prices (and estimating price negotiations with sub-contractors) on the one hand.S H F BP5 2006 Preliminary cost estimates vs. Price. the construction side needs detailed estimates for the same reasons as above. escalated building costs. It is usually used as one of the considerations in the determination of a price at which the contractor is prepared to do the work. it is necessary to estimate total development costs. as well as to provide the development side with more accurate budgets of construction costs to feed into refined total-development cost estimates. and more detailed working drawings have been prepared. Where the entity acts as contractor. These estimates are usually done at an early stage when only preliminary concept designs or sketch plans are available. The estimated cost is the total estimated quantities (labour. This detailed estimate is also used as a baseline or budget for cost monitoring and control by the contractor. pricing and costing It is important to distinguish between the terms estimating. cost estimating. Pricing. is quantity x rate. resources allocated. and on the other hand the over-and-above costs that will be incurred by the entity as main contractor. has been taken to proceed. professional fees. cost estimating. This must be done so that the total funding requirement for the project can be determined. plan-scrutiny fees. This is done so that the work can be properly planned and programmed. therefore. and cost estimating entails the valuation (apportioning costs to the different measured parts of the work) of the probable inputs (resources) that will be required to complete the work. and methods are used that do not rely on detailed and accurate measurement off completed drawings. Estimating. detail cost estimates Estimating for different purposes and at different phases As part of the development function. For the entity acting as main contractor. pricing and costing. material. rates. plant usage and other indirect costs) multiplied by estimated or known unit cost. management skill and willingness to take risk to the employer/client for. Estimating entails the quantification (measurement). whereas rates are the “prices” per unit of separate individual items of work. which make up the total price. 36 . service connections.
and quotes from materials suppliers. for instance the plumber’s quote may include the supply of all pipes and pipe fittings. The quotes received from sub-contractors normally include: • Labour • Materials (if applicable). Others may quote on a supply-and-fit (labour and materials) basis. therefore. In plumbing. the entity acting as main contractor would have to budget in some form or other for most of the following costs that would normally be included in the main contractor’s tender price: 37 . mainly to monitor the profitability of the project or contract. budget for the cost of materials involved. In addition. but the main contractor will have to supply some of the materials. but the main contractor must provide the taps and sanitary fittings. meaning the main contractor must supply. What is included in a main contractor’s price build-up? It is important to understand what is normally included in the main contractor’s price build-up. and to make changes to improve it. An example is where the plumber’s quote would include the supply of manhole covers. and. including allowances for wear and tear • Sub-contractor’s site overheads (usually low or non-existent) • Sub-contractor’s head office overheads (if applicable) • Sub-contractor’s profit Some sub-contractors will quote on a labour-only basis. and the processing thereof into monetary terms. The reason for this is that when the entity acts as main contractor. it will take on some of the functions that main contractors price for.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Costing is the collating of cost information during and after the erection of a building. including allowances for wastage • The use of some tools and equipment. and if additional resources need to be put in place. then these must be budgeted for on top of the estimates for the different sub-contract works. Sub-contract documentation must be clear on these issues. and think that is the total building cost. the main contractor is also usually expected to do some of the work associated with that sub-contractor’s trade. materials and sub-contracts. and the main contractor must ensure nothing is left to fall through the gaps when adding up total estimated costs of labour. but exclude the building of the manholes. It would be a big mistake to simply add up all the sub-contract sums. It also provides the estimator with information for future estimating.
water and storage.S H F BP5 2006 Indirect on-site costs (“site overhead”) Preliminaries All of the above are usually priced separately from the direct labour and material costs. each contract must contribute towards paying overheads – usually in the ratio of its value to the total turnover of the company). the entity may save at least a portion of main contractor’s off-site costs. office space. power. and assisting them with off-loading and handling of materials and equipment (usually varies from 2. and general insurances). On the other hand. Attendance on sub-contractors Providing sub-contractors with scaffolding. Elements of a contractor’s price: • Cost of materials • Cost of labour • Directly attributable cost of plant Direct cost + Indirect cost • On-site (preliminaries and attendance on sub-contractors) • General (head office) overhead cost = TOTAL COST (ESTIMATED) OF ITEM OR PROJECT + • Profit = RATE AND/OR PRICE 38 . Overheads can vary from 5% to 15% of annual turnover (total annual value of contracts of main contractor’s work). Certain of its head-office resources will be needed to manage the process. and are collectively referred to as preliminaries. etc. equipment. or head-office overheads (office rent. It is often difficult to quantify the above accurately.5% to 10% of the value of sub-contract work). telephones.5% to more than 25% of the contract value. or in outsourced form. The entity must exercise care when estimating costs. or head office overhead”) In a building contractor’s business. which can vary from 7. Indirect off-site costs (“general. but some allowances should be made in budgets and cash-flow forecasts. office equipment. and this may mean buying-in additional capacity or specialised skills in the form of extra staff. salaries of head office staff.
R730. mixing tables. etc. labour and plant General aspects to be evaluated and decided on: • Plant . specials on alternatives • Allowance for waste . joints • Other factors . materials and other resources) by using labour constants. or per task (piece-work).employ own full-time personnel and/or casual labour paid on a time basis. m2 walling. m2 plastering) • Break the quantities down into their individual constituent ingredients or inputs (labour. loss through theft and pilfering (risk management .00 per m3 of 20 Mpa reinforced concrete in footings Further steps to take to arrive at the total building price: • Multiply the measured quantities of work by the unit rates to determine the “price” of individual items of work • Add all these together to arrive at the total price (taking into account other allowances such as provisional sums.decide whether to hire or buy (weigh up cost and risk vs.bulk or convenience buying. say. 5 pockets of cement x R48.breakage during transit (bricks) and short delivery. work out the number of pockets of cement. overlaps. m3 concrete.00) adding the costs of the constituent parts together. cash flow. mixing and placing of a m3 of concrete of certain mix proportions and application) • Determine unit rates for each measured item of work (in the case of schedules or bills of quantities) by multiplying the quantities of constituent parts of an item of work by their unit costs (for example.insurance). risk and utilisation) • Labour . contingencies. etc. hours of labour in handling. and then adding allowances for overheads and profit. mixing and installation.inflation/escalation. (For example. m3 of sand and stone. arriving at a unit rate of.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Building up rates and building price from first principles The steps in determining rates are as follows: • Quantify (measure) the amount of work that needs to be done (for example. central yard or direct delivery. interest rate fluctuations. return on investment elsewhere 39 . labour sub-contractors. labour-intensive or a more mechanised working method • Materials .) Estimating costs of material. wastage on site due to handling. discounts for early payment vs.00 = R240.
and on a rate per km or per area/zone for delivery.S H F BP5 2006 Estimation of material costs The cost of material is made up of: • The price per unit paid to the dealer or supplier for the manufactured article • Delivery cost to the site. and additional charges are made for loading. It is helpful if the estimator knows what units and minimum quantities materials are usually sold in. only 10%. work from a standard price list. based on minimum delivery quantity and taking into account off-loading and storage • Allowance for waste as defined below • Less discount(s) (if any) as described below Price per unit This is the price quoted by the supplier in units such as R48. two 3-ton trucks will travel 30 000 km each on daily deliveries within the chosen radius.00 per kg of nails. say. Delivery is also charged for smaller items that are delivered outside the normal radius.00 per 1 000 bricks. say. such as bricks. R8. where the cost of delivery is significantly influenced by distance. 40 . etc. All steel window suppliers. The entity acting as contractor should vigorously negotiate for these kinds of discounts. cement. The retailer estimates that in a certain year. Delivery cost The price per unit quoted for items of smaller bulk that are delivered from the retailer’s own yard often includes the cost of delivery up to a certain radius (say within 10 km or 20 km of the yard). stone. The total cost of this is taken as an overhead cost and added as a percentage to the price quoted for all materials. sand. Waste Waste is that portion of materials that is lost in handling and processing and cannot be re-used in the permanent structure (see also the section on materials management). A small once-off sale to an unknown client may happen at a discount of.00 per pocket of cement. for instance. While loss through theft is not provided for. R950. For items of larger bulk or weight. Deliberate and negligent wastage or damaging of materials is not regarded as waste. Discount General discount to the trade Suppliers often provide materials at lower prices to contractors than to the public. Different discounts off the list prices are then offered to different categories of buyer. prices are usually quoted ex yard. while a contractor who regularly buys large quantities may get as much as 50% to 60% off the list price. this is insured against. etc.
G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Settlement discount This is offered by the supplier to the contractor as an incentive to pay accounts on time (usually 2. Bulk discount This is a discount for large quantities.. Say the entity orders an item on the 26th of the previous month (that is after accounts for the previous month have closed). 41 .00 R10 000.00 less (5/100 x 10 000) = R9 500.5% or 5% discount for payment within 30 days). therefore: Material costs: R10 000. the entity can get almost 60 days to pay. he or she will receive an invoice for that item after the 25th of the current month (around the end of month). there is a 5% discount. Accounts are usually made up on the 25th of a month for all orders delivered up to then.a. it would earn interest of R10 000 x 6/100 x 30/365 = R49. without forfeiting any discount.00 (Saving is R500) If the R10 000. Compare this with interest earned at a bank: Say the cost of a contract is R20 000. Example: ± 60 Days JAN 25 FEB 25 MARCH 25 APRIL Contractor Buys Cement Contractor Pays Account Less 5% Supplier’s Accounts Close Supplier Sends Statement Cash discount These are attractive discounts to encourage contractors to pay cash. to encourage contractors to buy in bulk.31.00 If the material is paid for within 30 days. By judicious timing of purchase dates. made up as follows: Labour Material Contract cost R10 000.00 R20 000. and will only have to pay for it 30 days after that.00 was kept in a call-account for 30 days at 6% p.
42 . Unemployment Insurance (UIF).30 R 100. and Regional Services Councils (soon to be replaced with a new business tax) • Agreed travel and/or accommodation and living-out allowances for out-of-town projects.072m3/m2): Building sand: 5/6 x 0.5 = 0.60 Estimation of labour costs The cost-to-company of labour is made up of: • Basic wage per hour • Compulsory contributions by the employer in terms of the Collective Agreement between employers and organised labour for the particular area.22x0.08 R 110.55 sk @ R36 (del.10 R 19. rate and price of material Measured item in the bill of quantities: Description One-brick wall in 1:5 cement mortar Unit m 2 Quantity 120 Rate ? Price ? The cost and rate of materials for the above item could be calculated as follows: Estimating cost of materials for the above (per m2): Bricks (after discount to trade): Price of bricks ex yard: Loading and delivery cost Net cost of bricks delivered to site R 450/1 000 R 200/1 000 R 650/1 000 R 71.) Sub-total Waste: 5% say Total cost of materials for above (per m2) Add profit of say 10% (per m2) Total Unit Rate R 8.88 The completed estimate of material price for the item would be as follows: Description One-brick wall in 1:5 cement mortar Unit m 2 Quantity 120 Rate 110. in accordance with the Labour Relations Act (medical aid.085)=53x2=106+4%(waste)=110/m2@ R650/1 000 Mortar (0. as and when applicable The above costs are converted to an all-inclusive cost per hour and multiplied by the average time (labour constant) that it takes to produce the unit of work in the bill or schedule.072 x 1. Incl. holiday fund.0/(0.033= 0.80 R 10.S H F BP5 2006 Example of estimating the cost.09m3 @ R90/m3 (del.80 R 27. bonus. etc.40 R 29.) • Other statutory contributions by the employer with regard to Skills Development Levies. accident insurance.) Cement : 1/6 x 0.88 Price 13 305.072 x1.90 R 1.5/0.50 Net per m2: (1. Incl.
for example: 43 .5/1 = 2. if multiplied by the relevant rate. wage. All operations which are common to similar but different end results must be kept separate.5m x 8m x 2m Calculate the labour constant: LC = t/unit: 4 x 5 = 20 h divided by 0. i. therefore.5 hours to dig a trench of 1 m3 Labour constant = 2. The unit in which the labour constant is reflected must relate to the unit of measurement in accordance with the Standard System of Measurement used. will give the labour cost for a particular operation or process • Labour constant = time required to perform the unit of work The labour constant is calculated by keeping record of the time it takes a group of workers to do a large amount of a certain type of work over a period (1 year) under all kinds of working and weather conditions. would have taken 20 hours to excavate 8 m3. Overlapping and gaps must be avoided.5 or: Four workers take five hours to excavate 8m3.e. The quantity of work units or output is measured and the total time is divided by the total number of units of work. for example. diligent tradesman or worker to do a certain unit of work under normal working conditions during average weather conditions • It is that factor which. for excavations the labour constant must be expressed in hours per m3.5 (labour constant) The labour constant is then multiplied by the hourly rate of a worker to arrive at the labour cost of a specific activity Compiling tables for labour constants The basic principles are: 1. 2.5 (ii) It takes four workers five hours to dig a trench of 0. The labour constant multiplied by the total cost per hour. is the net labour cost of that unit of work.5 x 8 x 2m = 8 m3 = 2. Examples: (i) One worker takes 2. For 1 m3 we therefore have to divide 20 by 8: 20 hours/8 m3 = 2. contributions and labour overhead of all the workers required to produce the unit of work. worry-free.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT The Labour Constant (LC) Definition • The term given to the average time it takes a healthy. One worker.
an LC of 0. it would take one worker 0. Avoid division into too many operations.5.g.5 h. use multipliers where possible. Instead of giving separate tables for placing in columns. LC = 3. etc. spreading and compaction for different building elements are different. The LC for placing concrete in columns therefore. Carting up to 50 m would take twice as long and a multiplier of x2 would therefore be applied to the basic LC of 0. a multiplier of say 1. The multiplier The multiplier is a factor that indicates how much longer a particular operation takes under circumstances different to the norm. for instance.5.8 is used. have an LC of 0.75 is given for the placing of concrete in foundation trenches. Carting mixed concrete over a distance of not more than 25 m would. Placing in foundations is easier and quicker than placing in columns. and transportation to place of pouring (e.35. which is more difficult and takes longer. and allows for discretionary adjustment of basic LCs when it is clear to the estimator that a standard piece of work is going to be executed under non-standard conditions.8 = 1. 44 .g. LC for transportation of materials on site must be based on average trip distances. LC = 0. The use of multipliers reduces the number of tables that need to be compiled for LCs. therefore it would take one worker 0. 6. separate labour constants would be used for the following discrete activities: • The transportation of ingredients from stockpile to place of mixing (e. 3. Thereafter the placing.e.e. it would take one worker 0.5 h to transport 1 m3 of materials) • Mixing (by hand) (e.g. i.5 h to transport 1 m3 of materials) • Placing and levelling of concrete in foundation trenches (e. the labour constants for transporting and mixing are the same for all strengths of concrete.75.S H F BP5 2006 In concrete work.5. 5.75 x 1. Distinguish between operations only if there are measurable differences in the LC.e. for practical purposes and within measurable margins. i. is 0.75 h to place and level 1 m3 of mixed concrete) Although there are small theoretical differences. i. Example: From the tables. LC = 0. Instead of additional tables.5 h to mix 1 m3 of concrete) • Loading into barrows. 4. say 25 m per trip. LC = 0.g. it would take one worker 3.5.
Personal problems (i) Illness of workers. (v) Inefficient and poorly maintained plant and equipment. etc. Concrete plastering and masonry work cannot be carried out in freezing weather. (iv) Poor lighting: leads to sloppy work.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Factors that influence production (to be taken into account when compiling and/or using LCs and multipliers): Weather conditions (i) Wet weather: Roads can become impassable. Materials stored untidily or far from the work area reduce efficiency. production rates are generally lower than in situations of oversupply of labour. (ii) Untidy site: Reduces efficiency and leads to accidents. (iii) Exhaustion due to poor nutrition or work not suited to person’s personal ability and strength. Trucks cannot get out of basement excavations. (vi) Workers’ wages less than on other sites in the same area. the LCs should take into account expected average weather conditions for the area and time of year. 45 . workers not properly informed and motivated. (iv) Wind and dust: Dust gets in workers’ eyes. inappropriate grouping of people with regard to skills. (iv) Demand for and supply of labour: in times of high demand. (iii) Poor worker relations: Foreman shouting and swearing at workers. (ii) Domestic problems: financial problems or illness in the home. Workers cannot work in the rain unless cover is provided. When a contractor is tendering for work within its normal area of activity. (v) Overcast weather: Lack of light slows down or stops work. mistakes and accidents. (iii) Exceptionally warm weather: Workers become exhausted and must break for fluid intake more often. Organisational factors (i) Materials shortages: Results in waiting time and demoralisation of workforce. Where the work is elsewhere. Materials are difficult to handle. Cranes cannot be used. adjustments will have to be made for differences in the expected weather conditions. (ii) Exceptional cold: Workers constantly seek shelter to warm themselves.
00 x 2 = R 16.50 R 24.00 2 At 900 bricks a day.20 The total price for the item (labour and material) would therefore be: Description One-brick wall in 1:5 cement mortar Unit m 2 Quantity 120 Rate 159. then: Description One-brick wall in 1:5 cement mortar Unit m2 Quantity 120 Rate ? Price ? Estimating labour cost for the above: For this type of work. (skills dev.00 x 2 = R 2.50 x 2 = R 3.S H F BP5 2006 Example 1: Estimating labour costs.51 Price 5 821.41/m2 R 48. etc.00 Add profit of 10% Total Unit Rate R 44. the LC for the unit is 900/8 = 112. helping with the erection of scaffolding.5 = 0. etc.50 R 3.5 bricks/h: Therefore at 110 bricks per m .00 Two assistants/h R 8.00 R 21. and the team’s total cost to the company is made up as follows (no living-out or travel allowances): Description Basic wage Compulsory employer contributions (medical.98 x R45.50 R 1. Say the unit is able to lay 900 bricks in a day of 8 hours. a small team consisting of one bricklayer and two assistants will be considered as a unit working together.00 R 5.80 46 . the LC = 110/112.51) Price 19 126.51/m2 The completed estimate of labour price for the item would be as follows: Description One-brick wall in 1:5 cement mortar Unit m2 Quantity 120 Rate 48. RSC. etc. holiday.) Other statutory contr. transporting materials.10/m2 R 4. so that the bricklayer is free to lay as many bricks as possible in a day..00 R 1. UIF. rate and price If we use the same measured item that was used for estimating material price in the example above.88+48.98 (h per m2) Labour cost per m2: 0.50 R 45. The assistants will be mixing mortar.39 (110.00 R 1.) Total/Hour Bricklayer/h R 20.00 R 2. bonus.00 Total cost per hour of the unit/team R 36.
UIF.35h @ R 10.38/m3 R81.80 47 .G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Example 2: Estimating labour costs. etc.8 (multiplier for columns)= Estimated labour cost for the above Add profit of say 10% Total Unit Rate 1.60 R 1.0h 3.5h x 2 (multiplier for distance 25-50m)= Mix concrete: 3.80/m3 R 7.25 R 73.50 R 1.00 R 1.5h 0.75h x 1.) Other statutory contributions (skills development. etc.) Total/Hour General worker/h R 8. meaning transportation of mixed concrete will take longer than allowed for in the standard LC for this activity General worker: Transport materials from stockpile: 0. RSC. bonus.6h 5.50 Semi-skilled worker/h R 12.18/m3 The completed estimate of labour price for the above item would be as follows: Description Reinforced concrete 20 MPa in columns (ground floor) Unit m3 Quantity 10 Rate 81.55 @ R 15.18 Price 811.00 R 1. holiday.5h x 1.5h/m3= Transport concrete to position: 0.50 = R 53.00 Estimating labour costs for the above: Note: The contractor has studied the drawings and visited the site and noticed that: • The columns are on the ground floor • His mixing platform will be about 40 m away from the stockpile of materials • The columns will be less than 25 m away from the mixing platform but the ground level will be about 5 m higher than the mixing platform.00 = R 20.1h 1.2 (steep slope multiplier)= Semi-skilled worker: Place and consolidate concrete: 0.00 R 10. rate and price Measured item: Description Reinforced concrete 20 MPa in columns (ground floor) Unit m 3 Quantity 10 Rate ? Price ? Total cost to company of labour: Description Basic wage Compulsory employer contributions (medical.40 R 15.
In this example. The cost of its use can therefore be recovered through the rates for concrete. the money is not available for investment where it could potentially earn interest or other income. Provision must be made for this in order to recover the cost of using the equipment over its working life. This loss of interest or income is a cost.S H F BP5 2006 Estimation of plant costs Plant (machines. it starts depreciating in value. There are various methods for calculating annual depreciation. It would be impractical to try to apportion its costs to the hundreds of different items it transports daily. is used for many different things on a site. If the plant is bought with own reserve funds. Maintenance and servicing Provisions for this cost would be based on manufacturer estimates or. there are annual interest costs. for instance. This is because it will eventually be used up and will have to be replaced sometime in the future. A tower crane. i. licensing. regardless of its usage. is used only to mix concrete and mortar. Annual cost of plant Annual depreciation From the moment you buy a piece of equipment. each with different implications for tax and the company’s financial reporting. 48 . on the other hand. equipment. One is annual cost. Insurances Plant must be insured against loss of or damage to the asset. tools. If the cost of use of a particular piece of plant can be linked exclusively to a specific measured item of work. lubricants and operator wages. Plant has two types of costs. then it is customary to price for its use in the rate of that item. Licensing Bigger plant often has its own road wheels for transportation and would have to be licensed with the traffic authorities. as well as for thirdparty liability. This is made up of the costs incurred by owning the piece of plant. the company’s own records. maintenance and servicing. etc. for example. A concrete mixer. insurances. The other is hourly cost. Finance costs If the plant is bought with borrowed money (financed by a bank). direct operational costs such as fuel. through income from contracts. An estimate is then made of the total cost of using the crane on the project. scaffolding. if available. finance costs. annual depreciation of the asset value (purchase price). we will use the straight-line method where the value of the asset (purchase price less salvage value at the end of its life) is depreciated by equal amounts per year over the extent of its working life.) can be priced in one of two places.e. brickwork and plastering. and it is priced as one lump sum in the preliminaries section of the bill of quantities under the item “plant and equipment”.
diesoline and electricity.4 Insurance: R0. etc.8 Fuel consumption litres/h 1.6 Production weeks (4-week builders’ holiday per year) 1.00 3 000.00 9 900.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Hourly cost of plant (Note: Remember (i) that manufacturer’s claims of production rates.88/h 2. Example 1: Estimating plant costs Plant has production rates (a concept similar to the labour constant). energy consumption. and (ii) that operating conditions (altitude.7 Deprecation method 1. Lubricants Plant must be oiled and greased on a regular basis and this cost can be as much as 10% to 20% of energy cost.00 3 000.2 1.5 Purchase price Salvage value (2nd hand resale value at end of life) Interest rate for financing Anticipated working life Occupation factor hours/day (The other 2 hours used for cleaning. 8 years 250 litre/batch 12 batches per hour R R R R R R 3 000. etc. maintenance.) 1.00 p.1 1.13 Yield 1. (A dedicated operator is one who works full-time on a particular piece of plant. depending on operating conditions. Operator wages The total cost of dedicated operators is included here.a.11 Insurance 1.00 750.5 2. for example.a.9 Lubricating oils.5 Licence fees * (11520/8=1440 working hours per year) 49 .5 litre/hour 20% of fuel cost 10% of purchase price p. for instance.00/1440*= R 6. Again.1 Depreciation:(R30 000 – R6 000 )/8 2. Information: 1.3 Repair and maintenance: 10% x R 30 000 2. operator competence) can greatly influence these factors) Fuel/energy Manufacturers’ estimates or past records will indicate the hourly consumption of petrol.a 11 520 hours 6h 48 x 5 days/year straight-line 2.00 20% p.00 150. The cost of use of the concrete mixer in this example is to be priced into the item rates for each measured item of concrete work 250 Litre petrol-driven concrete mixer: 1.3 1. Annual cost: 2.2 Interest: 20% x R30 000 x 0. extreme weather. there are multipliers for work of a similar nature. a crane driver). 1.10 Repair and maintenance 1. but with different degrees of difficulty.50/R10 x R 30 000 x 0.4 1.5 m. dust.12 Life in years: (11520/6=1920 days/5=384 weeks/48=8 years) 1.14 Production/work rate (5 minute cycle) R 30 000. and maintenance intervals are optimistic.10/R 10.00 R 6 000.5 2. or an excavator can excavate 20 m3 of soft material to a depth of 1. a concrete mixer can yield 12 batches of 250 litres each per hour. R 0. etc.
Estimation of total costs: tower crane (if owned): Annual cost (calculated as before) say R 216 00.5 litre @ R4. except that it would be more conservative than the contractor owning his own plant.S H F BP5 2006 3.5h @ R 10.00/h Operator: 637.00 R 95 625.00 Erection and dismantling: R 10 000.88 R 11 63/m3 The total cost of using the concrete mixer is R11. an averaging factor of 0.3 Operator: 8/6 x R12.00 R 18 000.00 3.00 R 2.00 R 6 000.00 =R 34. For simplicity. and priced as a lump sum in the preliminaries section of the bill.25 weeks x 5d x 6h = 637.00 R34.25x5 Transportation to and from site: 2 x R 3 000. the calculation might be as follows. The total cost of the use of the crane is estimated as follows.00 R139 750. Notes: 1. and because the stock would be subjected to more abuse or carelessness by hirers): 50 .00 R 12 750.00 Hourly cost: Electricity: 5m x 4. Example 2: Estimating plant costs It is estimated that a tower crane will be required on site from month 2 up to and including month 6 of a 7-month contract (= 5 months).00/h Total cost per hour Total cost per m3: 3m3/hour (12 x 250 litre/h) R 10. His attributable cost to the working time of the mixer is therefore 8/6 times his hourly rate. This cost will be included in the unit rate for each measured item of concrete work in the bill.00 3. The interest is paid on a reducing balance (at the end of each year a certain amount of the loan has been paid off and interest is only payable on the outstanding balance). on the assumption that at the beginning of the repayment period (first year).00/48 x 4.00 + R 8 000.00 R 16.5 was therefore applied to interest charges.00/h Total cost of owned crane priced in preliminaries R 6 375. interest is calculated on the full purchase price and at the end the balance is zero. The operator is paid for a full 8 hours however (he spends the other two hours on cleaning and maintenance). 2. Simple interest was used for finance costs above. The mixer effectively works only 6 hours per day. This is because. among other factors. it would have to maintain better.2 Lubricants: 20% x R10.1 Fuel: 2.63/m3. Hourly cost: 3.00 If the crane in the above example was hired instead of being owned.5 x 8/6 = 850h @ R15.88/2 R28. The cost of transporting the mixer to and from site is calculated separately (it will vary for each contract) and priced in the preliminaries section of the bill. and replace stock more often to stay in the market with up to date equipment. (The plant-hire company would base its hire rate on the same calculations of annual cost plus an allowance for overhead and profit.
thereby reducing downtime due to malfunction 6. Underutilisation. crane and hoist operators Temporary site offices. security guards.00 R 7 200. sheds. Obsolescence. Hired plant is generally better maintained. preliminaries could be as high as the actual value of building work because contractors have to establish their own infrastructure. breakage. Hire charges and/or capital redemption and interest. peri-urban. it may appear that it is always better to own plant. 2.00 R 166 725.00 R 19 125. Servicing and repairs are the hire company’s problem and just a phone call away 7.1+20%)/12 Contractor’s own costs: Electricity as before Operator as before Total cost of hired crane priced in preliminaries R 6 375. meaning that capital is tied up uselessly instead of earning profits by being available as working capital on new contracts. and provide expensive protection against the harsh climate 51 . cranes. storekeepers. toilets. theft. for example. planning and co-ordinating the works Temporary services Contract requirements Contract management The cost of preliminaries on conventional building contracts usually range between 7. suburban. rural. etc. Risk of damage. Estimating costs of contract preliminaries These are costs connected with organising work on site.00 R 118 800. 4. but can vary considerably between projects. In certain remote or underdeveloped parts of the world.00 R 21 600. out of country). The restricting cash-flow factor of regular and long-term repayment commitments 5.00 (R3 000. picks.00 R 12 750.00 + 20% o/h and profit) Erection and dismantling: (R10 000 + R8 000)+20% Monthly rental: 5m x R23 760/m (R216 000x1. The “real” cost of owning plant must take the following into account: 1.5% and 20% of contract value. gatekeepers.00 From the above. insurance premiums. Hire charges and/or capital redemption and interest. but this is not necessarily so. etc. shovels. etc. hoists. maintenance and running costs Water and power for the works Cost of sureties. etc. transport to and from site.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Estimation of total cost of crane (if hired): Plant-hire company charges: Transportation: 2 x R3600. erection and dismantling All plant on site that are not used exclusively for the production of a particular item of work. low-rise housing or inner-city tower block) • Size and phasing of project • Location (urban. etc. depending on: • Type of work (building or civil construction. such as: • • • • • • Personnel Accommodation Plant Salaries of works foremen. deposits and fees to local authority Cost of meetings. wheelbarrows. and the provision of aids and facilities for the economical execution thereof. maintenance. Having to rent or own storage space 3. compiling work programmes and cash flows. such as Siberia in Russia.
S H F BP5 2006
The major cost items under preliminaries are plant and salaries/wages of site staff. Both are directly related to the size and duration of the contract, with duration or time being the major factor
In estimating preliminaries costs (the most difficult part of cost estimating, and best left to an experienced estimator), the following activities are involved:
• After deciding what work will be done manually to increase employment,
assessing what types and numbers of plant and equipment will be needed; and by studying the work programme, estimating how long they will be needed on site
• Drawing up an organogram of site administrative staff needed (excluding labour
directly involved in actual construction activities), and how long they will be needed
• Studying the work force requirement, and contract stipulations to see what
temporary facilities and services are needed for the execution of the contract
• Studying the contract conditions and statutory requirements to see what
insurances are required, and what fees and deposits are payable to the local and other authorities
• Discussing with contracts managers and site staff what the security requirements
Estimation of general (head office) overhead costs to be attributed or apportioned to a specific project for recovery
Overheads are those costs that cannot readily be apportioned to specific work items on a project or projects, but which are necessary to execute the project(s). The cost of indirect or general office overheads, which can vary from 5% to 20% of contract value, must be spread over all the projects executed in a particular year, that is to say each project must make a “contribution” to overhead costs.
(5% of contract value)
(5% of contract value)
(5% of contract value)
CONTRACTOR’S OFFICE COSTS
(say 5% of turnover)
G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
Typical general overheads
Accommodation Office space for manager(s), clerks, typists, etc. Storage space for records, plant not in use, vehicles and materials. Total annual rent or an amount that would yield a certain return on investment in own property Depreciation of office furniture and equipment, maintenance and finance charges, stationery, postage, telephone/fax, lighting, heating and cooling, bookkeeping charges Salaries of contracts manager(s), contract surveyors, clerks, typists, other head office staff, time-keepers, security guards, including pension/provident fund and medical aid contributions Cars, bakkies, trucks. Capital redemption and interest on HP contracts, maintenance and repair, running costs, licences, insurance Interest on capital (loans or own capital), bank charges, in connection with financing the business Fire, theft and third-party insurances, municipal service charges (water, power, refuse removal, sanitary charges)
• • • • •
Office equipment and expenses
Finance costs Regular expenses
Estimating overhead contribution
Overhead contributions for each project are commonly estimated by: 1. Estimating the total turnover of all projects for a particular year, say R10 million (value of actual building work excluding preliminaries, provisional sums, overhead and profit). 2. Estimating the total overhead cost that will be needed to support the estimated turnover for that year, say R0.5 million. 3. Expressing the estimated overhead cost as a percentage of estimated turnover (R0.5 million/R10 million = 5% in this case) and adding that percentage to all bill rates for building work. In this way, the total amount of building work carried out during the year will contribute the full amount of overhead needed. This calculation must be reviewed constantly. This is because the estimates of turnover for the year will be adjusted as the real turnover figures start emerging. For example, if by mid-year it is evident that only 75% of estimated turnover is likely to be realised, the contractor will have to either adjust the percentage upward (if market conditions allow), or start cutting overhead costs.
This is one of the most misunderstood and abused aspects of estimating. Contractors, consultants (and their clients) see it as a simple case of “add 10% so we have a bit of fat in the estimate”. Contingencies should be divided into two distinct categories of uncertainty or risk, and each category should be considered rationally before deciding on an allowance (past experience is invaluable in this regard): 1. Design and detail development – to allow for lack of detail at sketch plan and estimating stage. This allowance should be high in the early preliminary stages,
S H F BP5 2006
and reduce with each subsequent estimate as more detail becomes available from the design team. Once tenders are in and construction is ready to start, this could be reduced to a very small allowance, unless parts of the design are still incomplete. 2. Building contract contingencies – to allow for real unforeseen expenditures. The circumstances of the project will determine the amount that should be allowed. It should also reduce up to a point, but an amount should remain in place until construction is well underway, or even until the end of construction. How much to allow will depend on the circumstances. It is usual to allow 2.5% to 5% of estimated final building cost for each category (5% to 10% total) in the preliminary estimates, reducing to 1.5% to 2.5% (3% to 5% total) at tender stage, and reduced even more from time to time in cost reports during the construction phase. (For refurbishment and conversion, the initial contingency should be bumped up to at least 15%).
Cost escalations – why an estimate of current construction cost is not good enough
Note: In the discussion below the general situation where an employer or client engages a main contractor for construction work, is described. In the case where the entity acts as the main contractor, it becomes – for purposes of this section – the employer, and contractor then refers to the sub-contractors it employs. Where it acts as main contractor under contract to another organisation, the term contractor below applies to it. The starting point for all construction cost estimates is the day on which the estimate is done. In other words, the rates used are those that apply on that day as if the project could be completed on the same day. This is usually called the “ESTIMATED CURRENT CONSTRUCTION COST”. This is logical because the rates known to us at this stage can only be from current or (recently) past tenders, and not from the future. To estimate only the current building cost is not realistic. Feasibility studies (of which the estimate of construction cost is an important part) first have to be carried out, tender documentation must be prepared, tenders called and adjudicated, plans submitted for scrutiny and permission to start building by the local authority, etc. This can take from four to 12 months, and even longer on large and complex projects. During this time, construction costs will fluctuate in response to both macroeconomic and local construction market factors. Recently, these fluctuations have usually been upwards because of continued inflation, and it is expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. The anticipated future tender price for the work will invariably be higher than the estimated current construction cost, which must therefore be escalated in full for the estimated total planning period, at a projected rate based on construction market trends.
When the economy is booming and there is too much work around. reimburse the contractor for any fluctuations in building costs after acceptance of a tender. In plain language that means they will load their tenders with as little as possible. the contractor allows in his tender for this risk.and post-tender construction cost escalations • Financing cost (interim interest) It is also of benefit to the client if a project can be completed in a shorter period so that it can generate an income stream sooner. and hope to put the screws on their suppliers and sub-contractors (who should be equally hungry for business) to keep their input prices fixed as well. 55 . one must be able to estimate the length of the construction period. The main advantage of fixed-price contracts for the employer. The effects of time on final building costs as outlined above must always be taken into account in building cost estimates. longer than 12 months). The project planning and construction periods (time) have an important effect on time-related cost aspects such as: • Preliminaries (especially salaries. This requires highly specialised knowledge and skill. Smaller contracts are often fixed-price contracts where the contractor accepts full responsibility for any fluctuation in the costs of labour and material. There is no way of knowing how much. in order to be able to estimate preliminaries and escalation costs on a construction project. contractors tend to use the escalation risk as a competitive variable.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Fixed-price contracts A fixed-price contract is one where the contractor accepts full risk for any fluctuation in the costs of labour and material. if any. The employer will not. The time factor From the above it is clear that. plant and other time-related items) • Pre. as found in the competent professional quantity surveyor (QS). When the market is competitive (with many builders chasing little work). the risks for the contractor are great. which can lead to the initial tender price being abnormally high. and the contractor must allow in his tender for any expected fluctuations. therefore. is that the final cost is known with greater certainty from the beginning (making budgeting less risky). on the other hand. Fixed-price contracts can be called for or arranged with a contractor during negotiations. the opposite will be the case. but the employer must bear in mind that if the building period is prolonged (i.e.
or other formal town planning/ legal procedure.S H F BP5 2006 Estimating project planning and construction contract periods The pre-tender project-planning time-line At the time the first cost estimates are done. All or most of the following processes and activities may still need to happen: • Acquire and secure the land (option periods. and call for tenders so that municipal approval and go-ahead to contractor more or less coincide) It is important for the contractor to understand the lead times in the overall development process. namely:– • Architect prepares site development plan. township establishment or rezoning. to enable him/her to provide for cost escalations in estimates. followed by other drawings for municipal submission (two to four months) • Await municipal approval and permission to build – anything from two to four months (during this time the professional team could proceed with preparation of technical and tender documentation. and requires no further formal town planning procedures Activity Define project Identify land Acquire land Market surveys Feasibility Documentation Plan approval Tenders Time in months 1 (to 3?) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 56 . there is much to do before construction work starts. to nine to 24 months for township establishment • If the above is not required (and land is already zoned for the intended purpose) proceed to the next step. A typical time-line for pre-construction project planning where the land is already proclaimed and correctly zoned. registration of transfer in deeds office) – anything from two to six months (during this time preliminary designs and feasibility studies can be done) • If required. including Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to clear obstacles to development – anything from an absolute minimum of six months for rezoning (more likely eight to nine months). offer to purchase or Land Availability Agreement.
The critical-element method for estimating a construction period The most accurate way of estimating construction periods is to measure rough quantities of the critical elements (bulk earthworks. These periods vary considerably according to individual circumstances and the degree of overlapping the developing institution is willing to risk (for instance initiating land acquisition before preliminary studies are complete. basements. and around 20 to 24 months where there are complications involved. rezoning costs. such as rezoning. or could add anything from 12 to 24 months to the normal process in cases where. proceeding with town planning procedures on risk before the property is transferred. and administrative delays in getting Land Availability Agreements set up. preparing full tender documentation before plans are approved). a new estate is to be planned on previously un-proclaimed land. From the above it can be seen that the time between project initiation and having a builder on site is around 12 to 16 months in straightforward cases. say. 57 . etc. professional fees for documentation. the availability of money to fund land acquisition. Township establishment could take slightly longer than rezoning in simple cases (single piece of land owned by council).) and then to draw up a bar chart or critical path programme by calculating the duration of each critical activity according to its quantity and typical production rates. but requires rezoning: Activity Define project Identify land Acquire land Rezone land Market surveys Feasibility Documentation Plan approval Tenders Time in months 1(to 3?) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9-16 17 18 19 20 21 22 The above are indications only. Real times will be affected by the degree to which the developing institution is willing to take the risks involved in overlapping some activities. This is because new land-use layouts have to be prepared and submitted to several government departments for input. concrete and steel structures.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT A typical time-line for pre-construction project planning where the land is already proclaimed.
The method is to first estimate the time needed for the structure. where activities are set out on an inverted “tree”. It is based on the observation that the concrete frame in the case of multi-storey buildings. and the walls. specifications. weekly and monthly basis • To show the times available for activities so that output rates for labour and plant can be determined and resources allocated • To provide a measuring tool for monitoring progress • To provide a tool for estimating cash-flow projections and financing requirements 58 . and the smallest parts of its components. This includes a close study of all the contract documents – such as drawings. where each lower level of branches represents more detailed breakdowns of clusters of activities. and then to add time for start-up and finishing off respectively. and a quicker method is required. Each activity or job is then planned while taking into account the materials required. A simplified version of the critical-element method is therefore the most appropriate estimating tool. slabs and roofs in the case of. Purpose of the building programme The building programme reflects the agreed sequence and duration of construction activities on a particular project. say. In project management. the term Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is used. Planning and programming of the works Work or production planning Production planning starts with analysis of the works.S H F BP5 2006 This would be far too time-consuming at the time of estimating. All the main activities are then scheduled in logical sequence on a building or works programme. The purposes of a building programme include: • To provide a timetable for co-ordinating the following: • The issuing of drawings and other information needed for construction • The placing of orders and drawing up of delivery schedules for materials • The work of sub-contractors • Hiring and/or bringing onto site plant and equipment • To show the logical sequence of operations so that work can be planned on a daily. conditions of contract – so that all activities and important conditions and prescriptions that influence the method of execution can be noted. walk-ups are usually the main critical elements. bills of quantities. and the resources of labour and plant required and available.
For the main or master programme.3 Brickwork On larger projects.1 Excavations • 4. activities are reflected in broad categories.2 Concrete • 4. for example: 1. will be prepared for internal use. and how changes in the duration and/or sequence of activities in the process impact on each other and the completion date. to complex computerised network techniques. a more detailed sub-programme for each major activity. such as structural concrete.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Programming techniques and tools Programming tools vary from simple charts where activities are listed in sequence from top to bottom along the vertical axis. Setting out the works 4. from clearing of site and site establishment to final inspections and hand-overs. Foundations: • 4. 59 . Programming requires a good understanding of the construction process. with activities listed in sequence on the vertical axis. and the time bars for each activity correctly positioned in accordance with the horizontal time scale (including overlap of activities where appropriate) Example Prepare a list of activities: The list should include all activities. Bar charts or Gantt charts The usual procedure for preparing a bar chart is to: • Prepare a list of discrete activities in the most logical sequence • Estimate the time and resources needed for each activity • Draw a horizontal bar on a time-scale for each activity. Site establishment 3. and the time an activity takes and where it belongs in the sequence are depicted graphically by lines or bars on the horizontal axis time-scale (bar chart or Gantt chart). Site clearance and levelling 2. with the length of the bar representing the time on the scale in days or weeks • Plot the bars for all the activities on a chart.
Put a brief description of each activity here Put the time it will take to complete each activity here. Note who is resposible for the activity in this column Activity No Description Duration (days) Responsibility To assist you. while the unshaded ones represent actions the contractor undertakes in the “background” as part of internal management of the contract: 60 . excluding weekends & holidays.S H F BP5 2006 Activity lists are drawn up as follows: Number each activity in batches of 10’s if the order of activities is not perfect it can be corrected later. Work only on working days to start with. the following list of typical activities on a residential building project is given. The activities in the shaded blocks are normally included in the building programme.
inspection. major plant and materials stockpiles • Order items with long delivery lead times. etc. NHBRC and bank inspectors. bills of quantities. including: • pointing out boundary pegs and benchmarks and encase them in concrete • providing sets of documentation (drawings. building • manholes • Chasing for pipes. coordinating their work. taps. for example: • Bricks • Door and window frames • Master keyed locks • Sign contracts with sub-contractors (plumber. weeds. in walls • Building in water pipes and electrical conducting • Final connections. and monitoring for proper execution Demolitions: • Demolition of old structures that will not be re-used • Obtain demolition permits from local authority Existing services: • Disconnection/sealing off/removal of existing drains. contract) • agreeing format and schedule of site meetings “Background” planning and management activities Contractor’s construction planning • Allocate resources • Prepare building programme and cash flow Construction phase Ongoing activities by contractor during construction: • Coordinating services with building work. water pipes. electrician.) and provide them with plans and work programme • Get kitchen layout from owner/architect and place provisional order • Arrange compaction tests for fill and layer work Cut and fill to levels (oversite excavation or bulk earthworks) Set out foundations Excavate foundations to correct levels • Order steel reinforcing if required • Arrange inspection of excavations by municipal. distribution boards for the above • Placing of site facilities.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT List of typical actions involved in the erection of a residential building After signing of contract. cables that will not be re-used Site clearance and levelling. including: • Clearing site of vegetation (grass. including: • Fix reinforcing steel cages • Erect shutters • Pour concrete • Arrange inspection of steel by inspectors and engineer as applicable • Arrange inspection of steel by engineer 61 . backfilling and impaction of trenches. and architect or engineer as applicable • Arrange delivery of concrete Place reinforcement in strip footings and structural column bases where applicable Concrete foundations Erect first lift (ground to 1st floor) of structural concrete columns and walls as applicable. including: • Fencing of the site • Arrange with local authority for temporary water and power connections and pay deposits • Arrange with plumber and electrician for installing temporary pipes. tests and inspections • Ordering materials timeously • Ensuring that sub-contractors and specialists are provided with information. etc. but before starting construction Programmable construction activities Formal handing-over of site to contractor. such as: • Excavating for sewer and water pipes • Electrical cables. shrubs) and rubble • Tree felling Site establishment.
compaction tests if required If load-bearing brick structure with slabs resting on walls) – Build ground floor superstructure walls to wall plate height for single-storey. etc. and do glazing and hanging of doors only after plastering and ceilings to avoid risk of damage 62 . or • Placing bearing surface joint material for slabs (malthoid and polystyrene) • Arrange inspection of DPC as applicable (If multi-storey framed structure with infill brickwork) – Erect first floor slab. including: • Filling under floors • Soil poisoning • Laying damp course membrane under floors • Arranging plumber and electrician to lay pipes and conduits under floors • Arranging and casting concrete in surface beds • Striking and curing of surface beds • Arrange inspection of filling. lintels. • Pouring concrete Formwork can usually be stripped after 10-14 days with some props staying in place a little longer to allow building work to continue under the slab • Arrange delivery of steel reinforcing • Arrange delivery of concrete • Arrange inspection of steel by engineer Ground floor infill brickwork (Followed by subsequent slabs and infill brickwork at the different levels as applicable) Roof structure. glazing • Instal ceilings only after plastering. or making on site and erecting roof trusses. (Remember bracing) Build gables and beamfilling Lay roof covering and bed on walls. brick reinforcing. lintels. conduits and fit sleeves. purlins/tiling battens. conduits. wall ties. including plastic underlay as required Instal window sills (remember DPC) Plaster walls and screed floors Instal ceilings Glaze windows Fit window handles. or underside of first slab for multi-storey. etc. etc. catches. built-in cupboards. arrange for specialists to measure for kitchen units. etc. including: • Ordering. including: • Laying damp course under walls and setting up door frames • Working out the brickwork gauge (heights of courses. cills. roof ties. wall plates. pipes. etc. and service Hang doors and fit locks (UNIT CAN NOW BE LOCKED) • After plastering. as the work proceeds • Treating and bedding wall plates. including: • Erecting support work for decking (formwork) • Decking • Fixing steel reinforcing • Arranging plumber and electrician to lay pipes.S H F BP5 2006 Surface beds/ground floor slabs.) and setting up profiles • Setting up and building in windows.
it does not necessarily mean that 30 cubic metres can be done in the same time if 30 workers are simultaneously excavating soil. kitchen. it would be pointless having more than two such workers on site while concrete work is being done. how many teams can practically be working on a limited site at any one time. If the contractor owns one concrete mixer with a maximum daily yield or output of. and are usually programmed as a long bar starting at the earliest practical date and ending with completion of the project Estimating duration and resources needed for each activity This can be quite difficult on large or complex projects such as multi-storey buildings. etc. More workers will be required to transport raw materials from the stockpiles to the place of mixing. snagging. etc. and it takes one worker 0. Plumbing 2nd fix (installing fittings) Electrical 2nd fix (wiring. or will the contractor have to retrench workers). rubble removal. 32m3. If one worker takes three hours to excavate by hand one cubic metre of soil. vinyl flooring. Final paint coats Lay carpets. • Practical completion inspection and snag list by architect • Final inspections and issuing of occupation certificate by municipality NOTE: External works like driveways and walkways. gardening. 63 . There are many practical aspects to consider – what is the optimum size of a team doing excavations that will facilitate adequate supervision and control over productivity and quality. say. skirtings. etc. what to do with surplus workers once a certain task is completed (can they be absorbed into other subsequent activities.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Start paint undercoats Finishing.) Fix wall and floor tiles Plumbing final fix of fittings. towel rails. Although the science of work study provides us with typical or average output rates for labour (labour constants or time it takes for one worker to complete a certain task) and plant (cubic metres of soil that can be excavated by an excavator in an hour or a day). etc. including: • Installing cupboards. Are carried out continuously as and when possible. curtain rails. toilet paper holders. and testing power Snagging inspection Cleaning. it remains to apply that information in a sensible manner. paving. Electrical final fix . fittings.5 hours to place and level a cubic metre of concrete (maximum output of 16m3 in an eight-hour day). how many suitably skilled workers are available to the contractor. taps.Hanging light fittings. etc. and to transport the mixed concrete to the works. to operate and clean the mixer. etc.
we often have to apply adjustment factors or multipliers to the averages to account for specific circumstances such as: • Site gradient. as compared with bases or slabs • Climatic conditions – work is more sluggish early on cold Highveld winter mornings. It is quite a complicated process. each project and each site is different. and should not be attempted the first time without help from an experienced construction manager or works foreman. In certain parts of the country strong winds can have a real impact on resources at certain times of the year (requiring for instance more workers than normal to safely carry items such as roof sheets or ceiling boards) The completed list could look as follows: Activity No 010 020 030 040 050 060 070 080 090 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Description Setting out Excavate foundations Foundations Plinth Brick/Block work Plumbing -1st Fit Electrical . Economic periods for each activity or operation are calculated to fit within the overall time allowed for the project. Consultation with specialists such as formwork erectors should also form part of this process. to ensure that everyone is kept busy for optimum productivity on the day. or in the heat of noon at mid-summer. Although work study (based on scientific and published research and/or our own observations and records) provides us with average output rates.1 Fit st Duration (days) 1 1 2 2 1 1 9 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 2 4 7(split) 1 1 Responsibility Site foreman Specialist sub-contractors Specialist sub-contractors Brick layer Plumber Electrician Brick layer Brick layer Brick layer Carpenter Roofer Plasterer Plumber Electrician Plasterer/Painter Carpenter Various Various Various Site foreman Brick/Block work Fitting of frames Fixing of ties Roof timbers Roofing Beam fill Plumbing 2nd Fix Electrical 2nd Fix Wall finishing Fitting doors & glass Finishing Inspectionss Connections Hand over 64 . size and shape – it takes longer to transport materials by barrow on steeper sites. and as in cost estimating. Confined sites limit the number of plant and workers that can work simultaneously on a task or on different tasks • Nature of the work – it takes longer to place concrete in slender elements such as columns. This is commonly referred to as Resource levelling.S H F BP5 2006 The calculation of resources for the whole operation would find the right balance between the potential output of the machine and the amount and different categories of workers required.
overlapping where appropriate: ID Task Name Start Finish Duration 8 Jan 15 Jan 22 Jan 29 Jan 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 Feb 8 9 12 Feb 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Setting out Excavate foundations Foundations Plinth Brick/ Block work Plumbing -1st Fit Electrical .1st Fit Brick/Block work Fitting of frames Fixing of ties Roof timbers Roofing Beam fill Plumbing 2nd Fix Electrical 2nd Fix Wall finishing Fitting doors & glass Finishing Inspectionss Occupation certificate Hand over 12 Jan 12 Jan 12 Jan 16 Jan 18 Jan 18 Jan 19 Jan 25 Jan 26 Jan 30 Jan 1 Feb 3 Feb 7 Feb 8 Feb 8 Feb 13 Feb 12 Jan 12 Jan 13 Jan 17 Jan 18 Jan 18 Jan 27 Jan 26 Jan 26 Jan 31 Jan 2 Feb 4 Feb 8 Feb 9 Feb 13 Feb 14 Feb 1d 1d 2d 2d 1d 1d 1w 2d 2d 1d 2d 2d 2d 2d 2d 4d 2d 17 18 19 20 13 Feb 12 Jan 17 Feb 20 Feb 16 Feb 17 Feb 18 Feb 20 Feb 4d 5w 2d 1d 1d 65 . the bars are plotted in their correct positions on the horizontal time-scale.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Bars that represent the duration of activities or tasks are now drawn to scale on a chart: ID Task Name Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Start Finish Duration 22 23 20 Nov 24 25 26 27 28 27 Nov 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 Dec 7 8 9 10 11 12 11 Dec 13 14 15 16 1 2 3 4 5 22 Nov 22 Nov 22 Nov 22 Nov 22 Nov 22 Nov 22 Nov 22 Nov 22 Nov 22 Nov 1d 1d 1d 1d 1d Next.
This leaves 40 weeks. 66 . Visio. Some expertise and training in the use of the software. Eight weeks is subtracted for one complete unit. Network programming Network programming includes methods such as Critical Path method (CPM). The principle is simple: subtract the time it takes to complete one unit from the total time available and divide the remaining time into the total number of units. However. and that divided into 80 units is 2 hand-overs per week. A note on “fast tracking” the construction process Deliverables from a phase are usually approved before work starts on the next phase. that two glaziers are required all the time to produce two houses a week. 12 houses are ready. However. Speed is seldom a worthwhile substitute for quality. If. The basic principle underlying all of these is recognising the interdependence between activities. in particular. which adds to the risk.S H F BP5 2006 Line of balance (LOB) programming LOB programming can be a useful tool for repetitive production processes such as multiple-unit house building. and then to bring in six glaziers to finish all 12 in two days. This information can be used to plan materials delivery and labour take-on. or Primavera). and Project Evaluation Review Technique (PERT). Example: Eighty units must be completed in one year (48 working weeks). The above is an average production rate. If an LOB calculation shows. a subsequent phase is sometimes begun before the deliverables of the previous phase are approved. then it can be calculated that four such teams will be needed on site for the bulk of the time to meet the required hand-over rate. Fast tracking has been the cause of much unsatisfactory work on some projects. This gives the rate at which units must be completed and handed over. Project managers. to push ahead on the completed shells until. are required. and in planning the work production rates for different trades may be staggered to produce orderly completion and hand-over in batches or phases. and the effects of delays in one activity on linked activities and the overall completion date immediately show up. it is better. inserting unrealisable lead times in construction programmes in the interest of fast tracking has caused several disasters in recent years. tend to use this term to impress developers with what can be achieved by fast tracking. a bricklaying team (bricklayer and two helpers) can do all the brickwork on a unit in two weeks. say. network programming is a tedious and complex exercise. for instance. for instance. Without the appropriate computer software programmes (for example Microsoft Project. which cannot be imparted through a manual of this nature. rather than continuously glazing. This practice of overlapping phases is called fast tracking.
as the project progresses. plaster needs to dry before painting. and screeds need to dry out before floor finishes can be laid. Ceramic cladding tends to come adrift if applied too early or under unfavourable conditions. Props supporting formwork to slabs overhead cannot be summarily removed early because other trades wish to work on unencumbered floors. and this should be factored into any programme. higher towards the middle. allowing the individual lead times of building materials to be achieved without delays in overall programming. At the start of the project: • the probability of successfully completing the project is the lowest • the risk and uncertainty is the highest • the ability of stakeholders to influence the final characteristics of the project product is the highest The probability of success generally increases. the ongoing sagging may buckle frames and crack glass. concrete still needs a certain minimum number of days to achieve the desired design strengths. for instance. On projects where several separate buildings are undertaken simultaneously. Structures move and change shape (shrink and settle) while drying out. and if windows are. and drop rapidly as the project draws to a conclusion. 67 . built in hard up against the soffits of slabs before they have properly settled. while the ability of stakeholders to influence the final outcome of the project decreases. Shrinkages in exposed brickwork tend to vary seasonally. fast tracking is actually no more than common sense work planning as certain processes can be rotated on site. however.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Despite several advances in the chemical composition of a number of wet materials. The figure below shows a generic project life cycle (there is also the so-called S-curve for expenditure on a project): Cost and staffing level Initial phase Intermediate phases Final phase Start Time Finish Cost and staffing levels are low at the start.
Check that insurances are in place This is vital. and no one should be allowed to set foot on site if all the insurances are not in place. At completion. the municipality will not issue an occupation certificate. If this has not been done.S H F BP5 2006 Ensuring the essentials are in place Check that all local authority approvals are in place Before any construction commences. weather. serious fines and other legal problems and delays could be encountered. The latter must be on site at all times for reference by inspecting authorities. usually at the site hand-over meeting. and responsible for everything that happens on it. the entity must ensure that all town planning and building approvals have been complied with to the satisfaction of the Local Municipality. fire and the like • Workmen’s compensation or death or injury of the contractor’s workers • Third party or public liability cover for death or injury to the person of. or the finished building has not been “passed” by the municipal inspectors. passers-by and the general public 68 . and a drawing register must list all drawings received on site by date and number or revision number. A master set is held in safekeeping as part of the contract documents. From site hand-over. covering loss or damage to materials on site and the permanent structures due to theft. so the architect and engineers can always check that the latest revisions of drawings are on site. The builder also receives a copy of the signed originals and of the approved building plans. and not only will fines be incurred. if plans have still not been approved. must be obtained. Permission to close off parts of streets and use pavements may sometimes have to be obtained on tight inner city sites (and deposits are then payable to cover any possible damage to paving and kerbs. accidents. vandalism. Drawings must be stamped “For construction purposes”. The basic insurances required are normally covered by a so-called Contractor’s All Risk (CAR) policy. the contractor is in control of the site. Check that you are working off latest drawings Sets of construction drawings. This includes: • Insurance of the “works”. parking meters and the like). or damage to the property of visitors to the site. It is then illegal to occupy the building. storms and floods. stating that the site is vermin-free. Permits are also required for demolition of old structures on the site. and after demolition clearance certificates. but there will be serious insurance implications for the owner should anything happen to either the building or the occupants. finishing schedules and other contract documents are formally handed to the contractor.
it is necessary to take out Removal of Lateral Support insurance. In some instances. In addition the contractor must ensure that all his plant and equipment are adequately insured. and note and take photographs of all existing cracks and subsidence to avoid arguments later. or cutting down levels on steep sites). In such cases it is also prudent to inspect adjacent buildings together with their owners. where deep excavations close to site boundaries are required (for example. basements. 69 .G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Problems caused by political unrest are covered by policies issued by the South African Special Risks Insurance Association (SASRIA). and there is a potential danger of destabilising existing buildings on adjacent sites.
or construct temporary earth berms or retaining walls out of sand bags • Check for steep banks and unstable slopes that could collapse in heavy rain. Draw up a plan or map of the site showing: • Access and exit points for people and vehicles • Circulation of people. The following can be used as a checklist: General guidelines 1. ablutions. this often means that bulk materials stockpiles are close to the entrance to avoid heavy trucks damaging internal roads. keeping in mind: • Minimising disturbing occupants of completed phases – no-one likes living on a construction site • Risk of damage to roads.S H F BP5 2006 e Executing the work Site layout and organisation There is no standard site lay-out – each site is different and should be planned differently. In practice. materials. Plan where to start with the work and the physical sequence of completion. The aim is to ensure optimum efficiency. If the entity is not going to employ a professional site agent or construction manager (both of whom should know how to do this planning). services and buildings completed or partly completed 3. grade portions of the site affected. and temporary facilities such as stores. hidden corners or places of easy access from adjoining properties 4. Go to another building site where such people are employed and ask them to help you. or when heavy vehicles and plant move nearby • Check for weak points from a site security point of view. sleeping accommodation. electricity) • Position of permanent structures (buildings to be erected). Identify potential problem areas and plan how to deal with them. for example: • Check low areas and impediments to run-off that could cause stormwater ponding and possible flooding. accessibility and co-ordination. The planning of site access and circulation should: • Ensure ease of delivery of materials and avoid multiple handling • Consider probable size. fixed plant (for example. it should at least obtain advice on this aspect. and/or dig channels for run-off. tower cranes and batching plants). drainage. economy and safety by looking at the implications of tidiness. mass and manoeuvrability of delivery trucks. services or buildings. and material stockpiles 2. for example. offices. while sheds for lighter materials are further “inland” 70 . machines and vehicles • Position of temporary service connections (water.
and makes loss control (keeping track of the materials) very difficult • Storage method depends on: • Durability – level of protection required against the elements (cement for instance. distribution boards) are provided by the contractor.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT • Ensure that heavy loads are not trucked over pipelines • Provide. Positioning temporary site services and facilities. increases the risk of breakage or damage. Materials storage and handling: • Multiple handling of materials wastes time and money. should be out of the way so as not to interfere with the works. noise and disturbance • Office for site meetings (and parking for attendees) if possible. and keep in mind possible damage due to overloading beyond designed carrying capacity) • Co-ordinate with traffic authorities with regard to temporary closing of streets and/or pavements where necessary. deformation of window frames when stacked incorrectly or white rust developing on roof sheets stacked tightly together out in the open • Protection required against loss and theft – certain materials are more valuable and easier to steal than others. taps close to mixing platforms. distribution boards close to offices and temporary workshops) • The supervisor’s (site agent’s or contracts manager’s) office should have an optimum balance between best possible views of the whole site and isolation from dust. or unnecessarily expose visitors and their cars to injury or damage • Site accommodation for staff where required (not common in urban areas). for example. ironmongery and fittings. whereas bricks can lie outside • Protection required against damage. and fixed-position plant: • Temporary service connections will usually be provided on the site boundary in positions determined by the municipality. hoists. Decisions must be made about central bulk concrete batching plants against smaller mobile mixers (economy and practicability). grading for drainage and even hard-surfacing permanent roads early on (consider cost implications though. taps. cables. light fittings and the like must always be in locked stores 71 . Ablutions must not be too distant from the works otherwise productivity is compromised • Fixed-position plant must be placed for optimum utility and minimum wastage and re-positioning. Windows. complicate site security) • Make access and circulation routes as permanent and maintenance-free as possible by proper compaction. ramps or conveyors for vertical movement of materials 6. choice between cranes. and positioning these must be co-ordinated for proximity to where they are needed most (for example. must ensure safe and healthy living conditions. needs to be stored in waterproof sheds with good ventilation. The temporary works linking up to the connections (pipes. sanitary fittings. if possible. and hoarding for the safety of people passing by 5. two gates to enable one-way flow of traffic (this does however. doors.
S H F BP5 2006 Site boundary Permanent structure (flats) Temporary steel bridge for moving materials once ver tically hoisted Mechanical hoist Permanent structure (flats) Materials stores & tool sheds (close to entrance & works) brick stockpile sand & stone stockpile Mixing & working area One-way flow Site agent’s office Parking Guard hut Permanent structure Permanent structure (flats) Ablutions Site Boundary In Office site meetings Temporary service connections Street Out Pavement Illustration of site lay-out and establishment 72 .
G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT • Remember completed parts of buildings can be used for stores.) • Design a flow diagram of stock movement and a delivery schedule to ensure enough materials on site at all times and to avoid bottlenecks and delays • Keep site tidy and regularly remove rubble to keep working and movement space clean • Establish gravity feeds whenever possible for bulk aggregates. should be stored in waterproofed sheds Bricks delivered in pallets. cement (silos) and rubbish removal chutes in multi-storey buildings Materials and equipment delivered to site Receipt of Handle Offload Final location in structure Handle Handle Combine materials e. (In one case on a major Eastern Cape project a store was located on the boundary with its back wall forming part of the fence. can be finished quite quickly and used for stores without disturbance • Consider the following factors when placing stores and establishing a materials handling system: • Optimum balance between ease of access for delivery and closeness to point of use • Proper control procedures for receipt and issue of materials and tools • Security – make sure stores cannot be breached unnoticed from the street or from adjoining open spaces. placed close to its end use 73 Handle . Keep this in mind when programming the construction sequence. A few lock-up garages. mix concrete Site pre-assembly at ground level Store Handle Site boundary Cement ineffectively stored. The stores clerk duly cut a hatch in the wall and ran a profitable “sideline” from there.g. for instance.
on the drawings and finishing schedules. therefore. Where the type of material is not specified. and expensive is not always good. Because of time constraints. A comprehensive list should. Always keep a copy of the latest edition of such standard preambles in the office. check with the specifier (usually the architect or engineer). or excessively flaky stone can later result in extra costs because of repairs to cracking concrete and plaster. Most of the major consulting engineering firms have such laboratories in the larger centres 74 . but also quality. This serves as a checklist for planning the purchasing of materials. The types of materials and components that will be required are indicated in the specifications. or there is a discrepancy between any of the above documents. Remember cheap is not always bad. Where large quantities of structural concrete are required (walk-ups and high-rises). incomplete. poor quality in the form of dirty aggregates. high cement demand in mixes etc. Familiarise yourself with the content and meaning of specifications – especially generic or standard “preambles” which are not usually bound in with the tender or contract documents. The document in general use for building works in South Africa is the Standard Preambles for Building Works produced by. and to get your nearest concrete laboratory to do mix designs that will give you the most cost-efficient proportions of cement and aggregates. and ensure all staff involved in construction are familiar with it. and do not substitute these of your own accord. Take cognisance of special prescriptions and specific brand names or product codes specified. and available from. and ensuring that nothing is forgotten which causes delays. it is prudent to collect samples of aggregates from different sources in the area. try to select the best quality brand compatible with budget constraints. that list is often. Some main items where the make and source of supply are usually left to the discretion of the contractor include: • Plaster bricks – Check not only price. and estimating is done on the basis of past prices. be compiled again as soon as practically possible. Where materials are not specifically named. Gauteng. and in the bills of quantities – in that order of precedence. the Association of South African Quantity Surveyors in Midrand. however. poorly graded sand. Excessive breakage and waste due to crumbly bricks often costs more than paying slightly more for a harder brick and reliable supply • Aggregates (sand and stone) – Again.S H F BP5 2006 Materials supply and management Before buying … Select and draw up a list of materials that need to be purchased A list is drawn up at estimating stage for the purpose of obtaining quotes. and only included by reference.
with many players entering and leaving all the time.5 mm “Fullhard” for our purposes • Cement – Making cement is a capital-intensive business. light fittings and paint products. Anyone with a shed and a welder can make windows. experience shows that one of the most common complaints from occupants of low-cost houses is that windows won’t close properly because of poor quality fittings. In other instances. The furniture on steel windows (handles and stays) is usually of poor quality unless a better quality is specifically called for. Also ensure your supplier stores timber under a roof or otherwise protected against rain and sun • Roof sheeting – Rolling profiled roof sheeting from coil (flat sheet produced by the national producer of steel) is fairly straightforward and there should be no real problems with quality. especially those that cater for the general public on a cash and carry basis. steel door frames and windows. Visual checking for defects at delivery is very important.6 mm or 0. taps and mixers. Ensure that you buy the correct thickness or gauge. This is especially true of items such as external batten doors. but not of a high enough standard for quality housing. Many of these cheap brands do not comply with the specifications of formal building projects. Pressed steel door frames are often of the so-called “knock-down” type.35 mm thick these days (used on RDP housing). the soundness of their welds. door locks and general ironmongery. The only problem is price monopolies Read item descriptions and the standard preambles that apply to that particular type of item very carefully. Off-the-shelf sheeting is often only 0. whereas the standard product on most shelves only has a 3 mm or maybe a 4 mm-thick panel.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT • Steel windows and door frames – This is a cut-throat business. usually stock the cheapest (and sometimes the “nastiest”) brands – often the result of import dumping. the standard stock carried by suppliers is perfectly good for its intended purpose. made of very thin material. and consequently there are no fly-by-nights in this industry. but the trueness of their jigs. An example is where a project specification calls for 6 mm thick panels on the back of flush-back wooden doors (more resistant to puncturing by children or vandals). When lengths are cut shorter in the shop. roof sheeting. Deal with suppliers who have a good reputation – there are enough of them around in all urban areas to ensure competitive pricing • Roof and other timber – Timber sold commercially has its grade stamped on the end of each length. the grade stamp may be lost. and although it may seem like a small thing. 75 . including potential future maintenance problems. Suppliers. and the quality of hinges (brass pins preferred to mild steel) and fittings will determine the level of problems during installation and glazing. but it is not advisable to go less than 0.45 mm or even 0. and with very flimsily assembled corners.
Also remember that when quantity surveyors compile bills of quantities. without any further screed. This is to allow for the bottom of the frame to be embedded in the floor screed or topping. cement and aggregates. opening sash hinges fixed sash opening sash opening to right fixed sash • plan • right-hand opening • elevation facing window from outside Remember door frames are left or right “hand”. a special “no-screed” frame which is shorter must be ordered otherwise there will be a large gap between the bottom of the door and the floor surface. 76 . When facing the frame standing on the side towards which the door will open. Also check the windows as pictured on the schedules and/or elevations against the product codes and sizes in standard window catalogues available from most suppliers. and it is up to the contractor to make allowances for waste and other causes of shrinkage as set out below. There could have been changes on the drawings between the time the quantity surveyor measured for the bills. For so-called “French doors” you must also indicate whether the door is opening out or in. that the correct “hand” is stipulated. they measure off the net sizes as shown on the drawings. Check numbers given on window schedules against the layout plans and clear up any discrepancies before ordering. and the issuing of construction drawings.S H F BP5 2006 Determine the quantities of materials needed A warning about bills of quantities On projects where an external quantity surveyor has provided bills of quantities. as the hinges will be different. Where the concrete surface bed or floor slab is simply going to be floated smooth. Pressed steel door frames are made 50mm longer than final door size. but final orders to purchase should never be based on such bills of quantities. The contractor should always do his own count and measure off the most up-to-date drawings issued for construction purposes before ordering. the quantities are used to ask suppliers to reserve approximate quantities of bulk items such as bricks. Quantifying by counting Some components such as windows have an exact number and are easily quantifiable by means of simple counting. Ensure where windows have opening sections on one side only. the hand is indicated by the side of the frame the hinges are on.
Quantifying by measuring and calculating Some materials cannot be quantified by simple counting. sand. The relative quantities for the above mix will therefore. be calculated as follows: • Cement – 1/10th of total volume • Sand – 4/10ths of total volume • Stone – 5/10ths of total volume Likewise. Timber door frames come bare. It does not mean – as many small builders mistakenly believe – one bag of cement to four wheelbarrows of sand and five wheelbarrows of stone. a mortar mix of 1:5 means one part by volume cement and five parts sand. the number of cubic metres of concrete as measured off the drawings will be the “net” (without allowance for waste) minimum quantity of finished product required in accordance with the design (drawings). this measured quantity (in cubic metres) plus an appropriate allowance for waste can then be used for ordering the concrete. stone and water) in the correct ratios. the concrete should consist of one part cement. This quantity of finished concrete must be broken down into its constituent parts (cement.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT hinges hinges hinges • Left hand door ood d rframe nah thgiR • emarf • Right hand door frame • Left-hand hinges • Right-hand • Plan • Elevations facing doors on side where hinges are Pressed steel door frames have hinges welded on and are supplied with lock striking plates. and hinges and striking plates must be purchased separately. The amount of concrete in foundations for instance. A specified mix proportion of 1:4:5 for concrete means that. four parts fine aggregate (sand or crusher run) and five parts coarse aggregate (broken stone or gravel). If readymixed concrete is going to be used. calculated as follows: • Cement – 1/6th of total volume • Sand – 5/6ths of total volume 77 . If concrete is going to be mixed on site. measured by volume. however. must be measured off the drawings first. as indicated by the specified mix proportions.
5 = 750 litres or 0. the smaller particles (cement and sand) fill the voids between the larger ones (stone). and that a 50 kg bag of cement has a volume of 33 litres (0. fill a wheelbarrow. This means the sand will have a loose “fluffed-out” structure with lots of air between the grains. This information can be used for simplified gauging and mixing instructions on site. and we have to make some extra allowances first. lapping and waste In estimating and pricing we make percentage allowances in our rates for bulking. sand and stone than the theoretical quantities. Two bags of cement.033m3). the above quantities would yield less than a cubic metre of mixed concrete. up to 25% of that is air. those allowances must be converted into actual quantities so that enough materials can be ordered to complete the work.S H F BP5 2006 It is convenient to remember that a concrete wheelbarrow carries a volume of 67 litres (0. meaning that effectively there is only 6 x 100/125 = 4. if one cubic metre of 1:4:5 concrete is required. This is caused by moisture in the sand that creates surface tension on the individual grains. To make up for the combined effect of bulking and void filling. but in reality. When the cement.5 wheelbarrows (500/67) However. one would have to order (and mix) the following actual quantities: • Cement – 100 litres x 1. When ordering materials.75m3 78 . sand and stone are mixed together.5 = 150 litres or 4. one would have to order up to 50% more cement. i. So.6m3 • Stone – 500 litres x 1. therefore. Allowing for bulking.5 = 600 litres or 0.8m3 of actual sand. and forces them slightly apart. then the quantities would be as follows: • Cement – 1/10th of 1m3 = 100 litres or 3 bags of cement (100/33) • Sand – 4/10ths of 1m3 = 400 litres or 6 wheelbarrows (400/67) • Stone – 5/10ths of 1m3 = 500 litres or 7. causing the total mixed volume to be less than the sum of the volumes of the separate materials brought to the mix. lapping and wastage of materials.067m3).54 bags • Sand – 400 litres x 1.e. and 15 wheelbarrows make a cubic metre. for 1 m3 of 1:4:5 concrete as in the example above. and the moisture that came with the sand joins the mixing water. The delivered quantity of sand will have an apparent volume as measured by the capacity of the delivery truck (say 6 m3). When water is added in the mixing process this structure collapses as air is forced out. Bulking and void filling by aggregates (Shrinkage in volume from dry materials to wet mixes) Materials such as sand used as aggregate in concrete and mortar will always arrive on site in “bulked” form.
methods of storage. concrete roof tiles. cutting bricks. Lapping also applies to damp proofing membranes in walls and under floors.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Lapping of materials For certain materials there are prescribed laps at end or side joints. this problem has been reduced considerably. such as floor screeds on concrete surface beds (allow 40 mm thickness for a specified 22 mm to 25mm screed). A standard profiled galvanised roof sheet such as IBR or “S-rib” (corrugated sheeting) is 762 mm or 914 mm wide. The above would apply wherever material of a certain specified thickness is applied to a potentially uneven base. transportation on site and handling. the application and subsequent smoothing of plaster. brick reinforcement. Waste is caused by spilling of materials such as during the transportation and placing of concrete. so-called “overbreak” (due to removal of loose stones and soft soil) and partial collapse of sides always occurs. we would multiply the area by 0. and we have to make allowance for certain tolerances in the finished product. stiff soil (free of pebbles. for instance. A certain unavoidable amount of breakage also occurs during delivery and off-loading of bricks. roots and boulders). but with the prescribed side lap the effective cover width would only be 686 mm or 838 mm.025 rather than by 0. but in stony soil. The average thickness of plaster could be well in excess of the specified minimum 12 mm – as much as double that depending on how rough the bricklayers were. To convert the measured square metres of plaster surface area to the amount of mortar required in cubic metres. and the nature of the works and the site. Many items of work have specified nominal or net minimum dimensions. Waste is sometimes inherent in the process (unavoidable but manageable) and not always obvious. During the excavation of foundations in earth. an allowance of around 2. roof sheets and ceiling boards to fit. Waste “Waste” is the loss of material that cannot be re-used. for instance. although with bricks most commonly being delivered in pallets. and off-cuts from standard purchased lengths when cutting timber to design lengths.5% should be enough. It would be prudent to work on a thickness of 25 mm. during transportation by wheelbarrow on steeper slopes than on flat ones. and concrete against excavated or backfilled earth. The percentage to allow for waste on different types of materials depends on many factors such as the quality of supervision and waste management in the organisation.012. tiles. and any other material that needs to be sealed for waterproofing purposes. that allowance may have to be increased to 5% or even 10%. for example roof sheets. There will be more spillage of concrete and mortar. training and discipline of site personnel. processing and fixing in the building. handling. one must allow for the extra material needed to maintain the minimum specified thickness across unevenness in the rough built surface of the wall. resulting in the need to pour an extra amount of concrete to fill the voids. In the plastering of a wall. In clean. mortar droppings during bricklaying. 79 . and how unevenly shaped the bricks were. Waste usually taking place during delivery.
20% for small areas 3. roof purlins. roofing screws. angle grinder cutting discs and saw blades used up on the project • Plastic spacers for wall and floor tiling • Cleaning materials such as “Mortalift” used for cleaning mortar splashes off face-brick work and tiling.5% 10% 5% Compile actual cutting lists and add 5-10% Calculate the number of different actual lengths required and then add 5% for cutting and waste 5-10% Compile actual cutting list and add 2. thinners. adhesives. are the many types of fasteners used in assembling a building – nails. tile battens and trusses made on site Roof sheeting Skirtings Ceiling boards Wall tiling Floor tiling Vinyl flooring and carpet tiles Waste factor 2. brushes that are used up in painting operations • Drill bits. Consumables Materials meant for permanent inclusion in the finished product are shown on the drawings or are described in the specifications and bills of quantities. but not usually found in descriptions or shown on drawings. are classed as consumables. etc. The contractor still must estimate their quantities for inclusion in the estimate or budget. Certain “materials” however.S H F BP5 2006 The following list of waste factors can be viewed as a guide: Material item/component Concrete in foundations Concrete surface beds Concrete slabs. cloth and detergents used for general cleaning of the works 80 . cement slurry or patent products used to provide key or grip between concrete and plaster.5% for spillage 2. brackets and connector plates.5–5% (5-10% in loose or stony soil) Add 10-15 mm to specified thickness to allow for uneven base and add 2. tile grout. bolts.5% 5% large areas. columns and beams Reinforcing mesh in floors and slabs Brick reinforcement DPC in floors DPC in walls Quarry tile or cement cills Fibre-cement cills Timber in brandering for ceilings. Some examples are: • Sanding paper. hoop iron. wire. plugs. and are not shown on any contract documents. nail plugs and anchor bolts. 10% small areas 3. screws. and because they have to be purchased as well.5-5% 10-15% 5-10% 5-10% Materials not shown on the drawings Part of the finished product.5% 12% for large areas.
5 m3.033m3 by volume) In loads of multiples of 1 000 (usually 3 000. wire and bolts from number or m into kg At the end of the quantifying process described above.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Experience will teach what allowances to make for these – in the meantime speak to painters.e. nails. tiling. or in multiples of standard pallet sizes for smaller quantities (again more expensive) Different widths (110 mm. carpenters and others who do the work to get an idea.033 to give number of bags. and mortar into cement and sand (remember bulking and void filling) 4. and replaced out of own funds or insurance payouts when lost or damaged) 7. The units in which materials are purchased. Make allowances for waste and lapping 6. 1. (Remember allowing for side laps and jointing tape in 40 m rolls) In 20 m rolls or strips of 3 m length in widths of 75 mm and 150 mm (strips usually more expensive) In standard lengths from 900 mm to 6. Materials list or schedule of materials The above can be used to draw up basic guidelines for determining quantities of materials. 3 mm Wire = approx. plastering.022 mm. m3 for concrete) 2. Break composite items down into their constituent parts according to prescribed mix proportions. or by cubic metre for smaller quantities. taps and the like (you cannot allow waste for these – every single one purchased must be accounted for. 5 000 or 10 000). 4 m and 6 m. but can be cut to exact quantity required. baths.6 m in increments of 300 mm In kg. 16m/kg. 3 m. for example. namely: 1. Count exact number of components such as doors. Standard roll is 50 kg. 2 m. locks. i. Convert quantities into units of purchasing where necessary. 533 mm. Measure quantities of items of “wet” work in normal units of measurement (m2 for brick walls. roof sheeting and ceiling boards 5. Convert the measured quantity of work into an appropriate format for further processing. for instance. 340 mm) in rolls of 40 m In 20 m rolls in widths of 1 m. 4 mm = 10m/kg In lengths corresponding to standard steel window sizes (for example.511 mm) Cement Bricks DPC for walls DPC membrane for under floors. we will have a schedule of materials. and then divide by 20 to give tonnes (Remember 50 kg of cement is 33 litres or 0. plaster from m2 of surface area into m3 of mortar that needs to be mixed (Remember the allowances for tolerances) 3. concrete into cement. Tonnes for larger projects where the cement is delivered to site and stored in bulk in metal silos. (The rate per m3 for smaller than standard tipper truck loads is quite high because of proportionately higher loading and transport costs) 50 kg bags for smaller projects or projects done in phases. cement from m3 into 50 kg bags or tonnes when bought in bulk. 5. 220 mm. windows. and in which they should be furnished in a list of materials. are as follows: Item Sand and stone Unit Truck loads of 5 m3. Draw up actual cutting lists for materials such as roof timber. 1. including cutting lists which can be used for pricing and ordering purposes. To convert divide the m3 of cement calculated by 0. sand and stone. roofs Brick reinforcement Pre-cast concrete lintels Galvanised steel wire (for roof ties) Fibre cement window cills 81 . 6 m3 or 10 m3 for larger quantities.
5 m2 or 2m2. toilet paper holders. or by providing supplier with a copy of the architect’s window schedule for purpose-made windows. nuts and washers Galvanised steel plate connectors. grassing (m2) usually done by supply-and-fit specialists.4 mm thickness. pre-cast walling (m). and aluminium paint for above ground Plumbing and drainage Electrical installation External work 82 . 50 or 100 nails counted off. 1. and end laps where not in single length) Boxes of 100 and 200 In number. (Standard roof tile including allowance for waste is approximately 10. and that this option allows very little tolerance for buildings not being built exactly to designed sizes on site In lengths usually from around 1.8m in 300 mm increments. cover strips) Nails Bolts. anchoring lugs and wood primer for the back Gypsum board in 6. “hurricane” clips. Most hardware and DIY stores sell pre-packed packets of 10. usually starting from 2. Remember spacers. type and quality of window furniture (handles. rails. Fibre cement (for kitchens. stair nosings. edge strips. paving (m2). and panel pins for laying on quarter round beads and the like In kg. Uneven floors need to be made level and smooth first with a self-levelling screed such as “Pavelite” There are a myriad fittings and bits and pieces to buy. bitumen paint for underground portions of steel fence posts.8 m up to 13 m in increments of 300 mm (Remember effective cover width . plugs for fixing Glass for windows Ironmongery and finishing (door locks.S H F BP5 2006 Quarry tiles or cement cill tiles Reinforcing steel Roof timber Timber is bought “sawn” (no planning). In standard lengths (cut to required actual length on site). or rolls 2. Wrought and/or splay cut ends of truss rafters can be done in the shop (at a fee) or on site Timber for finishing and joinery (skirtings. cornices. but smaller quantities can be bought. 4m2/pocket cover rate).8 m to 4.) Best to get hold of manufacturer’s catalogue and technical guide – these have useful information on calculating quantities. The longer the length the higher the price per m. Boards in 900 mm and 1. skirtings. 20. for roofs Roof sheeting Roofing screws Concrete roof tiles In number In lengths for different types and diameters usually cut and bent in the shop according to engineer’s bending schedule 1. or wrought/wrot (planed) on one. solder. Remember SABS codes that require safety glass in glass panel doors and window panes over a certain size In number.8 m up to 4. Remember steel cut nails or plugs and screws for fixing.8 m in increments of 300 mm. Remember that you pay for off-cuts anyway. thread tape. as well as laying instructions In number by type. but this is usually more expensive In kg or in number In number Usually charged per m. Check what comes with screws. otherwise same principles as above apply. according to standard catalogue reference. stays). tile grout in packets of 1. Jointing strips and cornices in various lengths.A.4 m or 3m in 300 mm increments up to 6. Remember to specify the “hands” for opening sections. tile adhesive in 20 kg pockets (approx. and it is best to sit down with the plumber or the sales/ technical person at the specialist shop to work out quantities. “no-screed” frames In number.200 mm widths. When planed on all sides we talk of P . and comes in standard lengths from around 1. and lengths from 1. the windows are delivered to site without furniture (to avoid damage and theft). Remember concrete for fence-post bases. and holder bats for fixing pipes to walls As plumbing above Fencing (m). etc. bathrooms and outside) in 4 mm and 6 mm thickness. putty.75 m wide fixed with tack strips (usually on supply and fit basis by specialist sub-contractors) Vinyl flooring: Tiles in boxes of 1 m2 or rolls 1 m wide.R. two. thickness and type according to the window schedule. and the more the potential for waste due to warping and other defects Or Cut to exact lengths from standard lengths in shop according to cutting list (timber merchants will often draw up the cutting list for you from the drawings as a service). truss hangers. but 3 m is most common In number stating size of pane. Remember to order separately hinges. river sand for bedding of sewer pipes. PVC glue.5 to 11 tiles per m2 depending on slope or pitch. towel rails. three or all sides. (planed all round) timber. Remember adhesive.6 m (finger jointed for longer lengths and more expensive). If windows are ordered from a specialist window manufacturer (recommended).5 kg or 20 kg Carpeting: Tiles of 500x500 mm in boxes of 2 m2 fixed with adhesive.allowing for side laps. and “serviced” just before glazing commences when the supplier comes out to site and fits and adjusts the furniture to the frames Windows Pressed steel door frames Wooden door frames Ceiling boards In number by size of door and width of frame (for half-brick or one-brick wall). Most economical is boxes of 25 kg. curtain rails) Ceramic wall and floor tiles Flooring Usually in boxes of 1 m2. Remember consumables such as hemp. and the burglar proofing. Remember “hands”. lock striking plates.
it is more practical to agree fixed prices for generic items such as cement. discounts and payment terms • Prompt and efficient service • Ability to deliver on time • The ability to source material from elsewhere (in the event of running out of stock) at the same price quoted • After-sales service and technical resources for proper advice and servicing The procedure for buying. Always shop around and negotiate wherever possible. If one is constantly busy with many small projects such as individual dwellings. Remember off-the-shelf prices usually include a general cost allowance for delivery within a certain radius. Regardless of the approach. and then managing the materials supply chain Orders are placed on the basis of the prepared schedule of materials described above. Suppliers are chosen on the following criteria: • Price. There is also the risk of losing out on special offers and discounts on selected products that come along from time to time.5% to 5%. damp course. see if you can negotiate a further discount of around 2. approved at the appropriate level within the company. Orders are then automatically priced at the agreed price until new prices are negotiated in bulk. lintels. regardless of which project they are meant for. say. If one builds one project at a time.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Getting the right price – shopping around The first decision to be made is whether to always price all materials on each new project from scratch. or in the case of additional materials required due to underestimating or shrinkage. the first option is the right one. three to six months. brick reinforcement. or whether to negotiate fixed prices for certain basic and regularly used materials with one or more suppliers valid for a period of. because one does not take the time to shop around and keep an eye on the market. Choose reliable suppliers You will find that certain suppliers consistently beat the others on price. It is good to build relationships with such suppliers. If you are collecting the materials yourself. never accept the first price that comes along. 83 . but never let them think they have you safely “in the bag”. standard sanitary fittings and ironmongery and roof sheeting. on the basis of properly motivated requisitions. The latter approach usually requires big buying power and sharp negotiating skills to be successful. Always keep them on their toes by keeping an eye on the market and letting them know when they are slipping or taking a chance with you. service and quality.
unless approved by a senior person with the necessary powers of authorisation. a note stating that the supplier must await instructions for release. but should at least include a copy to: • file (admin office) • send to the site (usually with prices blanked out because that is confidential information) • send to the contract quantity surveyor if not based at head office 84 . and that they cover all aspects of the deal. It is. The original is sent to the supplier (even if first faxed). Write out by hand or produce computer-generated orders to the selected suppliers for the supply of the materials Remember that a purchase order is an offer to purchase and when accepted by the supplier (usually tacitly by means of actual delivery) constitutes a legally binding contract. important that orders are correctly written out in all respects. quantity and price of the items purchased • applicable discounts (especially settlement discounts) • delivery address and schedule of deliveries (quantities and dates). Such a programme will not allow the generation of orders that exceed the estimated or budgeted quantities and/or prices. therefore. Purchase orders should: • be written or typed on pre-printed company stationery (in the form of computer printouts or a bound book with carbonised tear-out copies) • have sequential serial numbers to avoid fraud and duplication and clearly state the: • description.S H F BP5 2006 The procedure is as follows: 1. with an indication of the first expected release • payment terms Many contractors make use of computer software packages that link the generation of purchase orders to the original estimates. Copies depend on the organisation’s internal administration system. or where quantities and dates are still uncertain.
All costs include delivery and VAT.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Put the name of your entity here Purchase Order Supplier: Order no: Please supply in good condition the following items: Qty Description Cost (Rand) Deliver to Delivery date Stand no: Date: All materials to be supplied to specification. Any variation to materials described and ordered to be authorised prior to delivery. Requested by : Print name Authorised by : Print name Signature Signature 85 .
for example. windows. but is especially important on tight inner city sites where space is limited. multiple handling due to limited storage space. Short deliveries are noted on both contractor and supplier copies of the delivery note • There is no damage to the goods (and contamination of aggregates by excessive organic material). Plan release of orders (delivery schedules) with production team This is done in all cases. Receive and control (check physical goods vs. 3. to ensure: • The correct quantity as stated on the note is delivered. An example is where one places the order for the total number of bricks required (to get best price and ensure your requirement is reserved by the supplier). say. delivery note) It is important that a competent person takes receipt of deliveries to site. 4. 10 000 bricks every third day starting on a particular date. Before paying For all materials supplied. Signed delivery notes must be carefully looked after on site and sent to the office for filing and further processing on a daily basis. the following aspects should receive special attention: • Issue and control • Safe moving of material 5. Storage. Do not get materials delivered to site too soon. but advise the supplier to deliver only.S H F BP5 2006 2. issuing and handling of materials on site Storage facilities must be: • be of a nature that ensures materials are safe and protected • be planned for minimum handling • have easy access • If materials are delivered to the central yard first. the supplier must provide you with the following paperwork: • Written quotation (before ordering) • Delivery note 86 . Also check for excessive breakage of bricks. and white rust on galvanised roof sheets stacked on top of each other. Risks of this include increased likelihood of damage. and that he or she is trained to thoroughly check the physical goods against what is contained in the delivery note. steel reinforcing. and the delivery note should only be signed once this person is satisfied that no further damage occurred during off-loading. Damaged goods are sent back and a note to that effect is made on both the contractor and supplier copies of the delivery note. and distributed from there to individual sites. rusting. and do not accept the broken bricks if there are too many (say more than 2% of total load) – remember you will have to cart it off site as rubble at your own cost later if you do not force the supplier to take it back at the time of delivery The off-loading process must be supervised.
Materials stored at stand no. receipt of which is signed for by the owner (By signing for the receipt of these materials the owner accepts the responsibility of safe guarding the materials against theft or damage) Materials inspected by: Print name Materials inspected by: Print name Signature Signature 87 .: Time: The following items have been received in good condition and order: Qty on order Qty supplied Description of items and remarks Under/over supply Materials stored in yard/store room on site.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Put the name of your entity here Receipt of materials Supplier: Supplier invoice No.: Date: Stand no: Our order No.
the goods are returned. the following steps must be taken: • Reconcile all invoices with original quote. make adjustments as necessary and check that all agreed settlement and other discounts have been allowed Sometimes a problem with materials delivered is not picked up during delivery. and pick up any notes on damaged and returned goods. and the written purchase orders. Ensure credit notes are claimed and payment received. to check that materials of the correct type and quantity. and at the right price are being charged for as quoted and ordered • Reconcile all invoices with delivery notes to ensure that the materials charged have actually been delivered. Materials progressing record Material: Plaster bricks Supplier: Very good bricks Deliveries due according to release schedule: 15 Jan – 10 000 18 Jan – 20 000 25 Jan – 10 000 Total due 40 000 Enquiry date Results First 10 000: 10 000 Promised 17 Jan 4 000 Promised 18 Jan Deliveries Date 17 Jan 19 Jan Qty 6 000 4 000 Left 4 000 0 Order no. and short deliveries. Follow-up Progressing File outstanding requisitions or release orders in delivery date sequence so that each morning deliveries due can be noted. Check further delivery notes to see if the shortfalls were rectified. 6. The supplier is then notified. and action taken if they have not been received by the afternoon. a credit note must be issued. adjust the invoices accordingly • Reconcile the statement with the invoices in the batch. P3/016 Quote ref: P3/BKS/VGB Date: 27 Nov Date: 18 Nov 16 Jan 17 Jan 88 . therefore. A more qualified or senior person may only later notice that the wrong or damaged materials were delivered. and not. and if not immediately replaced.S H F BP5 2006 • Priced invoice for each load or batch of loads • Consolidated statement summarising all invoices for the month (usually for all supplies up to the 25th day of the month) Payment is made according to the statement. but before paying. or adjustment made to invoices and statements before paying. and if not. noted on the delivery slip. Re-file in revised order of promises and keep monitoring.
stocks and usage Deliveries. and the theoretical quantity that should have been used as per the measurement (there is already some cement on site when brickwork starts – left over from concrete work). Fortunately.3% 7. so check the whole site – not only the stockpile). A total of 3 000 bricks are unaccounted for and the cause of this should be investigated. • In the tables below. therefore. In the tender. However. provision was made for 5% waste on brickwork. If observation and checking reveal no obvious signs of excessive breakage during off-loading. reliable suppliers these days often keep track of the movements of their delivery vehicles through tight control of driver logs or even satellite tracking. A check on deliveries shows that 80 000 bricks have been delivered during the month.5% 7. say. A first rough check should be to look around the site to see if there are unusually large piles of broken bricks and rubble lying around. a stock count reveals only 14 000 bricks on site (remember that some bricks may be at different parts of the works already ready for the bricklayers. stocks and usage of basic bulk materials such as aggregates. 60 000 bricks should have been used. bricks and cement should be reconciled regularly so that production is not affected. The reconciliation shows an actual shrinkage of 6 000 bricks or 10%. The reconciliation also serves as a check on losses and waste. At a certain stage.1% Month 2: Monthly reconciliation of materials stocks: Date: 25 April Material Plaster bricks Cement Building sand m3 Quantity used per measurement 20 000 120 14 Opening stock 14 000 20 15 Deliveries during month 10 000 200 18 Closing stock 2 000 90 18 Actual quantity used 22 000 130 15 % Waste 10% 8. the actual quantity used is the total of the opening stock and deliveries for the month minus the closing stock. for instance. the brickwork is measured as being 60% complete. so there should be 20 000 bricks in stock.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Monthly reconciliation of deliveries. and the shrinkage is the difference between the actual quantity used. meaning that a maximum of 63 000 bricks (60 000 plus 5%) should have been used.1% 89 . Month 1: Monthly reconciliation of materials stocks: Date: 25 March Material Plaster bricks (number) Cement (number) Building sand m3 Quantity used per measurement 60 000 360 42 Opening stock 0 200 0 Deliveries during month 80 000 200 60 Closing stock 14 000 20 15 Actual quantity used 66 000 380 45 % Waste 10% 5. then you should keep a closer watch on delivered quantities through periodic spot counts. or wastage on site. Drivers (and transport sub-contractors) often run side operations where some of the materials intended for your side end up being sold along the way.
UIF registration. medical aid. excavate the foundations for one house) for an agreed and set amount of pay 4. and the fact that there are people desperate for employment. This is due to the fluctuating demand for labour on construction projects. insurances. and a range of benefits such as leave. and usually receive no other benefits than their agreed daily wage. Contract workers who are employed for a specific period of time. for example: Cumulative table at end of Month 3: Monthly reconciliation of materials stocks: Date: 25 June Material Plaster bricks Cement no.1% A running tally of the above would show the total cumulative usage and waste figures at the end of each month. Building sand m3 Quantity used per Measurement 100 000 600 70 Opening stock 0 200 0 Total Deliveries to date 110 000 600 78 Closing stock 1 000 160 3 Actual quantity used 109 000 640 75 % Waste Total 9.0% 6. and setting contract conditions for the treatment of workers. training. If employing casual labour is unavoidable. Casuals are recruited by putting up signs advertising work at the site. as well as upon completion of brickwork at the end of Month 3. Task-based (“piece work”) workers who are employed to perform a certain piece of work (for example. Permanently employed registered workers who receive a regular wage or salary. however. and will have very few if any individual workers in its employ. It may wish. or for the duration of a contract 3.S H F BP5 2006 Month 3: Monthly reconciliation of materials stocks: Date: 25 May Material Plaster bricks Cement Building sand m3 Quantity used per Measurement 20 000 120 14 Opening stock 2 000 90 18 Deliveries uring month 20 000 200 0 Closing stock 1 000 160 3 Actual quantity used 21 000 130 15 % Waste 5% 8. or by driving to spots in the city where they are known to congregate in the hope of getting picked up (usually near large building supply stores in areas where a lot of new development and construction is taking place) The issue of casual labour is a contentious one because exploitation and insecurity are rife in the construction industry.1% Management of labour There are basically four types of labour on a construction site: 1. the entity will work almost exclusively with sub-contractors and temporary construction teams. it is up to the conscience of the individual entity acting as employer of such labour to treat workers as fairly as possible Not being an ongoing contracting business in the conventional sense. “Casual” workers who are hired on a daily or weekly basis. to assist its sub-contractors in good labour management.3% 7. 90 .7% 7. through advice. bonuses and trade union membership 2.
and payments should be made electronically by funds transfer. and monitor that these are carried out correctly • Ensure acceptable and agreed standards of quality and workmanship • Ensure that health and safety measures are adhered to • Maintain a sense of urgency. but fair) • Assigning clear responsibilities to supervisors. in line with their experience and ability. and on payday give workers enough time to make cash withdrawals before close of business. All workers should be assisted to open a bank account. incentive schemes. and giving them authority equal to their responsibility • Allocating a manageable number of workers per supervisor • Establishing reporting systems • Organising the workforce at all levels into effective and manageable units. discipline and productivity – this implies the provision of training and mentoring. and inspirational leadership at all levels of supervision and management • Promoting health and safety for workers on site • Clear agreements on targets and outputs. regular and timeous payment • Providing good supervision (firm. 91 . or before going home to areas where there may not be ATMs. Allow time for transfers to go through.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Managing labour on site involves the following aspects: • Fair and equitable treatment and management of labour relations within the framework of the law and the principles contained in the Constitution • Fair pay for the job • Cultivating and maintaining loyalty. and remuneration and benefits • Efficient wage administration – correct processing of wages due. The risk of being robbed is very high. and high activity levels on site • Measure and record outputs (productivity) • Provide someone on site that workers can report to. and follow people to site or to a convenient place for an ambush. clear procedures and rules for activities and conduct on site. including appropriate disciplinary procedures. or lodge complaints and grievances to Supervision can take place at different levels: • Gang leaders supervise teams of workers • Foremen or section foremen supervise gang leaders • Site agents/managers supervise foremen • Contracts managers supervise site agents Note: Payment of wages or salaries Having cash in transit or on site should be avoided. Criminals hang around branches of banks where they know large cash withdrawals are made for wage payments. and ensuring that everyone knows where they fit in Some of the functions of supervision on site are to: • Motivate workers to work efficiently • Give workers clear instructions.
spirit levels. The working life of equipment depends on factors such as: • Temperatures in which they operate (cold starts of machines with internal combustion engines on winter mornings increase wear and tear of engine parts. hammers. and spanners and wrenches • Trowels and floats • A power drill and angle grinder • Profiles and gauging rods. should be kept for larger pieces of equipment and all tools and plant that are operated mechanically. and constructional aids such as formwork and scaffolding The distinction between these types of equipment is important as it affects the contractor’s bookkeeping and accounting. In addition. insurance premiums. Expensive pieces of large plant on a site need to be kept busy continuously with minimum idle time to justify the high rental charges or high annual costs. and licensing fees). and the consumption of lubricants) • Dusty conditions on site that increase abrasion of moving parts 92 . belt sanders and planes • Plant – larger items (usually with an “operator”) such as concrete mixers. building lines • A surveying tool such as a “dumpy level” • A good quality water hose (say 20 mm x 30 m) Some of the above can be sold off to workers or sub-contractors and/or used by maintenance departments after completion of construction activities. and when booked back in again. and a stock count held regularly (especially after completion of each contract). and is used in pricing for tenders. and the many types of power tools such as drills. All tools and equipment owned by the entity must be listed on a register. tools and equipment Equipment used on building sites is usually divided into two distinct categories: • Tools – small hand-held equipment such as trowels. tilecutters. The registers must also note the condition of equipment when booked out. saws. picks and shovels. screw-drivers. and service logs. if owned (depreciation. hammers. If the entity has its own core team of workers doing basic jobs such as digging and concreting foundations. levelling pegs and spirit levels (for levelling concrete) • Pliers. mechanical hoists and tower cranes. dump trucks. maintenance and servicing plans and schedules.S H F BP5 2006 Management of plant. such as: • Picks and shovels • Wheelbarrows • Straight-edges. it will need its own equipment. angle grinders. A separate daily register of tools booked out and received back must be held for each site. mechanical excavators and loaders. resource allocation and planning for execution. finance charges.
G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Put the name of your entity here Issue of tools/equipment on loan Sub-contractor: Date: Stand no: Time: The following items have been received by the sub-contractor. Goods received by the: sub-contractor Print name Signature For the entity: Print name Signature 93 . specifically on loan for a limited time period. in good condition and working order. who hereby agrees that the cost of repair/replacement will be deducted from any payment due to him by the entity. Ownership of these goods remains that of the entity: Qty Description Condition Due return date Any damage (excluding fair ware and tear) or non return of these goods will be for the account of the contractor.
or between sites on the back of a bakkie • Hand-held pneumatic compactors (for example. Unless you have checked their track record and references (including physical visits to projects completed by them). You will be able to see if they have potential. lubrication and servicing • The care with which they are used – avoiding overheating of power tools and engine-driven plant Workers must be trained to feel responsible for equipment. labour-only or supply-and-fit). including planning of the requirements (numbers and skills levels. During this process it is decided which work will be carried out by sub-contractors. training and/or mentoring. Sometimes the sub-contractors may show potential and willingness to learn. rather than to own them. or through the appropriate local community structures. you will have to let them go. a Wacker) or a small mechanical roller or plate compactor (for example. and monitor their performance and capability from the start. plasterers. newspaper advertising. it is usually more cost-effective and less troublesome to hire larger items of plant as and when needed. and to make sure the others comply. Sub-contractors can be identified and invited to tender (or negotiate) through word of mouth. Give them a small part of the work to start with. but will require more guidance. and maintain and oil equipment regularly. carpenters. to clean equipment straight after use. if you are going to do a lot of building it is practical to invest in items such as: • A small concrete mixer that can be easily moved around on site. tilers and plumbers (including sub-contractors) should have their own personal tools. 94 . They might struggle with small aspects of the work that can easily be rectified on the spot with guidance and training from the site supervisor. and props • A brick cutter • Control sheet for issuing tools and equipment on loan to sub-contractors Managing sub-contractors General When planning the execution of the works. It is a good idea to appoint one person to take overall responsibility for accounting for all equipment used by a team every day. However. Unless the entity is going to be building continuously for some time.S H F BP5 2006 • Regular cleaning. a Bomag) • A basic set of scaffolding frames and boards. if not. Skilled workers and artisans such as bricklayers. a resource allocation is done in conjunction with a complete list of activities or operations on the project. billboards at the site. This will ensure they will look after these expensive pieces of equipment. try out new sub-contractors on a probation system.
and requires a high level of capacity and skills (in-house and/or outsourced). This places a heavy burden of risk and co-ordination on the entity as contractor. its willingness to take on the supply of more specialised materials. Labour-only sub-contractors are used for: • Foundations and general non-structural concrete work • Bricklaying • Plastering and screeds • Painting • Tiling • Roofing • Finishing carpentry (fixing skirtings and ironmongery.g. Many of these sub-contractors carry small stocks of the most commonly used fittings. and larger types of plant. and to provide it – this is done by supply-and-fit sub-contractors. electronic funds transfers)) • Dispute-resolution procedures that allow for inexpensive alternatives to litigation and arbitration. fasteners and consumables used in their trade. 95 . such as mediation Labour-only or supply-and-fit sub-contractors Most of the less specialised types of work or trades that make up the shell and basic finishes of the building(s) is done by labour-only sub-contractors. make sure the following is included: • Agreement on price and performance outputs (basis for payment) • Payment frequency and methods (bank accounts and type of payment preferred (e. with the main contractor providing materials. most of the above could also be done on a labour-only basis. hanging doors) With more specialised types of work. it is more practical to allow the sub-contractor to work out the types and quantities of materials required. The work in this category includes: • Plumbing • Electrical work • Glazing • Ceilings • Fencing • Paving • Formwork • Reinforcing steel • Kitchen cupboards and built-in cupboards or wardrobes • Curtain tracks • Access control and security systems • Lifts for multi-storey tower blocks Depending on the entity’s technical expertise.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT When signing sub-contract agreements. and the availability and skill of local labour-only subcontractors.
are: • Agreeing who provides what tools and equipment – it is customary for the subcontractor to provide the personal tools used by artisans such as trowels and floats. building lines. they can often not afford to replace materials that are wasted in the process. so that by the end of the project they own the equipment. tile cutters. but to make the sub-contractor responsible for any excesses payable on materials lost while in their direct care • Agreeing on how to deal with defective work. hammers. Sub-contractors must be held liable for the cost of repairing defective work. saws. with community-based labour teams that intend setting themselves up as sub-contractors). 96 . and damage in handling of materials supplied by the main contractor – it is a good idea to agree on reasonable figures for consumption and waste beforehand. spirit levels. where the entity purchases tools and equipment at the beginning of a project. paint brushes and rollers • Agreeing on how to deal with excessive waste. and some kind of compromise is usually negotiated An agreement can be made with labour-only sub-contractors (or for that matter. chisels and bolsters. and then sells it to the workers on the basis that the cost is recovered through instalments deducted from each progress payment to the worker/s. and to make the sub-contractor responsible for consumption and waste in excess of the agreed figures • Agreeing on how to deal with loss through theft – it is usual to insure against this. The problem is that while they may be able to re-do the work without extra compensation.S H F BP5 2006 Some of the issues that need decisions and management in labour-only sub-contracting.
It is agreed between the sub-contractor and the entity that: • the entity will purchase the required tools /equipment (as described in the schedule below) • the sub-contractor will have use of the tools /equipment as from signature of this agreement • the sub-contractor will be responsible for care. The entity does not have the tools & equipment required to undertake this construction work. maintenance and protection of the equipment from the time of taking possession of it • the sub-contractor will make payment to the entity as described in the payment schedule below. The entity has the skills to undertake this construction work. Agreement of Purchase and Sale of Equipment Sub-contractor/team no: Date: Understanding and agreement: The entity requires certain construction work to be undertaken.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT A Pro Forma agreement is given below. who hereby agrees that cost of repair/replacement will be deducted from any payment due to him by the entity. The entity and the sub-contractor have entered into a separate agreement in which the contractor will undertake the construction work. • once all payments are made as described in the payment schedule below. ownership of the tools /equipment will remain with the entity Schedule of tools/equipment: Qty Description of tools/equipment Rand value Schedule of payment: Payment No Due date Amount Any damage (excluding fair wear and tear) or non-return of these goods will be for the account of the contractor. ownership of the tools/equipment will rest with the sub-contractor • until all payments are received. Goods received by the sub-contractor: Who agrees to the payment schedule For the entity: Print name Signature Print name Signature 97 .
Proper selection. detailing and specification.w. Calling for samples of materials from suppliers and inspecting them for quality before ordering 3.S H F BP5 2006 Quality control Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) is a “science” in its own right. site supervisors must observe the following precautions during the execution of the work: • Compaction of filling under floors Common practice when excavating trenches is to dump the excavated material on the inside of the future room. Maintaining quality on site is the responsibility of the contractor doing the work. including: 1. the NHBRC and financial institutions • The clerk of works (c.o. quality on site can be promoted by following a set of simple steps. incentives and discipline. and contamination of aggregates 2. and many large manufacturing and construction companies have instituted comprehensive Total Quality Management (TQM) systems in their enterprises. selecting (and training. if needed) the right contractor or sub-contractors. and roughly level and compact the total depth in one operation once the foundation walls are built up to surface bed level. The proper method is to place the filling in layers not exceeding 150 mm to 200mm thick. Quality construction starts with correct design.) and/or resident engineer (RE) if one is employed • The National Building Regulations (NBR) authority • Guidelines. followed by diligent monitoring and supervision. institutions and legal and other guidelines assist in what should be a total team effort to ensure acceptable quality: • The professional team – project manager. The following persons. local municipality. Getting bricklayers and plasterers to build samples of work to set an agreed and acceptable standard before the main work starts In addition. dampening and compacting each layer thoroughly before the next layer is placed. architect. This means only the top portion is properly consolidated. consulting engineers • Inspectors from the Provincial Housing Department. standards and codes of practice laid down by the SABS and the NHBRC • Agrément and MANTAG certification of non-conventional building products and systems by Agrément SA For the entity acting as part-time contractor. Regular testing of compaction of filling. a “culture” of quality where everyone is part of the QA team (as occurs in Japanese factories). through a combination of training. The contractor should strive to establish. handling and storage of materials on site to avoid damage to components and articles. spoiling of cement and timber products by water. and subsidence and cracking of floors can occur later. and concrete crushing strength. by making and submitting concrete test cubes to the nearest laboratories 4. 98 .
and especially concrete.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT • Remember to allow mortar in foundation brickwork to set for at least three days before using mechanical compactors. or if showing signs of moisture or hardening in the pockets) • Use mixed concrete or mortar before setting is complete (within two hours of mixing. dry and free of loose bits or dust before applying plastering or screeds. When the brick work over the lintel has dried and settled after a few days. do not function properly as “beams”. and the correct paint systems used (bonding liquid. by wetting with a fine spray or covering with plastic sheeting or wet sacking as soon as the concrete has set (within one to two hours). windy days. or by applying a cement slurry coat or patent plaster key before plastering. give it positive camber (slight upward bending) with a temporary support in the centre. Special care must be taken on very hot and very dry. Do not paint concrete or plastered surfaces too soon after they have been put in place. primer. Smooth concrete surfaces must be roughened by chipping (and then cleaning again). but even then. the support can be removed and the lintel will sag slightly as it takes the full load. knotting. and end up straight rather than slightly sagging. Lintels must have adequate bearing surfaces supporting them on either side of the opening. Plastering of walls should be done when the building has been roofed. • Instal lintels over windows and openings correctly Lintels on their own. some time before plastering. Give brickwork. There should be at least five or six courses of brickwork (preferably reinforced with “brickforce”) over lintels to bond with the lintel into a deep beam. and subsequent loss of strength of the concrete. • Proper surface preparations to receive subsequent work Excavated surfaces of foundation trenches and filling under floors must be compacted and dampened before concrete is placed against it to avoid rapid absorption of water from. hot or windy days) • Do not re-use mortar or concrete that has lost its plasticity by mixing in water again 99 . as for concrete. When a lintel is placed over an opening. undercoats and finishing coats). and then keeping it covered or wetting with a hose three or four times a day. or with only a few courses of brick or block work over them. to allow for the structure to complete its drying shrinkage and settlement processes. as the vibrations may crack the joints and loosen bricks. Brick and concrete surfaces must be thoroughly clean. and will sag. Surfaces to be painted or waterproofed must be cleaned and prepared according to manufacturers’ instructions before painting. • Proper curing of concrete and plastering Large exposed concrete surfaces such as surface beds and slabs must be cured for at least seven days after placing to avoid cracking. sooner on dry. plastering should be cured by dampening with a fine spray. • Mixing and using concrete and mortar on site • Use clean and well-graded aggregates • Use clean water • Do not be tempted to add too much water to get better workability • Use “fresh” cement (discard if older than six weeks.
5 m) • Do not overdo striking off. and that roof structures are adequately braced • Do not hammer roofing screws through corrugated or profiled sheeting. It is part of general discipline that also promotes pride in the work. health and safety Check plasterwork to be plumb with spirit-level 100 . weakening the concrete below. and creating a thin. wet cement-rich layer at the surface that will crack or crumble later) • A few general tips • Check that the setting-out of the works is square and as per the dimensions indicated on the drawings • Constantly check if brickwork and plasterwork is still level and plumb • Keep wet mortar off aluminium frames • Protect wooden frames against bumps and scuffing • Ensure door and window frame lugs. It causes “bleeding” (congregation of lighter cement and mix water on the surface. and that roof anchors are securely built in • Fill solidly with mortar behind steel door frames as the work proceeds • Ensure that roof trusses are installed level. Drill holes first • Protect completed works or partly completed works against damage during further building operations • Keep the site neat and tidy at all times. plumb and at the right centres.S H F BP5 2006 • Be careful of segregation of concrete constituents during transportation (after a very bumpy ride) or placing (pouring from heights of more than 0. quality. trowelling and floating of surface beds and screeds.
and drain and water pipes for leaks under pressure. and factory floors carrying heavy loads Tests are carried out by sonar (sending light dosage radiation into the filling). however.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Required tests. In this case. Both these devices are small enough to be transported on the back of a pick-up truck. and measuring the resistance or refusal level). is always specified by the design engineer to have a specific crushing strength. inspections. and when to have them crushed (usually three sets of three from every pour. or by drilling out cores and having them crushed in the laboratory. No tests are required. or bottom layers of built-up bases under roads and paving • 95% MOD AASHTO for layer work under light. with three cubes crushed after seven days. MPa stands for Mega Pascal. or by penitrometer (knocking a sharp peg into the filling. for example. 1:3:6 concrete. the Portland Cement Institute (PCI) publishes booklets that contain the nominal mix proportions for a range of concrete crushing strengths.to medium-duty roadworks such as in residential projects. approvals and certificates Compulsory tests • Filling compaction tests When the density of compaction of filling over site or under floors. There are various methods these days (old fashioned “mirror” test. 90% or 93% MOD AASHTO” for light-duty applications. the engineer cannot take chances. and the contractor is required to have samples from every major pour tested by a laboratory. tests will have to be carried out by a specialist laboratory to determine whether or not the specified densities have been reached. The PCI booklets mentioned above contain instructions on how to make the test cubes. a device that measures resistance to penetration. paving and roads is stipulated in the specifications by the engineer. on the other hand. A concrete laboratory is able to design mix proportions that give the required strength for aggregates from a particular source. for instance: “Reinforced concrete 25 MPa in columns”. 101 . The strength of hardened concrete that appears suspect can be reasonably accurately tested on site by the “Schmidt Hammer”. meaning if the cement. respectively). and for middle layers in built-up road bases • 98% MOD AASHTO for heavy-duty applications such as the final layers under roadworks. Structural concrete. as for under domestic floors. a commonly used SI unit of pressure. Alternatively. Your plumber should know about these test requirements. • Drains and water pipes Drain pipes are tested for correct falls. 21 days and 28 days. the concrete should have sufficient strength for its intended purpose (there is a substantial safety factor built in to allow for tolerances on site). sand and stone are mixed in those proportions by volume. or more modern laser-based methods). • Concrete strength testing Non-structural concrete such as in domestic strip-foundations and conventional surface beds is usually specified in terms of mix proportions. Densities are usually designated as follows: • 88%.
include: 1. and are prescribed by the SABS codes of practice. There are basically three types of inspections: 1. brick\ blockwork plumb) 5. Filling and services under surface beds 4. Inspections As the work proceeds. Typical aspects that are inspected. Hand-over These internal inspections are done before the inspections by external parties such as the engineer or municipal inspectors. Foundations (before inspections by external parties) 3. or instructions are issued to sub-contractors to rectify mistakes. Internal inspections by the main contractor to check on sub-contractors’ work 2. Inspections by third parties who have an interest. municipality and financial institutions Contractor’s own internal inspections The contractor’s site agent and construction/project manager carries out regular inspections to ensure that sub-contractors and labour are doing their work properly. for example. the provincial and local governments. Quality checks on finishing (plasterwork. Walls and wall ties (building in of windows and door frames. The work done at certain critical stages is either approved. paintwork etc. plumbing. secure 6.) 7. Setting out of the works 2. regular inspections are held by various parties. Roofing – level. roof ties. plumb.S H F BP5 2006 • Tests on the electrical installation Tests on electrical installations are a legal requirement. carpentry. tiling. 102 . Inspections by the professional team employed on the contract 3.
according to the site plan. and was found to be: Date: the contractor has been instrucdted to continue Important remarks Inspection carried out by: Print name Signature For the sub-contractor: Print name Signature 103 . and the site instruction number has been issued to the sub-contractor t ocorrect the error Set out incorrectly to the site plan. however due to the following reasons. and the site instruction number has been issued to the sub-contractor t ocorrect the error Set out in a manner that is not squre and true. Inspection report . Set out correctly to the site plan.: The setting out of unit and foundation on the site.Setting Out Stand no. (name).: Sub-contractor/team no. Set out square and true Set out incorrectly to the site plan. was inspected on (date) by Tick the appropriate box:.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT A pro-forma inspection sheet is given below.
Building control – inspections. and plumbing and drainage before the work is covered up. and are habitable. inspections of certain aspects of the work. or by placing an inspection request slip in a designated box at the municipal building office. and that buildings have been completed in accordance with the approved plans. including scrutiny of building plans. to check that electrical installations are safely wired.S H F BP5 2006 Inspections by the professional team Inspections of the work are carried out regularly (usually just before progress meetings on site) by the professional consultants such as the architect. Municipal inspectors usually need to be called out for the following inspections: • To approve excavations and that the building is correctly set out not to encroach on building lines (and to check if reinforcing steel is in place for areas where it is prescribed because of soil conditions) before concreting • To approve compacted filling before surface beds are poured • To check that Damp Proof Courses (DPC) are in place under walls and window sills • To check that drain pipes are laid properly before they are covered up • At completion. before issuing compliance and occupation certificates It is usual to call out the inspector the day before an inspection is due. Consultants must also be called out to inspect certain specific aspects such as: • Foundation excavations (and reinforcing steel where required) before concreting – by architect and/or engineer • Filling under floors before pouring surface beds • Formwork and reinforcing steel before concreting columns. as well as issuing of electrical compliance and occupation certificates. If there is an engineer working on the project. beams and slabs • The range of inspections at completion and hand-over as described more fully in the section on contract administration The quantity surveyor should also be called to measure up on site the actual quantities of provisionally measured work such as foundation depths. approvals and certificates The National Building Regulations oblige municipal building offices to carry out building control. and rely on his professional responsibility of ensuring the building complies with safety requirements. structural/civil and electrical engineer to monitor quality and ensure that the building is being built in accordance with the drawings and specifications. either by telephone. many municipalities will forego some of the inspections above. 104 .
that organisation will also send out inspectors at regular intervals to monitor the quality and correctness of work. planks with protruding nails) lying around over which workers can trip and fall 105 . checking wiring and plugs on power tools) • Keeping sites tidy – not having dangerous obstacles (sharp pieces or piles of rubble. Anyone acting as a building contractor should obtain and study a copy of OHSA and its regulations. for example. When applications are made for payments.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Other external inspections (funders) Funders such as the Provincial Housing Department (subsidy). In addition. where a project is registered with the National Home Builders Registration Council (NHBRC). dust masks • Maintaining adequate first aid kits. Health and safety Introduction Maintaining health and safety on a building site requires common sense and carefulness. such as: • Worker representation with regard to health and safety matters – written appointment of a democratically elected safety representative where more than 20 persons are employed. the National Housing Finance Corporation (NHFC). among other things: • Direct duties owed by employers to workers such as: • Training • Taking adequate precautionary measures to prevent accidents and to promote safety • Co-operative duties. the institutions will automatically send out their inspectors. The Act lays down guidelines and prescriptions for. and committees where more than one representative is appointed • Employer/employee co-operation and self-regulation • Obligation of the employer to comply with procedures that form part of independent policing function of the Department of Labour Safety and accident prevention – general measures • Issue workers with correct protective clothing – boots and overalls generally. there are statutory requirements in this regard contained mainly in the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA). gloves and goggles for working with power tools such as angle grinders. Act 85 of 1993 and its amendments. and training workers in basic first aid • Regular inspection and servicing of tools and plant (including. In addition. however. and private financial institutions will send out their own inspectors to approve the work done before paying out subsidy tranches or loan draw-downs.
and steep embankments – especially after heavy rains • Collapse/overturning/falling of ladders and scaffolding • Falling bricks and tools from higher floors • Materials dropped from cranes or other lifting devices due to inadequate fastening • Workers falling off roofs.S H F BP5 2006 General signage Signage requirement for protective clothing and accessories • Ensure temporary support works. Common accidents on building sites • Collapse of walls. shattering of grinding discs and breaking off of drill bits when forced) Unsafe scaffolding Workers have proper safety harnesses 106 . are secure and not overloaded. such as scaffolding and props. on steep roof slopes) • Burns and scalds • Electrical shocks • Careless or incorrect use of tools and power tools (for example. for example. and providing responsible supervision • Placement of signage to alert all to possible danger. sides of trenches. Scaffolding next to multi-storey structures must be securely tied back to the permanent structure • Storage and handling of toxic and hazardous substances – providing training in how to handle them. hazardous substances etc. scaffolding and ladders – use proper harnesses when necessary.
and to keep unauthorised persons off the site.optional • Regular liaison and good relations with local police • Regular liaison and good relations with local community structures Contract administration The process After the signing of the building contract. This service can be provided by a professional outfit (which is expensive). contractor’s queries and information needs. This is done formally through a site hand-over meeting. and that all legalities and issues around liability and insurance are dealt with. for instance). Visitor logs should be kept • Hired guards on site (including perimeter patrols at night). boundary pegs and datum level benchmarks are pointed out to the contractor (after which he takes responsibility for their maintenance and protection). the HC must Fenced site ensure the members are properly trained and equipped (with uniforms for recognisability. and are well-lit at night • Armed response service . At this meeting times and agendas for future meetings are usually agreed on. the contractor takes possession of the site for the duration of the contract. quality. etc. In the latter case. and samples of brickwork. or a more sophisticated electronic swipe-card system. or by members of the local community as part of job creation. and parking of plant and equipment where they are visible from site offices and guard huts. Remember that the private security industry is regulated • Placing of materials stores. variations required by the employer. There are also procedures for claims from the contractor. interim progress payments to be made to the contractor. fortnightly or monthly) site meetings where progress. The usual measures are a combination of the following (minimum requirements are highlighted in bold): • Fencing and access control. are monitored and discussed in order to facilitate the smooth running of the project. Standard procedures for contract administration include holding regular (weekly. etc. Security is required to prevent theft and vandalism. It can be quite a costly item. and measures must be constantly monitored for both functional effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. which can be a simple gate pass system. 107 .G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Security Site security is an important aspect of risk management on building sites. and for practical and final completion of the contract. are asked for to set acceptable standards.
sub-contractors and suppliers • Co-ordinating sub-contract works In some cases.S H F BP5 2006 In cases where the entity acts as client/employer/developer. and relaying information from the employer and his agents to site staff. Most of the guidelines and prescriptions referring to the architect below will apply to the contractor. In summary. the role of the professional team is limited to design only. and references to the contractor will apply mainly to sub-contractors working for the entity. Works and Final Completion procedures (inspections. etc. the following aspects are managed: • Site hand-over to contractor • Regular progress and other project meetings • Regular monitoring of: • Quality • Progress • Contractor’s resources on site (personnel and plant) • Daily activities and incidents (site diary kept by contractor) • Record of rainfall and bad weather conditions • Management of: • Instructions (especially site instructions vs. or are not well understood: • Delays and extension of time • Retentions/performance guarantees • Breach of contract/non-performance • Insolvency • Ownership of materials paid for • Practical completion/beneficial occupation • Patent/latent defects • Contractors’ claims 108 . and perhaps limited supervision. pricing of variations. with the contractor responsible for: • Hosting site meetings • Providing assistance to the professional team in monitoring.) • Documentation management Particular attention should be paid to the following areas of contract administration. handovers. the entity acting as main contractor will take on much of the contract administration. variations) • Contractor’s claims (extras and delays) • Interim. project cash flow forecasting • Providing information required for monitoring progress • Maintaining drawing registers and site instruction books. a defects list. which often present problems. Practical. the principal agent or project manager working as its agent runs the contract administration. In such cases. measurement.
and a works completion list • The building is occupied • The contractor attends to the items on the works completion list and calls for another inspection • If the architect is satisfied that only insubstantial defects remain. • All material and component warranties and guarantees obtained from suppliers and sub-contractors by the main contractor are ceded and handed to the employer Defects liability/maintenance periods The period between the first and second hand-overs (practical completion and final completion. and calls for a final inspection at the end of the period • If the architect is satisfied. and all outstanding monies are paid out to the contractor and guarantees released • The contractor remains liable for latent defects for five years (10 years on government contracts) Project close-out Apart from the contract procedures above. or between works completion and final completion in the case of JBCC contracts) is called the maintenance. or retention. It usually is from one to three months for building work. respectively. from the municipality and hands them to the employer • The design consultants prepare and hand to the employer “as built” drawings for future use in maintenance. 109 . the following should happen at the end of a building project: • The contractor and/or architect obtains certificates of electrical compliance and occupation. during which retention monies are held back or construction guarantees remain in force) • The contractor rectifies the items on the final completion list.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Contract completion and hand-over Standard building contracts are based on the following procedure: • The contractor notifies the architect that the work is ready for occupation • The architect carries out an inspection and draws up a list of incomplete and/or unacceptable work (“snag list”) • The contractor rectifies the items and calls for another inspection • If he is satisfied that the building is fit for occupation. (The defects maintenance or retention period of 90 days now starts. he or she issues a final completion certificate. he issues a works completion certificate and a final completion list. the architect will issue a certificate of practical completion. as well as any new latent defects that may appear during this period. or latent defects liability period. etc. The length of this period can vary according to the type of contract. and 12 months for certain (mechanical) services and civil contracts.
the project budget or cost base line 110 . Clients should be made aware that damage they cause during this period (for example. Without these. etc. Contractor(s) are. This responsibility is extended to a period of five years after final completion by contracts such as the JBCC. when moving in furniture or equipment or operations) does not qualify for free repair by the contractors. materials. difficult to estimate and require special skill and discipline to manage or control. i.e. and involves many parties and uncertainties in its execution. to ensure smooth continuous operations by the client. materials) and what quantities of each should be used to perform project activities • Cost estimating: Developing and approximation (estimation) of the monetary costs of the resources needed to complete project activities • Cost budgeting: Allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items. Construction cost management Cost-management processes The construction process happens over relatively drawn-out periods. Conclusion The above is only a brief summary of the activities during the execution/construction phase of a project. Construction costs are. Construction-cost management starts with proper estimating and budgeting. and controlling changes to. co-operation and trust between persons and parties. defects which could not be detected by a reasonable inspection by a reasonable person at the time. Noncritical items are noted for repair/replacement at the end of this period. systems. equipment. controlling and reporting right through to project completion or phase-out. Any deficiencies in supplied equipment. Cost management involves the following major processes • Resource planning: Determining what resources (people. and NHBRC enrolment. even when the most sophisticated techniques are used. The key factors for project success remain leadership. and thereafter depends on regular and diligent monitoring. after this period. only responsible for latent (hidden) defects. workmanship.S H F BP5 2006 The purpose of this period is to “test” the facilities and services under operational conditions and to afford the client and consultants the opportunity to detect further patent or visual deficiencies. Critical systems must be repaired as break-downs occur. It is important that all visual or reasonably detectable items (by an averagely qualified person in that field) are identified during this period. therefore. (in terms of the contractual prescriptions and specifications) which become apparent during this period must be repaired/replaced by the contractor(s) at the contractor’s cost. no project will be completed successfully. services. and projecting the expenditure over time • Cost control: Monitoring and ensuring adherence to.
inappropriate responses to cost variances can cause quality or schedule problems. Cost estimates 2. Cost budgeting usually includes cash-flow projections to enable the planning and monitoring of expenditures over time. etc. Cost performance baseline (Source: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge) Cost control Cost control is concerned with (a) influencing the factors that create changes to the cost baseline to ensure that changes are beneficial. Cost control includes: • monitoring cost performance to detect variances from plan • ensuring that all appropriate changes are recorded accurately in the cost baseline • preventing incorrect. or produce an unacceptable level of risk later in the project. Project schedule Tools & Techniques 1. Cost budgeting process Inputs 1.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT The major cost-management activities as they relate to the stages of a construction project can be summed up as follows: Project stage Project identification and initiation (Briefing stage) Pre-design planning (Conceptual design stage) Pre-contract planning (Preliminary and final sketch plans) Construction stage (Working drawings) Project completion or phase-out Cost management activity Setting upfront unit cost norms or square metre estimates based on broad accommodation or functional parameters (cost planning) Preliminary unit cost/square metre/elemental estimates based on conceptual drawings. (b) determining that the cost baseline reflects changes. Adjust briefs and/or budgets Refined (elemental) estimates based on sketch plans. For example. and advising client on steps to take to avoid cost overruns Skilled and fair final accounting Cost budgeting Cost budgeting involves allocating the overall cost estimates to individual work items. controlling and reporting of cost changes. quality control. Cost estimating tools and techniques Outputs 1. inappropriate. and (c) managing the actual changes when and as they occur. 111 . in order to establish a cost baseline for measuring project cost performance. or unauthorised changes from being included in the cost baseline • informing appropriate stakeholders of authorised changes Cost control includes searching out the reasons for both positive and negative variances. It must be thoroughly integrated with the other control processes (schedule control.). Proper documentation and procurement leading to signed contracts that form the basis for cost control throughout the contract Monitoring.
etc. and by the client or his quantity surveyor in the case of a quantities-type contract. and to assist in pricing adequately to meet these requirements To allow tenderer to price for contract clauses with cost implication. Provisional sums 5. Final summary. Additional planning 4. in the latter case.3 Item for contractor’s attendance on specialist sub-contractors 6. Section of Document 1.3 Special items 4.1 Conditions of contract (clauses listed) 3.2 Particular or works specification or Supplementary Preambles 3. would be a bill of quantities. material. or without quantities. Preambles (specification) 2. Trade bills consisting of measured items of work with quantities. Cost management plan (including cash-flow projections) Tools & Techniques 1. VAT. Performance report 3.) of executing the work To allow employer (through his agents) to insert allowances for the cost of work (usually specialist sub-contract work) for which designs have not yet been finalised To arrive at tender price or contract price Purpose To provide administrative information and general instructions to the tenderer 112 .1 Provisional sums 5. All building contracts are based on the principle that if the execution of the contract involves the contractor incurring additional costs or expenses which could not reasonably have been foreseen at the time of tender. Performance measurement 3. Computerised tools Outputs 1. These quantities form part of a tender document which. Preliminaries (“P & G”) 3. temporary services and facilities. Notes to tenderers 2. and for general indirect or site overhead costs. for example. Lessons learned (Source: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge) The initial contract price of a building project is hardly ever the final cost to the employer. etc. provisional quantities.S H F BP5 2006 Cost control process Inputs 1. supervision. Revised cost estimates 2. Corrective action 4. The initial tender or contract price is based on the pricing of quantities of work taken off the drawings by the contractor himself in the case of a lump sum.2 Item for contractor’s profit 5. Estimate at completion 5. Model Preambles of ASAQS) 2. he/she must be compensated fairly for such additional costs or expenses. To allow tenderers to price for the direct costs (labour. Cost baseline 2.2 Standard/model preliminaries items 3. Change request (variations) 4. for example. Budget update 3. Cost change control system 2. or PC amounts as the case may be 5. To provide tenderer with standards and codes of practice for execution of the work. including allowances for contingencies. type of contract.1 General preambles (bound in or referred to as separate document. etc.
Cash-flow management (income and expenditure) Working capital requirements A main contractor needs operating capital (cash and/or overdraft facilities at the bank) to finance labour wages. to avoid the circumstances that gave rise to the additional costs and expenses? On a building project. tender and contract documents (including bills of quantities where available). tender prices) become available • Delays and extensions of time. credit facilities with suppliers. and then summarises. which reflects all the cost changes that occurred on a building project. all legitimate and accepted changes to the original contract price during the course of the contract. budgets. re-measurements and other adjustments. • Omission of allowances for contingencies • Inflationary or negotiated fluctuations in the cost of labour. cash flow projections. and internal ability to manage cash flow.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT A building contract price (based on accepted tender) may change during the course of the contract due to any of the following: • Re-measurement on site of provisionally measured quantities • Changes in design and/or specification (“variation orders” or VOs) • Adjustment of provisional sums and prime cost amounts (“PC amounts”) when more accurate information (for example. progress payment certificates including contract price adjustments due to escalation of labour. The amount required varies according to the nature of the project. material and other costs. arrangements with funders for release of funds (and their administrative ability to stick to those arrangements). lack of information. etc. The final statement is a summary of all the calculations involved in preparing the final account. that a minimum of 10% to 20% of turnover (contract value) is usually needed as an overall reserve in the form of cash and/or overdraft facility. (“Contract Price Adjustments”) Important criteria for determining who is liable for and must absorb cost changes: • The type of contract (“With Quantities” or “Without Quantities”/Lump sum) determines who will accept responsibility for the accuracy of quantities used to determine the tender price. 113 . cash purchases of material and other ongoing expenses in the periods between monthly progress payments from the employer and/or funder. materials. the instruments/processes involved in cost control generally include cost estimates/plans. usually prepared by the quantity surveyor. Experience shows. due to change in scope of work. however. etc. cost reports and final accounts. The final account is a document. pricing of variations. • Whose responsibility was it. in terms of the contract and good common practice. which sets out in detail. The entity acting as main contractor would have the same requirements. sub-contract payment terms.
in theory. or agreed contract fees. however. the usual source of such bridging finance is a combination of cash reserves (savings) and bank overdraft. meaning that. This is usually done by allocating monetary values for expenditures (from cost estimates) to activities reflected on the building programme. Construction finance (operating or working capital) As stated previously. or could even be less than the expenditure incurred in doing the work when disputes or delays arise in the settlement of claims for extras. but projections of income flows will be based on the “selling rates” for completed work. estimating. For private contractors. and the dates on which expenditures are due remain. Income is forecast in accordance with agreed payment milestones. Expenditure is due at fixed times (payday for labour and sub-contractors. and to have adequate cash and/or overdraft facilities in place to bridge those shortfalls. or valuation methods. The problem of discrepancy between the date income is realised. In the case of the entity building with mark-ups on cost. If there is no “mark-up” on costs. pricing and on-site cost control will have been done in such a way that project income at any given time of measurement for payment will exceed the expenditure incurred.S H F BP5 2006 What is cash flow? Cash flow is simply the flow of money in (income) and out (expenditure) of the contractor’s purse on a project. Private contractors also tend to minimise the requirement for cash by trying to negotiate extended payment periods for materials bought on credit. and bridging finance and/or cash reserves may still be needed. or substantial extensions of time are not accompanied by monetary compensation for the extended site costs (for example. This leaves no buffer for covering errors in estimating or measuring for payment. and by “juggling” payments to larger sub-contractors. allowing for the time it takes to process payment applications. Hopefully. contractors cannot operate effectively without some working capital to finance immediate expenses such as fortnightly wages and cash payments for certain materials in the periods between receipt of progress payments or draw-downs. income is always exactly equal to expenditure. 114 . Cash-flow forecasting In order to prepare for temporary shortfalls between income and expenditure. expenditure flows will be forecast by linking cost estimates to building programmes. or for shortfalls created when funders hold back retention monies. rain delays). the entity must draw up cash-flow forecasts or projections as accurately as possible. whereas the corresponding income for work done can be delayed for a number of reasons. account payments due for suppliers).
Khula. Contact all the above organisations and obtain information on the products they offer. and the criteria for qualification 2. Get an accountant to help you assess your working-capital needs in conjunction with estimators and contracts managers. working capital loans at favourable interest rates. Ntsika. and to prepare applications 115 . and are able to provide special working finance packages.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT If the entity. acting as contractor. which supports small contractor development and unblocking of stalled housing construction projects through the provision of bridging finance • Small business support organisations such as the Industrial Development Corporation (IDC). The best ways to go about identifying and selecting the most appropriate option(s) are to: 1. Small Business Development Corporation (SBDC). and the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Some commercial banks also have divisions that deal with small and emerging contractors. and with less stringent conditions than a straight bank overdraft) from development finance organisations such as: • NURCHA. it will be able to successfully motivate for assistance (for example. qualifies as a developmental organisation.
especially with regard to issues such as site selection. etc. could in due course become fully fledged contractors.S H F BP5 2006 c Co-operative community-based construction Reasons for community involvement in development projects The rationale for community involvement in projects that directly or indirectly affect the lives and living environments of those in the community usually includes factors such as: • “Buy-in” through participation • More effective need-satisfaction/more choice • Empowerment/autonomy • Capacity building • Local income generation Participation should ideally take place at all levels of project planning and implementation. participation in construction activities. monitoring of progress. with adequate technical. unit design and specifications for housing. The “development team” approach can provide emerging contractors with the support that they require and. In community-based projects. Community-based construction – the “development team” approach Introduction Community-based construction in a sensitive and non-imposing manner aims at the use of labour-based projects to promote the emergence of local entrepreneurs who. members of the community can also become involved in: • The operation of stores and facilities • The support provided to local contractors by involvement in administration. layout planning/urban design. etc. at the same time. allow the community to retain ownership of the project and afford its members opportunities for employment. • The transport of materials to local labour-only contractors • The manufacture of certain materials • The supply of minor materials • The security of the site Contractor development within a community will not take place without professional support and the acquisition of external resources. 116 . commercial and financial support and instruction.
Normally. The composition of a development team The duties and responsibilities of the client. the client may undertake certain responsibilities. and the contractor. etc. Duties and responsibilities of the development team members Body Client Duties • Appoint a development team • Fulfil obligations in terms of the General Conditions of Contract • Provide finance for community-based contractors and the purchase of materials • Permit alternative tender structures Architect/Engineer • Administer the contract • Direct staff who: • Check setting out • Measure the works • Conduct inspections to ensure compliance with specifications • Arrange acceptance tests Architect/Design engineer • Design the works • Prepare contract documentation • Advise on materials Materials manager • Procure materials • Store materials • Issue materials • Account for materials Construction manager • Arrange for specialist work • Arrange for the supply of plant and equipment • Advise. and supply the necessary materials and equipment. The development team is regarded as the construction facilitator that will arrange to provide resources that the contractor lacks. experienced and suitably qualified people assist local community-based contractors at the lower level of contracts with the administration and management of their contracts.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT In the development team approach. design work or materials management. A client may require the development team to undertake additional constructionrelated activities such as the co-ordination of the project. are summarised in the table below for the lowest level of labourbased contract. engage specialist contractors. monitor progress. assist and train the labour-based contractor in administration and execution of the contract • Arrange fortnightly payments to the labour-based contractor • Transport materials to the site Community-based contractor • Provide supervision • Provide labour • Provide small tools 117 . Conversely. for example. and the development team is appointed directly by the client. liaison with the public. overall project management. the development team members. The development team employs and trains members of the local community to run stores facilities. offer technical training. the local contractor enters into a contract with the client. etc. assist with administration.
different levels of contract with increasing responsibility being placed on the contractor is required. contractors develop only limited managerial. there are some instances where purpose-made contracts may work better. At the same time. and risky Although it is wiser to keep to standard forms. particularly with respect to the procurement of materials and plant. all barriers to entry are removed to enable contractors to participate in construction activities. the role of the construction manager and materials manager diminishes and the nature of the support that is required changes. and understand how they work • They will have been tested in the field and cover most situations that can arise on a project • Preparing new contracts is costly. etc. To accommodate developing contractors within a community at any stage of development or level competence.). the acquisition of basic technical and administrative skills. and the employment and supervision of labour. commercial and administrative skills. Their use is not limited to situations where so-called emerging contractors are involved. especially where labour-only contractors. small community centres and facilities.S H F BP5 2006 Appropriate forms of contract for community involvement in construction projects Introduction There are a number of “simplified” standard contract forms for building work that have been specifically drafted for use on smaller works. since at this level. time-consuming. or community-based construction teams are being managed by the employer without a main contractor. and they can be used generally for smaller and simpler building projects (such as single dwellings. The use of standard forms is generally recommended because: • Professionals and other parties know the contents. the responsibility assumed and the degree of contractual risk is minimal. 118 . At the lowest level of community-based contract. Levels of contract As construction develops. At this level. the emphasis is on introducing contractors to tender procedures and contract documentation.
counsel. and any deviation from standard contract forms must be approached with circumspection and care. teach. to limited plant and materials supply. but also increases the risk and the management input from agents and consultants 119 . to fully-fledged main contractor. The range of contracts is very wide. The main features of this contract are as follows: • It is specifically designed to “… foster local contractor development and promote overall social. The tenderer indicates his/her level of development and this is checked through a skills and capacity assessment. practical assistance and training • Provide most materials • Provide plant other than small tools • Arrange for specialist work • Arrange for fortnightly wages • Offer advice. guide. This means the contract can be broken up into many parts allocated to different contractors. This broadens the scope for local participation. practical assistance and training • Provide plant other than small tools • Offer materials for purchase • Arrange for monthly wages • Arrange for specialist work • Conduct a tender workshop • Advise. wisdom and experience.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Contractual responsibilities and development support required for each level of contract: Level 1 Type of Support Construction & materials manager Contractor’s Contractual Responsibilities • Provide labour • Provide small tools Degree of Development Support Provided • Offer advice. and only one example of a contract designed to cater for various stages of contractor development or “sophistication” is discussed. instruct and tutor the contractor • Render assistance in the setting up of proven systems to enhance management and business skills • As for Level 4 3 Construction & materials manager 4 Mentor • Provide labour. and provide certain materials • Provide labour • Provide small tools • Provide site office and certain storage facilities • Provide all materials • Offer advice. materials and plant • Provide 5% surety • Engage specialist contractors • Finance all contractual obligations 5 Mentor • As for Level 4 • Provide 10% surety Non-standard or purpose-made forms of contract Drafting of contracts requires specialist knowledge. technical and developmental community goals such as local employment creation. coach. fair labour practice. practical assistance and training • Provide and transport materials to site • Provide plant other than small tools • Arrange for specialist work • Arrange for fortnightly wages 2 Construction & materials manager • Provide labour • Provide small tools • Transport materials from yard to site. and capacity building within the community institutions” • It provides for five stages of contractor development from labour-only.
Recommended for use in the intended circumstances only 120 . however. in clear detail. unavoidable based on the types of situation the contract is intended to be used in. unsophisticated contractors • It allocates some risk to the contractor commensurate with his or her ability to absorb it • It allows for contractors to develop on-the-job and progress to higher stages of development as the work proceeds • It gives the employer a versatile and appropriate tool for spreading the advantages of preferential procurement. However. it has been used with success. Its main advantages are as follows: • It maintains the discipline of sanction and responsibility. local employment and capacity building as widely as possible within a certain community Its main disadvantages are as follows: • It is complex and requires extensive management input to administer • It places more than usual risk and responsibility on the employer and his or her agents The above is.S H F BP5 2006 • It spells out. and insurances are treated in accordance with level of contractor development and ability to provide • Offer and acceptance are contained in one complete document • It contains comprehensive guidelines and instructions on how to use the document • It contains a description of the works and guidelines to the contractor on how to carry out the works • It contains a simple milestone-based payment system graphically explained to contractor • It makes provision for employment of a principal agent and other consultants It is a complex document that requires that contractors are assisted by the employer and/or his agents to interpret and complete it before the tender stage. the responsibilities of the contractor and employer respectively for each stage of contractor development • It guarantees retention penalties for late completion. without making it too onerous for small.
G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
The main objective of training is to equip existing and aspiring small contractors and/or sub-contractors with the practical know-how and skills needed to develop their endeavours into profitable enterprises as quickly and effectively as possible, while maintaining a high level of quality and professionalism, by:
• Familiarising participants with sound construction principles and methods • Enabling them to plan, organise, lead and control construction site activity • Enabling the conversion of information contained on drawings and in
specifications into a format for pricing and ordering of materials
• Training participants in the skills of obtaining access to credit and finance • Explaining contract administration systems and procedures by means of a
• Developing capabilities for the efficient and sustainable management of their
Planning and preparing for training
Ad hoc unplanned training is a waste of time and resources. Stand-alone or onceoff training sessions have their place, but to be really effective, training should be programmatic, and include the following: 1. Analysis of generic functions in a small and growing construction company 2. Identification of core competencies required for the above 3. Setting of unit standards for training in the above 4. Setting up guidelines for training and curricula 5. Identifying and accrediting training service providers 6. Obtaining funding 7. Calling for training proposals 8. Training on a progressive basis (with proper assessment criteria for the advancement of candidates from one level to the next) 9. Post-training impact assessment and mentoring
Who should be trained?
• Carry out local skills audit in collaboration with CBO and others • Match skills required with skills available, and identify training and mentoring
needs, and external support required (for example, project management)
• Assemble the core teams with the “right” mix and clear agreement on lines of
• Design and plan the training programme
S H F BP5 2006
Before moving on to site, training should take place on basic aspects of good construction practice – site organisation and work planning, resource analysis and allocation, care and maintenance of tools and equipment, health and safety on site, controlling waste, simple programming and monitoring of progress, and quality assurance.
Example: Pre-construction Training Programme
1. Construction technology and practice (principles, methods and materials): • Brief overview of the construction process • Interpretation of drawings and specifications • Construction technology with regard to: • Setting out and levelling • Foundations and sub-structures • Brickwork and masonry • Roofs and ceilings • Plastering and screeds • Windows and doors • Cupboards and fittings • Painting, glazing, flooring • Plumbing and drainage • Electrical work • Paving and fencing 2. Site activity management: • Site layout and functioning • Basic planning and organisation • Resource utilisation • Method study • Quality control, time-cost relationships, productivity and safety • Maintenance: Plant and equipment • Labour relations, supervision and control • Programming and scheduling 3. Basic quantity surveying: • Basic arithmetic skills • Calculation of areas, volumes and mass • Principles and units of measurement of drawings for basic construction elements • Lists of materials and cutting lists • Recording of site measurements 9 9
G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
4. Procurement of work, credit and finance: • Introduction to contracts - parties, roles, relationships, rights and responsibilities • Overview of tendering methods and procedures • Costs elements - on site and off site • Unit rates and allowable WHAT IS MISSING HERE? • Price negotiation with suppliers, sub-contractors and labour, and how to go about arranging credit • Closing the bid - profit policy, consideration of external market and other factors that influence tender prices • Introduction to marketing and negotiation • Finance options 5. Contract administration: • Signing of contracts • Site and other meetings, including site hand-over, practical completion and final hand-over procedures • Internal meetings with supervisory staff, workers and sub-contractors • Keeping site records and diaries • Site instructions and variation orders • Progress and final certificates and payments • Site costing, internal certificates and cost control • Cash-flow planning and control • Basic site accounting (reconciliation of orders, delivery notes, credit notes, invoices and statements) • Wage administration • Final accounts • Insurances, levies, deposits and fees • Relations with employer, professional team, inspectors 6. Office administration and business management: • Introduction to management principles and functions, communication skills and human relations • Introduction to office functions, procedures and equipment • Information and paper management, storage and retrieval • Basic bookkeeping and accounting • Keeping overheads down • Office/site liaison • Introduction to computers and computer systems Total
“Hard” building skills training
There are training colleges in most of the larger urban centres that provide accredited training with funding from the Department of Labour. The training covers trade skills such as bricklaying, plastering, carpentry and plumbing. Training is structured as follows:
• Nine weeks full-time practical training at the training centre. Trainees receive a
small allowance for food and travelling expenses during this time
• The above is followed by nine weeks’ practical work on a site under part-time
supervision and mentoring by the trainers. Trainees are paid a wage by the contractor during this phase
Habitat for Humanity. and assisting with funding. NGOs such as affiliates of the Urban Sector Network. and organisations such as The South African Homeless People’s Federation and its allies People’s Dialogue and Utshani Fund played a role in setting up home-building co-operatives. planning and implementation of construction activities. Many of these experiences have been documented. A few cases have been selected in which the actual construction process was executed in a formal manner and the process was reasonably well documented or observed.S H F BP5 2006 t The experiences of some entities acting as “main contractors” There have been many cases of small-scale home building through community-based or mutual self-help initiatives in both rural and urban areas of South Africa. unaided collective effort saw the initiatives through. In some. while in others. and organisations can be contacted through their websites to learn more about their activities and experiences. 124 .
Unfortunately the project was interrupted by local clashes of interest. its ideological and organisational nature was strongly community-based and one of collective action and enterprise. Ekurhuleni. nevertheless. a local civic organisation. The project did.to mediumdensity housing and community facilities projects In the early 1990s. provide valuable experience in how to plan and execute construction projects in co-operative style.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT w Wattville/Tamboville – low. especially with regard to: • Setting up the appropriate structures and procedures • Bringing together widely divergent expectations. the Wattville Concerned Residents Committee (WCRC). The WCRC carried out the construction works under the designation of the Wattville Housing Association (WHA). with financial. embarked on a construction programme for the development of housing and community facilities in Wattville Township near Benoni. and the houses were not all built. organisational and technical support from NGOs Planact (South Africa) and CRIAA (France). and the Dutch Social Housing Movement. Construction of the houses Although the WHA was not institutionally a co-operative in the strict sense of the word. The housing project consisted of 182 single-storey free-standing four-room dwellings on small individual stands. and focusing all the parties on the mutual co-operative effort • Marrying community development objectives with practical and efficient construction practice The houses under construction 125 .
training and mentoring was provided by a professional Construction Management Agent (CMA) employed by the WHA. with members drawn from the local community (including beneficiaries). system and procedures Contracts Materials management Finacial control Supervision and mentoring of community based construction teams Close working relationship Community Liaison Group • Assistance/ communication • Workshop technical issues (layouts.S H F BP5 2006 Construction was carried out with community-based construction teams and local sub-contractors. provided materials. housing types and design. allowing them eight weeks to complete each set of four houses. resources centre. etc) 1 x community-based “supervisor” (with ‘contract’) 28-member construction teams (3x) on labour basis-unemployed women and youth. and led by a local person with certain recognised skills such as bricklaying. handover procedures • Disputes and conflict management 1 x community-based “contractor” (for houses with ‘contract’) 4 x 8 -member communitybased construction “teams” (labour only) (for houses) (with ‘contracts’) (for community centre. Initially each team was given “contracts” of four houses at a time. man.d. Local sub-contractors were employed for glazing. he set himself up as a managing contractor. He was also assigned the daily administration of materials and tools management. as were town planning. and initially all plant and tools. Later on. programming and resource (time) management • The “client”. trained and employed on performance ‘contracts’ (for crèche and clinic) + + 126 . funding etc. etc. WHA. Some tools and equipment were purchased from the WHA by the teams and individuals and paid off during the course of the contracts • Initially. architectural and engineering services Organisation of the construction Project/ Construction Management WCRC Task Group Contract Had to establish as legal entity (for contracts. plumbing and electrical work. and assumed full risk for managing the teams and sub-contractors. training needs Training Set up constr. Giving a team more than one house at a time gave them valuable experience in planning.) assist • Allocation. tenant education. and was organised as follows: • Actual construction work by teams of eight people.) Project Manager and Shadow • • • • • • • • Skills audit I . lease agreements. a local person with some business and contracting experience was employed on a contract basis “without risk”. materials and equipment • Overall construction management. for the day-to-day management and supervision of the teams.
transporting of mixed materials to place of work. The team/sub-contractor must provide all labour required for the temporary works such as erection. plant and constructional aids such as scaffolding. etc. 127 . Teams and sub-contractors signed formal contracts with the WHA. The team/sub-contractor must provide. Contracts were workshopped and agreed with teams beforehand. 4. etc. lines and small plant such as picks. The team/sub-contractor is responsible for all labour involved in moving materials from stockpiles or storage. temporary services and facilities). Provision of minor plant such as: (1) Scaffolding. 2. of materials and components in the buildings. assembly. They contained the following: • Roles and responsibilities of parties. temporary power for the work. fitting. maintain.. Water and. The team/sub-contractor is responsible for all cutting.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Training before and during construction was provided mainly by the CMA in the form of short workshops lasting from half a day to five days. 4. trestles and props (2) Pipe roller floats (3) Profiles (4) Ladders (5) Wheelbarrows 3. semi-skilled and unskilled . Procurement and delivery of materials to the site or an agreed place of storage or stock-piling. walls. (For “labour-only” teams/sub-contractors)* B1. where possible. Provision of major plant such as: (1) Mixers (at main contractor’s discretion) (2) Power tools and equipment (at WHA’s discretion) Any of the items in 2 and 3 above can be hired from the WHA on an agreed “rent-to-buy” basis. responsibility for looking after materials and equipment) respectively. repair and replace as necessary all hand tools. and spelt out clearly in understandable language. for himself and his workers. self-organisation under supervision of site supervisor/managing contractor. On-site mentoring was continuously provided by the CMA and the supervisor. who later became a managing contractor for the teams and sub-contractors.for the construction of foundations. AND SERVICES TO BE PROVIDED BY THE WHA (TO BE READ IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CONDITIONS ABOVE) B1. and the hanging of doors) • Payment milestones • Penalties for late completion • Agreed rates of pay for team members • Dispute-resolution procedures The following extract from the contract documents used summarises the responsibilities of the construction team/sub-contractor and WHA respectively B. where it will eventually become the property of the team/sub-contractor. propping. dismantling and moving of scaffolding. mortar. turning pieces and temporary bracing. and the teams (labour. mixing of concrete. gauging rods.CONTRACTOR RESPONSIBILITIES. • Agreed and fixed contract amounts per four-house contract (for example. straight-edges. temporary formwork. B2. particularly regarding what was to be provided by the client (materials. 2. setting up or placing/hoisting and keeping in position and building in or fixing.1 General construction team/sub-contractor responsibilities: 1. and encompassed basic contract administration and site management. floor. roofs. shovels. R3 000 per house for providing all labour . List of services to be provided by the WHA: 1. SPECIFIC CONSTRUCTION TEAM/SUB. 3.skilled.
Penalties for late completion were included as a form of discipline. Measurement for payment was done fortnightly.S H F BP5 2006 The fixed agreed contract amounts. planning and monitoring of tasks and outputs was quickly understood and absorbed by the teams. and there were few problems in this regard in subsequent contracts. including serviced stand. In practice. (Some beneficiaries even took large items such as window frames into the shacks with them and slept on top of them. 128 . and the lack of motorised on-site transportation for materials. This. where teams had to substantiate reasons for being granted time extensions. Beneficiaries were then assigned responsibility for such materials. while at the same not causing unreasonable hardship for small infringements among the team members. Milestone values were agreed upon beforehand and written into the contract. were a useful learning experience. The negotiations themselves. and only completed stages were included. and felt the consequences in their pay packets. but not fully. They kept the materials with them and a well-managed system of issue-and-receipt was maintained between them and the construction teams. the responsibility for proper programming. it was not practical to have centralised stockpiles and sheds for the storage of materials. Penalty amounts were carefully set (at around 1% of contract value per day) to make the teams treat them with respect. including about R22 000 for a 42 m2 house with full bathroom and electricity). This presented a security challenge. which often included a member of the beneficiary household anyway. and were diligently applied even though it took some tough negotiation to get them accepted when a few teams defaulted early on. Bulk materials (building blocks and aggregates) were delivered to stockpiles central to each group of four houses in a contract. and stages that were substantially. and that no additional funds were available to pay for cost over-runs. strict application of this would have caused some hardship. completed on measurement days were often included at say 75% or 80% of their agreed values. was solved by getting the intended beneficiaries to inhabit their properties in shacks before the start of construction. was around R35 000.) A simple payment milestone system based on easily definable stages of construction completion was adopted. As a result. and other materials were delivered to each individual house. It was made clear to teams that the budget for each house was fixed. as well as allowances for wastage on materials and wear and tear on tools and equipment were arrived at by negotiating a fair balance between widely accepted industry norms and pay levels. and the actual experiences of teams in building the materials depot. (The total cost per house. Because of the spread-out nature of the site. and other problems such as excessive waste.
Painting doors and windows 6. Bagging outside walls 2. (Final completion certificate and “happy letter” signed) Home-owner Foundation R1 200 (R300 per house) Wattville Housing Association Construction Team Certificate 129 . Building in roof ties Walls Foundation wall Floor slab Foundation Filling Work Completed (Pictures) Amounts due to team R2 800 (R700 per house) Less 10% Retention = R2 520 (R630 per house) Foundation wall Floor slab Foundation Filling Foundation Stage 1 Wall plate Windows Rooftiles Door frames Walls Foundation Wall R2 400 (R600 per house) Less 10% Retention = R2 160 (R540 per house) Stage 2 Stage 3 3rd payment Roof on 1. Cleaning house and site Walls Foundation Walls Floor slab House Complete Foundation Wall plate Rooftiles Windows Roof Door frames Glass Door Walls plastered & painted Foundation Wall R3 600 (R900 per house) Less 10% Retention = R3 240 (R810 per house) Foundation Filling Stage 4 Final payment Retention work done 1. Hanging doors 5.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Example of a Payment Milestone Sheet. Plastering inside walls 3. All work on final completion list done to satisfaction of WHA and the homeowner. Making and erecting roof trusses 3. and digging trenches 2. Building foundation walls. Fixing roof sheeting and ridging Walls Foundation Walls Floor slab Foundation Wall plate Foundation Roof Rooftiles Windows Door frames Walls Foundation Wall Filling R3 200 (R800 per house Less 10% Retention = R2880 (R720 per house) Stage 3 Stage 4 4th payment House complete 1. Placing and levelling concrete 3. WorkedPayment Certificate. Building gables 2. backfilling and compacting 4. Building in door and window frames 3. and Equipment Purchase Agreement used on the Project: Wattville Housing Association Tamboville 2 Pilot Housing Project – Payment Milestone for Houses Stage Payment Stage Stage 1 1st payment Work Completed (Words) Foundations and floor complete 1. Building in cills and lintels 4. Building beam filling 4. Building all walls to plate level 2. Painting all walls 4. Casting surface beds and floating smooth Stage 2 2nd payment Walls up to roof height complete 1. Setting out.
S H F BP5 2006 Wattville Housing Association Construction Payment Certificate Contract Details: Employer: Wattville Housing Association Contract: Contract no. 13. 4 NOW DUE Less: Deduction for: Loan repayment on equipment purchase agreement R 120.00 AMOUNT TO BE PAID TO TEAM R 2 790.00 R 5 880.00 R 620.00 R 2 910.00 VALUATION: Stand no. 15 Certificate Details: Certificate no.: 4 Certificate date: 25 August Construction team: Team Radebe Contract sum: R12 000. 14. Completed stage this valuation 3 3 2 1 Previous cumulative value R 1 300 R 1 300 R 700 R R 3 300 This stage value R 800 R 800 R 600 R 700 R 2 900 Total due to date 12 13 14 15 Total R 2 100 R 2 100 R 1 300 R 700 R 6 200 CERTIFICATE: Total certified to date Less: Retention (10%) TOTAL TO DATE Less: Previous payments (1-3) PAYMENT NO.00 R 6 200.00 R 2 970.00 R 120.00 Construction Management Agent: JJ Nkosi Date: 25 August For: Construction Team: Petrus Radebe Date: 25 August 130 . TV2/Rad/001 Stand nos: 12.
RESPONSIBILITIES 2.2 2.2 The equipment and/or material remains the property of the WHA until all outstanding payments relating to said equipment and/or material has been paid.1 3. loss or breakage.00 R 480. on my behalf. I will keep the equipment in good condition and use it for the purpose and in the way it is intended to be used.4 Deduct R ___________ The deductions are to start on the (Date): 12 July 2. except where a manufacturing defect can be shown.1 Deduct R120.1 2.3 Deduct R___________ from each of my stage payments and R___________ from my retention or. then ownership of the said equipment passes to: Petrus Radebe I hereby acknowledge receipt of the above-mentioned equipment in good working order. the undersigned Petrus Radebe request the Wattville Housing Association (WHA) to purchase.4 I undertake to be responsible for the above-mentioned equipment from date of delivery.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Equipment Purchase order & Loan Repayment Agreement I.00 CONDITIONS 1. Once all moneys owing on the equipment and/or materials have been received by the WHA. REPAYMENT I undertake to repay the WHA the total amount as reflected above in the following manner: 1. the following equipment under the conditions set out below: Description One pair of steel trestles 4 Scaffold planks: 50 x 228 mm x 3 m long TOTAL Cost R 360. Petrus Radebe Signature Petrus Radebe Name 10 July Date 131 . I accept that I am responsible for the security and safe-keeping of the equipment at all times. 1. OWNERSHIP 3. 1.2 Deduct R___________ from my retention on my contracts or. I accept responsibility for any damage.3 2. 3.00 from each of my stage payments or. 1.00 R 120.
This indicated total number of workers required. and some even left for more lucrative sub-contracting to mainstream builders elsewhere. A local person with business and contracting experience was once again appointed as managing contractor. plastering team. a building resource centre/materials depot. and a crèche. meaning that empowerment and local economic development objectives were formalised in the funding agreement.S H F BP5 2006 Construction of the community facilities The facilities comprised a community centre (incorporating the administrative offices of the WCRC). The community centre and resource centre were built using the same approach as for the housing component. bricklaying team. For the crèche a labour resource plan was compiled jointly by the civic. Créche 132 . and employed the teams “with risk”. During the course of the construction some of the teams established themselves as sub-contractors. The crèche was a bigger undertaking. and provide them with formally accredited training. but this time by trade i. its technical advisors and the CMA. as well as the minimum with critical skills to form the core of the team. The workforce was again divided up into teams. followed by 9 weeks working an “apprenticeship” on site under periodic supervision of the trainers).e. The civic carried out a formal skills audit and recruitment programme in the community. and a team of around 30 was set up for the construction work. and also received funding from the provincial government as a pilot of its Community Based Public Works Programme. and so on. The stated objective was to provide employment for women and youth from the community. Funding was obtained from the Department of Manpower to have all team members undergo formal accredited training in various trades such as bricklaying and plastering (9 weeks full-time in training centre.
Maintaining progress and quality becomes much easier when construction teams understand the underlying motivations. and contract administration procedures • The discipline introduced by contract conditions must be maintained consistently. At the same time though. and not compromising on quality) • The construction manager. during execution (this includes adherence to agreed time-frames and payment terms. teams must not simply be shown what to do. and the consequences of non-compliance • Construction teams and sub-contractors must be well-briefed as to what is expected from them. Do not just use material that seems to be available “off the shelf” • In training. without further explanation of why things are done in a particular way. levying retentions and penalties. with assistance from on-site supervisory staff. and recruiting people for. but fairly.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Building resource centre Community centre Lessons learnt: • It is important to work closely with legitimate and representative CBOs when conducting skills audits. and create further training and promotion opportunities for them 133 . what support they will (and will not) get. and the consequences of non-compliance with contractual responsibilities • All construction activities should be governed by well-crafted and clear written agreements. employment on the construction teams. and setting criteria for. should constantly be on the lookout for people who show promise. be aware of personal agendas and avoid nepotism • Training should be designed to address the real needs of the project.
and decided they could not wait for government to provide them with houses. They are now recognised by the Gauteng Provincial Government as a Housing Support Organisation. and render services to projects that are still establishing themselves. Construction methods used are simple and quick to learn. The project has been described as an initiative under a “community-livelihoods approach to delivery at scale of medium-density housing for low-income families in informal settlements and township-upgrade projects”. Houses are at least 40 m2 in size. 134 . and has provided employment for more than 100 people from the community. The co-operative has built almost 600 houses. The co-operative has become more of a Worker Co-operative. while operational costs are funded by a provincial Establishment Grant. the co-operative later re-structured to use their acquired skills and experience to provide services to the local Housing Support Centre. Midrand. At current levels of overheads and consulting fees. The subsidy is used to pay direct labour. and train a Steering Committee and beneficiaries. provided over 100 self-built houses for members without the aid of government subsidy or other assistance. and in the first five years. Gauteng Introduction The co-operative was established in 1999 (and later registered under the Cooperatives Act) by a group of women in Ivory Park Township who lost their shacks in a flash flood. adding rooms to the houses each time it was the respective member’s turn to receive the collective savings. contractors. sub-contractors and materials suppliers. and the form of tenure is individual ownership. A once-off Facilitation Grant from Provincial Government was used to establish the Housing Support Centre (HSC). skills and community building. at least 300 dwellings per year must be built for the HSC to be viable. and certain materials such as bricks are manufactured locally by a brick-making co-operative. It is seen as providing poor communities with good quality affordable housing while also creating local jobs. fund the business plan. With help from Rooftops Canada. with the emphasis on providing employment through housing construction and related activities. making use of the consolidation subsidy under the People’s Housing Process (PHP).S H F BP5 2006 m Masisizane Women’s Housing Co-operative. Mazisisane now builds more than 40 houses per month for beneficiaries. which they helped to establish. and currently has more than 4 000 members contributing to a savings scheme. They founded a savings club. and awaiting houses. It is also using its experience to transfer skills to other organisations.
Materials Materials are ordered by the HSO. Some suppliers will not deliver to the individual sites in the township. and practical issues of insurability. for instance. This may pose too big a risk if volumes grow large. In such cases. and at his risk. Labour and sub-contractors are recruited by means of advertising and word of mouth. there is no insurance in place to cover loss or damage of materials. 135 . keeping materials reconciliation records. If materials are lost while on the HSC premises. Although materials control appears to be reasonably good at present. plastering. of which one is a fully trained and certified builder) • Around 10 local sub-contractors (with three employees each) for glazing. but are issued directly to the beneficiary for his ownership.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Organisation of the construction Labour and sub-contracts The Masisizane initiative now employs: • Twelve Housing Support Centre staff (four full-time and four part-time adults. liabilities and risks around these needs to be investigated. Teams generally provide their own tools. but no penalties for late completion are levied. There is no UIF registration or Workmen’s Compensation insurance. and the beneficiary must collect them from there. and the legalities. and there is no sign of usage and wastage being formally managed through. Lost materials have to be replaced by the beneficiary. and needs to be taken up with authorities at provincial and/or national level. It is not clear if reasonable allowances for wastage are agreed upon upfront. Teams sign contracts for fixed prices and contract periods. the co-operative is aware that it needs to develop more sophisticated formal control systems if it is to step up scale and pace of delivery. materials are delivered to the HSC. Due to costs. and appointed on a trial-and-error basis. each with four workers. and four young trainees) • Eight brick makers • Fifty-six local construction workers (14 construction teams. plumbing and electrical work • An independent foundations sub-contractor who is obliged to employ and train at least half of its workforce (about 10 people) from the immediate community Beneficiaries in some instances also provide “sweat equity”. the cost of replacement is deducted from HSC staff wages and salaries.
Payment is made per completed house.S H F BP5 2006 Execution There are no formal work plans. Each team is given its stand numbers. the contracts they need to sign. and reporting and grievance procedures • Management and operational training of the centre manager and staff • Applying project-management principles and co-ordinating the project with the centre manager • Introducing proper administrative processes for keeping financial and other records. including: • Assisting the centre manager and staff in project planning • Ensuring that resources for project execution are organised • Sharpening the centre manager’s leadership skills • Helping the centre manager to motivate staff and members • Organising meetings with beneficiaries to brief them about project plans and the implementation process • Conducting workshops with construction teams to encourage team building. staff administration. or daily schedules. work procedures and accountability • Documenting the project as a case-study and recording the lessons learnt 136 . NGO and other support Social Housing Foundation and Rooftops Canada assist in the running of the project. and to brief them about the project. This needs to be rectified. overall programmes. and all instructions are verbal. their rights and obligations. There is no system in place for written instructions to teams. a fixed price and a time within which to complete the project.
administrative and funding issues). This limits capacity building. a far more sophisticated construction management approach and system will have to be developed. one needs to have effective control over all aspects of the process • Masisizane has shown that collective motivation. If the scale is to be increased. Let the housing co-operative concentrate on mobilisation of beneficiaries. and they need to be educated about these • Keep the building operations and the institutional issues of membership separate. and implemented and maintained by the organisation 137 . and jeopardises continuity and succession. In order to be responsible for timeous delivery of a quality product. though. Document every experience in easily retrievable and usable form. procedures and controls. but substantial additional funding and support are needed to put infrastructure and systems in place for running large-scale building operations effectively • Guard against the centralisation of power and knowledge in a single leader. produce good results on a smaller scale. appointment and payment of materials suppliers (currently administered by a separate body employed by province) creates problems for Masisizane as the construction implementer. as gaps arise when people leave • Community-based organisations often do not fully understand the complex environment within which housing development takes place (political. and do not rely on institutional memory.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Lessons learnt: • Collective initiatives like Masisizane are good at mobilising membership and savings. legal. dedication and discipline backed-up by at least rudimentary formal systems. and the building co-operative focus on efficient production of quality houses while providing employment opportunities for its members and the community at large • Having little direct control over the selection. or a small group.
Design was kept simple to facilitate construction by newly skilled and inexperienced builders. and shared-service connections. and double-storey houses. and a new housing form for low-income housing was introduced. and collective self-help. row. It creates temptation and opportunities for corruption • Specialist trades such as plumbing and electrical work should be carried out by experienced sub-contractors • It is easy to underestimate the true costs of the co-operative approach to construction. these projects were not undertaken as formal co-operatives. process-driven and beneficiary-centred approach. Port Elizabeth As in the case of Wattville/Tamboville.S H F BP5 2006 General Motors SA foundation – medium-density housing in the Eastern Cape Missionvale Community Housing Initiative and Sakhasonke Village. Costs were saved. In Missionvale. Make sure all angles and contingencies are covered by consulting first with people with experience 138 . Skills audits were conducted in the community. quad. semi-detached. g Lessons learnt: • Once-off training has limited impact. by increasing density through smaller plot sizes. Refresher courses are necessary • Solid and continuous supervision and mentoring are needed because of low skills levels and the relative inexperience of the construction teams • No cash transactions should take place on site. and members chosen for the construction teams were sent on accredited building construction courses prior to construction. the houses were built by 15 working teams consisting of 12 people each. The projects aimed to use the housing-delivery process as a vehicle for broader social reconstruction and upliftment through a more integrated. mobilisation. but the delivery approach was strongly based on community involvement. Housing subsidies were pooled to direct spending towards maximum effect.
and bulk materials such as bricks had to be moved directly from the truck into the building by hand and wheelbarrow. an emerging contractor was appointed as main contractor for the work. The access alley was too narrow for larger delivery trucks.G U I D E L I N E S CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT b Badiri House. Its first project was the purchase and conversion of the former Hotel Quirinale in Hillbrow. and the emerging contractor was disbanded as a business and became a contract employee. Johannesburg. 139 . A consultant provided professional construction management. into 126 family units. The building footprint at ground floor covered the whole of the site right up to the pavement on three sides. In the end. and partly in a ground floor court yard. the managing contractor’s services were terminated. as the managing contractor had no real interest in the job. This meant that the contractor had to place his site establishment in the building – partly in the basement. Initially. The employer bought all materials and financed the working capital requirements. an established refurbishing firm was appointed to provide logistical. This did not work out either. After experiencing some difficulties with the emerging contractor (mainly around cash flow and underestimation). Hillbrow (high-rise inner city refurbishment) The Badiri Housing Association (BHA) was set up by the Hospitality Industry Pension and Provident Fund (HIPPF) to provide housing for low-income workers belonging to the fund. and because his contract absolved him from most of the construction performance risk. The existing building was some 12 storeys high with a small basement. with a narrow alley at the back for deliveries to the basement. assisting with supervision of a construction team that was organised along co-operative principles to complete the work. technical and managerial support to the emerging contractor.
Both options are expensive and this must be taken into account when budgeting 140 . When work is to be done to the exterior of a building. and when everyone is getting tired and impatient to finish • Existing lifts and stair finishes need to be carefully protected against damage by wheelbarrows. The alternatives are swing scaffolds or gondolas suspended from the roof. and efficient monitoring and reporting systems and procedures • Removal of rubble and waste from this kind of building can be timeconsuming and uneconomical if left to workers. or carrying of heavy equipment (for example. This requires well-trained supervisors. preventing damage caused by workers.S H F BP5 2006 Lessons learnt: • When working in a large multi-storey building with many rooms into which workers can “disappear”. Teams doing the work simply place rubble on a pile next to their work area for collection and disposal by the cleaning team. materials and equipment moving past finished floors. or hiring specialist “rope access” contractors. This also has a positive psychological influence on the workforce: distances of moving themselves and materials and equipment around become shorter as the project progresses. vertical chutes should be installed for quick disposal of rubble to the ground rather than carrying out by bucket or barrow • Work should start from the top floor down so the upper floors can be finished and locked. for instance repainting. it is important to have a schedule or matrix based on the layout of the building that shows clearly who has been assigned to do what work in which unit(s). scaffold frames) or materials through the building. on a rotating basis and according to a clear plan. as they will constantly interrupt their own activities to carry a bucket or push a barrow all the way outside. Actual performance must be noted against this matrix daily. It is better to have a small and dedicated rubble removal team roaming those parts of the building where work is taking place. it may not always be practical or economical to erect conventional scaffolding. If possible. so that work can carry on uninterrupted.
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