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Ehrmann apostolic fathers

Ehrmann apostolic fathers

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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB 1911

EDITED BY

JEFFREY HENDERSON

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS

I

LCL 24

THE APOSTOLIC
FATHERS

I CLEMENT · II CLEMENT
IGNATIUS · POLYCARP
DIDACHE

EDITED AND TRANSLATED BY

BART D. EHRMAN

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

LONDON, ENGLAND

2003

Copyright © 2003 by the President and Fellows
of Harvard College
All rights reserved

LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY® is a registered trademark of
the President and Fellows of Harvard College

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 2002032744
CIP data available from the Library of Congress

ISBN 0-674-99607-0

CONTENTS

PREFACE

vii

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1

FIRST LETTER OF CLEMENT

17

SECOND LETTER OF CLEMENT

153

LETTERS OF IGNATIUS

201

LETTER OF POLYCARP

323

MARTYRDOM OF POLYCARP

355

DIDACHE

403

PREFACE

This new Greek-English edition of the Apostolic Fathers is
to replace the original Loeb volumes produced by Kirsopp
Lake. Lake was a superb scholar, and his two-volume Ap
ostolic Fathers has been a vade mecum for scholars of
Christian antiquity for over ninety years. Much of impor
tance has happened during this period, however: advances
in scholarship, manuscript discoveries, and changes in the
English language. For this edition I have chosen not to re
vise Lake but to start afresh.
Because of the relatively sparse manuscript support for
the texts of the Apostolic Fathers, modern Greek editions
do not differ widely among themselves. For each of these
works I have used a base text, modifying it to a greater or
lesser extent, based on my evaluation of the textual evi
dence. For all of the books except the Shepherd of Hermas
my base text has been Karl Bihlmeyer, Die apostolischen
Voter: Neubearbeitung der Funkschen Ausgabe, 3rd ed.,
ed. W. Schneemelcher (Tubingen: Mohr-Siebeck, 1956);
for the Shepherd I used Molly Whittaker, Die apostoli
schen Voter: vol. 1, Der Hirt des Hermas (GCS 48. 2nd ed.
Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1967). Both Bihlymeyer and
Whittaker are now readily available in Andreas Linde-
mann and Henning Paulsen, Die apostolischen

Voter

(Tubingen: Mohr-Siebeck, 1992).

vii

PREFACE

In keeping with the tenor of the Loeb series, I have re
stricted the Greek apparatus to textual variants that have a
significant bearing on either the translation or our under
standing of the transmission of the text. Because of the
special problems they pose, I have not, in most instances,
cited Patristic sources extensively. Thus, while the appara
tus is more substantial than that found in the earlier Loeb
volumes, it is not as full as serious scholars of Christian an
tiquity might like. More comprehensive apparatus may be
found in the editions mentioned above.
The Apostolic Fathers are an unusual corpus, repre
senting not the works of a single author (as in most Loeb
volumes) but of eleven different authors, writing different
kinds of works to different audiences in different times
and places. In view of the nature of the material, the Gen
eral Introduction will provide a basic overview of the cor
pus and the history of its collection, to be followed in the
separate Introductions by fuller discussions of each of the
texts and authors.
I have tried to make the translation both readable and
closely tied to the Greek text. I have chosen not to remove
the strong patriarchal biases of the texts, which form part
of their historical interest and significance. And I have
tried to reflect the occasional awkwardness of the texts, in
cluding, perhaps most noticeably, the striking anacolutha
in the letters of Ignatius, which were evidently written in
some haste.

Abbreviations for journals and biblical books are drawn
from The SBL Handbook of Style for Ancient Near East
ern, Biblical, and Early Chnstian Studies, ed. Patrick H.
Alexander et al. (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1999).

viii

PREFACE

I would like to acknowledge my gratitude to Margaretta
Fulton, General Editor for the Humanities at Harvard
University Press, for her encouragement and savvy guid
ance, and to Jeffrey Henderson, Professor of Classics and
Dean of Arts and Sciences at Boston University and Gen
eral Editor for the Loeb Classical Library, for his extraor
dinary willingness—eagerness even—to deal with issues,
answer questions, and provide help at every stage.
I am indebted to a number of scholars who have as
sisted me in various aspects of the project. My colleagues
at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, William
Race and Zlatko Plese, and my brother Radd K. Ehrman,
in the Department of Classics at Kent State University,
have generously provided advice on particularly thorny
passages. Several colleagues in the field of early Christian
studies have read parts of the translation and made useful
suggestions, especially Ellen Aitken, Mark House, Phillip
Long, Jeffrey MacDonald, Carolyn Osiek, Larry Swain,
and Francis Weismann. Four scholars have been espe
cially generous in reading my Introductions and making
helpful comments: Andrew Jacobs of the University of
California at Riverside; Clayton Jefford of the Meinard
School of Theology; Carolyn Osiek of the Catholic Theo
logical Union in Chicago; and, in a particular labor of love,
my wife, Sarah Beckwith, in the English Department at
Duke University. Finally, I am grateful to my graduate stu
dents in the Department of Religious Studies at the Uni
versity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Stephanie Cobb
(now on the faculty at Hofstra University), Carl Cosaert,
and Pamela Mullins, for their assistance in my research.
Above all I am indebted to my student Diane Wudel, now

ix

PREFACE

teaching at Wake Forest Divinity School, for her diligent
and remarkably insightful help on every aspect of the proj
ect.

I have dedicated these volumes to Dr. Gerald Haw
thorne, professor emeritus at Wheaton College, who many
years ago taught me Greek and first introduced me to the
texts of the Apostolic Fathers. Over the years Jerry has
been a cherished mentor and a caring friend. As my
teacher he always stressed, and himself embodied, the
words of Ignatius of Antioch, οττον πλβιών κόπος, πολν
κέρδος (Ign. Pol
1.2).

χ

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS

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