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mastering physics

# mastering physics

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dopler effect
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08/15/2013

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# The Dppler Effect

Doppler Shift
Learning Goal: To understand the terms in the Doppler shift formula. The Doppler shift formula gives the frequency by a source S at frequency : at which a listener L hears the sound emitted

, where is the speed of sound in the medium, velocity of source. Part A is the velocity of the listener, and is the

The velocity of the source is positive if the source is ______________. Note that this equation may not use the sign convention you are accustomed to. Think about the physical situation before answering. Hint A.1 Relating the frequency and the source velocity Hint not displayed ANSWER: traveling in the +x direction traveling toward the listener traveling away from the listener Correct Part B The velocity of the source is measured with respect to the ________. ANSWER: medium (such as air or water) listener Correct

Correct . Part E Imagine that the source is to the right of the listener. The velocities are positive if they are in the direction from the listener to the source. what value does approach as the source's speed approaches the speed of sound moving to the right? ANSWER: 0 It approaches infinity. Hint C. 2. Velocity is measured with respect to the medium.Part C The velocity of the listener is positive if the listener is _____________. ANSWER: source medium Correct Here are two rules to remember when using the Doppler shift formula: 1. so that the positive reference direction (from the listener to the source) is in the direction.1 Relating the frequency and the listener's velocity Hint not displayed ANSWER: traveling in the +x direction traveling toward the source traveling away from the source Correct Part D The velocity of the listener is measured with respect to the ________. If the listener is stationary.

) What is ANSWER: 0 when the sound waves reach the listener? It approaches infinity. the frequency will be infinite. If the source is stationary. (Note that it is irrelevant whether the source is moving to the right or to the left. Two Traveling Waves Beating Together Learning Goal: To see how two traveling waves of nearly the same frequency can create . Part G In this last case. imagine that the source is to the left of the listener.Part F Now. That's a lot of energy to pass by the listener at once. so that the positive reference direction is in the direction. The listener will hear no sound ( ) until the sonic boom reaches him or her (just as the source passes by). There is no time between the passing waves--they are literally right on top of each other. imagine that the listener is stationary and the source is moving toward the listener at the speed of sound. which explains why a sonic boom is so loud. At that instant. what value does approach as the listener's speed (moving in the ANSWER: 0 direction) approaches the speed of sound? It approaches infinity. Correct This case involves what is called a sonic boom. Correct Basically in this case the listener doesn't hear anything since the sound waves cannot catch up with him or her.

beats and to interpret the superposition as a "walking" wave. where is a constant. are nearly equal and also that and are Which one of the following statements about these waves is correct? ANSWER: Both waves are traveling in the direction. that is. Part A and . This follows from the fact that every term in the wave equation is linear in the amplitude of the wave. direction. and the functions and are trigonometric functions of and . which might be traveling along a string for example: and They are similar because we assume that nearly equal. Both waves are traveling in the Only wave Only wave Correct The principle of superposition states that if two waves each separately satisfy the wave equation then the sum (or difference) also satisfies the wave equation. direction. . Consider two similar traveling transverse waves. Consider the sum of the two waves given in the introduction. These waves have been chosen so that their sum can be written as follows: is traveling in the is traveling in the direction.

direction. whereas the second varies rapidly with both position ( ) and time ( ). Hint B. Traditionally. called the envelope. the overall amplitude is represented by the constant and are trigonometric functions with unit amplitude. . . .1 A useful trigonometric identity Hint not displayed Hint B. and . . This form is especially significant because the first function. = All attempts used.. Part B Find . correct answer displayed Part C Which of the following statements about is correct? ANSWER: It is a rapidly oscillating wave traveling in the It is a rapidly oscillating wave traveling in the . Recall that (the second term) varies slowly whereas (the third term) varies quickly. . . ANSWER: . . Both and should be trigonometric functions of unit amplitude. .2 Which is the envelope and which is the carrier wave? Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of . Separate the three terms with commas. . . is a slowly varying function of both position ( ) and time ( ). while the functions direction. and .

It is slowly oscillating in time but is standing still. the velocity of propagation of the envelope? Hint E. It is traveling rapidly but oscillating slowly. Correct Part D Which of the following statements about and ANSWER: are both positive? It is a slowly oscillating wave traveling in the It is a slowly oscillating wave traveling in the It is slowly oscillating in time but is standing still. It is traveling rapidly but oscillating slowly. It is technically defined as a derivative (although you found it for a finite difference): .2 Traveling wave velocity Hint not displayed Express your result in terms of and ANSWER: = Correct . what is . If you direction. and . Correct Part E The envelope function can be written simply in terms of do so. direction. is correct if you assume that is called the group velocity because this ratio is the velocity at which the group of waves under a maximum of the envelope function appears to travel.1 Substituting and Hint not displayed Hint E. This contrasts with the velocity of propagation of the waves themselves: .

2 Find the frequency of Aiko's E string Hint not displayed Rank from largest to smallest. do the same.1 Determine the relationship between tension and beat frequency Hint not displayed Hint B.who is always in tune. that is. To tune an instrument using beats. The lead guitarist.2 Determine the initial frequency of Aiko's E string . which therefore can exceed the speed of light.1 Beat frequency Hint not displayed Hint A. Hint A. Part A between her low E string and Kira's low Rank each member on the basis of the frequency of her low E string.) Beat Frequency Ranking Task An all female guitar septet is getting ready to go on stage. Hint B. except Diane. more information than just the beat frequency is needed. these guitars play the exact same note and are in tune. as a variation in the envelope) travels at the group velocity. Information (e. also (increase or decrease) when they increase the tension Rank each member on the basis of the initial frequency of their low E string. Kira. each member. No information can be sent at the phase velocity of a wave..g. overlap them. Part B . To rank items as equivalent. sequentially. plucks her low E string and the other six members. Each member records the initial beat frequency E string. ANSWER: View Correct Because the beat frequency between Kira's guitar and Diane's guitar is 0 . applied as amplitude modulation of the wave. In addition to recording the initial beat frequency records the change in the frequency in their low E string.. (Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity implies that neither a physical body nor information can travel faster than light.

emitted by the train whistle is 262 The speed of sound in air should be taken as 344 Part A What frequency is heard by a passenger on a train moving at a speed of 18. ANSWER: View Correct The Doppler Effect on a Train A train is traveling at 30.4 Determine the appropriate signs Hint not displayed Express your answer in hertz.0 relative to the ground in still air. ANSWER: 302 = Correct Part B What frequency is heard by a passenger on a train moving at a speed of 18. overlap them.2 Doppler shift equations for moving source or observer Hint not displayed Hint A. To rank items as equivalent. .Hint not displayed Rank from largest to smallest.0 relative to the ground in a direction opposite to the first train and receding from it? Hint B.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Doppler shift equations for moving source or observer . The frequency of the note .0 relative to the ground in a direction opposite to the first train and approaching it? Hint A.3 Doppler equations when both the source and the listener are in motion Hint not displayed Hint A.

Typical frequencies emitted by bats are between 20 and 200 kHz. The speed of sound that propagates in an ideal gas is given by . . bats are able to emit high-frequency sound waves and hear the echo that bounces back when these sound waves hit an object. This sonar-like system is called echolocation. They have several senses that they use to find their way about.Hint not displayed Hint B.4 Determine the appropriate signs Hint not displayed Express your answer in hertz. and "see" in the dark. Note that the human ear is sensitive only to frequencies as high as 20 kHz. avoid obstacles. ANSWER: 228 = Correct ± The Hearing of a Bat Bats are mainly active at night.0 is flying about 1. To sense the presence of the moth using echolocation. Besides the usual sense of vision. A moth of length 1.0 from a bat when the bat emits a sound wave at 80. The temperature of air is about 10.0 .0 .3 Doppler equations when both the source and the listener are in motion Hint not displayed Hint B. locate prey. the bat must emit a sound with a wavelength equal to or less than the length of the insect.

2 Find the time needed for the sound wave to reach the moth Hint not displayed Express your answer in milliseconds to two significant figures.9 Correct The Beat Heard by a Bat A bat flies toward a wall.15 ).where is the ratio of heat capacities ( air. the average molar mass is ).2 Find the speed of sound in air Hint not displayed Express your answer in millimeters. and speed of a wave Hint not displayed Hint A. is the absolute temperature in kelvins ). is the molar mass of the gas (for is the universal gas constant ( (which is equal to the Celsius temperature plus 273. ANSWER: 5.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint C.0wave emitted by the bat. . emitting a steady sound with a frequency of 20. This bat .23 = Correct Part B Will the bat be able to locate the moth despite the darkness of the night? ANSWER: yes no Correct Part C How long after the bat emits the wave will it hear the echo from the moth? Hint C. frequency. and Find the wavelength of the 80.5 hears its own sound plus the sound reflected by the wall. Hint A. ANSWER: 4.1 Relating wavelength. Part A for air).

8 while traveling at a speed of 4. so that the bat emits sound in a narrow beam like a flashlight.4 Find the expression for the beat frequency Hint not displayed Hint A. the sound it hears reflected from an insect flying toward it has a higher frequency Part A If the bat emits a sound at a frequency of 80. .7 83.) A Rhinolophus flying at speed emits sound of frequency . (The "horseshoe" that gives the bat its name is a depression around the nostrils that acts like a focusing mirror.5 Working the math Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in meters per second to three significant figures. ANSWER: 1. ANSWER: 2. calculate the speed of the insect.5 and hears it reflected at a frequency of . Express your answer using two significant figures. ? Take the speed of sound to be 344 Hint A.0 = Correct . to hear a beat frequency of 195 .3 Find the frequency of the echo that the bat hears Hint not displayed Hint A. Use 344 for the speed of sound in air.2 Find the frequency of the wave bouncing off the wall Hint not displayed Hint A.77 Horseshoe bats (genus Rhinolophus) emit sounds from their nostrils.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A.71 = Correct Problem 16. . then listen to the frequency of the sound reflected from their prey to determine the prey's speed.Part A How fast should the bat fly.