Abraham Ibn Ezra The Book of Reasons

Études sur le Judaïsme Médiéval
Fondées par

Georges Vajda
Dirigées par

Paul B. Fenton

TOME XXXV

Abraham Ibn Ezra The Book of Reasons
A Parallel Hebrew-English Critical Edition of the Two Versions of the Text

Edited, translated, and annotated by

Shlomo Sela

LEIDEN • BOSTON 2007

This book is printed on acid-free paper. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available on http://catalog.loc.gov.

ISSN: 0169-815X ISBN: 978 90 04 15764 4 Copyright 2007 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Hotei Publishing, IDC Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers and VSP. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill NV provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

To the beloved memory of my mother, Esther Feigue Goldberg de Slucki

CONTENTS

Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interpretive Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Text is Te#amim II Commenting On? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thematic Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Place and Date of Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ibn Ezra’s Contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Scientific Edition of the Hebrew Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Manuscripts of Te#amim I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Manuscripts of Te#amim II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editorial and Translation Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sigla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ix xi 1 4 6 8 10 13 15 18 20 23 24 26

Part One: First Version of the Book of Reasons by Abraham Ibn Ezra. Hebrew Text and English Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Part Two: Notes to the First Version of the Book of Reasons . . . . . . . 109 Part Three: Second Version of the Book of Reasons by Abraham Ibn Ezra. Hebrew Text and English Translation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Part Four: Notes to the Second Version of the Book of Reasons . . . . 259 Part Five: Appendixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 1. References in Ibn Ezra’s Astrological Work to Te#amim I or . Te #amim II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 . 2. Quotations from Reshit Hokhmah I in Te#amim I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 . . 3. Digressions in Te #amim I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 . 4. Quotations from an Underlying Text in Te #amim II . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 . 5. Authorities and Sources mentioned in Te #amim I and . Te #amim II 353 . 6. Digressions in Te #amim II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Comparative Scrutiny of Te#amim II and MishpeTei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Glossary of Technical Terms . . ha-Mazzalot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii contents 7. . . . 391 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Moises Orfali. Prof. Prof. Goldstein and Dr. The Oxford Centre for Jewish Studies awarded me the Skirwall Fellowship for the 2004/5 academic year. My warmest thanks to all of them. Prof. dean of the Faculty of Jewish Studies at Bar-Ilan University. Tony Levy read various sections of the texts and enlightened me on various points of astronomy and mathematics. . he also made very helpful suggestions about the interpretation of the Hebrew texts.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Lenn Schramm revised my translations and edited the English sections of this book. Prof B.R. astronomical and linguistic topics. Several colleagues provided useful assistance in various domains. and the Fondation Ihel (Bar-Ilan University) provided generous grants in 2004–2006. Charles Burnett carefully read the entire text of both versions of the Book of Reasons and offered valuable suggestions on astrological. Gad Freudenthal read the introduction and provided advice about its organization (as well as that of the entire whole book). allowing me time to prepare most of my manuscript. Sh.S.

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Reshit Hokhmah II lost version of Reshit Hokhmah . Rh. Te #amim II Second version of Sefer ha-Te#amim . 1939. Baltimore. Reshit Hokhmah in Raphael . line 25 Ta § 1. section 2. section 2. II. An Astrological Treatise by Abraham Ibn Ezra. The Beginning of Wisdom. Jerusalem Reshit Hokhmah I extant version of Reshit Hokhmah . . . . Levy and Francisco Cantera.ABBREVIATIONS Bnf IMHM Bibliothèque nationale de France Institute for Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts. viii:25 Abraham Ibn Ezra. passage 3 Tb § 1. . Jewish National and University Library. second chapter. .2:3 Second version of Sefer ha-Te#amim. chapter 1. .2:3 First version of Sefer ha-Te #amim. page viii. chapter 1. . passage 3 Te #amim I First version of Sefer ha-Te#amim .

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1958. books related to the Hebrew language or bearing on theology. France and England. almost exclusively in Hebrew. pp. For a general evaluation of Ibn Ezra’s scientific contribution. 502–503. see Diwan. his earliest scientific works date from the time he left al-Andalus for Latin Europe in 1140. From then on he led the life of the vagabond scholar. on an extremely wide variety of subjects. see Steinschneider. are the embodiment of the emergence of medieval Hebrew science. Baron. along with the organization and scope of his literary work. see Levin. 59–128. 1–27. The vicissitudes of his life. Along with four introductions to astrology—Reshit Hokhmah (Beginning . For a discussion of Ibn Ezra’s contribution to the development of Hebrew grammar. Itzhaki. 9–21. Ibn Ezra’s fame is due to his outstanding biblical commentaries. pp. Lévy. the development of astrology among Jews was associated mainly with the name of Abraham Ibn Ezra (1089–1167). 289–347. 47–60. 1993. comprising roughly thirty treatises. . pp. 53–59. 1877. see Friedlander. 1995. 2006. Steinschneider. Sela. Goldstein. and his intellectual interests extended to the sciences as well. pp. Ibn Ezra’s writings were not produced in Muslim Spain. roaming through Italy. astronomy. deals with mathematics. Schwartz. and theological thought. For a general review of Ibn Ezra’s poetry. 13–92. Sela. 138–220. 1898–1899. pp.INTRODUCTION From the Middle Ages until the present. pp. 9–26. Sarna. pp. Twelve of his Hebrew astrological writings are extant. pp. Greive. Schirman. Rosin. religious. pp. 1925.1 His scientific corpus. 1983. 2000. VIII. IV. 2005. see Shirey ha-Qodesh. where he taught and wrote prolifically. 1980. pp. see Simon. 1880. 1997. pp. where he was born and grew up. In fact. 1886. but he also wrote religious and secular poetry and a series of religioustheological monographs and grammatical treatises. scientific instruments and tools. Vallicrosa. 1996. scientific treatises). 1956. see Charlap. pp. 2003a. For an assessment of Ibn Ezra’s philosophical. 17–92. a cultural phenomenon that saw Jewish scholars gradually abandon the Arabic language and adopt Hebrew as a vehicle for the expression of secular and scientific ideas. On Ibn Ezra’s exegetical work. 2001b. 1971. For his profane poetry. at the age of fifty. 91–149. 327–387. 2000. but especially with astrology. 60–75. pp. For Ibn Ezra’s religious poetry. Levey. and the Jewish calendar. see Sela-Freudenthal. 1949. pp. 1 For a chronological listing of Ibn Ezra’s scholarly writings (biblical commentaries. 1973.

First. 57–74.ei ha-Mazzalot (Judgments of the Zodiacal Signs). pp. published by Raphael Levy and Francisco 2 3 .2 introduction of Wisdom). and that he could keep stimulating the attention and curiosity of readers all along his itinerary through Latin Europe. most of the individual treatises were composed in at least two different versions or recensions. At least 100 Hebrew manuscripts with diverse collections of these treatises. chapter 6 and appendix 1. see below. two monographs on the doctrine of interrogations—the two versions of Sefer ha-She"elot (Book of Interrogations). and one work on medical astrology—Sefer ha-Me"orot (Book of the Luminaries). For a remarkable example. which deal separately with the four main systems of Arabic astrology: nativities. it may be considered to constitute a single astrological encyclopedia. 2006. Sela. . Rosin. pp. see Steinschneider. Pa#aneah. Sela.#Olam (Book of the World). Smithuis. Second. 2004. 61 and Sela. although composed of at least twelve separate treatises. 1927.5 Nevertheless. . translations into Latin. 1911 (Introduction). 6 Reshit Hokhmah.3 From the second half of the thirteenth century. 11–13. 5 For a synoptic review of Ibn Ezra’s astrological works.4 They have received increasing scholarly attention since the late nineteenth century. Levy. Two general statements can be made about Ibn Ezra’s astrological work. interrogations. This edition. elections. 293–302. 2004b. French. dating from the second half of the thirteenth century until the nineteenth centuries. See also Safnat . Ibn Ezra’s astrological work circulated widely. 4 Thorndike. have survived. 2001b. 1939. 115– 131. pp.2 Soon after his death. 1898–1899. and Mishpe. 250–251. 299–322. Elections). whose unity derives from a network of cross-references. we have: t a work on nativities—Sefer ha-Moladot (Book of Nativities). 1944. or a single major work divided into chapters. n. chapter 1. the two versions of Sefer ha-Te#amim (Book of Reasons).6 Most of the others Smithuis. pp. 495–498. two treatises on the doctrine of elections—the two versions of Sefer ha-Mivharim (Book of . two treatises on general astrology—the two versions of Sefer ha. 2003a. Smithuis. and general astrology. and other European languages made his astrological works available to Christian readers. pp. which indicates that Ibn Ezra supported himself by his pen. 2004. his disciples and admirers began copying and commenting on excerpts from his writings into other works. writing a new version of an old work for a new patron when he arrived in a new town. pp. 1880. pp. only one of the twelve extant astrological treatises has been published in an (inadequate) scholarly edition with translation.

1937.1:1. #Olam A. Mivharim . the fact that in Te#amim I the “reasons” are often preceded by quota. . in the format Rh. tions from Reshit Hokhmah. . and from the explicit statement. 1971. A. chapter 2. 8 References to the Hebrew text and English translation of Te#amim I are given in . and commentary on all twelve of Ibn Ezra’s astrological treatises. 9 For the quotations from Reshit Hokhmah in Te#amim I. the name Sefer ha-Te#amim is much more frequent than Te#amim "aherim. treatises were purportedly designed to serve the same purpose and Cantera. Sefer ha-Te#amim (Book of Rea. Te"amim B. in the first . accompanied by an annotated translation and commentary (The first version will be referred to as Te #amim I and the second as . Unless otherwise indicated. . Moladot. section 7. “explanations”. English translation. of Reasons. sentence of Te#amim II. For the promise in the opening sentence of Te#amim II. Te #amim II. are not meant only for those who do not read Hebrew. . 1971.4:5 = Te#amim I. the format Ta §2. 1933. line 25. 1995. According to the tradition handed down by the manuscripts. namely. based on a single manuscript and lacking a translation and commentary. Mishpetei haMazalot. second chapter.e #amim t (íéîòè)—“reasons”. this edition will be used for any quotation from or reference to the Hebrew text of Reshit Hokhmah. 7 Me"orot. an inadequate English trans. . II. and an edition of the old French version of 1273. . enterprise—a critical edition. translation. passage 2. . section 4. For both titles. see Tb §1.7:2 = . . 1995. This is clear from . page viii. Hebrew text and English translation of Te#amim II are given in the format Tb §8. . The two treatises presented here were designed to offer . chapter 8. the Book . references to the . 1969. . before. . passage 5. Te#amim A. . The English translations of the Hebrew texts. to “lay the foundation of Sefer Reshit Hokhmah. . see the variae lectiones to the initial canticles. 10 However.)8 This volume is planned as the first product of a larger . sons) or Te#amim "aherim (Other Reasons). 1951. a critical edition without a translation into a widely used modern language would leave most of the difficulties posed by obscure and convoluted medieval Hebrew texts like Te#amim I and Te#amim II as incomprehensible as . #Olam A. She"elot A. 1939. 1995.10 But even though these twin .7 The present volume begins to fill this lacuna by offering a critical Hebrew text of the two versions of Ibn Ezra’s Sefer ha-Te #amim. . or “meanings”—of the raw astrological concepts formulated in the introduction to astrology that Ibn Ezra entitled Reshit Hokhmah (Beginning of Wisdom).”9 . lation of the Hebrew original. even for those who are fluent in modern Hebrew. incorporates the Hebrew text of Reshit Hokhmah.introduction 3 are available in uncritical editions. Me"orot. Te#amim II. 1941. viii:25 = Reshit Hokhmah. with their explanatory annotations. In fact. see the notes to the English . both treatises bear the same title.

it is not surprising that in the Middle Ages and early Modern period Te#amim I and Te #amim II circulated as two . it is . and vice versa. 1b–32a. 51b–54a. (5) In sharp contrast to Te#amim I. . presented in the order that they appear in the longer work. . 36b–51b. (2) Whereas Te #amim I is structured as long quotations followed by brief glosses. University. Columbia University Library. Staatsbibliothek 220. Te #amim II are unclear. making it difficult to establish its relative place . ff. ff. Vatican. or conjunctions such as “because of ” (éë). “this is the reason for” 11 Munich.4 introduction consequently share a common name. 192b–239b. Interpretive Organization That Te #amim I is a close commentary on Reshit Hokhmah (as we have . as will be shown in due course. ff. Bibliothèque nationale de France. each other or one after the other. Benyahu ò133. 35a–67a. University Library. X 893 Ib 53. Leipzig. can be readily identified by a comparison of the two texts. it today) is borne out by the fact that its text is full of quotations from the latter. such as the peculiar use of the third person plural that often introduces verbatim quotations. quite different from each other. Paris. (1) Whereas Te#amim I is full of quota. rough ideas or as a running and close commentary on some other text. . Add. II is shrouded in mystery. as if they were two dissimilar treatises worthy to be read sequentially. vis-à-vis Te #amim I in the framework of Ibn Ezra’s work. the identity of the text underlying Te#amim . Cod. ics and points of interest discussed in Reshit Hokhmah. 202. 1a–35a. 87a–100a.11 Let us try now to solve these puzzles. . tions from Reshit Hokhmah. Te #amim I. 44b–53b. Given these dissimilarities. so that Te#amim I offers a nearly exact replica of the main astrological top. Berlin. . In at least seven Hebrew and one Latin manuscript collections of Ibn Ezra’s astrological treatises Te#amim I and Te #amim II were copied alongside . not clear whether Te #amim II was organized as a loose commentary on . 1044. distinct treatises rather than as variant versions of a single text. . but also by means of certain formulas. ff. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 47. ff. 25a– 34b. Cambridge. Jerusalem. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. 1466. These quotations . (3) Important topics covered in Te#amim II are altogether absent from . ff. 49b2–73b1. ff. (4) Those topics that are addressed in both . “on account of ” (øåáòá). héb. the date and place of composition of . New York. Hebr. 1186. ff. are treated in a different order and sometimes in a different fashion. . Te #amim I and Te#amim II are . 1–35.

1. For one thing. they are treated . etc. §4.14 This hypothesis is strengthened by the consideration that a number of years elapsed between the composition of Reshit Hokhmah and Te #amim II and that a . Was Te #amim II. mim II is far from clear. 193–194. ety of concepts related to nativities. lar topics are treated in Reshit Hokhmah and Te#amim II.5. which are organized as . and detailed definitions or explanations of astrological concepts.7. by ideas or short quotations from an underlying text. Tb §2. as well as the topics covered. it is virtually impossible to find explicit and obvious quotations from the extant text of Reshit Hokhmah in Te#amim II. examples of the phenomenon. organized as a loose commentary on rough ideas.12 Another method employed in Te#amim I consists of rel. .1:1). pp. . 15 As I myself thought before embarking on the critical edition of this text. in the many cases when simi. two chapters of Te #amim II. accompany the English translation of Te#amim I. as in the case of Te #amim I. are quotations. In addition. then. but without quotations from Reshit Hokhmah? Or is it a running commentary interspersed . as shown in the second example in Appendix 4. 13 For a list of these digressions in Te#amim I. menting on quoted passages. Despite the promise in its opening sentence “to lay the foundation of the Book of the Beginning of Wisdom” (Tb § 1. §2.7. §4. Appendix 3. . . which are totally absent from the extant text of Reshit Hokhmah. makes this hypothesis untenable. Finally. relatively long and detailed self-contained discussions? In fact. see . See Sela. 14 See. many parts of Te #amim II do not make sense unless one assumes that they are com. What about the other parts of Te#amim II. In addition. in a different order. .introduction 5 (íòè äëë). Appendix 2 presents two . many of these discussions are headed by lemmata that. which may be read without the support of an underlying text.15 Closer scrutiny. Thus. with quotations from a version of Reshit Hokhmah that is substantially . Furthermore. as is shown in Appendix 4. and all of §6.8. § 6 and § 8. however. §2. atively long digressions spurred by brief quotations that quickly develop into independent discussions.. the interpretive organization of Te#a.6.13 In sharp contrast to Te#amim I. we may conclude that these are digressions occasioned . . address a vari.6. 2003a.e. . i. . different from the extant version? In favor of the first alternative is the fact that much of Te#amim II appears to be designed as relatively long . §4. manuscript of the former was not available to Ibn Ezra when he wrote Te #amim II. §2. 12 Source references for quotations from Reshit Hokhmah are given in the notes that .

Recently. only in their contents but also in the order of presentation of the topics. 32–35.L. 33a–54a. . t . . . aber viel kürzer ist …”. p.ei ha-Mazzalot and Te#amim II they are t . unübersetzt. from Mishpe. Mars. for the cor. pp. ff. f. and Mishpe. 21 For example. 496: “úåìæîä éèôùî auch als úåìæîä §ñ (Buch der Gestirne).3:6–7 and Mishpetei haMazzalot. . Fleischer. The search for the underlying text of Te#amim II began with anonymous . as . 1951. Steinschneider.ei t . Columbia University Library. 22 For example. for a list of the digressions in Te#amim II. 20 For example. See Tb §5. (Introduction) pp. 19 Te#amim A. see the notes to the .ei ha-Mazzalot are similar not . Staatsbibliothek 220 (F01779). 1870. Moon. Jupiter. Liber Rationum]”. see . . ff. the “quartan fever” and “the angel of death” in the Saturn section. 342–342: “… úåìæîä éèôùî welches im allgemeinen der zweiten Recension des B.21 (3) Te#amim II t . copyists: in three manuscripts dating from the sixteenth. 31–42. well as by the fact that similar arguments and sources are employed in Te #amim I and Te #amim II to explain the same topics.ei ha-Mazzalot but not from Reshit Hokhmah. t ha-Mazzalot:19 (1) Te #amim II and Mishpe.22 (4) The original t and authentic name of Mishpe. from Saturn down to the Moon. and nineteenth centuries. . What Text is Te#amim II Commenting On? . and Te#amim II but Batalmiyûs (ñåéîìèá) in Reshit Hokhmah and Te#amim I. the name of Claudius Ptolemy: Talmai (éîìú) in Mishpetei ha-Mazzalot . in Mishpe.ei ha-Mazzalot by arranging sections of these t .6 introduction this impression is strengthened by the eclectic explanatory methodology of these discussions. 17 Berlin.e. ff. texts in parallel columns. . English translation. whereas in Reshit Hokhmah and Te#amim I the planets are ordered . Jerusalem. scheint eine Nebenrecension von III [i. .20 (2) Some parts of Te#amim II may be regarded as quotations . arranged in the following order: Sun. 21b. íéîòè sehr ähnlich. Benyahu 133 (F44867). the copyists established a clear link between Te #amim II and Mishpe. II and Mishpe.16 .ei ha-Mazzalot employ similar terminology. X 893 Ib 53 (F42426). New York. .ei ha-Mazzalot is Reshit Hokhmah. a feature typical of the digressions in Te #amim I. Renate Smithuis has elaborated on the possible link between Te#amim . 1880. Appendix 5. and Mercury.ei ha-Mazzalot and demonstrated additional points of t 16 For a list of sources and authorities cited in Te#amim I and Te#amim II. who adduced four arguments to suggest that Te #amim II is a commentary on Mishpe. eighteenth. . íéîòèä øôñ.17 The same theory was briefly taken up by Moritz Steinschneider18 and later by J. see Appendix 6. bnf 1058. Saturn. 18 Steinschneider. 19–22. Venus. respondence between the arguments of Te#amim I and Te#amim II.

. chapter 1. and terms. 3. lot is the underlying text of Te #amim II it should display the charac. (5) the “conditions” of the planets in relation one to the other. lost version of Reshit Hokhmah. shows that all of them are copies of the extant version of Reshit Hokhmah.ei hat . to reconstruct the chapter structure of Reshit Hokhmah II : (1) an intro. and the methodologies of astrology and astronomy. 23 24 . example of Appendix 4 (where chronological values are explained). chapter 2. not correspond to the text underlying Te#amim II. In what follows we will refer to the extant version of Reshit Hokhmah as . (4) the mundane houses and their indications. one another in their nomenclature and order of presentation. which.ei t t ha-Mazzalot meets none of these three requisites. the same terminology.24 Hence.” we are forced to conclude that .ei ha-Mazzat . (6) the . and Mishpe. teristics common to Reshit Hokhmah and Te#amim I. however. Smithuis.ei ha-Mazzalot is incorporated into the notes on the English translation.ei ha-Mazzalot and unlike Reshit Hokhmah I. Appendix 5. dation of the Book of Reshit Hokhmah. Te #amim II is commenting on a second. the latter should contain the vast majority of the quotations. Additional information about the similarities and dissimilarities between Te#amim . . one that does . Despite some striking similarities. .ei ha-Mazzalot. II and Mishpe. t . demonstrates that Mishpe. triplicities.introduction 7 contact between the treatises. exaltations. (2) the categories of the zodiacal signs and the signs that belong to each category.ei ha-Mazzalot does not contain most of the embedt ded quotations in Te #amim II . and the same order of presentation found in Te #amim II. notably through a comparative table of their contents. renders this hypothesis untenable.2. similar to the discussion in chapters VII and VIII of Reshit Hokhmah I . taking into account that at t the very start of Te#amim II Ibn Ezra wrote that “I wish to lay the foun. . But a close comparison of two parallel sections in Te #amim II . can be located in Mishpe. if Mishpe. as in Mishpe.25 .ei ha-Mazzalot (see Appendix 7). . (3) the planetary properties that depend on the zodiacal signs: planetary houses. presented in the third . 2004. Mishpe. . In other words. duction presenting the various layers of the supra-lunar world and their motions. must have been organized by category. in some cases they sharply deviate from . Reshit Hokhmah I and the lost version as Reshit Hokhmah II. if .23 A closer look. . A glance at the contents and organization of Te #amim II enables us . Mazzalot. t 25 My examination of the vast majority of the extant manuscripts of Reshit Hokhmah . Note also that none of the obvious quotations in Te #amim II. Te #amim II is a commentary on quotations and ideas from Mishpe. 5. Because Te #amim I and Te #amim II are similarly organized.

. month. and deduces it by means of arguments similar to those found in Te#amim I (cf.ei t ha-Mazzalot. concluded with the Head and Tail of the Dragon. t . must have begun with the sun and moon but then. as may be expected of two texts written by the .ei ha-Mazzalot and unlike that in Reshit Hokhmah I. Te #amim I. Both Te#amim I and Te #amim II start with a comprehensive descrip.4–5.2:1–3 with Ta § 1. (7) miscellaneous procedures related to nativities. ninth-parts. 26 See Rh. which. The first chapter of Te #amim I scrutinizes the stars. “Introduction. (8) the lots of the planets and of the twelve mundane houses. tion of the universe. .3. the thematic organization of the former may be readily con. terms. the relative positions of the planetary orbs.26 Te#amim II shares some . Te #amim II begins with a self-contained introduction that presents . from the planetary orbs through the ninth and uppermost orb. . the revolutions of the year. unlike Mishpe. . exaltations.3:5–7).” v:8–19. Hokhmah I. . but differs sharply from Te #amim I in other aspects of its thematic organization. same author in the same astrological genre and tradition. .1 through § 2. lords of triplicities. studies some of the zodiacal signs and their specific .15) and incorporates digressions on some significant degrees of the zodiac and the planetary properties that depend on the zodiacal signs (Ta § 2. Thematic Organization Because Te#amim I is divided into the same ten chapters as Reshit .13 through § 2. week and days. which are completely absent from Reshit Hokhmah I : the selection of the ascendant (nimubar). and signs of the eighth orb. like the corresponding section in Mishpe. as . the places of life and selection of the hyl"eg. which follows the pattern . properties separately (Ta § 2. features with Te#amim I. ical properties of the zodiacal signs and with those astrological properties of the planets that depend on their position with respect to the zodiacal signs (planetary houses. may be expected of commentaries on different underlying texts. Tb § 1. strued from the table of contents of the latter. of Reshit Hokhmah I.8 introduction astrological properties of the planets. § 2. and the physical nature of the fixed stars and the planets. The next chapters in Te #amim I and Te#amim II deal with the astrolog. the orbicular structure of the universe. constellations. and dodecatemoria).

2:1–6. the ascendant of the native. the relatively long tenth chapter of Te #amim I is a highly technical . Chapter 3 of Te #amim I . . §3. presents the planets in a different order: the sun and the moon.1:1–6. none of these are found in Te#amim II. . considered in one are completely absent from the other.1:1–12. essential respects: first. followed by the other five planets. notwithstanding. months.4:1–12. includes one excursus on the aspects and another on the twelve mundane house—topics that are presented in Te#amim II along virtually . §3. Thus. from Saturn down to the Moon.6:1–6.5:1–11.introduction 9 § 2. Te#amim II. Chapter 4 of Te#amim I addresses the . § 2. and the discussion of the mundane houses in Tb §3.8:1–3. as well as of a series of periods employed in general astrology. §4. These discrepancies . their almost identical astrological nomenclature (see Glossary). Te #amim I and Te#amim II diverge sharply in that central topics . planets in themselves. Te#amim I and Te #amim II are harmonious in two . which is virtually a replica of Ta §3.1–3). signs (Tb § 2. the discussion of the aspects in Tb § 4. for example. second. .7–12). of Te#amim I deals with the astrological lots. . just before the separate scrutiny of the planets. . chapter of Te#amim II. From this point on. Te#amim I and Te #amim II part company regard. directions. in Tb § 4. the very similar arguments adduced in both to flesh out the “reasons” behind identical astrological concepts.27 27 Note. the five places of life and the selection of the hyl"eg. astrological properties of the seven planets in sequence. only some of these conditions are examined in the fourth chapter of Te #amim II. Conversely.2–8.3:1–7. and with respect to each other. with respect to the Sun. and mundane houses. and finally the Head and Tail of the Dragon. ing the order of presentation of the topics. the mundane houses. explores various categories of zodiacal . Chapters 5 to 8 of Te #amim I cover the “conditions” of the . by contrast.5–9). and vice versa. a topic found in the seventh . §4.6:1–18. which is a paraphrase of Ta §3. §3. §3. examination of the calculation of the aspects.1. the revolutions of years. and none of these topics are covered by Te#amim I. Chapter 9 .7:1–8. in Tb § 3.2:1–12. weeks and days. . eight of Te #amim II are devoted mainly to nativities: the selection of . identical lines but in different places (the aspects. in the fifth chapter of Te #amim II. Its counterpart.3–4) and digresses to cover the planetary properties that depend on the zodiacal signs (Tb § 2. chapters six and . §3.

München 304. 50b. For the references to Te#amim I.31 There are also cross-references between Te #amim I . After Reshit Hokhmah I and Te #amim I. 58b. The same year and the city of Béziers are also noted as the date and place of composition of Reshit Hokhmah I. The date of composition is again given in the body of the text as 4908A.3:6. Reasons behind the Beginning of Wisdom” (äîëç úéùàø éîòè øôñ). June 1148) in the city of Béziers”). i. Pinsker 26.5:19). Pinsker 26.”). lvii:16. X. (November 1148CE). See Rh. Te#amim I is part and parcel of an astro. §10. 67a).29 The proximity was so close that Te #amim I . in the town of . ff. IV. logical encyclopedia that was composed at Béziers within five months. version of Sefer Keli ha-Nehoshet in its turn includes a reference in the future tense to Reshit . Te #amim I.#Olam is referred to three times.33 and the first version of . . i.12:14) as its date of composition. § 2. see Appendix 1. For Béziers as its place of 28 §§ùøãá úéø÷á 秧÷úú . Note that the colophon is incomplete in Rh.. 49a. in Te#amim I (Ta §2. 34 The first version of Sefer ha.#Olam.5:20.34 To sum up.28 Ibn Ezra began work on Te #amim I as soon as he completed . This year is mentioned twice (Ta §1. in the future tense. introduction to the latter. 2006. 53b. 55a.9:4). begins with a discussion of the first item in the first chapter of Reshit Hokhmah I. Berlin 220. 48a.. . f.10 introduction Place and Date of Composition Te #amim I was written in 4908 A. Ta §1. The third . by an explicit mention of the year 4908A. §8.#Olam was completed in Marheshvan 4909A.4:5.. 235. . see Moladot. 61a. I shall compile a treatise explaining the astrological reasons.e. English part. VII.M. . f. . including. II.. f. the future tense. p. cf. on one occasion. and the first version of Sefer ha-She"elot. the extant version of Reshit Hokhmah.e.5:5. §6. (i. f. the fixed star lists of its rete are accompanied . (1147/8CE) (Olam a.1:9. Ibn Ezra’s Hebrew scientific writings. §10. 30: úðù æåîú ùãçá íìùð姧 (“completed in the month of Tammuz. and contains a misprint. p. 65b). See also Reshit Hokhmah. 1147/8CE (Nehoshet C. That work contains many unequivocal references in the past tense to various sections of Reshit Hokhmah I and . x:19. skipping an introduction altogether—the only such case in . bnf 1056. bnf 1056. cates that the first version of Sefer ha. xliv:2.M. . Béziers in southern France. 10a) indi. Sefer ha. vi:5: §§íéîòèä ùåøéôá øôñ øáçà øôñä äæ íéìùàù øçà姧 (“When this book is finished. 29 See Rh. version of Sefer ha-Moladot.M. the suggestive name “Book of the . Hokhmah (Nehoshet C. . .32 the third Hebrew version of Sefer Keli ha-Nehoshet (Book of the Astrolabe). keeping the promise made in the . lxxvi:25. 82b).M. 1148 CE. 34. 30 For the references to Reshit Hokhma I. fragments 1–3. 32 See Sela-Freudenthal.2:3. f. A colophon (#Olam A. Ibn Ezra composed the extant . 59b.M.30 Reshit Hokhmah I and Te#amim I repeatedly refer to Sefer ha-Moladot using . n. 4908A. 33 Te#amim I refers to Sefer Keli ha-Nehoshet in the past tense (Ta §10. 31 See Rh. .e. 36.

35 For the date and place of composition of these works. § 2. because the location of these points changes constantly with respect to the equinoxes but not with respect to the images of the zodiacal constellations.12:14 specifies subtracting 8°. (mid-June–mid. Liber de nativitatibus. Tb § 8. 1870. (5) the first version of Sefer ha-She"elot. which corresponds to 51 seconds a year. given in parallel passages in Te#amim I and Te#amim II. bnf 1056. (6) the first version of Sefer haMivharim.12:14. f.38 composition. 29–35. 2006. quo hanc edicionem fecimus”.6:2. 34.7:4. Tb § 8. same year.1:7. see #Olam A. . 382. tion at specific times of the “bright degrees. § 2. quoted from Steinschneider. In other words. . (4) Sefer ha-Me"orot. see Sela-Freudenthal.35 In addition. 90: “Aben Ezra … in libro rerum astrologicarum octo partium tradit … . of Sefer Keli ha-Nehoshet. 1947. some clues. November 1148 CE). 2006. c 3v: “Hoc 1154 ab incarnatione domini est adunatio eorum in triplicitate terrae”. (7) the first version of Sefer ha. The date may be inferred from the correction values. where 42° 39 is given as the relevant latitude for an exercise with solution. Te #amim II was written .12:14. pp. nn. and notes there. see also p. As Ibn Ezra explains. p. (3) the extant version of Sefer ha-Moladot. Tb §8.introduction 11 between Tammuz 4908 and Marheshvan 4909 A. Te #amim I . 37 To flesh out this argument. for finding the loca. years for the fixed stars. p. the five-minute difference between these two values corresponds approximately to a difference of six years between the dates of composition of Te#amim I and Te#amim II.M.36 . n.7:2).#Olam. 36 See Sela-Freudenthal. p. n. see Ta § 2. 1484. Ibn Ezra also wrote the third version . a correction is necessary if one wishes to locate them in astronomical tables that take account of the slow motion of the fixed stars (with respect to the equinoxes). see Ta § 2. during that . (2) . It comprises the following chronologically consecutive and interrelated astrological works: (1) Reshit Hokhmah I . p. 81b.” the “dark degrees. § 8. 38 Liber de Rationibus Tabularum.7:4 proposes 8° 5 . 28. Whereas Ta § 2. before Reshit Hokhmah I. I and Te#amim II Ibn Ezra endorses a steady motion of 1 degree in 70 . although a number of implicit indications furnish . around 1154. See also the following statement by Pico de la Mirandola (1463–1494). . We have no explicit information about the date and place of composition of Te#amim II.37 which coincides with the date of composition of two of Ibn Ezra’s Latin works—Liber de rationibus tabularum and possibly Liber de nativitatibus.12:1. Since in both Te #amim .” and the “pits” (these are specific degrees in the zodiacal belt endowed with astrological influence. 34–36. 99. 78: “anno 1154 ab incarnacione Domini. .

of the treatise on which Te #amim II was designed to comment. anno millesimo centesimo quiquagesimo tertio”. íåøã).#Olam). p. ñåøã. see below. all but one of the eight references in Te#amim I use the past tense . §6. we know that from 1153 until 1157 Ibn Ezra lived in DRWM. in Rouen in 1154. they will be approximately 180° apart on the latitude plate [of the t astrolabe]. 29. and two to Sefer Ma #ase ha-Luhot. 40 According to Matthew. in the future tense (§6. 34. in the . .1:1). §2. pp. 3–5.9:4). éìëáå ¬éìã ìæîî úåøùé úåìòî 㧧ë íéîùä éöçá äéäé ¬ïèøñ úìçú çîåöä ìæîä äéä íà äðäå ¬éöçå §§®÷ôñ åá ïéà éë øåøéáá íâ åéðéòá íãà äàøé úùåçðä (“In this place. two to Sefer ha-Moladot. Fleischer.12 introduction As for the place of composition. and one to . in the past tense (§2. a Hebrew toponym that has been persuasively identified as Rouen. 42.1:1) clearly indicates that this was the title . 41 See Mishpetei haMazzalot. one to Sefer ha. 40.1:11. For Ibn Ezra’s exegetical work in Rouen. not the extant version Reshit Hokhmah. the latitude of Rouen (Rotomagus) is 49° 26 . 25. §8.#Olam.2:11. 1930. which was probably written shortly before Te#amim II.5:19). in the past tense (§10. where he wrote a second series of biblical commentaries.39 Furthermore. 37–38. but a second and lost version of the same treatise. DRWS. or RDWM (íåãø.3:3. in the future tense (§2.6:3). two to Sefer ha. pp. in Te#amim II to other parts of Ibn Ezra’s work use the past tense . For a discussion of the meaning of these toponyms and for Ibn Ezra’s literary production in the French period. and allude to completed works. For an analysis of this passage.7:6). f. Golb. six to Sefer ha-Luhot. this may be clearly and unreservedly observed with the astrolabe”). §8. 71–73.4:5). the midheaven is at 24° at the sign of Aquarius. 2006. 2003a. 42 These are the references in Te#amim II : one reference to Reshit Hokhmah. 16a: úåìòî íéùéîç åáçøîù äæ íå÷îá ïåéîãä姧 .40 in Mishpe.41 In sharp contrast to Te#amim I. §6. in Tb § 4. bnf 1058.ei ha-Mazzalot.3:5. p. nn. 1898. §5. . in the past tense (§6. n. (2) The reference in the past tense to Sefer ha. 39 For this toponym.8:2 we read that “if one planet is in the head of Leo and another in the head of Sagittarius.5:20). Sefer Keli ha-Nehoshet.1:9. one to Sefer haMahbarot (an alternative name for Sefer ha. pp. 47 and 48.7:13.” This is very close to the latitude of Rouen. in a place whose latitude is close to 50°. §10. See Sela-Freudenthal. see Sela. see Rosin. in the past tense (§8.#Olam.3:6. that is.3:4. in the future tense (§1. §10. By contrast. all but two of the twelve references . the ascendant is at the beginning of the sign of Cancer. he gives almost the same latitude to specify the place of an astronomical observation. which was written between scripsit n. §8. composed in Béziers in June . §8.6:1).5:6. past tense (§1. whose latitude is 50.5:5. 2006. . this is .#Olam (Tb § 6. 235.43 . if . p. 264–267. see Ibn Ezra’s long commentary on Exodus 12:2 and the colophon of his long commentary on Daniel. and refer to completed works: three to Sefer ha-Moladot. 43 See Sela-Freudenthal. nn. 53. in the future tense (§6.5°. . 1148.2:1). 1996. 1998. pp.42 (1) The reference in the past tense to Reshit Hokhmah (Tb § 1.2:1) probably means the second version of that work. 79–84.

On the t Reasons. 230. 316. . 1976. dates from 1154. § 5. p. despite all his labor.7:6) and the two references to Sefer Ma #ase ha-Luhot . Commentary on Deuteronomy. to his commentary on Deuteronomy 5:5. 1874. where it is suggested that Ibn Ezra may have drawn on ideas conveyed by the poet Moshe Ibn Ezra. § 8. 1976. where he states. 47 See Mispar. . First Commentary on Psalms. his last and most brilliant monograph. 39. 44 45 .” “explanations. 344. he likened the cultivated reader who pays no head to “reasons” to a physician who holds a book on medicine. and how many letters are on each line. 1985. Long Commentary on Exodus..5:6. p.3:4.3:5. ‘Ibbur. (Tb § 8. § 6.introduction 13 1148 and 1154. by the fact that in Tb § 5. somewhere in the Midi or northern France.”45 He expanded on the same idea in the introduction to Yesod mora" (The fundamentals of awe). this conclusion is entailed by the fact that the extant version of Sefer ha-Moladot was composed at Béziers in 1148. providing “reasons” is . that “words are like bodies and reasons are like spirits. tires himself out counting how many pages it contains. 1895. p.” or “meanings”—we may turn to the introduction to his first commentary on Psalms.e #amim. after again equating words with bodies and reasons with spirits. 127.1:11. 46 Yesod Mora". in addition to Te#amim I and Te #amim II. see also p. 308–309.e. n. which is borne out . § 8. how many lines are on each page. according to the chronology presented above.1:11 Ibn Ezra states that they were written for the same patron who commissioned Te#amim II. 1991.. 37.6:1) are probably targeted at a second (lost) Hebrew version of Sefer ha-Moladot. 3a. also the main objective of Sefer Ta #amei ha-Luhot (Book of the reasons behind . which is designated Ba-.e #amim (íéîòè)—“reasons. pp. § 2.47 Ibid.3:3.7:13. § 8. where. in an almost identical phrasing. (4) The six retrospective references to Sefer ha-Luhot (Tb § 2. Motivation In search of insight into what Ibn Ezra had in mind when he offered t . p. . 27. astronomical tables) and of the second and central chapter of Sefer ha#Ibbur (Book of intercalation). 79. yet. p. . and his long commentary on Exodus 20:1.2:11 and § 6. i.46 Among his scientific works.6:3) indicate that these astronomical tables were written shortly before and in the same place as Te#amim II. cannot heal his patients. p. 5. n. whereas Te#amim II.44 (3) The two references in the future tense to Sefer ha-Moladot (Tb § 6.

offering the “reasons” behind astrological doctrines presented in another text may be considered as only natural for a writer whose main literary form was the biblical commentary. elections. pp. 52 Most of Ibn Ezra’s extant astrological treatises are found in at least two versions. . Introduction to Astrology. as we learn from its introductory canticle.2:8– 9 Ibn Ezra gives instructions for making some astrological calculations fit the Julian calendar. and Al-Bîrûnî’s Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology. nativities. For one thing. 1985. Abû Ma#shar’s Great Introduction.14 introduction The titles of Ibn Ezra’s extant Hebrew astrological treatises. Name [of God]). but. general astrology. inter alia. There is. the patron of Sefer ha-Shem (Book of the . four different versions. That Ibn Ezra wrote two different versions of Sefer ha-Te#amim is characteristic . p. 49 I am referring here to the exegetical excursus. p. 415.48 But it is not surprising that Ibn Ezra felt a need for this idiosyncratic genre. were formed in the mold of the well-established branches and genres of Greek and Arabic astrology: introduction to astrology. in all likelihood one of Ibn Ezra’s student-patrons in Béziers. Al-Qabîsî’s .49 Ibn Ezra wrote Te #amim I. cosmology. ally identical to the one adopted by Ibn Ezra in his biblical commentaries: brief notes commenting on the biblical text interspersed with long digressions. at the request of Isaac son of David. 50 See below. He also wrote three versions of Sefer Keli ha-Nehoshet (The Book on the astrolabe) plus . 29. and medical astrology (see above. in both versions of Sefer ha-Te#amim we notice a twofold interpretive strategy that is virtu. Jewish readers deeply immersed in a Christian environment. astrology. as we learn from its introductory canticle. however. of his literary career in general: he often produced several versions or redactions of the same work—in some cases. is not recorded. . 1). For some examples. mathematics. See haShem. 273–276. in which Ibn Ezra illuminates some burning and controversial exegetical issue by providing supplemental information related to astronomy. . indicate that they . with the notable exception of Te #amim I and Te #amim II. no autonomous genre in ancient or medieval astrological writing that encompasses works whose main objective is to expound the “reasons” behind astrological doctrines presented in another text by the same author. ancient and medieval introductions to astrology were designed to combine the technical details together with the theoretical explanations of astrological doctrines.52 48 Actually. 2003a. p.51 At Tb § 8. Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos. 288–323. 51 See Tb §5. Moreover. This indicates that Te#amim II was intended for . and logic. we know that he was the same person who commissioned a set of astronomical tables. as already noted. see Sela. Hebrew grammar.1:11. Two other patron-students of Ibn Ezra’s in Béziers were Abraham ben Hayyim and Isaac ben Yehudah. interrogations. See.50 The patron for whom he wrote Te #amim II .

. 56–82.54 he was the first to create a comprehensive astrological vocabulary in that language. 11. . . 1. 129–131. 2006. 25. Exodus. and 46. pp. See Sela-Freudenthal. 1877. 12. Even though he was not the first medieval Jew to write about astrology in Hebrew. Esther. pp. 100. 34. See Sela-Freudenthal. Golb. For Bar Hiyya’s astrological work and thought. 1930. 1843. . 22. p.introduction 15 Consider his career as a biblical commentator. Daniel. Ibn Ezra wrote commentaries on Ecclesiastes. this lexicon. Friedlander. as well as in the Commentary on Sefer Yesirah (Book of Creation) by Judah ben Barzillai ha. 1885. esp. which may be divided broadly into two periods. Subsequently. pp. nn. 2006. p. Fleischer. 50. p. 55. Sefer haMazzalot. Fleischer. . Psalms. 264–267. 6. during the latter he wrote second versions of some of the commentaries he had already produced in Rome and Lucca. Furthermore. 52. Fleischer. he wrote commentaries on the twelve Minor Prophets. See Sela-Freudenthal. 1140) is of great importance but limited mainly . 142–195. 53. most of which involves Hebraization of the terminology of Arabic astrology. 1898. esp. Genesis. the Italian and the French. 1932. Job. the leading rabbinic authority of Barcelona in the first half of the twelfth century. . to general astrology. There is also significant astrological content in Sefer Hakhmoni and Sefer ha-Mazzalot. pp. The contribution to the creation of a Hebrew astrological vocabulary made by Abraham Bar Hiyya (ca. . Fleischer. 2003a. Rosin. 127–158. 24. pp. 1976. Bargelloni. Ibn Ezra’s Contribution Ibn Ezra’s innovativeness is particularly noticeable in his Hebrew astrological lexicon. in 1154–1157. 40–42. pp. and four version of astronomical tables that were accompanied by its canons. 1877. in 1142–1145. 27–29. p. 982). Lamentations. also incorporates some remarkable neologisms that illustrate his strategy for the creation of a new scientific Hebrew vocabulary: one Latin version. 5. nn. two Hebrew works by Shabbetai Donnolo (913–ca. 7. Friedlander. 31–32. he composed a second commentary on Esther. 28. pp. 13 pp. 23–27. 1933. in 1140–1142. 43–46. see Sela. Friedlander. 195. 142–195. 8. 8–29. two in Hebrew and two in Latin. 54. Commentary on Genesis. Commentary on Sefer Yesirah. Song of Songs. See Sarfati. Daniel. 9. 53 In Rome. 51. 1976. For a preliminary comparison between the astrological lexicons of Bar Hiyya and Ibn Ezra. 1877. 10. in Rouen. 134–136. and commentaries on Ruth and Isaiah. 1965. p. 2006. pp. 103–104. Song of Songs and Psalms. see Sela. be inserted into the framework of Ibn Ezra’s nomadic existence and seen as a manifestation of his travels from one patron to another. p.” pp. 98. 1880. 54 In two works from the early Middle Ages—the Baraita de-Shemu"el and the Baraita de-Mazzalot—the Hebrew astrological terminology reveals a Greek and Arabic origin. nn. “Introduction. pp. 195. 2. nn. 2006. a complete commentary on the Pentateuch. 1970. 116–124. 219–220. 1065–ca. See Hakhmoni.53 Thus Te#amim I and Te #amim II should . and on the Minor Prophets. See Sela-Freudenthal. 56 pp. In Lucca. 2006.

55 Ibn Ezra’s astrological work. see Sela. As mentioned above. he does not hesitate to launch a harsh attack on celebrated scientists. As already noted. . on the whole. and specialty of his sources. In other cases. Providing the “reasons” behind the astrological doc. In most cases. Exodus 28:8). On Ibn Ezra’s strategy for the creation of a new scientific Hebrew vocabulary. mesharetim = planets (íéúøùî. Its main building blocks are literal quotations or paraphrases from Arabic sources. and Te#amim II employ two methods to explain and expand on quota. referring to the work. though. “Ptolemy said …”.. I and Te #amim II. Psalms 19:10).16 introduction when the translator wishes to transmit Arabic technical words to Hebrew. “Enoch said …”). "afudah = ecliptic (äãåôàä áùç. 93–143. heshev ha. In the latter. scientific occupation. trines presented in another text entails a more creative approach. mishpa. along with generic references that highlight their geographical. . Genesis 2:4). and chronological affiliations (see Appendix 5). 37:10). He explicitly names a relatively long list of celebrated scientists. pp. mation about his sources.e. his references to them are an excellent means for learning about the astrological and scientific texts available in alAndalus in the twelfth century and earlier. 38:38. and a more resourceful reorganization of the available data. nations. This feature is amply documented in the notes to the English translations of Te #amim . In both versions of Sefer ha-Te#amim Ibn Ezra offers extensive infor. Job . a more innovative explanatory strategy. toledet = nature (úãìåú.im = astrological judgments (íéèôùî. and religions. see Glossary. Psalms 74:17). Ibn Ezra usually amplifies the astrology with astronomical and mathematical data and transforms the presentation of some topic into a debate among schools and scientists of different eras. the long excursus. Psalms 103:21). the Bible can be mined for words that have precisely the required sense in their original context. such as Ptolemy 55 For the loci of these terms. tions from the respective versions of Reshit Hokhmah: the brief gloss and . t 36:16. has a didactic character and makes no serious pretense of innovating. “Ya#qub al-Kindî said …”. Ibn Ezra invokes the name and opinion of some prominent authority in order to buttress the case for some astrological reason (i. Te #amim I . 2003a. gevul = climate (ìåáâ. however. national. these methods are reminiscent of Ibn Ezra’s two-pronged explanatory methodology in his biblical commentaries. Neologisms of this kind are conspicuous in both versions of Sefer ha-Te#amim: musaq = center (÷öåî.

that the Sun is hot and the Moon is cold). 1525.4:1. 1:1. alternatively. Second Commentary on Genesis.e.2:17. 57 This stance is noticeable regarding the question of whether Venus and Mercury are above or below the Sun. Tb § 2. that the signs of the fiery triplicity are hot) may threaten the rigid Aristotelian separation between the super.2:7.5:1–16.57 In some cases he incorporates an account of empirical work he himself carried out in order to demonstrate the truth of falseness of some astrological tenet (Ta § 5. § 2. Ta § 1.3:9). 1976. Commentary on Ecclesiastes. First Commentary on Genesis.and sublunary domains. 1:1. § 2. Ibn Ezra appears to be haunted by this quandary (Ta § 1. or. In other places he defends a particular view. or regarding the question of whether the Head or Tail of the Dragon should be considered to be astrologically beneficial or harmful (Tb § 5. or regarding the question of whether the intensity of the planets’ astrological influence hinges on their distance from Earth (Ta § 5. besides endorsing the Aristotelian fifth element he espouses the theory that all the planets emit heat by virtue of their motion and are neither hot nor cold in themselves.7:1–8).. or regarding the cardinal points of the quadrants of the horoscope. notably in his biblical commentaries.introduction 17 (see Ta § 1. § 2.4:8–9). 33:21. emits heat 56 This applies to the reasons behind the zodiacal signs’ physical properties.56 or tries to reconcile opposing opinions about an astrological issue by offering a middle-ground solution. One burning issue that provokes Ibn Ezra’s active intervention relates to astrological doctrines that he believes to conflict with major aspects of his scientific world view. § 5.8:2. or of the mechanism behind the distribution of the pains of the planets among the signs (see Ta §2. Similarly the Moon.1:15). § 6. Sometimes Ibn Ezra takes personal credit for a new approach to an astrological doctrine. or the standard astrological understanding of the physical natures of the zodiacal signs (i. though it is not clear to which extent this position should be attributed to him.1:4–5. I. which is taken to be cold.1:1. as in his explanation of the astrological aspects by means of the mathematical properties of integers (see Ta § 3. with which he identifies wholly. Tb §2.18:1.2:1–9 and Tb § 4.. Yesod Mora".18:2.1:11). 148. 1:4. . § 2. where he overtly endorses the opinion of the astrolabists (Ta § 3. which Ibn Ezra attributes to their visual shapes (Ta §1.7:8). 319.5:1). Most conspicuous is his concern that the standard astrological view of the physical natures of the planets (i. See Long Commentary on Exodus. Commentary on Psalms. 1976.8:3).5:5. Tb § 6. 58 He obsessively returned to this topic in his nonscientific work.5:2.2:5). 1999.7:3. § 8.3:3–7 and Tb § 4. Tb § 1.58 In this regard.10:1– 7). expresses his agreement with only some of his doctrines (see Tb § 4. 1994. 1985. p.9:1–5).e. where Ibn Ezra endorses a partially heliocentric theory (Tb §2.

Ptolemy and his companions. See MS ì. II (see Appendix 8). differentiated only by the variant readings that are to be expected from repeated copying. Tb §2. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. But there are several indications that in the interval of more than one hundred years between the composition of Ibn Ezra’s astrological trea59 Ta §1. and the Ancients. p. The same theory is put forward in Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. 1947. because cold is not the opposite of heat but only a lesser degree of heat. MS Héb. Ibn Ezra also takes advantage of this occasion to expound and defend the version of the motion of the fixed stars that he considers correct. these degrees should be regarded as constantly changing their location. Hipparchus. i. hence. by virtue of the motion of the fixed stars of the eighth orb (Ta § 2. 98a–123a. This applies to the Indian version of the exaltations. as in the case of the flesh of the ox.59 Ibn Ezra also finds fault with a number of astrological doctrines of Indian origin that hinge on the theory that the fixed stars are motionless. ond half of the thirteenth century to the nineteenth century. a motion of one degree in 70 years (Ta § 2. Today we have at least 32 extant manuscript copies of Te #amim I and 25 of Te #amim .12:1– 14). The Scientific Edition of the Hebrew Text Manuscripts of Te#amim I and Te #amim II circulated widely from the sec. the Arab scholars.60 they were transmitted down the centuries in a single textual tradition.5:11.18 introduction but to a lesser extent. .1:2–4. and the method for demarcating the zodiacal signs—in which he presents the opinions of the Indian scientists. which are localized in specific degrees in the signs and not in entire signs. .. in the lists below. 97. This problem launches him on a thorough discussion of three central medieval controversies—the beginning and length of the solar year. . which assigns astrological properties to degrees with respect to the images of the zodiacal signs and not with respect to the equinoxes.7:1–6). With one notable exception. 60 Paris.6:2.e. he believes. Ibn Ezra endorses the Greco-Arabic tradition that the fixed stars move very slowly with respect to the equinoxes (a theory that had been advanced in many different versions). ff. the motion of the stars of the eighth orb. and to the doctrines of the bright and dark degrees and of the pits. Tb § 8. 1058.

the chronology of his works.” 65 An exception to this rule is MS é (Jerusalem. The Hebrew texts of Te#amim I and Te#amim II were published in .L. in the introduction to his edition of Ibn Ezra’s first version of Sefer ha-Te#amim. 8–9: “I .” but at in a long . though anonymously. based their questions on verbatim quotations and paraphrases from several of Ibn Ezra’s astrological treatises. book.64 The current critical edition.7:1–6). as possible.61 This statement applies to the two versions of Sefer ha-Te#amim as well. manuscripts.63 Although these editions were accompanied with enlightening introductions and have been helpful for scholars. . “at the end of the . Its authors. In Ta § 1.65 61 A telling example is a series of queries on astrology sent to Maimonides in 1193 or before by a group of Provençal scholars. excursus at Ta § 2. 2004b.” This promise seems to have been kept in the last paragraph of Te #amim II.2:3 Ibn Ezra writes. Instead. . the topic is explained. and. Fleischer in 1951 and by Naphtali Ben Menachem in 1941. . respectively. 63 Te#amim A. Jewish National and University . 1951.introduction 19 tises and the date of the earliest available manuscripts his students and admirers were actively modifying and adding to his astrological work as they copied it. which is almost certainly the work of a scribe in the first decades after the completion of Te#amim I and Te #amim II. pp. and new insights into his intellectual character.L. written by the author. was not interested at all by the astrological-professional aspect of this book. . following declaration: “End of the book. and using his idiosyncratic astrological terminology. not at the “end of the book. See Sela. . with remarkable frankness. in addition to being accompanied by the firstever English translation and commentary. appears in all the available . and Te #amim II by means of a collation of the seven oldest. complete. 1951. I shall now reveal a secret to you” (Tb § 8. endeavors to improve upon the previous editions and to reconstruct the Hebrew texts of Te#amim I . 64 See what J.12:1–14. it must be stressed that they are not free from errors and that they were brought out by scholars who were interested in Ibn Ezra’s biography and literary work more than in the astrological content. . Te#amim A. copies of each text. which begins with the . with God’s help.62 This cross-reference from Te #amim I to Te#amim II. uncritical editions by J. I shall refer to the secret of the change in the positions of the zodiacal constellations. Fleischer wrote. 1941. in addition to referring to Ibn Ezra himself. a fact that must drastically lower any expectations that an exhaustive study of the manuscripts might enable scholars to determine with precision the original Hebrew texts of Te #amim I and Te#amim II as . . as far . Te"amim B. I prepared photographs of the manuscripts of Ibn Ezra’s astrological works because I meant to find in them new data to explore Ibn Ezra’s biography. . 62 In Te#amim I.

50a–63b): long excerpts from Bar Hiyya’s Heshbon . Chapter 33 (ff. which will be described later. and Sefer ha. Ibn Ezra. MS Héb.66 Because this is substantially earlier than the date of any other manuscript of any scientific treatise by Ibn Ezra or Bar Hiyya. a com. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. components. . and the complete second version of Ibn Ezra’s Sefer ha. by Mâshâ"allâh. and Te#amim II are as follows. and the Revolutions of Years. The importance of this anthology resides in the fact that it was composed no later than 1257.#Olam. 66 See f.20 introduction The fourteen manuscripts used for the critical edition of Te #amim I . Library. . written in 1782. This paper and vellum manuscript. Surat ha. written in the fourteenth century in a Sephardi script. . 4° 43). which incorporates a careful selection of more or less lengthy fragments and complete treatises from the Hebrew astrological and astronomical work of Abraham Bar Hiyya and Abraham . . ff. 85b. .#Ibbur (Book of Intercalation). Mahlakhot ha-Kokhavim (Computation of the motions of stars). which is developed by Ibn Ezra in many parts of his work. . 64a–92b): the complete astrological history incorporated in the fifth chapter of Bar Hiyya’s Megillat ha-Megalleh. is divided into two distinct parts. The first contains a typical collection of Ibn Ezra’s astrological works. mentary written by the scribe of the anthology on the subject of the 120 planetary conjunctions. 1058 (IMHM: F 22230). The Manuscripts of Te#amim I . The second part (ff. ì Paris.#Olam and the entire tenth chapter of Reshit Hokhmah I. At the end there is a fragment from the first version of Ibn Ezra’s Sefer ha. fragments from the Hebrew translation of the Book on Eclipses of the Moon and the Conjunctions of the Planets. 50– 194) includes the four last chapters of a vast 35-chapter astrological and astronomical anthology. 98a–123a. Ares (The shape of the earth). which was included because it was used by Naphtali Ben Menachem as the basis for his edition of Te#amim II. A brief description of its contents follows: Chapter 32 (ff. it incorporates the earliest available copies of all its .

1517 (IMHM: F 17454). Te#amim I. second version of Sefer . ff. 34a–38b. I (ff. MS Héb. 161. such as çøé instead of äðáì for the Moon. 1055 (IMHM: F 14658). the trea. which. Sefer ha-Me"orot. . 22a–30b. . It contains the following works by Ibn Ezra: Reshit Hokhmah I. translated by Moshe Ibn Tibbon in 1246 (which provides the terminus post quem for the anthology). This manuscripts shows idiosyncratic features. Sefer ha-Me"orot. ff. 41b–48b. 48b–52b. 28a–38a. ff. 1a–15a. ff. . ff. the complete tenth chapter of Sefer ha-Te#amim . 94b–98a). This is a 230 × 175 mm vellum manuscript written in Sephardi script in the fourteenth century. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. in fact creates a new version of Sefer ha-Te#amim. 66a. 16a–22a. redundancies. ff. 50a–53a. and torn at the edges. first version of Sefer ha-She"elot. p. Te #amim I. whose name. Add. 16a– 22a. 1b–27b. ff. worm-eaten. 98a–124a): a smooth and clever combination of excerpts from Te#amim I and Te#amim II. 1960. Chapter 35 (ff. It contains the following works by Ibn Ezra: Reshit Hokhmah I. ff. 39b–44b. avoiding repetitions and . abbreviate. first version of Sefer ha. ÷ Cambridge.introduction 21 Chapter 34 (ff. 28a–38a. 67 Vajda. is followed by the acronym 姧öé (“may God protect him and give him life”). first version of Sefer ha-She"elot. Sefer ha-Moladot. written in Sephardi script in the fourteenth or fifteenth century. ff. during the lifetime of Kalonymos ben Kalonymos. University Library. ff. 15b. Mishpe. ff. ff. ha-Mivharim. tise “On the storms of the stars. This is a 210 × 150 mm paper manuscript.ei hat Mazzalot. with some primitive repairs. stained. such as the scribe’s inclination to skip over. or to use a consistent alternative terminology. . and paraphrase.67 ô Paris.” ascribed here to Ptolemy but which turns to be the Eisagoge by Geminus. . ff. .#Olam. ff. 47b–50a. . on f. It begins with the assertion that the copyist is Kalonymos ben Kalonymos. 93a–98a): fragments from the second version of Keli ha-Nehoshet by Ibn Ezra. 45a–47a.

#Olam. 165a–167b. Te#amim I. . ff. This manuscript contains the following works by Ibn Ezra: Reshit Hokhmah I. It contains the following astrological works by Ibn Ezra: Reshit Hokhmah I. first version of Sefer ha-Mivharim. ff. 44b–53b.e. Hebr. 47 (IMHM: F 00686).22 ø introduction Oxford. ff. ff. This manuscript. 65b–87b. 1b–24b. Ta § 2. Sefer ha-Moladot. displays some peculiarities. . such as the consistent use of áúåë (= writer) instead of áëåë (= star) to denote Mercury and of éúáù instead of éàúáù for Saturn. written in Italian script in the fifteenth century. 13a–65b. was used by J. ff. 74b–79b. 118a–126a. ff. è Vatican. ha-Mivharim.#Olam.#Olam. ff. 44b. first version of Sefer . ff. 25a–34b. This manuscript. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. § 2. 57b–70a. A paper manuscript written in a Sephardi hand in the fourteenth or fifteenth century. ff. Te #amim I. ebr. first version of Sefer ha-She"elot. In some section the scribe interpolates material to flesh out terms and topics (see. . 202 (IMHM: F 01649). ff. MS Héb. ff. Te#amim II. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. 80a–86a. . 25a–34b. 34b–46a. à Paris. 88a–117b. ff. 65b–87b. 54a–57a. Te #amim I. Sefer ha-Me"orot. . Sefer ha-Me"orot. Bodleian Library. 3b–34a. ff. 1056 (IMHM: F 14659). 52b–67b.L. . 34b–46a. 41a– . Fleischer for his edition of Te #amim I. ff. ff. .. second version of Sefer ha-Mivharim. 62b–70b. . second . 46b–61b. Add. ff. 128b–140a. i.3:3. first version of Sefer ha. 160 [Neubauer 2518] (IMHM: F 22230). version of Sefer ha. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. . This is an octavo paper manuscript of 179 folios written in a Greek rabbinical script in Thebes in 1367. ff. ff. ff. ff. ff. ff. î Munich. 140b–153b. It contains the following astrological works by Ibn Ezra: Reshit Hokhmah I. . first version of Sefer ha. ff. ff. written in Sephardi script in the fourteenth or fifteenth century. 70b–74a. Cod. Qu.16:4). first version of Sefer ha-Mivharim. Sefer ha-Moladot. ff. Sefer ha-Moladot. Sefer ha-Me"orot. 36a–40b.

This is the used by Naphtali Ben Menachem . . ff. 44b–53b. first version of Sefer ha-Mivharim. this manuscript. 108b–116a. ff.introduction 23 It contains the following astrological works by Ibn Ezra: Reshit Hokh. Sefer . ff. which contains an astrological-astronomical anthology (ff.Mivharim. Sefer ha-Me"orot. Te #amim I. Te#amim II. is ref. è Vatican. under the manuscripts of Te #amim I. 37b–52b.#Olam. ff. . ff. For a description of this manuscript. for his edition of Te#amim II. 50–194) that contains fragments of Te #amim I and Te #amim II. The manuscript is described above. 26b–39b. second version of Sefer ha-Mivharim. ebr. ff. This is a paper and vellum manuscript written in the fourteenth century in a Sephardi script. see above. 116a–124b. first version of Sefer ha-She"elot. first version of Sefer ha. ì Paris. second version of Sefer ha#Olam. mah I. 1b–37b. 1058 (IMHM: F 22230). 52b–67b. 101b–108a. The second part of . MS Héb. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. ff. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Mishpe. 91b–101b. 150a–163b. ha-Moladot. . ha-Mazzalot. Mishpe. 1a–8b. ff. 70a–91a.ei t . I. MS Héb. 26b–39a. ff. t The Manuscripts of Te#amim II . 13b–26a. ff. ff. ff. . Te#amim II. 8b–13b. 144a–150a. 47 (IMHM: F 00686). ff. . ff. 138a–143b. 98a–123a. 1058 (IMHM: F 22230). erenced here as MS ì. ff. under the manuscripts of Te#amim . .ei ha-Mazzalot. second version of Sefer ha. ô Paris. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. It contains the following astrological works by Ibn Ezra: second version of Sefer ha-She"elot. This is part of chapter 35 of the astrologicalastronomical anthology included in the second part of this manuscript. ff. ff. ff.

. 4° 43. Editorial and Translation Principles Even after careful scrutiny it proved impossible to construct a stemma of the manuscripts used for this critical edition. hand. 477 (IMHM: F 00530). ff. 143b–159b. Sefer ha-Moladot. 96b–102b. Sefer ha-Me"orot. Te #amim II ff. ff. it contains the following astrological works by Ibn Ezra: Reshit Hokhmah I.#Olam. ebr. Hebr. ff. 143b–159b. 97a–108a. 53a–67b. 22a–23a. ff. 1055) for Te#amim I and MS ô (Paris. see above. 126b–133b. Written in Sephardi script in the fifteenth century. under the manuscripts of Te #amim I. . this manuscript contains the following: Reshit Hokhmah I. t . ond version of Sefer ha-She"elot. was used by Naphtali Ben Menachem for his edition of Te #amim II. on the one hand.ei ha-Mazzalot. . MS Héb. 33a–75b. ff. for Te #amim II. ff. 1058) for . 134a–140a. Mic 2626 (IMHM: F 28879).24 î introduction Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. 86a–96b. à Vatican. first version of Sefer ha. 37b–52b. MS Héb. 75b–91a. ff.ei ha-Mazzalot. Jewish National and University Library. ff. 121b–140a. 91b–116b. Jewish Theological Seminary. . Cod. written in a cursive Eastern script in 1782. ff. Written in an Italian script in 1545. on the other. Bnf. sec.#Olam. . ff. on the one . Mishpe. ff. ff. . between MSS î÷ô.#Olam. although certain affinities were detected: for Te#amim I. ð New York. between MSS àîì. 108a–121a. second version of Sefer ha. 202 (IMHM: F 01649). ff. and éðèô. I decided to use MS ô (Paris. Mishpe. ff. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. and èàøì. . second version of Sefer ha. For a description of this manuscript. ff. This manuscript. first version of Sefer ha-Mivharim. Te #amim II. é Jerusalem. 121b–140a. on the other. ff. 67b– t 86a. Bnf.

In addition. § 5. and passages.16:8. § 2. . The bracketed numbers in the English translation refer to the notes that follow the texts. . them rather than MS ì of both Te #amim I and Te #amim II (Paris. § 5. When the manuscripts did not all agree. and. in an abbreviated manner. 98a–123a). to differentiate between a lacuna and an illegible word. are unwarranted by any formal feature of the text. § 4. hence. ff. . The English is divided into the same chapters. in the final analysis these translations represent a commentary on the Hebrew text.introduction 25 Te #amim II as the copy texts of the editions. the . Bnf. . . To determine readings for the Hebrew texts.3:8. earliest complete copies of both Te #amim I and Te#amim II. and lacunae.8:3.1:2. As already mentioned. Tb § 2. all the readings in the Hebrew manuscripts consulted that differ from the text printed here. because they contain the .14:2. I proceeded as follows. that whereas the ten chapters of Te#amim I faithfully reflect the original ten chapters of this text. I have added punctuation to the Hebrew text. I have recorded not only the manuscripts that present a different reading but also those that coincide with the printed text. These notes are intended to illustrate the links between Te#amim I and Te #amim II as well as between . to facilitate references. sections. have divided it into chapters. the text is too fragmentary to serve as a copy text. the preferred reading was the one deemed to be more consistent with other parts of Ibn Ezra’s work or that supported by a majority of the manuscripts. etc.5:6. I selected .4:4. except where a variant may indicate a different reading. The Hebrew apparatus is intended to record. A distinction is made between variants. In a few cases—where I was convinced that the reading given by all the manuscripts are copyists’ errors and are in glaring or logical contradiction to other parts of Ibn Ezra’s work or to relevant data available in contemporary authoritative and reliable sources—I have offered a new reading that is consistent with these sources (Ta § 2. § 2. it means that the MS in question is illegible at this point. because although the latter contains the earliest available copy. additions. The translation is meant to help readers understand the two Hebrew texts with as much fidelity as possible. With regard to orthography I have attempted to adopt a policy of uniformity. however. § 5. where the siglum of a manuscript is omitted.7:1. Note.2:3. MS Héb. A single reading was accepted when all the manuscripts concurred and the reading did not conflict with explicit statements by Ibn Ezra elsewhere in his astrological work or with other astrological sources. eight chapters of Te #amim II merely represent thematic divisions that . 1055. and passages as the Hebrew. § 2.). sections.

and especially the idiosyncratic neologism. to avoid confusion and draw a difference between planetary house.” Sigla In the Hebrew text < > øñç [ ] { } after incipit before incipit lacuna position of words shifted folios in the copy texts in the margin In the translation [ ] ( ) word(s) to be added to make the meaning clear paraphrase biblical sources . on the one hand. thereby taking over the ambiguity of the Hebrew úéá and the Arabic ¯ .26 introduction them and other parts of Ibn Ezra’s scientific corpus. however. a procedure that sometimes comes at the cost of losing the special flavor of Ibn Ezra’s special Hebrew astrological vocabulary. a special effort has been made in the notes to explain this vocabulary. Hebrew astrological terms have been rendered into the modern English technical nomenclature of astrology. Accordingly. To the extent possible. I have decided that whereas the first reference in any section to a horoscopic house will be rendered as “ mundane house. and to identify sources. in a particular section a reference to a planetary house occurs after a reference to a mundane house. and horoscopic house. But. If. the first occurrence of the former will be rendered as “ planetary house.” the first reference to a planetary house will be rendered as “house.” with no qualifying attribute. on the other. In this translation we use “house” to denote both the zodiacal sign that serves as a planetary house as well as any of the twelve divisions of the horoscope. which are used indiscriminately in medieval astrological texts to denote the same two concepts. to explain astrological or astronomical concepts and terms whenever necessary.

part one FIRST VERSION OF THE BOOK OF REASONS BY ABRAHAM IBN EZRA hebrew text and english translation .

28 first version of the book of reasons à28 íéîåöò íä åéàìô øôñîå íéîåúñ íä íéøáã øàá øùà íéîëç úøàôúå íéîú øáâ 1 íéîìòð äìâî ìà êøåáé æåò åöé øéàî åðá íäøáàì àåä øùà ãåã åðá ÷çöéì øåà äæçå êááì éðéò ç÷ô íéîëçì äîëç ïúåðä íùá ®íéîòèä øôñá êéðôì 2 íéîòèä øôñ áåúëì ìçà 3 íéøòù äøùòì ÷ìçðå 1§ åàöî àìù 4øåáòá úåìòî íéùùå úåàî ùìùì ìâìâä å÷ìç ®ïåùàøä øòùä äæ êåøòú íà ¬ïë ìò (1) 1 (2) ®úéòéáùäî 5õåç íéøáùä ìë åì ùéù åðîî úåçô ïåáùç úåàî ùîçå íéôìà àåäå ¬íéøáùä ìë åì ùéù ïåáùçä àöîú æà äòáù ìò øôñîä (3) ®íéøùòå åì ùéù åðîî úåçô ïåáùç åàöî àìù øåáòá øùò íéðù ìò ìâìâä úåìòî å÷ìçå (4) 10 ìë ÷ìçá äìò äðäå (5) ®9úåðáì øùò íéúù 8ùé äðù ìëá éë ãåòå ¬åäîë íéøáù åì ïéàù øåáòáå (6) ®øùò íéðùî øúåé íéøáù åì ùé øôñîä äæå ¬úåìòî íéùìù ìæî ®7äîçä úåðù úåîé ïåáùçî áåø÷ àåäù 6øåáòá ïåáùçä äæ åøçá ¬ãåòå ìëå ¬11íéðåùàø íé÷ìç íéùùì äìòî ìë å÷ìçå ¬øôñîä ìåôëì åëøöåä úéòéáø ®íééøéùò ãò äëëå ¬íééðù íéùùì 12 ïåùàø íéáåø÷ íäù íéáëåëä úåøåö íäù ¬úåøåöä íù ìò åàø÷ð úåìæîä úåîùå ô§§ò§§à ¬íéåù ìæî ìë áåø÷ äôåñ ãò 14 13 (1) 2 é÷ìç åéäéù àéä úîàä äðäå (2) ®ìâìâä úãåôà áùçì äúìçúî àéäù äéøàä úøåö åîë ¬ãåàî äìåãâ úçà äøåö ùéù øáãà øôñä óåñáå (3) ®øúåé àìå ¬úåìòî òáù åîë äìè úøåöå ¬úåìòî íéòáøàî øôñ à »øèô [íéîòèä øôñ ®®® ïúåðä íùá2 ®øñç ÷îèàøì »ô [íéîòèä øôñá ®®® ìà êøåáé1 »îèàøìô [øåáòá4 ®øñç ÷îèàøì »ô [íéøòù äøùòì ÷ìçðå3 ®øñç ÷ »íéøçà íéîòè î »íéîòèä úåðùä ø »äðùä ì »î÷à [äîçä úåðù7 ®éôì ÷ »îèàøìô [øåáòá6 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøìô [õåç5 ®éë ÷ [ìë10 ®äðáì éùãç ô »îè÷àøì [úåðáì9 ®åì < î »è÷àøìô [ùé8 ®äîçä ô »äîçä úðù è »äîçä »÷àøìô [é÷ìç13 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøìô [ïåùàø12 ®øñç ÷à »îèøìô [íéðåùàø11 ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô ®úìçúî ø »÷îèàìô [äúìçúî14 ®ìë > îè .

On behalf of He who bestows wisdom upon the wise. 360] was chosen because it is close to the number of days in the solar year.. 2 (1) The signs were named for the images. Revealer of all things hidden. (3) At . (5) So each sign was assigned 30 degrees. may God strengthen him. (4) They divided the degrees of the circle into 12 because they found no smaller number that has as many fractions as it does. if you multiply this number by 7 you get the number that has all the fractions from one-half to one-tenth . Which is divided into ten chapters. which are the shapes formed by the stars that are close to the ecliptic.[2] except for one-seventh. They divided[1] the circle into 360 degrees because they did not find a smaller number that has all the fractions from one-half to one-tenth . and similarly down to the tenths. (3) In addition. which occupies around 40 degrees from its beginning until its end. I begin to write the Book of Reasons.520. 2.[1] (2) The truth is that the parts occupied by each sign ought to be equal. namely. For in front of you is the Book of the Reasons. To Abraham son of Meir. and also because there are 12 lunar months[3] in any solar year. §1 1 (1) First chapter. this number [i. The number of His marvels is vast. Open your heart’s eye and see the light. (2) Therefore.[4] (6) But since it does not have a quarter it was necessary to double it. and this number has more fractions than 12. To Isaac son of David. Who elucidated things previously unclear. They divided each degree into 60 minutes and each minute into sixty seconds. whereas the image of Aries occupies about 7 degrees and no more than that. although there is one image that is very big.chapter one 29 Blessed be God. the image of Leo. A pure and brilliant man among scholars.e.

30 ¬÷ãöä first version of the book of reasons å÷ úìçúî úåìòî íéúùå íéøùòå äàî ÷çøî ìò åðîæá äéä äéøàä áì éë øîà ñåéîìèá äðä éë ¬úåìæîä úåîå÷î úåðúùä 1ãåñ ìò íùä úøæòá 3 2 ¬úåìòî äøùò äðåîù ìò 秧÷úú úðùá ¬íåéä 4åðäå ¬äéøàî úåìòî éúùá äéä äðäå éë ¬åøîàù äîå úåøåöäå (4) ®ïèøñî úåìòî íéøùòå ùîçá äéäù êøàä øôñá øéëæä êåðçå (5) ®íäá úèìåù ïéòäù íä äìà ¬íéøùòå íéðùå óìà 5íä íéáëåëä øôñî ìôåðä øùðä 7éë ¬6åòãåéù íéðîéñ íúåéäì úåðåéîã åîë íä úåéîåøãä íâ úåéìàîùä ¬ïéòá åì åàøéù úåøåöä éôë úåîùä úåðùì ìëåé éë ¬ã÷ùä ñåéîìèá åúåà àø÷é íå÷î åì äéäéù 8åúãìåú øáãá ïéàå ìåâò àåä ìâìâä éë ¬áëåë ìà áëåë øáçéù ®íéðåîã÷ä åøéëæäù úåøåöä éôë øáãä çéðð ¬ïë ìò ®úåìæîä ìâìâ àø÷ðä ïåéìòä ìâìâá íä åðúùéù ¬íäéúåòåðúá íéðåéìòì åø÷é àìù ¬ãåòå 19 21 9 (6) ®åðîî ìçåéù òåãé (1) 3 äèîìå (2) úåøåö íéòáøàå äðåîùä äìàå íäù øåáòá íéúøùî åàø÷é ¬íéáëåë äòáùì íéìâìâ äòáù åðîî 10 íéø÷î íäì äø÷éå ®õøàä ìà íéáåø÷ 11 íéãøôð íúåéä øçà äæ íò äæ øáçúéå ¬õøàä úãå÷ð ãâðë íúåìôùáå íúåäáâá 12 (3) ®äîãàä ìò øùà 18 14 íéàøáðä 13 äø÷îë äìà ìëå ¬íéøáçðä 16 17 ãøôäáå 15 úåøåöä äëë íðéàå ¬ìâìâä úãåôà áùç ìà úåáåø÷ íéúøùîä äìà øåáòáå ¬äðáìä àéä íéúøùîäî äèîì äðäå 20 úåëåìäú éë (4) ®úåéîåøãä íâ úåéìàîùä ìë úìçúå íãàä óåâ ìò äøåú ïë ìò ¬íìåëî øúåé õøàä ìà äáåø÷ àéäù éðù øåáòá åøéáçî ïåéìò úøùî äæ éà úòãì íéðåîã÷ä åìëéå »ïåéìòä øéúñé ìôùä íéúøùîä ¬ êìäîäî úøçàä êøãäå 26 24 (5) ®äáùçîå äùòî íéáëåë éðùä 25 23 øáçúäá ¬22ãçàä (6) ®íéëøã (7) ®äâðî äèîì äîç áëåë éë åòãé äæ øåáòáå á28 äøùò íéúùá ÷ãöå äðù íéùåìùî áåø÷ úåìæîä øåáòá äðäå ìë øáçúäáå ¬äåù äîçä êìäî íò ú÷åìçî äúéä ïë ìò ¬ ùîùä øåà çë 31 29 | ìâìâá 27 éàúáù êìäî éë (8) ®íåé íéøùòå äðîùî úåçôá äðáìäå äðùá ùîùäå 28íéúðùá íéãàîå äîç áëåëìå äâðì äåùä êìäîä úåéä øåáòá äàøé àì ùîùä íò íäî ãçà 30 ®å÷î îè »÷àøìô [å÷ úìçúî3 ®äéøà è÷àô »îøì [äéøàä2 ®øñç ì »÷îèàøô [ãåñ ìò1 éë àø »îè÷ìô [éë7 ®éãë > è »î÷àøìô [åòãåéù6 ®øñç î »è÷àøìô [íä5 ®äðäå ÷îèàô »øì ®øñç è »î÷àøìô [íéø÷î10 ®øñç è »î÷àøìô [úåøåö9 ®úãìåú à »îè÷øìô [åúãìåú8 ®äðä »÷èîàøô [ãøôäáå12 ®íìôùáå íäáâáå ÷ »íúåìôùáå íúåäáâáå îèàøì »ô [íúåìôùáå íúåäáâá11 ÷ »ìë > îè »àøìô [íéàøáðä14 ®íå÷îá ÷ »äø÷îá ì »éø÷îë ô »îèàø [äø÷îë13 ®ãøôäå ì ®øñç îè »÷àøìô [íâ17 ®úåëìäî àø »îè÷ìô [úåëåìäú16 ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô [éë15 ®íéøáçðä [ìë21 ®ïëì ÷ »îèàøìô [ïë ìò20 ®éôìå ÷ »îèàøìô [øåáòáå19 ®øñç è »î÷àøìô [àéä18 [íéáëåë24 ®øñç è »î÷àìô [øáçúäá23 ®íäî ãçà èî »÷àøìô [ãçàä22 ®øáã < ô »îè÷àøì ®êìîäî øô »îèàì [êìäîäî26 ®äåáâ à »îè÷øìô [äèîì25 ®øñç ÷è »íéáëåëä î »àøìô ®áúåëìå è »î÷àìøô [äîç áëåëìå29 ®íéðùá ÷àøô »îèì [íéúðùá28 ®îèàø éúáù »÷ìô [éàúáù27 ®øñç ô »ùîùä çë î »è÷àøì [ùîùä øåà çë31 ®øñç ô »îè÷àøì [øåáòá ®®® øáçúäáå30 [åðäå4 .

3 (1) The 48 constellations are in the uppermost orb. with God’s help.[4] but the northern and the southern constellations[5] are not like that.[5] Enoch recorded in the Book of the Longitude[6] that it was at Cancer 25°. there was a disagreement among the . because of the strength of the Sun’s light. which is called the orb of the zodiacal signs. in the year 5 908 [1147/8 C. it gives an indication about the human body and the beginning of any action and thought.[4] so that it was at Leo 2°. they change their positions with respect to the center of the Earth when they are at their apogees and perigees.[9] (8) So.[8] changing the name according to the shape he observed when he connected one star to another. (4) Below the planets is the Moon.[3] (3) Furthermore. because it is the closest to the Earth of all the stars . but today. the Sun’s one year. it is at Leo 18°. (6) Therefore let us leave the matter according to the shapes recorded by the Ancients. (6) According to the first. and all these are like the variations experienced by the creatures that dwell on Earth. Ptolemy said that Cor Leonis[3] was at a distance of 122° from the beginning of the equator. namely.[1] (2) Underneath it are seven orbs for seven stars. and because the circle is round and there is nothing in its nature[9] that requires it to have a fixed beginning.E. Mars’ two years.chapter one 31 the end of the book.. because the mean motions of Venus and Mercury coincide with the mean motion of the Sun. (5) The northern constellations as well as the southern are [likened] to images so that they can be recognizable signs. they enter into conjunction with one another after being separated. planets][2] because they are close to the Earth.[7] (4) As for what they said. the paths of these planets are close to the ecliptic. the lower hides the upper. that the number of the stars is one thousand and twentytwo. Ptolemy called the constellation of the Falling Eagle the Almond Tree. when two planets are in conjunction. in his time.[7] for this reason they knew that Mercury is beneath Venus.[6] (5) The Ancients knew which planet is higher than its companion through two methods. (7) The other method is related to motion.e. and the Moon’s less than twentyeight days. which are called “servants” [i.[2] For. They undergo variations in their motions that do not occur to the upper stars : that is.]. and they move apart after having entered into conjunction. Jupiter’s twelve. and because when either of them is in conjunction with the Sun it cannot be seen. I shall refer to the secret of the change in the positions of the zodiacal constellations. for Saturn’s motion through the zodiac[8] takes around thirty years. this refers to those that are visible to the eye.

32 first version of the book of reasons (9) ®øáãä (10) ®1äìàä íéøáãá øáãì ïëåî (11) ®2äðîî êôä åøîà íéøçàå ùîùäî äìòîì äîç áëåëå äâð éë íéøîåà ùé éë ¬íéîëçä ïéá øôñä äæ ïéàå ¬äèîì íä íéîòôå äìòîì íä íéîòôù åøîà íéøçàå äîéëñä ïéðéãä éìòá úåìæîä éîëç ìë úòã ÷ø äìòîì íéðåéìò äùìùå úéòöîà ùîùä äéäúù ãò ¬ùîùä ìâìâä úçú íäéðù éë äðîî å÷çøé àì äîç áëåëå äâðå ¬çëð èáî íúåéä ãò 3äðîî å÷çøé íäå 4 äðäå ¬íéøùòå äðîù äîç áëåë ÷çøîå úåìòî íéòáøàå äðîù äâð ÷çøî óåñ éë íà éë øåà äì ïéà ¬5ìëäî äìôù àéäù ¬äðáìäå (12) ®ùîùá íé÷áã íäéðù äìà ®íîöòá íéøéàî íä éë íéðåéìòä íéáëåëä àìå íéúøùîä øàù äëë ïéàå ¬ùîùä øåàî ®ïåéñðäî òãåð äæ éë íéøîåà ùé ¬ùàä úãìåúá úù÷å äéøàå äìè úåéä íòèå àåä íåçä éë øåáòáå ¬íéìòåôä íä øå÷äå íåçä éë òåãé ºéãðëìà á÷òé åøîà éìàîù àåäù øåáòáå ¬ïîæä êôäúä úìçú 6àåä ïèøñ éë øîàå ùáéå íç àåäù äìè ìò åøæâ éë éúòã éôìå øåáòáå (1) 4 øîàéå (2) (3) ®ùàä úãìåúë åúãìåú éë åøîà ïë ìò ¬íîçúäì ïîæä ìçé äìè ìæîîå ìåãâä ìòåôä (4) ®ïè÷ä ìòåôä úãìåúë åúãìåú éë úøåö íù ùé éë ¬úù÷ ìæî íâ äéøà íòè äæå ¬äìèì úåîãðä íéáëåëä úåøåö øåáòá (6) ®7éãâ ìæî äëëå ¬äøåöä øåáòá ùáéå ø÷ àåäù øåù ìò åøîàå (5) ®ñåñ ¬ùáéå ø÷ àåäù ìæîä äæ ìò åøæâ ïë ìò ¬íäîò 9ãçà úåùéìùá 8äìåúá ìæî úåéä ïá úøåö ìò éìãå íéðæàî íéîåàú úåéä øåáòáå øåáòáå ¬øéåàä úãìåúë úåìæîä åìà éë 10 (7) ®íéèáîá åðùøôà úåùéìùä íòèå åøæâ ïë ìò ¬êñåîî çìå íç àåäù ¬íãà ®äëë íäù úåìæîä äìà ìò åøæâ ïë ìò ¬íéçìå íéø÷ íä úåøåöä äìà íéâãå áø÷òå ïèøñ éë ¬ñåéîìèáì íéøòù äòáøàä øôñá 12 àöîðå äù÷ íéúøùîä 11 úãìåú íòèå (1) 5 àéäù øåáòáå äéìà õøàä ïî äìåòä ãéàä øåáòá äçìå äø÷ äðáìä éë øîàù äîç áëåë úåéä øåáòá ÷ø ¬äîç áëåëå äâð ìò øîà äëëå (2) ®ùîùäî äìôù äùìùå ô »÷àøì [äðîî äìòîì íéðåéìò äùìùå2 ®äæá äæ øôñ úðåë ïéàå ÷ »èôàøì [äìàä ®®® ïéàå1 ô »îè÷àøì [äâð4 ®ùîùäî ÷ »îèàìøô [äðîî3 ®äðîî äìòîì íéáëåë äùìùå èî »äðîéä íéðåéìò ãöá) øñç ø »÷îèàìô [éãâ7 ®øñç è »î÷àìøô [àåä6 ®øñç ÷ »íìåëî îè »àìøô [ìëäî5 ®øñç ®åøîà ÷ »îèàìøô [åøæâ10 ®øñç ô »îèàøì [ãçà9 ®ãçà ÷ »îèàìøô [äìåúá8 ®(äìåúá ºáåúë ®øñç ô »îè÷àøì [àöîðå12 ®úåãìåú àø »îè÷ôì [úãìåú11 .

(9) Still others asserted that sometimes they are above and sometimes beneath.[11] (10) But all . they concluded that the nature of these signs is like the nature of air. who said that the Moon is cold and moist because of the vapor that ascends from the Earth to it and because it is below the Sun. whereas others maintain the opposite. Scorpio. which is hot and moist in a mixed manner.. which are themselves luminous. some say that this is known by experience. whereas Venus and Mercury do not move away from it because the maximum elongation of Venus is 48° and of Mercury 28°. Libra.chapter one 33 scholars. so that these two never get very far away from the Sun.[14] 4 (1) As for the reason that Aries. the astrologers[12] who are experts in astrological judgments concur in the opinion that both are beneath the Sun’s orb.[13] (12) The Moon. (3) He also said that Cancer is the beginning of the reversal of the weather. so that the Sun is intermediate and the three upper planets are above it. some of them assert that Venus and Mercury are above the Sun. (6) Because the sign of Virgo is in the same triplicity with them. (11) They move away from it until they are in opposition to the Sun . the lowest of all. and Aquarius have the shape of a human being. they concluded that this sign is cold and dry (I shall explain the reason for the triplicity in the discussion of the aspects). but this does not apply to the rest of the planets or the upper stars. Reshit Hokhmah] was not intended to discuss these topics.[10] but this book [i.[4] 5 (1) The explanation of the natures of the planets is complicated and may be found in the Tetrabiblos by Ptolemy.[1] (2) Ya#qub al-Kindî said: it is known that heat and cold are agents. because Cancer. because of the shape of a horse there. and this is the explanation for Leo and also for the sign of Sagittarius.[3] (7) Because Gemini. they said that its nature is like the nature of fire.e. has no light of its own but only the light coming from the Sun. Leo. because it is northern they said that its nature is like the nature of the weaker agent. (2) He said similar things about . because heat is the stronger agent and because the weather begins to get warmer with the sign of Aries. and Pisces have the shape of animals that are cold and moist. and similarly with Capricorn. (5) They also said that the sign of Taurus is cold and dry on account of the shape of a bull .[2] (4) But in my opinion they concluded that the sign of Aries is hot and dry because the shape formed by the stars resembles a ram. and Sagittarius have a fiery nature. they concluded that these signs are like that.

34 íéãàî ìò øæâå éàúáù ìò øæâå first version of the book of reasons (3) (4) ®2íç äéäé 1íéîòô éë ¬åúãìåúá êôäúî àåä ïë ìò ¬äôéøùä ®åéìà äìåò åøåàå ùîùäî áåø÷ åúåéä øåáòá óøåù íç àåäù ìåáâ úçú úçà äðùá úåáø íéîòô ñðëéå ùîùä íò øáçúî åéúåòåðú úåøéäîá íçä íéãàî ïéá éòöîà ÷ãö úåéä øåáòáå ¬ùîùäî ÷åçø åúåéä øåáòá ø÷ àåäù éë øîåà ¬4øáçîä ¬íäøáà éðàå 5 (5) ®úëñåîî åúãìåú 3äúéä ¬ø÷ä éàúáù ïéáå úòãä ìå÷éùî íéìèá íéáø íéøáã íù ùé éë ¬ñåéîìèá åøáç àì øôñä äæ íåòãé úåãìåúä äìà éë åøîà íéøçàå úåéä øåáòá ÷ø ÷åçø åððéàå øåáòáå 11 (6) ®úåãìåîä øôñá ùøôà øùàë ¬ïåéñðäå íä éë ¬íç åà ø÷ àåäù ïåéìò àìå úøùî áëåë ïéà éë úîàäå íéîòô ùùå íéùùå äàî õøàä óåâî 12 10 (7) ®ïåéñðä êøãî (8) ®úåøåîâ úåéàøá 8ñéìèåèñéøà 7ùøéô øùàë ¬úéùéîç 6úãìåúî ìåãâ àåä éë ¬9ìåãâ ùîùä óåâ (9) ®íîçúéù åúòåðú øåáòá øéåàá çë ãéìåé ïë ìò ¬áø ÷çøî õøàäî àåä äôåâ ¬õøàäî äáåø÷ àéäù ô§§ò§§à ¬äðáìä éë 14 ¬äúòåðú øåáòáå ¬äðîî ïè÷ 16 ®èùôúé èòî íîçúéùë õøàá øåàî àìå áëåë ïéà éë ìò åøæâ àìå à29 19 àåäù øáã ìë úãìåú éë ¬äçì 15 13 øéåàá ãéìåú äçì çë ãéìåú äðáìä ïë ìò ¬ ãéî ùáéé áø àåä ùîùä íåçù øåáòáå ììëäå (10) (11) ®äñåðî 18 øáãä äæå ¬17çåîáå íéçîöä éðéîá (12) ®åðîî àöåéä øåàä úãìåúå åúòåðú øåáòá íåç ÷ø ¬øå÷ ãéìåéù åøæâ øùàë ¬íãàä êñîî éôë ïâåäë íåç ãéìåú àìù øåáòá ÷ø äø÷ àéäù äðáìä êñîî 20 éôë ÷ø íç àåä øùá 21 | ìë éë òåãéå ¬ø÷ àåä øåù øùá éë íéàôåøä 22 ¬äáøä õøàäî ÷åçø àåäù ÷ãö ìò åøæâå õøàä ïî áåø÷ 24 åúåéä øåáòá éàúáù äëëå ïë ìò ìò ìùåî åúåéäá éë ¬ø÷ àåäù åéìò åøæâ (13) ®åì ÷éæîå ø÷ àåä íãàä (14) ®÷ãö óåâë ìåãâ åôåâ ïéàå (15) ®úåî ìò äøåé ¬ïâåäë íåç ïúé àìù øåáòá ¬23íãà ãìåî åúåéä øåáòá çìå ø÷ àåäù äâð ìò åøæâå ¬íãàä úãìåúë çìå íç ìåãâ íéãàî óåâå (16) ®äîç áëåëì 26ïéãä äëëå ¬äðáìä êøãë 25õøàäî ïè÷ åôåâå ®ïë ìò > îè »÷àìøô [äúéä3 ®íåç äøåé ô »îè÷àøì [íç äéäé2 ®íòô î »è÷àìøô [íéîòô1 øùàë7 ®êøãî ÷ »îèàìøô [úãìåúî6 ®øñç ÷ø »îèàìô [íéáø5 ®øñç ÷ô »îèàøì [øáçîä4 [ìåãâ ùîùä óåâ9 ®åèñéøà è÷à »ñåìèåèñéøà ãì »îô [ñéìèåèñéøà8 ®øñç ô »îèàøì [ùøéô »îèàøì [àåä12 ®íòô à »îè÷ìøô [íéîòô11 ®øñç èô »î÷àøì [ìåãâ àåä éë10 ® ÷ »îèàìøô ®ãéîú è »îàìøô [ãéî15 ®àåäùë è »î÷àìøô [àåäù14 ®õøàá ÷ »îèàìøô [øéåàá13 ®øñç ÷ô [ììëäå19 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [øáãä18 ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô [çåîáå17 ®äçéì è »î÷àìøô [äçì16 ìò22 ®àåäù éôì ÷ »îèàìøô [åúåéä øåáòá21 ®åîë ì »÷èîàøô [éôë20 ®ììëäå äæå ø »÷îèàìô ïè÷ åôåâå25 ®àåäù è »î÷àìøô [åúåéä24 ®íãàä îè »÷àìøô [íãà23 ®ïëì ÷ »îèàìøô [ïë ®ïéãú ÷ »îèàìøô [ïéãä26 ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô [õøàäî .

say that this book was not written by Ptolemy.[2] (5) But I. it indicates death. because it does not provide adequate heat. for that reason the Moon generates a moisturizing power in plants and in the brain. on account of their motion and the nature of the light emitted by them. and harms them. the Moon generates moisture in the air because its body is smaller than the Earth’s body and also because of its motion. because the body of the Sun is large—it is 166 times larger[6] than the body of the Earth and is not that distant from the Earth—it generates a warming force in the air by its motion. and this has been verified by experience. as I shall explain in the Book of Nativities. to Mars]. although it is known that all flesh is hot but it is considered cold as compared to the complexion of human beings.[8] (16) The body of Mars is larger than the body of the lower . (9) Although it is close to the Earth. then. enters into conjunction with the Sun and enters the domain of burning[1] many times a year. owing to the fact that the nature of anything on Earth is to expand slightly when it is warmed. but only heat.e. they concluded that Venus is cold and moist because it is close to the Earth and its body is smaller than the Earth. for when it is the lord of the nativity of some person. Abraham.[3] (6) Others said that they knew these natures of the planets by experience. on account of its rapid motion. and its body is not as large as that of Jupiter.[5] (8) However. and the same thing applies to Mercury. like the Moon. because there are many things in it that have in them nothing of rational thought or experience. just as the physicians concluded that the flesh of the ox is cold. (15) They concluded that Jupiter is hot and moist.chapter one 35 Venus and Mercury. like the nature of human beings. because they are made of a fifth element. they concluded that the Moon is cold only because it does not generate sufficient heat as compared to the complexion of human beings. (7) But the truth is that there is neither a planet nor an upper star that is either cold or hot.. the author. (11) The general rule is that neither the planets nor the luminaries generate cold. its nature switches back and forth and sometimes it is hot.[7] (13) The same applies to Saturn because it is so far from the Earth. and because Jupiter is intermediate between the hot Mars and the cold Saturn. (3) He concluded that Mars is hot and burning because it is close to the Sun and its [the Sun’s] light ascends to it [i. its nature was taken to be mixed. but because Mercury. (12) Consequently. (10) The Sun’s heat is so intense that the air dries up right away.[4] as Aristotle explained with incontrovertible proofs. (14) Therefore they concluded that it is cold. (4) He also concluded that Saturn is cold because it is far from the Sun.

36 first version of the book of reasons (17) ®íåãà åäàøî ïéòù øåáòá ãåòå ¬íç àåäù åéìò åøæâ ïë ìò ¬3ùîùäî 2áåø÷å ¬1íéìôùä äìàî áìå øåùä ïéò åîë ¬íåãà àåäù ïåéìò áëåë ìë ìò åøæâ äëëå ®íéãàî úãìåúë íúãìåú éë ¬áø÷ò ìòå ¬4ãéìåî àåäù úùáéä íò áøä íåçä øåáòá øëæ àåäù ùîùä ìò åøæâå íåéá ùîùä çëå ¬äàøð 6øáã äæ äìéìá äçë éë åøîàå øùàë ¬íéáåèä íéáëåëä ïî àåäù ÷ãö ìò åøæâå (1) 6 (2) ®5äá÷ð ¬êôäì äðáìä (3) ®äìéìá õøàäî äèîì àéä éë ®äâð äæ êôäå ¬áø íåç ãéìåéù øåáòá øëæ àåäùå ¬åîå÷îì òéâàùë 7åîòè ùøôà íåçá åúãìåú øùéúú éë øåáòá íåéä éáëåëîå øëæ àåäù éàúáù ìò 8åøæâå äîç áëåëå (4) (5) ®äìéìä éáëåëîå äá÷ð àåäù åøæâ ïë ìò »íéãàî øáãä êôäå ¬íåéä 10 ®äá÷ð àåä íòôå øëæ àåä íòô éë åøîà ïë ìò »åéúåòåðú áåø øåáòá êôäúî ®åîå÷îá åðùøôà éìúä øáãå ®õøàäî ÷çøîä éôëå ùîùäî ÷çøîä 9íòèäå (6) 2§ 13 àåäå íäéìò 12 êìåä ùîùä éë íééìàîù úåìæî 11 äùùä åàø÷ð ®éðùä øòùä 14 (1) 1 íúðù åìçä íéáø ®äìè (2) ®íééîåøãä äæ êôäå ¬÷ãöä å÷ ãâðë ìàîù ãöá úìçúî ùîùä åòéâäù øçà ¬êéøàäì íéîéä åìçé íùù øåáòá éãâ ìæîá ùîùä ñðëä ñðëä úìçúî íúðù åìçä íéøçàå ñðëäá íúðù åìçä 18 (3) ®íéìåáâä ìëá åðîî äèîì ïéàù øöå÷ì 16 íéáøå (4) ®17äìéìäå íåéä äåúùé 19 æà éë ¬äìè ìæîá 15 (5) 21 ®áåùéä ìà áåø÷ àåäù ¬ìàîùä óåñá àåä æàù øåáòá ïèøñ ìæî ìà ùîùä ìæîá ùîùä ñðëäá åìçä íéáøå ïåëð øúåéå ¬20äìéìä íò íåéä äåúùé æà éë íéðæàî ñðëúùë ¬ùîùä úåéä øåáòáå (6) ®úåîå÷îä øàùî äìéìäå íåéä úååúùäî ìçäì ®øñç øì »÷îèàô [áåø÷å2 ®øñç ÷ »íéðùä îàô »íéìôùä íéðùä è »øì [íéìôùä1 êôäì5 ®ãéìåîù ùáåéå ÷ »ãéìåî àåäù äùáéä íò î »èàìøô [ãéìåî ®®® íò4 ®ùîùä ìà à »îè÷ô »åîå÷îá ô »îèàøì [åîòè7 ®øáãäå ÷ »îèàìøô [øáã äæ6 ®êôäá äá÷ð àéäù è »î÷àìøô [äá÷ð ®íòèå ÷îèàìøô »íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúð÷éú [íòèäå9 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [åøæâå8 ®øñç ÷ »î÷èø [àåäå13 ®úëìåä ô »î÷èàø [êìåä12 ®äùù à÷ »îèøô [äùùä11 ®éôë ÷ »îèàøô [éôëå10 îø »æàå ÷ »æàù à »ô [æà éë16 ®íúðù ÷ »îàøô [ùîùä15 ®úìçúá ÷ »îèàøô [úìçúî14 ®àéäå àô »îè÷àø [ìæîá19 ®íéøçàå è »î÷àøô [íéáøå18 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [äìéìäå ®®® åìçä íéøçàå17 ®æà ®ñðëú ùîùäùëù ÷ »îèàøô [ñðëúùë ùîùä úåéä21 ®äìéìäå ÷ô »îèàø [äìéìä íò20 ®ìæî ìà ô [ùîùäî3 .

(6) The reason for the alteration of Mercury’s nature is its distance from the Sun and in accordance with the distance from the Earth. which is close to the ecumene. (4) Many peoples began their year when the Sun enters Cancer. and that the Moon. and the opposite applies to the southern signs . because day and night are equal then. because it generates great heat. is closer to the . 6 (1) They concluded that the Sun is masculine. because day and night are equal then.. they therefore concluded that it is feminine and one of the nocturnal stars.[2] I shall discuss this topic in its proper place.e. (5) Many peoples began their year when the Sun enters Libra. because it is underneath the Earth during the night.. because its nature is tempered in the heat of the day. and also because its color is red.[2] (3) Others began their year from the moment when the Sun first enters Aries. on the contrary. (3) They concluded that Jupiter is one of the benefic stars (I shall explain the reason for this when I come to the appropriate place)[1] and that it is masculine. such as Aldebaran and Antares. the Moon’s] power is by night.[1] (2) Aries.[9] is like Mars’ nature. (6) Because the Sun. and that the power of the Sun is by day. (4) They concluded that Saturn is masculine and one of the diurnal stars.e. is feminine. (2) They said that its [i. It is more correct to begin from when day and night are equal than from any other place. (5) Mercury is mutable because of its many motions. when it enters Aries. that it is above the Earth during the night]. The six signs were designated northern because the Sun travels through them when it is on the northern side of the equator.chapter two 37 planets and it is close to the Sun. because that is where the days begin to grow longer after they reached their minimum in all climates. and that Mars is the opposite. (7) As for the Dragon. Many peoples began their year from the moment when the Sun first enters Capricorn. because of the great heat and dryness that it generates. therefore they concluded that it is hot.[3] §2 1 (1) Second chapter. because this is something that may be seen [i. they therefore said that sometimes it is masculine and sometimes feminine. because then it is in the farthest north. and that Venus is the opposite. (17) Similarly they concluded that the nature of any upper star that is red.

38 first version of the book of reasons ®úåìæîä ìëì ùàø àåä 4ïë ìòå ¬äìè ìæîá äðùä úìçú äéäúù éåàø ïë ìò ¬íéðæàîá äñðëäá àåä 3øáãä êôäå ¬íìåòä 2ùãçúéå áåùéä ìà 1áø÷é ¬äìèá úãìåúîå ¬íåçä øåáòá øëæ 6àåäå ¬éúøëæä øùàë ¬ùà ìæî àåäù åéìò 5åøæâå åéãòöîå ¬íåéä úù÷ êøåà øåáòá úåôñåð åéúåòùå ¬9òåøâì àåäå ¬åéãòöî ïåøñç øåáòá úååòî àø÷ðå ÷øáä ìòå åøîàù äæå åøîàå 11 8 (1) 2 íéîéä 7åìçäù øåáòá êôäúîå ¬äîç çøæî úàô éë éçøæîå ¬íç íåéä éë íåéä äìéìäå óéñåäì (2) ®ìâìâä úàôî òåãé äæ ¬10íéøñç 12 íòøä ìò äøåéå ¬åá ùîùä ÷æåç äàøéù øåáòá íéáåèä úåìæîä ïî ãéìåî éìàîù äéä íà åøîàù äæå (3) ®íçä àáå øå÷ä øåñå ïîæä 14 15 êôäúä øåáòá 13 (4) ®íäéìò âòåì ñåéîìèáå ¬åãåä éîëç éøáã íä ®äìèì äîåã àåäù øåáòá ¬íéìâø òáøà øå÷ éîåøã íàå 16 íåç (5) äì ùéù äøåö ìò àåä éë íéúåøë åéøáéà éë äøåéù åøîàå (6) ®åæ øçà åæ ¬ïâåäë 17 åéøáéà åàøé àìù øåáòá (7) ®åëôäúä øåáòá úåøåö éúùå äàøîá íéðéò éðù ìò çøæî áì åìù éë åøîàå (8) ®íãà ïá úøåö ìò åððéàå äîäá äøåö ìò 18àåäù øåáòá ìå÷ éöç åì ùéù åøîàå ®20çøæî áì åì éë åøîà ïë ìò ¬äìéìäå íåéä ®íãä á29 24 19 åá úååúùä øåáòáå åîåç øåáòá 21 äéä ïë ìò ¬ìàîù úàôá íù àéä ùîùä éë çøæî ìàîù åìù 23 äéøà äéäé äðäå (9) àåäù äëëå ¬ïîæä øåáòá 26 22 êñåîî åîåç éë åøîàå øåáòá íëøåëî ïéò ìëå 28 25 úåîãîãàä | íééðéòä ïîå ¬÷åúîä íéîòèîä ïîå 27 (10) ®çøæî áâð úù÷ (11) äæ úåéä øåáòá ïàöä úåéçä ïî å÷ìçå 29 (12) ®úåøçùäå ïáåìä ïéá éòöîà ïéòä ìëù øåáòá úùçðäå óñëäå ìæøáäå áäæä úåëúîä ïîå ¬äìè úøåöá åéáëåëù åîåç øåáòá éùéìùä ìåáâä å÷ìçá éë åøîàå ùéù íéáëåëä úåøåö øåáòá ïàöä äòøî 36 (13) ®ùà 31íúãìåúå ùàá 30íéàá äìà å÷ìçá 33éë åøîàå (14) ®êñåîî 32àåäù ìëå ¬íéãàî úéá àåä éë øåáòá íéèñìä äåðå ¬åúãìåú äëë éë ùàä úåîå÷îå ¬34åá åúìçúá éë øåáòá úåìéôúä 35 éúáå ¬íéèñìä øåáòá äëë åð÷úéù äøå÷î úéá ìòå4 ®êôääå ÷ »îèàøô [øáãä êôäå3 ®ùãçúúå î »è÷àøô [ùãçúéå2 ®áø÷ú îø »è÷àô [áø÷é1 < è »îàøô [åìçäù7 ®àåäù î »è÷àøô [àåäå6 ®åøæâù î »è÷àøô [åøæâå5 ®äæì ÷ »îèàøô [ïë ô »îè÷àø [íéøñç10 ®øñçì ÷ »îèàøô [òåøâì9 ®úåìéìäå è »îàøô [äìéìäå8 ®åìçéù ÷ »åá ®ùòøä à »ãòøä îôø »(á2 §îò ¬1055 ñéøàô é§§ë ¬äîëç úéùàøá áåúë êë) ÷è [íòøä11 ®øñç ô »îè÷à [äì15 ®ãéìåî > ø »÷îèàô [øå÷14 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [íåç13 ®øñç ô »îèà÷ø [êôäúä12 »÷îèàô [àåäù øåáòá18 ®øñç ô »îèà÷ø [åéøáéà17 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [íéúåøë ®®® äì ùéù16 ®åì ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [äéøà21 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [çøæî ®®® ïë ìò20 ®øñç ô »îèà÷ø [åá19 ®øñç ø [úåîãîãàä25 ®åì ùé îè »÷àøô [åìù24 ®àåä ô »îèàø [àåäù23 ®óñåúî à »îè÷ôø [êñåîî22 ®å÷ìçáå è »î÷àøô [å÷ìçå28 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [äæ27 ®ïéî îèàøô »÷ [ïéò26 ®íãåàä ÷ »îèàøô ®åúãìåúå èø »ïúãìåúå î »÷àô [íúãìåúå31 ®øñç ÷ »îèàô [íéàá30 ®øñç ô »îèà÷ø [ìæøáäå29 ®åéáëåë úøåö ÷ »èàøô [åá ®®® úåøåö34 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [éë åøîàå33 ® ÷ »îèàøô [àåäù åîåç32 ®åúìçú è »î÷àøô [åúìçúá36 ®úéáå ô »îè÷àø [éúáå35 .

it is therefore fitting that the beginning of the year be in the sign of Aries.chapter two 39 ecumene and the world is renewed then. because of the shape composed by its stars.[6] (6) They also said that it indicates two colors and two shapes because of its instability. which is temperate.[8] (10) They also said that its [Aries’] heat is tempered because of the weather.[3] 2 (1) They concluded that it is a fiery sign.[11] (14) They said that pastureland for sheep is in its portion. and Sagittarius is in the southeast. because its stars are in the shape of a ram. and in like manner that the blood belongs to it. one after the other. and eastern because the east[2] is hot.. as I have explained.[3] and tropical because the days begin to grow longer and the night to grow shorter. silver. because it is the house of Mars. relative to the equator].[5] It is one of the benefic signs because the strength of the Sun is perceptible in it. and of the metals gold. and its rising times grow less (as is known) on account of the circle. and the abode of robbers.[7] (8) They said that the heart of the east belongs to it because of its heat and because day and night become equal in it. because there the Sun is at the north [i.[1] and masculine because of the heat. because that is its nature. and because the opposite happens when it enters Libra.[4] and its hours grow longer because of the length of the arc of the day. (12) Its portion of the animals is sheep. (3) They said that if it is northern it generates heat and if southern it generates cold. because all of them can withstand fire and have a fiery nature. It indicates thunder and lightning because of the alteration of the weather and the retreat of the cold and approach of the heat. (5) They also said that its limbs are cut off because its limbs are not seen properly. iron. (2) It is also called crooked because of the decrease in its rising times. and any roofed house that was designed like that because of the robbers. but Ptolemy laughs at them. and the places of fire.[10] (13) They said that the third climate is in its portion because of its heat. (11) Of the tastes the sweet[9] and of the colors the reddish and any color that is saffron yellow because this color is intermediate between whiteness and blackness. and copper. Consequently it [Aries] is the first among all the signs. (9) So Leo is in the northeast.e. and that it is of the nature of the day because the day is hot. (4) They said that it is a four-legged image because of its likeness to a ram. This is what the Indian scientists say. consequently they said that the heart of the east belongs to it. (7) They said that it has half a voice because it has the form of a beast and not of a man. and houses of prayer. because the equator is .

40 åéúåðùå first version of the book of reasons (16) ®1åìù úåéúåàì íòè òãà àìå (15) ®íéðééãä íå÷î íòè äëëå ¬÷ãöä å÷ 2 ®åéùãç íòè äëëå ¬åîå÷îá ùøôà øùàë ¬úåðè÷ä íéãàî úåðù øôñîë äøùò ùîç äìòéù åøîàù äæå (18) ®3åéúéñéðå øùòî åáà øôñá åéúéàø úåòùäå íéîéä íòèå (17) (19) ®úåøåöä åìàì íéîåã íéáëåë íù åìòéù øåáòá ¬5øåù úøåöå 4ùìåùîä ùàøå âã áðæå äùà úøåö íù äî ìë ÷ø ¬8íù äìòéù ñåéîìèá 7øîàéù äî ìë 6íòè äëëå ãìåðäù åøîàù 11 äîå (20) ®10íãåñ åðòãé àì íéðô ìëá 9åìòéù åãåä éùðà åøáãéù 12 ®ïåéñðäî íãéá äìò íéøáãä äìà ¬úåôø åéðæàå êñåîî åôåâ äéäé åá äëë ïéàå ¬íéàåìçúå íéîåî ìò åøåé íéâãå éãâå áø÷òå ïèøñå øåùå ìæîä äæå 14 (1) 3 13 íãà ïá úøåö ìò íäù úåìæîä åøàùðå ®ùåôéò àìá áø íîåç éë úù÷å äéøà ìæî úåìæîä ìëì ùàø àåä éë ìæîä äæ ÷ìçá ùàøä åîùå (2) ®óåâä úåàéøá ìò åøåéù ¬15íéãéäå úåòåøæäå íéôúëä ìò íéîåàúå ¬øàåöä ìò øåùå ¬ùàøä ìò äøåé àåäå ¬ïèáä ìò äìåúáå ¬ïåéìòä áø÷äå áìä ìò äéøàå ¬äæçäå úåòìöä ìò ïèøñå ¬úåáåëøàä ìò éãâå ¬íéãçôä ìò úù÷å ¬äåøòä ìò áø÷òå ¬íéðúîä ìò íéðæàîå 17 åá éàúáù áàë éë íéøöî éîëç 22 16 åøîàå (3) ®íéìâøä 21 ìò íéâãå ¬íé÷åùä ìò éìãå äìè ìæî ãâðë áëåëä ìù ïåùàøä úéáä åîéùé º19åîòè äæ ïåùàøä úéáä 24 (4) 20 ®18áìä ÷ãöå ¬äæçä àåäù ¬úù÷á ÷ãö áàë éë 23 åøîàé ïë ìò ¬ äìè ìæî åîë àåäù àåä äìèá íéãàî áàë ïë ìòå (5) ®ùàøä ìò äøåéù äìè åîë ¬ùàøá ¬åéúáî áàë éë åøîà ¬ïë ìò 27 (6) 29 ®26äìè ìæî ãâðë íéìâøä íéâã ÷ìçá àöé äðäå ¬25ùàøä êøòë ¬øåù àåäù ¬ïåùàøä åúéá ìà äìè ìæî êøò éë ¬íééìâøä àåä äìèá äâð úåùòì åìçäù ÷åìçä éôë ¬åøîà íäå 32 äøåé ïèøñ éë ¬äìèî áàë 33 (7) ®28äìè ìà íéâã 30 äìè ìæî äðäå ¬éãâ àåä ïåùàøä éàúáù úéá äðäå ¬äìèì éòéáø ìë íòè äæå ¬äæçä åá éàúáù áàë 31 àåäù äæçä ìò éë åøîà ïë ìò ¬åì éòéáø úéá åãâðë ùàøå4 ®åéúéùéðå øîè÷ô »à [åéúéñéðå3 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [íòè2 ®åì øùà î »è÷àøô [åìù1 [øîàéù7 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [íòè6 ®ùàø ø »÷îèàô [øåù5 ®ùìåùî äùàøå î »è÷àøô [ùìåùîä [íãåñ10 ®íù äìòéù ô »äìòéù è÷ »îàø [åìòéù9 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [íù8 ®øîàù ÷è »îàøô ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [äîå11 ®øñç ø »äæá íòè ïúåð éøôä øôñî 䧧ö øåáãá éúòã éôì < ô »îè÷à ®íãà úøåöá ÷ »îèàøô [íãà ïá úøåö ìò14 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [ìæî13 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [äìò12 è »î÷àøô [åá17 ®éë < ø »åøîàù äîå ÷ »îèàô [åøîàå16 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [íéãéäå úåòåøæäå15 øáà áàë úáñ íéúøùîä ïî äæéà úòãì äöøð íà äæ ìëî åìöà ïáåîä < è »î÷àøô [áìä18 ®àåä áàåëä øáàä ìò äøåîä ìæîä äæå íéãîåò åðçðà ìæî äæéàá äàøð íäéìò íéøåî úåìæîäù íéøáàäî åéðôì íà 짧ø äéäéù ãö äæ éà åì ùé øçà êøò åà éùéìù åà åì éðù àåä íà ìæîä äæ ìà åëøò òãðå úéáä àåä ìæîä äæù úøùîäå ìæîä äæì ïë íâ êøòä åì ùéù ìæîä àåää ãöä êôä ç÷ðå åéøçàì íà ÷ »îèàøô [äìè ìæî åîë àåäù20 ®éë åîòè ÷ »îèàô [åîòè äæ19 ®áàëä àåä åðîî åìù ïåùàøä ®ìòå ô »äæìå ÷ »îèàø [ïë ìòå23 ®àåäå ÷ »îèàøô [àåäù22 ®åøîà ÷ »îèàøô [åøîàé21 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [êøòë27 ®ýíéâã óåñ äìè ùàøù §éôû ø26 ®ýåéúáî §éôû ø25 ®àåäù ø »÷îèàô [àåä24 è »î÷àøô [àåäù30 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [úåùòì29 ®ýäìè ìâø àåä øåù ùàøù §éôû ø28 ®êøò àåäù ®ìëá ÷ »îèàøô [ìë33 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [åá32 ®øñç è »î÷àô [éë31 ®àåä éë .

is in the head. but this does not apply to Leo and Sagittarius. (7) They also said.[12] (15) I do not know the reason for its letters. Virgo the belly.[1] (2) They assigned the head to this sign because it is the first [lit. Libra the waist. Cancer. which indicate the health of the body. that the image of a woman and the tail of a fish and the head of the triangle and the image of a bull rise there. they said that the pain of Saturn in it [Aries] is the chest. and because Aries is the fourth with respect to it [Capricorn]. just like Aries. we do not know their secret. I saw it in Abû Ma#shar’s book[15] and I verified it by experience. Gemini the shoulders and arms and hands. (3) The Egyptian scientists said that the chest is the pain of Saturn in it [i. Capricorn the knees.[16] (18) As for what they said. and therefore say that the pain of Jupiter in Sagittarius. this is because stars that are similar to these images rise there. this is also why the place of judges belongs to it ...e.[19] 3 (1) This sign. This is the reason for each of the pains . Cancer the ribs and chest. which is the first of its houses. in Aries]. Taurus indicates the neck.[18] they found these things through experience.[2] and the heart is the pain of Jupiter in Aries . namely. (19) The same explanation applies to everything that Ptolemy said rises there. as I shall explain in its proper place. because their heat is strong and without mold. but as for everything the Indians said rises in any of the decans. that Cancer indicates the chest because it is the fourth sign after Aries. like the number of the least years of Mars.chapter two 41 at its beginning. Taurus. (5) Therefore the pain of Mars in Aries is in the head. Scorpio. Leo the heart and upper abdomen. is equal to the number of signs separating Pisces from Aries. which indicates the head. “head”] of all the signs and indicates the head. Sagittarius the thighs. (4) This is the reason for it: they put the first house of the planet facing Aries as if it were equivalent to Aries.[17] (20) As for what they said. and Pisces. and we know that the first house of Saturn is Capricorn. Capricorn. (16) Its years are 15. because the number of signs separating Aries from Venus’ first house. Aquarius the shanks. that the body of one native in it will be mixed and his ears flaccid.[13] and so too the reason for its months. the feet are the pain of Mars in Pisces]. This leaves the signs with a human shape.[14] (17) As for the reason for the days and hours. indicates deformities and diseases. namely. and Pisces the feet. as well as Taurus. in accordance with the division that they begin from Aries.e. Scorpio the genitals. (6) Therefore they said that the pain of Venus in Aries is the feet. The feet were assigned to Pisces’ portion with respect to the sign of Aries [i. namely.

42 first version of the book of reasons (8) ®úåìæîä 1ìëá áàëå ®íéãàî úéá àåäù ùîùä çë øåáòá ¬íéëìîä ìæîä äæ ÷ìçá éë åøîàù äîå 2 øåáòá íãäå ùàäå äâéøääå úåîçìîä éìòá ìò äøåé àåä éë åøîàå ®äæä ìæîá úåìæîä éîëç éøôñá éúùôç øáë 7 (2) 6 ®êéøàäì 3äúò êøåö éì ùé äðäå (1) 4 (3) ®åðéãéá äìòå åðéñð êë åøîàéù ÷ø ¬ ïåëð øáã éúàöî àìå 5íéúáä íòè 4úòãì éë íìåòä ìæî àåä ïèøñ éë 8êåðç øîà 11 (4) ®àåä 12 äæå ¬êåðçì íòè åá éúéàø ÷ø 10 9 àåä éë ¬ øùåéä å÷ íùù íå÷îá äìè ìæî úìçúá íéîù éöçá íéùìù øåáòáå 13 ùîùäå ¬ äéä åá ìëá äæä ìæîá íéãàîå éàúáù 15 úøáçîì åìëúñé äæ øåáòáå 14 (5) ®ø÷òä (6) ®úåøáçîä øôñá ùøôà øùàë ¬íìåòä éøáã íúøáçîî úòãì äðù íù äéäéù áëåë ìë çë åá äàøé øúåé áåùéä ìëá à30 16 ìàîù úàôá áåùéäå éìàîù àåä ìæîä äæ éë ®äðáìä úéá ìæîä äæ åîù õøàä ìà äáåø÷ äðáìä éë øåáòáå ¬úåìæîä øàùî øúåé äçë äàøé íù éë¬ ùîùä úéá äéøà àåäù åì éðùä ìæîä äéäéå äøåé éàúáùå úåøåàî íä äìà éë øåáòáå åîù éë åøîà íéøçàå (7) (8) ®íåçä ìãâé æà éë ¬17úåìæîä | øàùî 19 (9) ®18úåøåàîä éúá çëðì åéúá åéä ïë ìò ¬øåàä êôä ìò 20 ®íäá ùîùä ñðëúùë øå÷ä ìãâé ¬éàúáù úéáì éðù ÷ãö ìù äéä äðäå 21 úåìæîä äìàáù øåáòá éìãå 24 éãâ éàúáù ÷ìçá åúéá äéä ïë ìò ¬ìâìâá åì éðù ÷ãö úåéä øåáòáå øçàä 23 26 (10) úéá êøò äéäéù ãò ¬25éàúáù úéá íãå÷ ÷ãö ìù åúéá äéäå ¬22éìã àåäù øçàä éàúáù (11) ®27øçàä éàúáù úéá ìà ÷ãö úéá êøòë åúéá ìà àåä øùàë ¬28íéãàî éúá øåçàì íâ íéðôì éàúáù éúáî éùéìùä úéáä úåéäì éåàø ¬éàúáù ãâðë éòéáøä ìâìâá ùîùä úåéä øåáòáå 29 (12) ®éàúáù ìâìâì éùéìù åìâìâ 30 ùîùä úéá úåéäì éåàø äéä ¬íéèáîä ìà éòéâäá ùøôà øùàë äáéà èáî àåäå ìò ìâìâ ãâðë éòéáùä ìâìâá äðáìä úåéä øåáòáå ¬éàúáù úéá íò äáéà èáî [úòãì4 ®øñç è÷ »îàøô [äúò3 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [äâéøääå2 ®ìëì î÷ »ìë ô »èàø [ìëá1 [åøîàéù7 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [ïåëð øáã6 ®ïåëð > ø »÷îèàìô [íéúáä5 ®òãéì ÷ »îèàìô < ø »÷îèàìô [äéä9 ®äæë áúë êåðç ÷ø ÷ »îèàìøô [êåðç ®®® éúéàø ÷ø8 ®åøîàù è÷ì »îàøô §îò ¬øùééìô 짧é ìù úñôãåîä äàöåäá èñ÷èä óåâá òéôåî åæ úôñåú ®àøáð àåäùë çîåö äéä §éô ®øùéä øì »÷îèàô [øùåéä11 ®ùîùä èî÷ »àøô [ùîùäå10 ®à89 óã 390 ïà÷éèåå 駧ëá íâå 37 ®éøáãá è »î÷àìøô [éøáã14 ®øñç è »ìëì ÷ »îàìøô [ìëá13 ®úøáçîá ô »îè÷àøì [úøáçîì12 íäù §éôû ø18 ®øñç î÷ô »èàø [úåìæîä17 ®åçë ÷ »îèàìøô [äçë16 ®ïåôö ÷ »îèàìøô [ìàîù15 »îèàìøô [úåìæîä äìàáù øåáòá20 ®éãâá éë ãåòå ÷ »îèàìøô [éãâ ®®® åøîà íéøçàå19 ®ýéìãå éãâ [÷ãö ®®® úéáì éðù23 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìô [éìã àåäù22 ®øçàä < ÷ »îèàìøô [åúéá21 ®øñç ÷ àåäá úù÷ ÷ãö úéáå éãâ àåä éúáù úéáùû ø25 ®ãçàä è »î÷àìô [øçàä24 ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô ø28 ®ýøçàä ÷ãö úéá àåäù íéâãì íãå÷ éìãù §éôû ø27 ®ãçàä ø »÷îèàìô [øçàä26 ®ýíãå÷ »èàøì [ùîùä úéá29 ®ýáø÷ò úù÷ éãâ øåçàì àåäù áø÷òå äìè íéâã éìã íéðôì àåäù äìè äéäéåû ®íò è »ìà ì »î÷àøô [ìò30 ®ùîùä î÷ô .

and since the Moon is nearest to the Earth.e. (11) So it is fitting that the third house counting from the houses of Saturn. Jupiter’s house is next to Saturn’s house. which is an aspect of antagonism[10] (as I shall explain when I come to the subject of the aspects).[1] (2) I have searched the books of the astrologers to know the reason behind the houses but I found nothing correct.[11] it is fitting that the house of the Sun be in an aspect of antagonism to the house of Saturn.e.e. they made this sign the house of the Moon. be the houses of Mars.[6] (7) The sign that is next to it.[5] (6) Since this sign is northern and the ecumene is also in the north [relative to the equator]. was assigned to the house of the Sun. since its [Mars’] orb is the third counting from Saturn’s.[3] (5) For this reason they look for the conjunction of Saturn and Mars in this sign [Cancer] every thirty years. so as to know the affairs of the world from their conjunction. 4 (1) Now I need to amplify further.chapter two 43 in each of the signs.[7] (8) Because those are the luminaries and Saturn indicates the opposite of light. counting from] Saturn. inasmuch as the heat increases then. either forward or backward. (9) Others said that Capricorn and Aquarius were assigned to Saturn’s portion because the cold increases when the Sun enters these signs. and the Sun was in midheaven at the beginning of Aries in the place of the equator. in Leo] than when it is in the other signs. its [Saturn’s] houses are in opposition to the houses of the luminaries. and it runs as follows.[4] They said that it indicates warriors.[2] because it [Cancer] is the root. (4) Enoch said that Cancer is the sign of the world because it [Cancer] was there [i..[3] (8) As for what they said.. this is because the power of the Sun is in this sign. And because the Moon is in the seventh orb with respect .[8] (10) Because Jupiter is next to it in the order of the orbs. fire. and blood because it [Aries] is the house of Mars. (3) The only acceptable explanation I found for this topic is by Enoch. the power of any planet that is in it [Cancer] is felt more than when it is in the other signs. that kings are in the portion of this sign. Leo. slaughter. which is Aquarius. They merely say: we have verified by experience in this manner and were successful.. and Jupiter’s other house precedes Saturn’s other house. because throughout the ecumene the Sun’s power is more perceptible there [i.[9] (12) Because the Sun is in the fourth orb with respect to [i.[4] as I shall explain in the Book on Conjunctions. such that the number of signs separating Saturn’s other house from its [Jupiter’s] house is equal to the number of signs separating Jupiter’s house from Saturn’s other house. in the ascendant]. namely.

44 first version of the book of reasons ®éàúáù úéá çëðì äðáìä úéá äéä ïë ìò ¬úåîçìîä úéá éòéáùä úéáäå 1éàúáù äøùòä å÷ìç ¬úåøåàîä éúá íä íéúáä äìà éë åðòãéù øçà º2êåðç øîàéå úéáå ùîùä ÷ìçá úéá úøùî ìëì äéä äðäå 4 3 (1) 5 (2) ®íéúøùîä ìò íéøàùðä íéúá úåìæîä éîëç åøîà ïë ìò ùîùì ùéå ùàøî 10 (3) ®8øåçàì 7øçàäå 6íéðôì ãçàä ÷ø ¬5äðáìä ÷ìçá (4) ®ìåãâä ÷ìçä àåäå ¬ùîùä ÷ìç àåä éãâ óåñ ãò äéøà úìçúî éë àåäù ¬ïè÷ä 9ä÷ìçá äðáìä äëë íâ ¬íìåáâá íéúøùîä çëë ä÷ìçá çë äðáìäå íãà äð÷éù øáã ìë éë ïåéñðä éîëç åøîà ïë ìò ®ìåãâä ÷ìçá äéä íà äæ êôäå ¬åäð÷ øùàî úéáî 17 13 (5) ®ïèøñ óåñ ãò éìã 12 øúåéá åðøëîé 15 ïè÷ä 11 ä÷ìçá êøòä åúåà àöîú äâð ìâìâî éàúáù 19 16 ìâìâ êøò ìà 14 ìëúñú øùàëå (6) ìà ãçàä íéúáä 24 22 éðùä úéáä êøòë éðùä úéá ìà ãçàä úéá êøòå ¬18äæ úéá ìà äæ äæ êøò äðäå (7) ®21äîç áëåë 23 25 íò éàúáù êøã äëëå ¬20øçàä éðùä úéáä ìù ïåùàøä úéáä êøòå ¬äæ 26 ìâìâ ìà äæ ìâìâ êøòë íéúøùîä éúá ìëá åðàöîú éðùä úøùîä ìù ïåùàøä úéáä ìà ãçàä úøùîä ìà éðùä úøùîä úéá êøòë äðäå (9) ®28øúåé êéøàäì êøåö ïéà øåøá øáã äæå 29 (8) ®27øçàä éðùä úøùîä úéá ãçàä ÷ãö úéá äéäå ®íúãìåú êôä àåä éë úåøåàîä éúá çëðì éàúáù éúá åéä øùàë åúãìåú øùåé øåáòá ùîùä úéá íò äðäå úéùéìù èáî ìò ùîùä ÷ìçá àåäù (10) ®äúéá ìà êøòä äæ úåîãë äðáìä ÷ìçá àåäù éðùä åúéá 30äéäå ¬ùøôà 31 ¬äáéà úéòéáø èáîå àåä ÷éæî éë úåøåàîä íò úéòéáø èáî ìò íéãàî éúá åéä íìù åððéà ÷ø ¬áåè áëåë àåä íâ éë úåøåàîä éúá íò úéùù èáî ìò äâð éúá åéäå îô÷ »èàøì [úøùî ìëì3 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [êåðç øîàéå2 ®éàúáù ô »îè÷àì [éàúáù ìâìâ1 »÷èîàøô [íéðôì6 ®ïî áåèä > ì »÷èîàøô [äðáìä5 ®ïî áåèä > ì »÷èîàøô [ùîùä4 ®øñç ÷ìçá < ì »÷èîàøô [øåçàì8 ®ãçàäå è »î÷àøô [øçàäå7 ®ïè÷ä äðáìä ÷ìçá àåäå íéðôá ì »è÷àô [ä÷ìçá11 ®àåä éë è »î÷àìøô [àåäù10 ®÷ìçá ÷ »îèàìøô [ä÷ìçá9 ®ìåãâä ùîùä ®ø÷åéá èàì »î÷ôø [øúåéá13 ®ïèøñ óåñ ãò éìã ùàøî àåäù < ø »÷îèàìô [ïè÷ä12 ®÷ìçá îøì äæ ìâìâî §éô < ì »÷èîàøô [ìâìâ16 ®øñç è »î÷àìøô [êøò15 ®ìëúñé ì »÷èîàøô [ìëúñú14 àöîú17 ®äùîç äâð úéá àåäù øåù ãò éúáù úéá àåäù éãâîå ¬íéìâìâ äùîç ììëá íäéðùå ¬äæ ìâìâì àåäù øåù äâð ãçàä úéáå éìã ãçàä éúáù úéáù §éôû ø18 ®êøòë åäàöîú ÷ »îèàìøô [êøòä åúåà éúáùî ãçàä úéáäå íéðæàî àåä äâðî ãçàä úéáäù §éôû ø20 ®øñç ô »îè÷àøì [éðùä19 ®ýåì éòéáø ¬øåù ìà éìã êøòë éãâ ãò íéðæàîî éë < ì »îèà÷øô [äîç áëåë21 ®ýåì éòéáø àåäù éãâ àåä ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [äæ22 ®í÷çø éôì íìëá àöîú ïéðò äæå ¬éàúáù ïî úéá éìãå äâðî éðù úéá íéðæàî úøùîä ìà ÷ »îèàìøô [éðùä ®®® úéáä ìà25 ®ìà ø »÷îèàìô [ìù24 ®øñç ô »îè÷àøì [ìâìâ23 ®øñç à »øçàä ì »îè÷ôø [øçàä ®®® úéá ìà27 ®øçàä éðùä à »îè÷ìøô [éðùä26 ®éðùä úéáä ìù ®àåäå è »î÷àìøô [äéäå30 ®úéòéáø ÷ »îèàìøô [úéùéìù29 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [øúåé ®®® øáã äæå28 ®äðäå ÷ »îèàìøô [åéäå31 .

(2) Accordingly. (6) When you observe the number of orbs separating the orb of Saturn from the orb of Venus you find that it is equal to the number of signs separating the house of the one from the house of the other.chapter two 45 to [i. they assigned the remaining ten houses to the planets. (8) This is clear and there is no need to dwell on it any longer. he will sell it for more than the purchase price. and the number of signs separating the first house of the one from the first house of the other is equal to the number of signs separating the second house of the one from the second house of the other. it is also in trine] to the Moon’s house. as I shall explain.. (4) The Sun has power in its domain like the power of the planets in their terms. and this is the larger domain. counting from] the orb of Saturn. each planet was assigned a house in the domain of the Sun and a house in the domain of the Moon. which is from the beginning of Aquarius to the end of Cancer.[12] 5 (1) Enoch said: because we know that these houses are the houses of the luminaries. has a similar ratio [i. but it is not as complete as Jupiter.. (10) So the houses of Mars are in quartile to the luminaries because it is malefic and the quartile aspect is one of antagonism.[1] (5) Therefore the scholars who rely on experience said that if a person buys something when the Moon is in the smaller domain. and the number of signs separating the first house of one planet from the first house of the other planet is equal to the number of signs separating the second house of one planet from the second house of the other planet. and the houses of Venus are in sextile to the houses of the luminaries because it too is a benefic planet. and the opposite occurs if it [the Moon] was in the larger domain. which is in the domain of the Sun. (9) The houses of Saturn are in opposition to the houses of the luminaries because its nature is the opposite of their natures.e. The first house of Jupiter. (3) Therefore the astrologers said that from the beginning of Leo to the end of Capricorn is the domain of the Sun. the same applies to the Moon in its smaller domain. which is in the domain of the Moon. the house of the Moon is in opposition to the house of Saturn. inasmuch as the sextile aspect . although one forward and the other backward. is in trine to the house of the Sun because of its temperate nature.[3] its second house.[2] (7) So you find that the number of signs separating the houses for all the planetary houses is equal to the number of orbs separating the orb of the one from the orb of the other. and similarly with Saturn and Mercury.e. and because the seventh mundane house is the house of wars.

46 first version of the book of reasons äîç áëåë úéá äéäå (11) ®úéùéìùä 2èáîî øñç 1úéùùä èáî àåä øùàë ÷ãö åîë ïî ãçà íå÷î äéä íà éë ñåéîìèá øîàéå (12) ®åðîî ÷çøé àì éë 3ùîùä ìà êåîñ çë áëåëì äéäé æà ¬íäéúá ìà 4åéúá êøòë äðáìä åà ùîùä íå÷î íò íéúøùîä ®äñåðî 5øáãä äæå ¬ìåãâ ¬áåùéä 6úàôì úåèðì ìçú íù éë øåáòá ùîùä ãåáë úéá àåä ìæîä äæå ìæîäî äøùò òùú àéä äãåáë úìòî éë åøîà åãåä éîëçå øåáòá äâð úàðù 8úéá àåä éë åøîàå ïåáùçä êøãá òåãé 10 (1) 6 (2) ®íìåòá äçë äàøéå øùàë ¬äìòîä äðúùú äðä êë øáãä íàå ¬äâðå ÷ãö êñîî áëåë íù ùéù øåáòá (3) ®úåëåùçäå úåøéàîä úåìòîä ìò 7øáãà ®úåãîäå øáãä äæ ¬äîç áëåë 9úåìôù íå÷îå ¬åúéá íò çëð èáî àåäù ùîùä úéá úåéä øåáòá 12 äìéìá 11 ÷ãöå ùîùä íåéá úåùéìùä éìòá éë åøîàå ¬äçë äàøé íåéá éë íåéá ùîùì çëä åîùå á30 (1) 7 (2) ®ìæîä 13äæ íò úçà úãìåú ÷ãö úéáå äìòîì àåäù áëåë ìëå ¬äìéìá õøàäî äìòîì åúåéäì ïëúéù äìéìá ÷ãö åîùå åúåéä øåáòá 17 | éàúáù óúåùä åîùå (3) ®õøàä úçú äååääî åì ùé çë øúåé õøàäî 16 åððéà íçå ø÷ éúøîàù äæ éë íéãàî åàéöåäå úòãì êì ùéå ®15åúãìåú øùéúú íç ìæîäå ¬14ø÷ ®åîåç áåø øåáòá 18 (4) ®äëë øîàé íéãéîìúä ìò ì÷äìå ¬åãéìåéù øáãä ìò àìà úåôúåùä äæî íééðùäå ¬úéáä ìòá àåä éë íéãàîì íéøöî éîëç úòã ìò íéðåùàøä íéðôäå úéáä ìòá àåä éë øåáòá 19 (1) 8 ÷ãöì íééùéìùäå ¬úåùéìùì éðù àåä äúéá éë ùîùì ®úéáä ìòá íéãàî ïî íéðôä ÷ìçì åìçä åãåä éùðàå ìë êøãä äæ ìòå ¬23íéãàîì éðù äìâìâ íàéöåä ¬ íéðô íéùìùå äùù íä éë 25 22 (2) ®20úåùéìùä ïî éùéìùä 21 àåä øùàë ùîùì íééðùä 24 íéðôä åîùå (3) ® íéãàîì íéâã óåñ áùù ãò íéðôä ®éèáîî àô »èáî ìà î »÷èøì [èáîî2 ®úéùù èáîù åîë ÷ »îèàìøô [úéùùä èáî àåä øùàë1 ®øñç ÷ »øáã ì »îèàøô [øáãä5 ®åúéá ÷ »îèàìøô [åéúá4 ®ùîùä úéá à »îè÷ìøô [ùîùä3 [úåìôù9 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [úéá8 ®øîåàù åîë ÷ »îèàøô [øáãà øùàë7 ®ãöì ÷ »îèàøô [úàôì6 [äìéìá12 ®øñç ÷îèàô »(äøåùì ìòî) ø [÷ãöå11 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [øáãä10 ®ìôù ÷ »îèàøô èà »÷îôø [äæ13 ®à3 §îò ¬1055 ñéøàô é§§ë ¬äîëç úéùàø äàø ®íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúôñåä ÷ »îèàøô [úòãì êì ùéå16 ®íúãìåú ôî »è÷àø [åúãìåú15 ®ì÷ ô »îè÷àø [ø÷14 ®øñç ®äâðì è »î÷àìøô [÷ãöì19 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [úåôúåùä18 ®íéãéîìúä è »î÷àøô [íéãàî17 ®òãå úéáä ìòáì íéðåùàøä íéðôä äæ êøã ìò íéðôä ìë å÷ìçð ïëå úù÷ àåäù < ì »î÷àèøô [úåùéìùä20 øãñ ìò úåùéìùä ïî éùéìùä úéáä ìòáì íééùéìùä íéðôäå úåùéìùäî éðùä úéáä ìòáì íééðùäå ì »î÷àèøô [íéãàî23 ®øñç è »î÷àìøô [àåä22 ®øñç è »î÷àìøô [íéðôä21 ®äæ øçà äæ íéàá äæ ìòå24 ®éàúáùì íééùéìùäå äðáìì íééðùäå áúåëì øåùäî íéðåùàøä íéðôäå äâðì íééùéìùäå < ®øñç ÷îèàô »øì [íéðô25 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [íéãàîì ®®® êøãä .

which is again assigned to Mars. the houses of the Sun or the Moon]. Aries]. because its power is perceptible by day. Know that when I said cold and hot I referred only to what they generate and put it this way to make it easier for students.. . because the house of the Sun and the house of Jupiter have the same nature as this sign.[4] (3) They also said that it is the house of detriment[5] of Venus because it is in opposition to its [i. because it is the lord of the third house in the triplicity [i.chapter two 47 is incomplete in comparison to the trine..e.e. because in this place there is a star with the complexion of Jupiter and Venus. because it can be above the Earth at night.e.[1] (4) Mars was left out of this partnership because of its great heat. and by the same method they assigned all the decans until the end [i.[5] (12) Ptolemy said that if the ratio of the place of a planet to the place of the Sun or the Moon is as the ratio of the planet’s houses to their houses [i. and any star that is above the Earth exerts more power than one that is underneath the Earth. (3) They assigned Saturn as their partner because it is cold.. because it is the lord of the house [i.[2] 8 (1) The Egyptian scientists assigned the first decan[1] to Mars. Leo] is the second in the triplicity.e.[3] (3) For there are 36 decans.. (2) They assigned the power to the Sun by day. which may be known by arithmetic and geometry.. the second to the Sun. then the planet will have great power.[2] (2) The Indian scientists said that the degree of its exaltation is 19° from the beginning of this sign. and if you keep subtracting seven. They assigned the second decan to the Sun. as I shall explain when I discuss the bright and dark degrees. until the third decan] of Pisces. the lord of the house. because its orb is second to Mars.[6] and this has been verified by experience.e. Sagittarius]. and that it is the perigee of Mercury. 6 (1) This sign [i.[6] 7 (1) They said that the lords of the fiery triplicity are the Sun by day and Jupiter by night. and they assigned it to Jupiter by night. and inasmuch as the sign is hot its nature is tempered.[3] but if this was correct the degree has changed.e. Aries] is the house of exaltation of the Sun because that is where it begins to incline towards the ecumene[1] and its [the Sun’s] power becomes perceptible in the world. Venus’] house.. because its house [i.[4] (11) The house of Mercury is adjacent to the house of the Sun because it does not move far away from it. on account of the planets. and the third to Jupiter.[2] (2) The Indians began the division of the decans with Mars.e..

48 íà ¬äëëå first version of the book of reasons (4) ®ãçà øàùðå ¬äìéìç íéøæåç íä éë ¬1íéúøùîä øåáòá äòáù äòáù ÷çøî äîë òã ¬ìæîä åúåà ìù íéðôä ìòá àåä äæ éà 2ïåáùç êøãî úòãì úéöø ®äòáù äòáù åðàéöåä øáçúéù äîå ¬äùìù ìò åðëøòú äååääå ¬äìè 3úìçúî ìæîä àöîú æà ¬§ì§ë§ð§ç §í§ö§ù êøã ìò ¬úéáä ìòá íéãàîî øàùðá øåôñì ìçúå øáëå ¬äìåúá 5ìæîî úåìòî äøùò ùîçá ãìåî åðàöî äæ ïåéîãå äùîç åøáòå 10 (5) íìåòì äðáìä ìà êòéâäáå ®íéðôä ìòá àåä ìâìâá åéøçà äååääå ¬íéðôä 4ìòá óåñ (6) ®éàúáùî ìçú (7) ®ìæîäî íééðùä 8íéðôá 7àåä äðäå ¬úåìòî øùò 6íä íéðôä éë åðòãé (8) ®øùò äùù ìëä äðäå ¬äìåúá ìæîî åøáòù íéðåùàøä íéðôä 11 øåáòá ãçà 9åðôñåäå ®äøùò ùîç åìò äùìù ìò íåðëøò ¬äìè ùàøî úåìæî åðåìçä ®íééðù åøàùð äòáù äòáù íåðàöåä éåàøå ¬íéðù ùîùå íéãàîì äðäå íéãàîî øåôñì ®ùîùä úçú àåä éë ¬äâðì íééðùä íéðôä úåéäì äëë íàöî éë øîà àåä éë ¬13íäéìò ìëì íéìåáâä øôñîå 12 êåîñì ïéà ñåéîìèá øéëæäù íéìåáâäå 15 17 (1) 9 úøùî (2) ®íéñåðî 16 íä éë íéøöî éìåáâ ïåëðäå ®14úéðåîã÷ äçéñðá ®úåìåãâä åéúåðù øôñîë úåìæîä ìëì ìæîä åãåä éîëç å÷ìç ¬19éòéùúä úéáá íéìùé äðäå íàå 18 úåùéìùä éë øåáòáå 22 (1) 10 ìæîì (2) (3) ®øôñîä óåñ äòùú íâ ¬úåéòéùú íéàø÷ðä íä ¬20íé÷ìç äòùú ìò 24 úéðùä úéòéùúäå ¬äìè ¬øåùì úéðùäå äìèì 28 àåäù ¬ïåùàøä ìæîì 27 23 äðåùàøä úéòéùúä 26 21 úãìåú åîù 25 ®úéùéìùä óåñ àåäù ¬úù÷ ìæîì äðåøçàä úéòéùúä äðäå ¬øåù äðåùàøä úéòéùúä åîéùé ¬úù÷ åà äéøà çîåöä ìæîä äéä úåùéìùá åìçé íìåòìù ììëäå (4) ®úåùéìùä úìçú àåä éë ¬äìè ìæî êøã ìò 29 óåñä äéäéù ãò ¬úåìæîä êøã ìò ¬éãâî 32 øåù úåùéìù úìçú ïë ìò ¬êôäúî ìæîî 30 úåùéìùäå ¬êôäúîä ìæîä àåäù ¬íéðæàîî íéîåàú úåùéìùá åìçéå (5) ®äìåúáì äðåøçàä ® êôäúîä ìæîä àåäù ïèøñî åìçé 31 [úìçúî3 ®ïåáùçä ô »î÷èàøì [ïåáùç êøãî2 ®øñç î÷ô »àèøì [íéúøùîä ®®® äùù íä éë1 »îèàøô [íä6 ®øñç ÷è »îàìøô [ìæîî5 ®øñç ì »éìòá à »îè÷ôø [ìòá4 ®ùàøî ÷ »îèàìøô ÷ »îèàìøô [åðôñåäå9 ®øñç ì »÷èîàøô [íéðôá ®®® øùò8 ®íä ø »÷îèàô [àåä7 ®øñç ÷ì > è »î÷àøô [êåîñì12 ®íåðåìåçä ø »÷îèàìô [åðåìçä11 ®ãòá ÷ »îèàìøô [øåáòá10 ®óéñåäå [ïåëðäå15 ®øñç ÷ »úéðåîã÷ àçñðá è »îàøô [úéðåîã÷ äçéñðá14 ®íá ÷ »îèàøô [íäéìò13 ®éåàø [úåùéìùä18 ®áëåë > îàø »è÷ô [úøùî17 ®íäù ÷ »îèàøô [íä éë16 ®éìöà < ô »÷àèø ®íéòùú è »î÷àìøô [íé÷ìç äòùú20 ®éòéáùä ô »îè÷àøì [éòéùúä19 ®úùìùîä ì »÷èîàøô [äðåùàøä23 ®øñç ÷ô »úåéòéùúä îà »èøì [úéòéùúä22 ®øñç ô »îè÷àøì [úãìåú ®®® äòùú íâ21 [äðäå26 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [ìæîì25 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [àåäù ïåùàøä24 ®íéðåùàøä à »î÷èøìô ®ïåùàø ÷ »íéðåùàøä ô »îèàøì [äðåùàøä28 ®ïåøçà ÷ »îèàìøô [äðåøçàä27 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô ®íéîäî < ì »÷èîàøô [äðåøçàä31 ®çåøä ì »÷èîàøô [íéîåàú30 ®øôòä ì »÷èîàøô [øåù29 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [êôäúîä ®®® äðåøçàä úåùéìùäå32 .

(6) As an illustration. (3) Even if the sign of the ascendant[2] is Leo or Sagittarius.[1] (2) So they assigned the nature of the first ninth-part to the first sign. S un . because it is the beginning of the triplicity.. which is the end of the triplicity. multiply the result by three. (8) Cast out sevens and the remainder is two. M oon . (4) The general rule is that they begin the triplicity from a tropical sign. M ars . and the one whose orb is next is the lord of the decan. (7) Taking the five signs that have passed from the head of Aries to Virgo and multiplying them by three we obtain 15. and they begin the last triplicity with Cancer. Then we add one for the first decan of Virgo. the ninth sign]. And when you reach the Moon always begin again from Saturn. (4) Consequently. Then we begin to count from Mars so that Mars and the Sun are the two. suppose that we find the nativity in Virgo 15°. M ercury . they assign the first ninth-part to Aries and the second to Taurus.[3] 10 (1) Because the triplicity is completed in the ninth house [i. which is Aries. because it is underneath the Sun. the lord of the first decan of Aries . find out the distance of this sign from the beginning of Aries. and it is fitting that the second decan be assigned to Venus. which has already passed.chapter two 49 time after time. if you wish to know the lord of the decan of a certain sign using arithmetic. which are called ninth-parts.[3] . and the second ninth-part to Taurus.e.[4] 9 (1) The terms[1] mentioned by Ptolemy cannot be trusted. following the order S aturn . and keep subtracting seven from the result [i. (5) Begin counting the remainder from Mars. using the same method as in the case of Aries. consequently Taurus’ triplicity begins with Capricorn. and also because nine is the last of the digits. J upiter . V enus . This brings you to the end of the lord of the decan. because they were verified by experience. one is left over. because we know that the decan is ten degrees. which is a tropical sign.. until the end is assigned to Virgo. The correct ones are the terms of Egypt. the Indian scientists divided the sign into nine parts. which is a tropical sign. for a total of sixteen. cast out sevens or determine the value modulo 7]. it [the nativity] is in the second decan of the sign. because he said that he found them in this guise in an ancient text.[2] (2) The number of degrees of the terms assigned to any of the planets in any of the signs are the numbers of its great years. and the last ninthpart to Sagittarius.e. keeping the order of the signs. (5) They begin Gemini’s triplicity with Libra.

50 first version of the book of reasons (1) 11 (2) åðúéå ¬úåìæî øùò íéðù úãìåú ìò ìæîä å÷ìç éë øùòä íéðù çë íòèå ®íìåë äëëå ¬éðùä ìæîä ìòáì éðùä ÷ìçäå ¬äìåòä ìæîä ìòáì ïåùàøä ÷ìçä äëë åùò ¬ïåùàøä ìæîä 2ìòá çëá éöçå úåìòî éúù 1åðúðù úøçàä êøãäå 4 ìåãâ çë åì ùéå (3) ®ïåëðä àåä äæå ¬ ìæîä úåìòîá øùòä íéðù çë íéìùäì éãë 3 ®íìåòä úôå÷úá òã 7 éë (2) (3) ®íîòè äæ »úåëåùç íâ úåøéàî úåìòî ùé éë åãåä éîëç åøîàå 6 5 (1) 12 ®úåìæîä éîëç ïéá íåéä ãò úãîåò àéäå úéðåîã÷ äìåãâ ú÷åìçî éë úáùçîá àåäù ¬äìè ìæî 8úìçúá ùîùä ñðëä òâøî åúðù úìéçú íéùéù éî ùé ®äìéìäå íåéä äåúùé æà ¬íéìåãâä íéìâìâä éðù úøáçî ìà äñðëäá íòèäå ¬áìä øñçéù øîà ÷ø ¬10úéòéáøå íéîé 䧧ñù äîçä úðù éë úåàî ùåìùî ÷ìç øñçé éë øîà ñåéîìèáå 11 9 øîà ñëøáàå (4) (5) ®ïåøñçä äîë òãé àìå ¬úéòéáøäî øîàù éî ùéå ¬íåéá øùòå äàîî ÷ìç øñçéù åàöîå å÷ã÷ã ìàòîùé éîëçå ¬íåéá åãåä éîëçå (6) ®ãçàå íéùìùå äàîî ÷ìç àåä ïåøñçä éë úîàäå ¬ùùå äàîî ÷ìç 12 ïåéìò áëåë íò ùîùä 16 øáçúäî àéä íúðù ÷ø íéìâìâä éðù úøáçîì íéùùåç íðéà 15 ¬íéðåîã÷ä ïéá úøçà ú÷åìçî à31 äðäå (7) ®14åúøáçî ìà úøçà íòô 13 äáåù ãò éúù éë åøîà íéøçàå ¬úåìòî äðåîù åãøé íâ åìòé úåìæîä ìâìâ éðãñ éë íéøîåà ùéù åùò ¬íúëàìî éôì ¬åãåä éîëçå íéðåîã÷äå 20 (8) ®17íéðæàîå äìè ùàøá íä úåìåâò 18 | (9) ®íéòòåðúî 19 íðéà úåìæîä ìâìâ éáëåëù íéøîåà íä éë ¬äðåëð êøã 21 íäéøçà íé÷ã÷ãîäå ¬äðù äàîì úçà äìòî åòòåðúé éë ¬íäîò ñåéîìèáå ¬åøîà íéòáùì äòåðúäù ïåëðäå (10) ®íéðù ùùå íéùùì úçà äìòî íúòåðú éë åàöî ïåáùçá íúòåðú äñðëð øáë ¬íéðåéìòä åòòåðúéù äìà å÷ãö íà äðäå àì ¬íéðãñä éìòá íéøîåà øùàë ¬äòåðú íäì ïéà íàå ¬åãåä ìù 22 (11) ®äðù ùîùä úðù ìæîä úåìòîá ô »îàèø [ìæîä úåìòîá3 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [ìòá2 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [åðúðù1 úãîåò ÷ »îèàøô [úãîåò àéä úéðåîã÷5 ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô [ìåãâ4 ®ìâìâä úåìæîá ÷ »ïåùàøä è »î÷àøô [øîà9 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [úìçúá8 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [éë7 ®íâ è »î÷àøô [ãò6 ®íã÷î »î÷àøô [øáçúäî12 ®øîåà ÷ »øîàù è »îàøô [øîàù éî11 ®òáøå ÷ »îèàøô [úéòéáøå10 ®øîåà ®ùéå ÷ »îèàøô [äðäå15 ®íúøáçî ÷ »îèàøô [åúøáçî14 ®åáåù ÷ »îèàøô [äáåù13 ®úøáçî è »î÷àøô [íéøîåà18 ®íéðæàîå ùàøå îè »÷àøô [íéðæàîå17 ®íéøîåà ùéå ÷ »îèàøô [åøîà íéøçàå16 îàøô »àéä < ÷ »è [íúòåðú21 ®íéøçà î »è÷àøô [íäéøçà20 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [íðéà19 ®åøîà è ®äîçä à »î÷ôèø [ùîùä22 ®úòåðú .

(10) The correct value is that the motion is one degree in 70 years.[1] (2) Know that there is an old and great disagreement that still exists among astrologers. and so on for all of them.[3] 12 (1) The Indian scientists said that there are bright and dark degrees. with the same upper star]. (7) There is another disagreement among the Ancients. This is logical. the Sun] returns once more to conjunction with it [i. although he did not know by how much. this will not jeopardize . as held by those who are knowledgeable about the poles [i. (3) For some fix the beginning of the year at the moment when the Sun enters the beginning of the sign of Aries.[2] (3) It [the dodecatemoria] has a great power in the revolution of the world. (5) Ptolemy said that the deficit is the 300th part of a day. and Ptolemy agreed with them. and the reason is that when it [the Sun] enters the intersection of the two great circles the length of the day equals the length of the night.[6] (9) The Ancients said. here is the reason for them. for some say that the poles of the orb of the zodiacal signs ascend and descend eight degrees.[2] (4) Hipparchus said that the solar year is 3651/4 days.[7][8] (11) Now if those who say that the upper stars move were right. those who investigated closely after them found that their motion is one degree in 66 years. but he said that the quarter is deficient. the second part to the lord of the next sign..chapter two 51 11 (1) The reason for the power of the dodecatemoria is that they divided the sign up into the nature of the twelve signs and assigned the first part to the lord of the sign of the ascendant.. but if they have no motion. for they say that the stars of the orb of the zodiacal signs do not move. those who say that the poles of the orb of the zodiacal signs ascend and descend]..[3] But the truth is that the deficit is 131th of a day.[1] (2) Another method is that they assigned two-and-a-half degrees to the power of the lord of the first sign and they did the same to complete the power of the dodecatemoria in the degrees of the sign.e.e. the Arab scientists investigated closely and found that the deficit is 110th of a day. for their year runs from the moment the Sun enters into conjunction with an upper star until it [i. that they move one degree in 100 years. and someone said that it is 106th of a day. and others say that there are two circles at the head of Aries and Libra.[4] (6) The Indian scientists pay no attention to the intersection of the two circles.e. their motion would have become part of the reckoning of the solar year of India.[5] (8) The Indian scientists drew the right conclusions from the principles of their art. and this is the correct method .

52
éîëçù ììëäå

first version of the book of reasons (13)
®1êåøà ùåøéô íéëéøö íéøáãä äìàå

(12)

®åãåä éîëçì ÷éæé

åéøéáçå ñåéîìèáå ¬úåøåöä íòèäå ¬ïéòä úéàøî éôë ÷ø äåùá úåìæîä å÷ìç åãåä úçîåöä äìòîä àéöåäì áééç úåìæîä ìòá äðäå

(14)

®úåéàøä êøãî éåàøä 2éôë

úåøåöä êøãî ïéãì äöø íà ÷ø ¬ïåéñðä éîëç úåçåì ïåáùç éôë íéúøùîä úåîå÷îå åìéàë ãàî íéëåùç íéáëåë íîòè éë ¬úåøåáä íâ úåëåùçäå úåøéàîä úåìòîäå úåìòî äðåîù
4

秧÷úú úðù àéäù úàæä äðùá øñçì åì ùé ¬øåáá ìôð

3

íãà

ïåéñðä éîëç êøã 7ìò ìæî ìëá íéøëæðä íéìåãâä íéáëåëä 6íå÷îå

(15)

®5úåîìù

®äæä ïîæá àåäù åéìò åðãå ¬äìéìä úåìæîî äá÷ð àåä éë åøîà ø÷ åúåéä øåáòá ®øåù íåç 9¬êñåîî åììëå ¬äâåð úéá àåäù øåáòá äéáøå äéøô ìò äøåéå ¬ùáéå ø÷ àåä éë øåáòá äøåçùä äøîä åìùå ®õøàä úãìåú àåä éë øåáòá ®íéáåè åçéøå
12 11

(1) 13

åðøëæäù äî ìë øéëæäì êøåö ïéàå ¬ãçà êøã ìò 8ïîæä ãåîòéù øåáòá ãîåò ìæî

(2)

®äìè ìæîá

(3)

®ïîæäå åúãìåú øåáòá ¬øå÷ íò
10

øåáòá øåöéòäå úåöéôòäå ¬çìå íç àåäù ¬ïîæä øåáòá

÷åúîä íéîòèîä ïîå

íéäåáâä íéðìéàä íéçîöä ïî å÷ìçáå
13

(4)

®åúãìåú

åîòèîù õò ìëå ¬åéøôá úìòåú ùéù åøîà ïë ìò »äâð úéá àåäå

úåðù øôñîë äðåîù åéúåðùå

(7)

®ïåéñðä êøãá äæ åàöî ¬ íéìåáâäî å÷ìçáå

(5) (6)

ìò ÷ìåç ñåéîìèáå ¬åñð ïë éë éîåøã àåäù ìæîä äæ ìò åøîàå ìà á÷òé øîàéå

(8)

®14úåðè÷ä äâð

àåä ÷ø ¬íééçøæî íéîä úåìæîå ïåôö çåøì íä ùàä úåìæî éë øîåàå íéðåîã÷ä

(9)

®íééáøòî çåøä úåìæîå íééîåøã íä øôòä úåìæî éë äãåî
16

®ïåëðä àåä äæå ¬ïåôö

ãö ìà íéèåð íééçøæî íä

15

ùàä úåìæî éë éãðë

ïîæ úãìåúî ïåùàøä åéöç éë øåáòá úåôåâ éðù åì ùéù åéìò åøîà ®íéîåàú øåáòáå

(1) 14 (2) ®íéâãå úù÷å äìåúá ìæî íòè äæå ¬17õé÷ä ïîæ úãìåúî éðùä éöçäå íåçä

»îèàøô [íãà åìéàë3 ®ãåøîà > ÷ »îèàøô [éôë2 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [êåøà ®®® íéøáãä äìàå1 [íå÷îå6 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [úåîìù ®®® øñçì åì ùé5 ®úîàá < ÷ »îàøô [秧÷úú4 ®íãàë ÷ »÷îø [êñåîî9 ®ìæîä ô »îè÷àø [ïîæä8 ®íä > îàø »è÷ô [ìò7 ®íå÷îî ô »úåîå÷îå èî »÷àô [íéäåáâä íéðìéàä íéçîöä ïî11 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [÷åúîä ®®® éë øåáòá10 ®øñç àô »àåä < è »îàèôø [íéìåáâäî13 ®åéîòèîù ÷ô »îàèø [åîòèîù12 ®íéçîöäå íéäåáâä íéðìéàäî è »î÷àøô ®øñç è »î÷àøô [ãö16 ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [ùàä15 ®úåáåø÷ä ø »÷îèàô [úåðè÷ä14 ®éùéîçä < ÷ ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [õé÷ä ®®® éðùä éöçäå17

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53

the theory of the Indian scientists. (12) But these things require a long explanation. (13) In fact, the Indian scientists divided the signs into equal parts relying on observation alone, meaning the shapes of the constellations , but Ptolemy and his colleagues divided the signs according to what is appropriate by the method of giving proofs.[9] (14) So the expert in the zodiacal signs can find out the degree of the ascendant and the positions of the planets according to the reckoning of the tables of the scholars who rely on experience. But if he wants to pass astrological judgment by the method of the shapes [i.e., the zodiacal constellations], the bright and dark degrees, and the pits (socalled because they are very dark stars, as if a man had fallen into a pit),[10] this year, which is the year 5 908, he should subtract eight whole degrees.[11] (15) The positions of the large stars in each zodiacal constellation, mentioned in Reshit Hokhmah , are given according to the . method of the scholars who rely on experience and is the position of these stars in this time [i.e., in 1148].[12] 13 (1) Taurus. Because it is cold, they said that it is feminine and one of the nocturnal signs. They concluded that this sign is fixed because the weather is uniformly stable when the Sun is there .[1] There is no need to mention everything we said about Aries. (2) It indicates procreation because it is the house of Venus. As a rule it is mixed, heat with cold, on account of its nature and the weather. (3) The black bile pertains to it, because it is cold and dry; of the tastes the sweet, because of the weather, which is hot and moist; and astringency and constipation because of its nature. (4) The tall trees are in its portion of the plants, because it has an earthy nature. (5) It is the house of Venus; hence they said that its fruits are beneficial and that any tree whose taste and smell are good is in its portion . (6) As for its portion of the climates, they found this through experience. (7) Its years are eight, like the number of Venus’ least years.[2] (8) From experience they said that this sign is southern; Ptolemy disagrees with the Ancients and says that the fiery signs belong to the north and that the watery signs are eastern, but he accepts that the earthy signs are southern and the airy signs are western. (9) Ya#qub al-Kindî said that the fiery signs are eastern and are inclined to the north, and this is correct.[3] 14 (1) Gemini. They said that this sign is bicorporal because its first half is of the nature of the hot season and its second half of the nature of the summer season (this also applies to Virgo, Sagittarius,

54

first version of the book of reasons

ìò äøåé àåäå ®ø÷ò àåäù åøîà 2ïë ìò ¬íéðá äáøî åððéàù 1íãà úøåö ìò úåéä íå÷î íùå ¬ìàîùä óåñá àåäå ®øéåàä úãìåú àåäù øåáòá 3íéîùä åîë äåáâ ìë ®ùîùä 4úåäáâ øúåé íéìåáâä ìëá äìòéù øåáòá øùé àåäù 5ìæîä äæ ìò åøîà ®ïèøñ ùàøîå ¬íéøùéä 8úåìæîä íä 7úù÷ óåñ ãò 6ìæîä äæ úìçúî äðäå ãò
11

(1) 15 (3)

(2)

®íéùìùî

®íéùìùî úåúåçô úåìòîá äìòé ãçà ìëù ¬íéúååòîä úåìæîä íéîåàú óåñ ãò éãâ ùàøäî
10

÷ìçì åìçä éë ¬äæä ìæîá äæçä åîù äîì 9íòè åðøëæä øáëå

äðäå ¬úåòåøæäå íéãéä ìò íéîåàúå ¬øàåöä ìò äøåé øåù éë åøîà ¬ïë ìò »ìâøä åãìåîá äâð äéäéù éî ìë éë ñåéîìèá øîà ¬ïë ìò àåäù øåáòáå ¬ìâùîä ìò äøåé äâð éë ìæî éúù
15 16 14

(4)

®áìä äéøà

12

ìæîì äéäé

äæ íòèå ¬13íéùðá áø ÷ùç åì äéäé äéøàá

êøã ìò íîòè éë úåìæîä øàù ìò øáãì ïéàå

(5)

®äëë äø÷é áìä ÷ìçá

äì ùéù øåáòá óåòä ìòå íãàä ìò äøåúù äìåúá ìò åøîàå

(6)

®äìè

ïè÷ä áëåëä àåä úéáä ìòáù øåáòá ïè÷ çîö ìë ìò äøåé àåä éë åøîàå ¬úåøåö ®úåðîåàå úåøôñå äîëç ìò äøåúù åøîà áëåë úéá àåäù øåáòáå ¬íéáëåëä ìëáù
á31

úéùéìùä äìòîá äðáìä ãåáë

|

éë åøîà

(2)

®ãåáëä éúáá øáãà äðäå

(1) 16

¬äãåáë úéá ìæîä ìë éë øîåà ñåéîìèáå ãåáë íå÷îî ÷çøîä
19

(3)

®17åãåä éîëç úòã äæ »øåùî

úéáøòî äàøú ¬íìåòä úìçú àåäù ¬18äìèá ùîùä íò äøáçúäá éë íòèäå úåéä øåáòá åøîà åãåä éîëçå

(4)

®øåù ìæîá õøàä ìò
20

®øåùî úéùéìùä äãåáë úìòî éë åøîà ïë ìò ¬ùîùä øåàî àöúù éôë áø÷òî úéùéìùä äìòîä ãò ãåáë
23 21

ùîùä

úéùéìùä äðáìä ïåì÷ úìòîå ¬íéðæàîî äøùò òùú ùîùä ïåì÷ úìòî äéäé äðäå

(5)

íéðæàîî úåìòî äøùò òùúî åøîà ïë ìò »áø÷òî ®ùîùä
22

íå÷î åäåàø÷å ®äæä íå÷îá áëåë ìë çë ùúé éë åøîàå ¬äôéøùä íå÷î àåä úéá íéðæàî éë åøîàå

(6)

øåàá óøùð àåä áëåëä åìàë äôéøùä

úéùàø ìù çñåðä 駧ôò éúð÷éú [íéîùä åîë3 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [ïë ìò2 ®ïá > ÷ »îèàøô [íãà1 åøîà5 ®äáâ ÷ »îèàøô [úåäáâ4 ®íéîùä ãò è»íéîùäå î÷àøô »á4 §îò ¬1055 ñéøàô é§§ë ¬äîëç [úåìæîä íä8 ®ìæî > è »î÷àøô [úù÷7 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [ìæîä6 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [ìæîä äæ ìò »÷îèàô [ùàøäî11 ®øñç ÷ »÷ìç î »èàøô [÷ìçì10 ®øñç ÷ô »îèàø [íòè9 ®íìë ÷ »îèàøô ®åîòèå ÷ »îèàøô [äæ íòèå14 ®íéùðî è »î÷àøô [íéùðá13 ®ìæîá àø »îè÷ô [ìæîì12 ®ùàøî ø ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [åãåä éîëç úòã äæ17 ®åì î÷ô »èàø [äì16 ®êøãá ÷ »îèàøô [êøã ìò15 éë äìèî 觧é àåäù < è »îèàô [ùîùä20 ®øñç ÷ô »îèàø [úåéä19 ®øñç îèàøô »÷ [äìèá18 èô »î÷àø [øåàá22 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [íéðæàîî ®®® ïåì÷ úìòîå21 ®äìè úøåö úìçúì äáåø÷ àéä ®úéáá è »î÷àøô [úéá23 ®øåàî

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and Pisces).[1] (2) Since it has the shape of a man, who does not bear children, they said that it is barren. It indicates everything that is high, like the heavens, because its nature is airy.[2] It is at the far north, at the place of the Sun’s apogee.[3] 15 (1) Cancer: They said that this sign is straight because it rises more than thirty degrees in all the climates. (2) From the beginning of this sign until the end of Sagittarius the signs are straight, and from the beginning of Capricorn until the end of Gemini the signs are crooked, for each of them rises less than thirty degrees.[1] (3) We have already mentioned the reason they assigned the chest to this sign,[2] namely, that they began the division from the head to the feet; hence they said that Taurus indicates the neck and Gemini the hands and the arms, and the heart was ascribed to Leo. (4) Therefore, Ptolemy said that anyone in whose nativity Venus is in Leo will have strong erotic desires towards women, because Venus indicates sexual intercourse,[3] and this happens because the heart belongs to it [i.e. to Leo]. (5) There is no need to mention the other signs, because whatever applies to Aries applies to them. (6) They said that Virgo indicates men and birds because it is bicorporal, and that it indicates all small plants because the lord of its house is the smallest of all the planets; they said that it indicates wisdom, writing, and art, because it is the house of Mercury.[4] 16 (1) I shall now discuss the houses of exaltation.[1] (2) They said that the exaltation of the Moon is in the third degree of Taurus; this is the opinion of the Indian scientists.[2] (3) Ptolemy says that the whole sign is its house of exaltation, for when it [i.e. the Moon] is in conjunction with the Sun in Aries, which signifies the beginning of the world,[3] it [the Moon] is seen to the west on Earth in the sign of Taurus.[4] (4) The Indian scientists said that this is so because the distance of the exaltation of the Moon from the place of the exaltation of the Sun[5] is equal to the Moon’s distance from the Sun when it [i.e. the Moon] leaves the Sun’s light; hence they said that the degree of its [i.e. the Moon’s] exaltation is the third degree of Taurus.[6] (5) Now the degree of the dejection[7] of the Sun is Libra 19°, and the degree of the dejection of the Moon is Scorpio 3°; hence they called from Libra 19° to Scorpio 3° “the place of burning”[8] and said that the power of any planet is exhausted in this place. It was called “place of burning” as if the planet were burnt by the light of the Sun. (6) They also said that Libra is the house of Saturn’s exaltation, because

56

first version of the book of reasons (7) ®ùîùä ãåáë úéá éàúáù ïåì÷ úéáå (8) ®åñð ïë éë íéðæàîî íéøùòå úçà

¬ùîùä ïåì÷ 2úéá àåä åãåáë 1úéá äðäå ¬ùîùä úãìåú êôä åúãìåú éë éàúáù äìòîá éàúáù ãåáë éë åãåä éîëç åøîàéå åãåä éîëçå éúù ÷åçøá éàúáù ãåáë äéä éë êåðç øîàéå

(9)

®ùîùì ìåãâ ÷æð äéäé àìù ¬ùîùä 5ãåáë 4çëð 3úåìòîî úåìòî

âòåì ñåéîìèáå ¬áðæä ïåì÷ íùå ¬íéîåàúî úåìòî ùåìù éìúä ùàø ãåáë éë åøîà àåä åãåáë úéáù ÷ãö ìò åøîàå

(10) ®åîò ïéãäå ¬áëåë åððéà éìúä ùàø éë íäéìò (11)
®ìæîä éöçá àåä åãåáë úìòî éë åøîà

åãåä éîëçå ¬úåçåøä äáøé íù åúåéäáå íééìàîùä úåçåøä ìò äøåé ÷ãö éë ¬ïèøñ úåçåø ãéìåî íéãàî úåéä øåáòáå
8

àåä äðäå ®íéãàî ìù åãåáë úéá 7àåäù åøîà ¬6åáøé éãâ ìæîá åúåéäáå úåéîåøã
10

®÷ãö úãìåú êôä íéãàî úãìåú éë ¬éàúáù íò ùîùä åîë çëð èáî ÷ãö 9íò áëåë íù éë éãâî úåìòî íéøùòå äðåîùá åãåáë úìòî éë åãåä éîëç åðåì÷ úéá äðäå ¬åñð ïë éë íéâã åãåáë úéá éë äâð ìò åøîàå ìò äøåé äâð éë øåáòáå åøîàù äîå åøîàéå

(12)

(13) ®

11

åúãìåúá ïåéìò ïë ìò ®äìåúá
14

(14)

®ïåâä åððéàù òø ìâùî ìë ìò äøåé
13

12

áëåë ãåáë úéá åøîà ïë ìò ¬äîëç

øáã ìë ìò äøåé äîç áëåëå íìåòä éâåðòú çëð äîç

(15)

®15åøéáç ãåáë úéá àåä äæ ïåì÷ úéáå ¬äâð ãåáë úéá

®íéîá íéãìåðäî åîòè ¬ìå÷ íäì ïéàù íéîä úåìæî ìò
16

äðåùàøä úåùéìùä ìòá åîùå

(2)

®åéúøëæä øáë ùàä úåùéìù éúá íòèå

(1) 17
äìéìá

ìçú äðáìä éë åøîàå

(3)

®äâðì øåù ìæî úåéä øåáòá øôòä úåìæîá äâðì íåéá
17 18

®íåéäî äàøð àåä øúåé äìéìá äçëå ¬úéáä äæ ãåáë úìòá äúåéä øåáòá øôòä úåìæîå úéîåøã çåø ìò äøåé àåä éë øåáòá íäîò óúåù íéãàî ìæî ìòá åúåéä øåáòá éàúáùì çåøä
19

åîùå

(4) (5)

®íééîåøãä úåçåøá çë íäì ïéàù øåáòá éàúáùå äîç áëåë åàéöåäå ¬íééîåøã íä úåìæîá äðåùàøä úåùéìùä ìòá åîùå

òéôåî àì [çëð4 ®úìòîå ø »÷îèàô [úåìòîî3 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [úéá2 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [úéá1 ®§2.7:7 äàø ®íéîòèä øôñ ìù äééðùä äñøâá ìéá÷îä òè÷ä ìù çñåðä 駧ôò éúð÷éú ®ãéä éáúëá ìæîù ÷ »îèàøô [àåäù7 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [åáøé éãâ ìæîá åúåéäáå6 ®ïåì÷ ÷ »îèàøô [ãåáë5 [åúãìåúá11 ®åøîàå ÷ »îèàøô [åøîàéå10 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [íò9 ®íéãàî ÷ »îèàøô [àåä8 ®éãâ ø »÷îèàô [çëð14 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [øáã13 ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [ïë ìò12 ®åúãìåúî à »îè÷ôø è »ô÷àî [äðåùàøä16 ®åøéáç ïåì÷ úéá àåä äæ ãåáë úéáå ÷ô »îèàø [åøéáç ®®® ïåì÷ úéáå15 ®çëðå à »îè÷ôø [úåìæîá19 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [åîùå18 ®ìæîá > ÷ »îèàøô [äìéìá17 ®øñç ø »äðåùàø ®úåìæîî

chapter two

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its nature is the opposite of the Sun’s nature; therefore its [i.e. Saturn’s] house of exaltation is the Sun’s house of dejection and Saturn’s house of dejection is the Sun’s house of exaltation.[9] (7) The Indian scientists said that the exaltation of Saturn is Libra 21°, as they verified by experience. (8) Enoch said that the exaltation of Saturn is two degrees from the degrees that are in opposition to the exaltation of the Sun, lest great harm befall the Sun.[10] (9) The Indian scientists said that the exaltation of the Head of the Dragon is at Gemini 3°, and there [too] is the dejection of the Tail of the Dragon , but Ptolemy laughs at them because the Head of the Dragon is not a star; and he is correct.[11] (10) They said that Jupiter’s house of exaltation is Cancer, because Jupiter indicates the northerly winds and when it is there the winds increase; and the Indian scientists said that the degree of its exaltation is in the middle of the sign.[12] (11) Because Mars generates southerly winds and they increase when it is in Capricorn, they said that it [i.e. Capricorn] is Mars’ house of exaltation. Thus it [i.e. Mars] is in opposition to Jupiter just as the Sun is in opposition to Saturn, for Mars’ nature is the opposite of Jupiter’s nature. (12) The Indian scientists said that the degree of its [i.e. Mars’] exaltation is Capricorn 28°, because here there is an upper star with its [i.e. Mars’] nature.[13] (13) They said that Venus’ house of exaltation is Pisces, because they verified that by experience; therefore its house of dejection is Virgo. Hence it indicates any bad sexual intercourse that is indecent. (14) Because Venus indicates earthly pleasures and Mercury indicates anything related to wisdom, they said that Mercury’s house of exaltation is in opposition to Venus’ house of exaltation and that the latter’s house of dejection is the other’s house of exaltation.[14] (15) As for what they said, namely, that the watery signs have no voice, this follows from those born in water.[15] 17 (1) I have already discussed the houses of the fiery triplicity.[1] (2) Venus was made lord of the first triplicity[2] of the earthy signs by day, because the sign of Taurus belongs to Venus [i.e., Taurus is the planetary house of Venus]. (3) They also said that the Moon is the first by night because it is the lord of the exaltation of this house and because its power is more noticeable by night than by day. (4) They designated Mars as their partner because it indicates the southerly wind and because the earthy signs are southern; they excluded Mercury and Saturn because they have no power over the southerly winds.[3] (5) Saturn was made lord of the first triplicity of the triplicity of the airy signs because it is the lord of Aquarius, and they accounted it

58

first version of the book of reasons (6) ®íåéá åçëå øëæ åúåéä øåáòá åðîî íåéá 1åìçäå ¬éìã (7)
®åðîî äìéìáå íåéá

äéðùä úåùéìùä ìòá åîùå

åìçä ïë ìò ¬íåéäî øúåé äìéìá åçëå íéîåàú ìæî ìòá åúåéä øåáòá äîç áëåëì àéäù øåáòá úåùéìùä çëî ¬íéðæàî ìæî ìòá ¬äâð åàéöåäå øùé àåäù ¬÷ãö åîå÷î åîù ïë ìò ¬íéøùé íä úåìæîä äìàå íéâåðòú ìò äøåú úàæå äéáøå äéøô ìò åøåé íä éë äâðì äðåøçàä úåùéìùä åîùå óúåùä åîùå ¬áø÷ò ìæî ìòá íéãàîì úéðùäå ¬íåéá äðîî åìçäå

(8) ®åúãìåúá (9) ®äâð úãìåú (1) 18

®íéðåîã÷ä åøîà íòèä äæ ¬ïèøñ úéá úìòá ¬äðáìä ìò ¬åðéãéá 3äìò àìå åéøáã åðéñéð øáëå ¬úåùéìùä éúáá 2÷ìåç ñåéîìèáå øáãù ñåéîìèáì àöîúù øáã ìë ºêì øîåà ììëå
à32

(2)

®4íéðåîã÷ä ìò êåîñð ïë

®åúîëç éôë
9

|
8

íðéà åéèôùîå åéðéã ÷ø ¬åðîî äìòîì ïéàå ïåëð àåä íéìâìâä ìò

õøàî äéäù äììàùî åà êìîä 7ñåéðåøåã øîàù íéðéãá 6àöîúù äî 5ìë ÷ø íäù íéðåéìòä íéáëåë úãìåú ìò íéðåîã÷ä åøîàù äîå úãìåúä íòè ÷ø ¬íéáëøåî íä éë êáìá äìòé ìà

(3) ®10íäéìò êåîñ ¬åãåä ÷ø (4) ®åñð äëë ¬11úåìæîá

®úãìåúä äúåà úåîãë õøàá åãéìåéù


øçà ºéãðë ìà á÷òé øîà

(2)

®íéèáîä íä íéðéãä ø÷ò ®éùéìùä øòùä

(1) 1

úéòéáøìå úéùéìùìå ¬çëðä àåäå ¬éöçì å÷ìçúé äðä ¬øùò íéðù íä úåìæîäù àì ìâìâä éë åøîà úåãîä éìòáå
13

(3)
12

®íéøçà íé÷ìçì ÷ìçúé àìå ¬úéùéùìå
15

äö÷î äðäå ¬ïåñëìàä åð÷ìçé ìåâò
16

ìë éë äéàøäå ¬íéèáîä äìà ìò ÷ø ÷ìçúé ®çëð èáî ïåñëìàä äö÷
14

éðù

åì ùé ìåâò ìëá éë øåáòáå

(4)

ãò ïåñëìàä

¬ïåñëìàä äö÷á ÷ìç ìë ¬íéåù íé÷ìç äòáøàì

17

ìâìâä ÷ìçúé äðä ¬íéðåñëìà

®íäéìò < ô »îè÷àø [÷ìåç2 ®éìã ìæî ìòá åúåéä øåáòá åðîî íåéá < î »åúåéäå à »îè÷ø [åìçäå1 [àöîúù6 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [ìë5 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [íéðåîã÷ä ®®® ïë ìò4 ®åìò ø »÷îèàô [äìò3 ô »ñåéðåøåã à »ñåðééøåã øîàù è »ñåàéðåøåã øîàù ÷ »îø [ñåéðåøåã øîàù7 ®øîàù àô »îè÷ø ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [íäéìò10 ®øñç à »îè÷ôø [äéäù9 ®äììà àùî àø »îè÷ô [äììàùî8 »ñåðééøã »î÷àô [ãò14 ®úö÷ î »è÷àøô [äö÷î13 ®ìò > è »î÷àøô [ìë12 ®úåìæîä ÷îèàô »ø [úåìæîá11 < ÷ »îèàøô [ìâìâä17 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [åì16 ®åäö÷ ÷ »îèàøô [ïåñëìàä äö÷15 ®ìòå ø »ãòå è ®íá

chapter three

59

the first by day because it is masculine and its power is by day. (6) Mercury was made lord of the first triplicity because it is the lord of Gemini and its power is greater by night than by day; consequently they accounted it the first by day and by night. (7) They excluded Venus, the lord of Libra, from the power of the triplicity because it indicates pleasures and these signs are temperate, they therefore designated Jupiter, which is temperate in its nature, instead of it.[4] (8) They assigned the first lordship of the last triplicity [i.e., of the watery signs] to Venus, because they indicate procreation, and this is Venus’ nature. (9) They accounted it the first by day, and the second lordship of the triplicity was assigned to Mars, lord of Scorpio. The Moon, the lord of the sign of Cancer, was designated as partner.[5] This is what the Ancients said. 18 (1) Ptolemy disagrees with them regarding the houses of the triplicities. We have tested his statements empirically but were unable to confirm them . Hence we ought to rely on the Ancients.[1] (2) I now give you a general rule: anything that Ptolemy says about the orbs is correct and no one surpasses him; but his astrological decrees and judgments do not befit his wisdom.[2] You should rely only on what Doronius the king[3] and Mâshâ"allâh, who was from India,[4] said about astrological decrees. (3) As for what the Ancients said about the nature of the upper stars that are in the zodiacal signs, they knew this from experience. (4) Do not imagine that they [i.e., the upper stars that are in the zodiacal signs] are composite bodies . The only reason for ascribing these natures to them is that they generate these same natures on Earth.[5]

§3 1 (1) Third chapter. The aspects[1] are the essence of astrological judgments. (2) Ya#qub al-Kindî said: Given that there are twelve signs, they can be divided into two parts, which is opposition, and also into three, four and six parts; but they cannot be divided into other parts.[2] (3) The geometricians said that the circle may be divided only into these aspects; the proof is as follows : The diameter bisects any circle, and the aspect of opposition is from one end of the diameter to the other. (4) Given that any circle has two perpendicular diameters, a circle can be divided into four equal parts, each part at the end of a diameter[3]

60 ìâìâä ÷ìçúé íâ first version of the book of reasons (5) ®1úéòéáø èáî äæ äðäå ¬ùøôà øùàë úåãúé íéàø÷ðä íä äìàå éðùî øúéä àéöåúå ïåñëìàä úåéòéáø ùìùá äãå÷ð êîåùá éë ¬íéåù íé÷ìç äùìùì åéå÷ ìëù ùìåùî ìåâéòá äéäé éë ¬3íéåù íé÷ìç 2äùìùì ìâìâä ÷ìçúé æà ¬íéããöä úéòéáøá äãå÷ð êîåùáå (6) ®úéùéìù èáî äæ äðäå ¬4äåù ùìåùî ìë úãîå ¬íéåù íä ®úéùù èáî àåä äæå ¬ìâìâä úéùù àåä äðäå ¬ïåñëìàä 6éöçá å÷ ìëå ¬íéåù åéå÷ ìë ùìåùî íù äùòé 5ïåñëìàä êøåö ïéàå 8 (2) ®íéèáîä êøã åîöòá ïåáùçá éúéàøå éúùôç íäøáà éðà íâ (1) 2 úéáá íòè åì øåëæà ãåòå ¬ìåâòä êøãî 7àöé èáîä åúåà éë çëðä èáî øéëæäì äùîç íò ãçà åðàöî å÷ìçúéå úåâåæ íäéðù éë ¬12íéãøôð ìò 11 (4) 10 ®íä äëë íéèáîä øàùå (3) ®ïåáùçä êøãî éòéáùä íéðùì íéîåã äùùå ¬íîöò íéøîåù íäéðù éë íéåù 9íäù å÷ìçúéå íéãøôð íäéðù éë ¬äòáù íò äùìù äëëå 15 (4) ®íéãøôðì 13 ®äöøúù ïåáùç äæ éàî ìçäå õ÷ ïéà 14 ãò øôñîä ìë äëëå ¬äðåîù íò 16 äòáøàå éòéùúä úéáä äëëå ¬ïåùàøä úéáä úãìåúë éùéîçä úéáä úåéäì éåàø äðäå ®äøåîâ äáäà úéùéìùä èáî äéä ¬ïë ìò »úéðøåçà àåä ÷ø éùéîç ®áëøåî äùîç íò ãçà éìòáå 19 17 (5) íâ àåä éë 18 ïéàù åîë ¬íéáëøåî íðéàå íéãøôð íäéðù äùìù íò ãçà äðäå ãøôðì ÷ìçúé äæ éë ¬äîéìù úãìåúä ïéà ÷ø ¬úåâåæ íäéðù äòáøà íò äðäå íò íéðù äëëå ¬âåæ äæå ãøôð äæå ¬áëøåî äæå 21 (6) íéðùå (7) (9) ®äáäà éöç àåäù åøîà ïë ìò ¬úéùù èáî àåä äæå (8) ®âåæì äæå ïåáùçä ùøù 20 äæ éë äðåùî äòáøà (10) ®äáéà èáî àåäå úéòéáø èáî àåä äæå ¬êøãä äæ ìò øôñîä ìëå äùîç èáîäå (11) ®íøéëæäì êøåö ïéàå ¬íéëåøà íéøáã íéèáîá íâ åøáã íéëøòä úîëç èáî éë åøîàù äîå (12) ®íãà éðá ìùî êøã ìò ¬éðîé àø÷é áëåëä éðôì àåäù ®äùìù è »î÷àøô [äùìùì2 ®íéðåñëìàä íù úåö÷ ìëá äéäé äæì > ÷ »îèàøô [úéòéáø èáî1 ®øñç î÷ô »èàø [ïåñëìàä5 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [äåù ùìåùî ìë úãîå4 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [íéåù3 »î÷àøô [íäù9 ®øòùá è »÷ìîàøô [úéáá8 ®àöåé è »î÷àøô [àöé7 ®éöçë àø »î÷èô [éöçá6 [å÷ìçúéå11 ®äùùì íéîåã íéðùå íéãîåò ÷ »îèàøô [íéðùì íéîåã äùùå íîöò íéøîåù10 ®øñç è ®äëëå > è »î÷àøô [äòáøàå13 ®úåâåæå < è »íéãøôðä î »÷àøô [íéãøôð12 ®å÷ìçéå î »è÷àøô è »î÷àøô [ïéàù17 ®åîë è »î÷àøô [íâ16 ®øñç ÷àô »îèø [ìçäå15 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [ãò14 [ïåáùçä21 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [äæ20 ®äéäå ÷àô »îèø [äðäå19 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [íéðùå18 ®íðéàù ®ïåáùç îèø »÷àô .

(9) Now one and four are incompatible. the aspect of trine is absolute love. counting] backwards. and the relative dimensions of any equilateral triangle are the same. (5) The circle can also be divided into three equal parts.[4] and four and eight.. and the length of any of its sides is half of the diameter.. the former is odd and the latter is even. because the former is the basis of reckoning and the latter is composite. (5) So it is fitting that the fifth mundane house should be as the nature of the first house.[3] (4) Three and seven likewise. which is an aspect of antagonism.[1] (3) The other aspects are as follows.e. but their nature is not harmonious. (6) Now one and three are both odd numbers and they are not composite. (2) There is no need to mention the aspect of opposition. because this aspect can be obtained by the method of dividing the circle. the circle is divided into three equal parts. (12) As for what they said. (8) This is the aspect of sextile. because when the former [i. This is the sixth part of the circle and the aspect of sextile. hence.e. the result is an even number. 4] is divided in half. as I shall explain). beginning from any number you wish. and there is no need to mention them. and similarly with any number ad infinitum. for if you fix a point at three quarters of the diameter and trace the chord from both sides. namely.[5] and similarly the ninth house because it is also fifth. using human language. and for this reason they said that it is half love. (4) We have found that one and five are kindred numbers because both preserve themselves. just as five is not composite. (11) Any aspect before a planet is called right-handed. this is the trine aspect.[7] (10) The experts in the science of proportions[8] also said long-winded things about the aspects.[6] (7) Both two and four are even numbers. have also sought and found a method for the aspects based on the use of numbers only. and similarly with two and five and with any other number in accordance with this method.chapter three 61 (these are called the cardines. the result is an odd number.e. that the . but it is [i.. 2] is divided in half.[2] and six is similar to two because both are even numbers and when they are split in two the result is an odd number.e. but I shall also mention an explanation for it [i. and when the latter [i..[5] (6) When you fix a point at the fourth part of the diameter. because both are odd numbers and are divisible by odd numbers. the aspect of opposition] in the seventh chapter using numbers.[6] 2 (1) I. because inside the circle there is a triangle with equal sides. Abraham. This is the aspect of quartile. a triangle is drawn whose sides are equal.[4] and this is the aspect of quartile.

62 first version of the book of reasons óé÷ú øúåé úéòéáøä èáîå ¬ìâìâä éöç àåäù øåáòá 1àåä ïéã ¬óé÷úä àåä çëðä úéùùäå ¬2åéúåãúéá àåäù øåáòá äæ äéä ¬øôñîá úåçô àåäù ô§§ò§§à úéùéìùäî ®åøôñî èåòéî øåáòá íìåëî úåçô äëëå ¬òåãé àåä éë 3íòè ù÷áì êøåö ïéà ¬íéåù íäù íéãòöîä ìò åøîàùå 4 ùé ïë ìò ¬ïééðò ìëì íéáåè íéøùéä úåìæîäå (1) 3 (2) ®úååù úåúååòîä åéúåòùù ìæî ìë äãåôàä áùçá íä øùàå (3) ®íéãéâð åàø÷ð ïë øåáòáå ¬íéúååòîäî 5áø çë íäì ô§§ò§§à íéðæàîå äìèå ®ãçà äðåîî íå÷îá íä íéáëåëä éðù éë àåä ïéã ¬íéðåëð ®çëðä èáî øåáòá äáéà íäéðéá ùé úìòåôä úãìåúá 6íéåùå íéîç íäéðùù úåéäì àåä ïéã ¬íé÷ìç äòáøà ìò òâø ìëá ÷ìçúé ìâìâä éë ¬åøîàù 7äæå àåäå á32 (1) 4 (2) ®íéðôì êìåäå éçøæî úçîåöä äìòîä ãò íéîùä éöç å÷î ìâìâä 8 úéòéáø ®íééðéòä úìçú àåä éë ¬ïáåìä 9íéðéòä äàøîå ¬øéåàä åîë íãäå ¬øéåàì äîåã úéðøåçà åéùòî éë åøîà ¬úò÷åùä äìòîä ãò íéîùä ïéàå | éöç å÷ ïéáù úéòéáøäå (3) (4) ®åîåç áåø øåáòá íåãà åàøî 10 ïéòå ®ãøåéä ìâìâä éöçî àåäù øåáòá øåáòá øåçùä äàøîäå ¬øçàä 17 (5) ®íìëì ãçà êøã éë úåøçàä úåéòáøä øéëæäì êøåö äìòîì àåäù äî ìë åàø÷å éöçäî çë 16 (6) ®13äçìä íò øå÷ä øåáòá 12÷øéäå ¬11úùáéäå øå÷ä 14 øúåé éöçä äæì ùéù øåáòá ¬15ìùî êøã 18 ïéîé õøàä ïî åøîàù äæå ®íçë áåø øåáòá íééðîé øîà åàø÷é íéøëæä íéòéáø éðùäå ¬ìàîùä ìò ïéîéä çëë 19 éöçá úåìæîä éãòöî éë ¬20íñøåôîå òåãé äæ ¬äìåòä ìâìâä éöç (7) (8) ®äìåòä ìâìâä éöçá àåäù ¬ íçëðì àåäù úåìæîä éãòöîë åéäé ãøåéä 21 23 äìòîä ïî éë íéøîåà ùé éë ¬úåðîåàä úàæ éîëç ïéá ú÷åìçî ùé º22íäøáà ¬éîåøã úçîåöä äìòîä ãò íéîùä éöç å÷îå ¬éçøæî àåä íåäúä å÷ ãò úçîåöä øéëæäì è »î÷àøô [íòè ù÷áì3 ®úåãúéá à »îè÷ôø [åéúåãúéá2 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [àåä ïéã1 ®äéäéå < ø »÷îèàô [íéåùå6 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [áø çë5 ®ùéù ìò ô »îè÷àø [ùé ïë ìò4 ®íòèä »îèàøô [ïéòå10 ®åéðéò ÷ »îèàøô [íéðéòä9 ®òáåø ÷ »îèàøô [úéòéáø8 ®äîå ø »÷îèàô [äæå7 [äçìä íò13 ®÷åøéäå è »î÷àøô [÷øéäå12 ®ùáåéäå ÷ »úåùáéäå îè »àøô [úùáéäå11 ®øñç ÷ ®øñç è »î÷àøô [øúåé16 ®ìùîä î »è÷àøô [ìùî15 ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [ïéîé14 ®úåçìå ÷ »îàô ÷ »îèàøô [åøîàù äæå19 ®åàø÷ð ø »÷îèàô [åàø÷é18 ®éöçä ìò è »éöçî î »÷àøô [éöçäî17 îà »åðéáø ôø »÷è [íäøáà22 ®çëðì è »î÷àøô [íçëðì21 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [íñøåôîå20 ®íøîàå ®øñç è »î÷àøô [å÷23 ®§éáø .

namely. and the color is white.e. this follows from the fact that it covers half of the circle..[4] As for Aries and Libra. because it [i.chapter three 63 aspect of opposition is the strongest. the aspect of quartile] coincides with its [i.[3] (8) Abraham said: there is a disagreement among the scholars of this art. for the rising times of the signs in the descending half circle are equal to the rising times of the opposite signs in the ascending half circle. although it is less in number [i. (7) What they said about the ascending half circle is well known and manifest. 3 (1) As for what they said about the rising times. it follows that the quadrant from the line of midheaven to the degree of the ascendant is eastern and advancing. the circle’s] cardines. so both masculine quadrants were called “southern” because of their great power. there is antagonism between them because they are in opposition.. Its color is red because of its great heat. 2:2 et passim) in pairs in the ecliptic.e.[2] (6) They termed anything that is above the Earth “southern” [lit. because this half has more power than the other half. (5) The black appearance is because of cold and dryness.[1] (4) There is no need to mention the other quadrants because they all have the same pattern. just as the right hand is stronger than the left hand. The aspect of quartile is stronger than trine. and the quadrant from the line of midheaven to the degree of the ascendant is southern.”[2] (3) As for those signs that are “established” (Isa. And sextile is less powerful than all the others because its number is small [i.e. and similarly for any sign whose seasonal hours are equal. (2) The straight signs are benefic for everything. Some say that the quadrant between the degree of the ascendant and the line of lower midheaven is eastern. 4 (1) And from what they said. (2) It is similar to the air.[3] this follows because two stars occupy the place of a single ruler. they said that it is “retreating” because it is in the descending half of the circle. so they have more power than the crooked signs . namely. and that from the line . 90° is less than 120°].[1] there is no need to search for an explanation. because it is known.e. 60°]. this is why they were called “governors.. because it is the first of the colors. metaphorically. that at any moment the circle is divided into four parts. that they are equal. and green because of cold with moisture. (3) As for the quadrant between the line of midheaven and the degree of the descendant.. and blood is like air. although both are hot and are equal in their active nature. “right-hand”].

64 first version of the book of reasons ®íäîò äèåð éúòãå ¬úùçðä 2éìë éìòá åäå÷ìç äëëå éöç 1å÷ ãò úò÷åùä äìòîäîå ¬éìàîù úò÷åùä äìòîä ìà íåäúä å÷î äéäé äðäå (9) ®éáøòî íéîùä (1) 5 (2) ®íøéëæàù íéîòè íéðåîã÷ä éøôñá íäì éúàöî àì ¬á§§éä íéúáä éøáãå ùé ¬äìåò àéäå õøàä ãâðë äååää äìòîä éë ¬úîà äæå ìò úåãå÷ðë íä ¬íé÷ìç äòáøàì ìâìâä ÷ìçúé òâø ìë éë ÷ôñ ïéà ºåøîà ÷ø (3) ®ìåâòä 3éðåñëìà êøã å÷á úéòéáøå ¬íéîùä éöç å÷á úéùéìù äìòîå ¬úò÷åù àéäù äãâðë úøçà äìòî êë øçàå ¬óéñåäì ìçé éë ¬íé÷ìç äùìùì ÷ìçúé øáã ìë éë åøîàå íéúáäå íäì ùéå (4) ®4íåäúä äãå÷ð ìë å÷ìç äæ øåáòáå ®àöîé àìù ãò òøâé ïë øçàå ¬ãçà êøã ìò ãåîòé (5) ®úåãúé úåãå÷ð òáøàä åàø÷å ¬íé÷ìç (6) ®6íéëåîñ íåàø÷ ¬úåãúé íä íâ åáåùé 8 7 äùìù ìò úåãå÷ðä òáøàî 5 äøäîáù ¬íäéìà íéëåîñä å÷á àåäù ãúéì áøä çëä úåéäì éåàøäå ¬ìåãâä çëä úåãúéì éë úéòöîà çë àåä éë øîåà äììàùîå ãúéä 12 (7) ®9úçîåöä äìòîä àéäù ¬ïåùàøä ãúéäå íéîùä éöç 10 óé÷ú éòéáùä ãúéäå ¬åîò ïéãäå åéøçàå êôäì øîåà ñåéîìèáå ¬íéîùä éöç å÷î óé÷ú ìà êåîñ àåä éë ¬øùò éúùòî äìòîì ïéà íéëåîñáå 13 (8) ®11éòéáøäî (9) ®úçîåöä äìòîä ìà úéùù èáîá àåäå õøàäî äìòîì àåäå ¬ãáëðä ô§§ò§§à ºéùéîçä úéáä 14 ¬úéùéìù èáîá úçîåöä äìòîä íò àåä õøàä úçú àåäù ¬éðéîùä äëëå ìò ¬úò÷åùä (10) 15 ®úçîåöä ìà èáî åì ïéàù øåáòá ïë äéäå ¬éðùä úéáä åéøçàå ÷ø äìòîä ãúéî øúåé ãáëð ãúéì êåîñ éðùä úéáä úåéä øåáòá ¬éòéùúä àåä íéìôåðá áåèä éë åøîàå (11) ®éðéîùäî áåè éðùä úéáä éë åøîà ïë 16 åéøçàå ¬úçîåöä äìòîä íò úéùéìù èáî àåäå õøàä ïî äìòîì àåäù øåáòá ®úçîåöä äìòîä íò úéùù èáîá àåä õøàä úçú àåäù ô§§ò§§à ºéùéìùä úéáä èáî íäî ãçàì ïéà éë ¬íìåëî íéòø ¬øùò íéðùäå éùùä úéáä åøàùð äðäå ®õøàä úçú åúåéä øåáòá øùò íéðùäî òø éùùä úéáäå ¬úçîåöä äìòîä (12) 17 íò ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [éðåñëìà êøã ìò3 ®úåðîåà ÷ »îèàøô [éìë2 ®øñç ô »îèàø [å÷1 è »î÷àøô [íéëåîñ íåàø÷6 ®øäî ÷ »äøäîù ô »îèàø [äøäîáù5 ®íåäúä éöç è »íåäú ø »î÷àô [úçîåöä ®®® ïåùàøä ãúéäå9 ®øúéä ÷ »ìåãâä ÷ »îàøô [áøä8 ®äéäéù ÷ »îèàô [úåéäì7 ®øñç [ìà12 ®éöç éòéáøäî å÷î ô »îèà÷ø [éòéáøäî11 ®êôä ÷ »îèàøô [êôäì10 ®øñç è »î÷àô ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [äìòîä15 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [÷ø14 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [ô§§ò§§à13 ®ìò ô »îè÷àø ®íéèáî è »î÷àøô [íò èáî17 ®úéáäå è »î÷àøô [úéáä åéøçàå16 [íåäúä4 .

[5] .[4] (9) This is the way in which it was divided by the experts in the astrolabe. (10) The same applies to the eighth mundane house .”[2] (5) The houses that are adjacent to them. they said that the second house is more benefic than the eighth. for there is one degree facing the earth. For this reason they divided each of the four points [i.. Next is the second mundane house . (7) Mâshâ"allâh said that the latter is stronger than the line of the midheaven. which will soon become cardines too. (8) Of the succedent houses the strongest is the eleventh. the greatest power should adhere to the cardo that is in the line of the midheaven and to the first cardo. which is the degree of the ascendant. The third house is next: even though it is underneath the Earth it is in sextile to the degree of the ascendant. and a fourth at the line of lower midheaven. (4) They said that everything is divisible into three parts. which is descending. because it is adjacent to the dignified cardo. the beginnings of which are like points where the two perpendicular diameters intersect the circle.[5] 5 (1) As for the twelve mundane houses. because it is in no aspect to the ascendant. and a third degree at the line of midheaven.e. (11) They said that the best among the falling houses [4] is the ninth.[1] (2) They only said: there is no doubt that at any moment the circle is divided into four parts. (9) Next in power is the fifth house: although it is beneath the Earth it is in trine to the degree of the ascendant. which is above the Earth. (6) They have intermediate power. for first it increases and then it stands in one place and then it diminishes until it vanishes. and they called the four points “cardines. and is in sextile to the degree of the ascendant. which is rising. while the cardines have the greater power. and that from the degree of the descendant to the line of midheaven is western. but because the second house is adjacent to the cardo that is more dignified than the cardo that is in the degree of the descendant. The seventh house[3] is stronger than the fourth. (12) The sixth and twelfth houses. the most malefic of all.chapter three 65 of lower midheaven to the degree of the descendant is northern. because neither of them is in any aspect to the degree of the ascendant. The sixth house is more malefic than the twelfth because it is underneath the Earth. and I tend to agree with them. I have not found any explanations of them worthy of mention in the books of the Ancients. are left over. (3) This is true. parts] into three divisions. but Ptolemy maintains the opposite and he is correct. because it is above the Earth and in trine to the degree of the ascendant. and another opposite it. they called “succedent” to the cardines .

66 first version of the book of reasons (1) 6 äîåã õøàä úçúî äàöåé àéäù úçîåöä äìòîä úåéä øåáòá ºíäøáà øîà ¬ïåùàøä ãúéä äæ äðäå ¬óåâä ìòå íééçä ìò äøåé ìæîä äæ éë åøîà ïë ìò ¬åîà ïèáî 1àöéùë ãìåðì (2) ®øåàì äàöåé àéäå øúñá àéäù äáùçî ìë ìò úåìàùáå (3) ®úåáàä ìò åøåé úåãúéä äìà éë åøîà ïë ìò »íåäúä å÷ øçàäå íåøä å÷ ãçàäù ¬úåãúé éðùä 3åäåððåëé 2íìåòìå äøåé 4àåä éòéáøä úéáä éë åøîà íéðåîã÷äå íò ïéãäå ¬5øáãä êôä øîåà ñåéîìèáå éë øåáòáå à33 (4) ®íàä ìò äøåé éøéùòäå ¬áàä ìò (5) ®ïéòì äàøðä àåä íàä ìò äøåéù ìæîä úåéäì éåàø éë íéðåîã÷ä | 7 øåáòáå ¬ïåîèî ìë ìò äøåéù åøîà ïë ìò ¬åðîî øúåé øúñð ïéà éòéáøä úéáä ®6úåãùäå úåò÷ø÷ä ìò äøåé àåä íâ ¬øáã ìë úéøçà ìò äøåé úåãúéä óåñ àåäù äåáâ ãúé ïéàù øåáòá äìåãâäå ìòå äøøùä ìò äøåé éøéùòä úéáä éë åøîàå (6) úåéä øåáòáå (7) ®äøåáòá åîù øëæðå äá òãåð àåäù úåðîåàä ìò äøåé íâ »åðîî éë åøîà ¬ãøåé äæå äìåò äæ éë ¬ïåùàøä úéáä êôä úçà äàôî éòéáùä úéáä íå÷î ìëá åéãòöî úåéä øåáòáå (8) ®øëæä êôä àéä éë äá÷ðä ìò äøåé àåä åì äîåã àåäù ¬ùéàä 8øæòì äøåéù åøîà ïë ìò ¬ïåùàøä úéáä éãòöîì úååù çëð èáîá åúåéä øåáòáå ¬íéôúåùä ìò úéáä äæ äøåé äæ øåáòáå ¬úçà äàôî úãìåúë éùéîçä úéáä úåéä øåáòáå íéðáä ìò äøåé ïë ìò ¬äøåîâ äáäà éúùò úéá úåéä øåáòáå (9) 10 ®úåîçìîä ìò äøåé ïåùàøä úéáä ìà àåäå úéùéìù èáî àåä 9éë ¬ïåùàøä úéáä (10) ® 11 íãàä ééçì êøåö äìàù ¬ùåáìîäå äúùîäå ìëàîäå ¬äáäà éöç àåäù ¬úçîåöä äìòîä ìà úéùù èáîá àåäå ¬íéëåîñä íéúáäî øùò äøåé ïë ìò ¬ãáëð ãúéì êåîñ àåä éë ¬åô÷åú øåáòáå »íéáäåàä ìò äøåé ïë ìò ìò äøåéù ¬ïåùàøä ãúéä ìà êåîñ éðùä úéáä úåéä øåáòáå øåáòáå (11) ®ãåáëå ïç ìò (12) ®ãìåðä úà íéøæåòä úéáå øùåòä úéá àåäù åøîà ïë ìò ¬12íééçä 13 øù÷ð åðéàå ïåùàøä ãúéä êôä àåäù ¬éòéáùä ãúéä éòéáùä úéáä ìòá éë 14 ìà êåîñ éðéîùä úéáä úåéä åøîà íéáøå (13) ®úåîä úéá àåäù åøîà ïë ìò ¬åîò èáîá ¬15ñåéðåøåã íâ ¬êåðç úòã úàæå ¬íééçä êôä åúåéä øåáòá íãàä úúéî ìò äøåé [àåä4 ®åäåðåëé ø »èàî÷ô [åäåððåëé3 ®øñç î÷ô »èàø [íìåòìå2 ®àöåéä è »î÷àøô [àöéùë1 ®øñç î »è÷àøô [äåáâ7 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [úåãùäå6 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [øáãä5 ®øñç è »î÷àøô ®àéä ôà »î÷èø [àåäå10 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [éë9 ®êôäì > ø »øñç ÷ »øæò ìò è »îàô [øæòì8 [ìà13 ®íãàä è »î÷àøô [íééçä12 ®íãàä êøåö ééç è »íäì êøåö î »÷àøô [íãàä ééçì êøåö11 »ñåðéøåã ô ñåàéðåøåã ø÷à »î [ñåéðåøåã15 ®íéøîåà ùéå ÷ »îèàøô [åøîà íéáøå14 ®ìò ô »îè÷àø ®ñåðééøåã è .

chapter three

67

6 (1) Abraham said: because the degree of the ascendant that rises from below the Earth is like the native when he emerges from his mother’s womb, they said that this mazzal [1] indicates life and the body; in the doctrine of interrogations it indicates any thought that is hidden and then emerges into the light. (2) This is the first cardo, which is always determined by the two cardines, of which the first is the line of midheaven[2] and the other is the line of lower midheaven; they therefore said that these cardines indicate ancestors.[3] (3) The Ancients said that the fourth house indicates the father and the tenth the mother. (4) Ptolemy maintains the opposite position, but the Ancients are correct, because it is fitting that the sign that indicates the mother be the one that is visible.[4] (5) Because nothing is more hidden than the fourth house, they said that it indicates any buried treasure; because it is the end of the cardines it indicates the end of everything; it also indicates landed property and fields.[5] (6) They said that the tenth house indicates dominion and greatness, because no cardo is higher than it is; it also indicates the art on account of which he [i.e., the native] attains fame and his name is known.[6] (7) Because with respect to an edge of the horizon the seventh house is opposite the first house—for when one ascends the other descends—they said that it indicates the female, which is the opposite of the male. (8) Since its rising times at any place on Earth are the same as the rising times of the first house, they said that it indicates being a helpmate to a man.[7] They also said that it [i.e., the seventh house] is similar to it [i.e., to the first house] with respect to a cardinal point; hence this house [i.e., the seventh house] indicates partners. And because it is in opposition to the first house, it indicates wars.[8] (9) Because the nature of the fifth house is like the nature of the first house—for the former is in trine to the latter and signifies absolute love[9]—it indicates sons, food, drink, and clothing, which are necessary for human life.[10] (10) Because the eleventh house is one of the succedent houses and is in sextile to the degree of the ascendant, which is half love, it indicates lovers; because of its strength—for it is adjacent to a dignified cardo—it indicates beauty and honor.[11] (11) Because the second house is adjacent to the first cardo, which indicates life, they said that it is the house of wealth and the house of the native’s helpers.[12][13] (12) Because the eighth house is adjacent to the seventh house,[14] which is opposite the first house and is not in any aspect to it [i.e., to the first house], they said that it is the house of death. (13) Many said that the lord of the seventh house indicates the man’s death because it is the opposite of life. This is the opinion of Enoch and also

68

first version of the book of reasons (14)
®íäîò ïéãäå ¬íééìááäå 1ñéìàå íâ

¬ãúéäî ìôåð éòéùúä úéáä úåéä øåáòáå

úéá àåäù åøîà ïë ìò ¬ãúé àåäù ¬íéîùä éöç å÷î äèåð àéä íù äúåéäá ùîùäå úåîãë äîùðá äîëçä úåéä øåáòáå »åúìòîî øñ àåäù éî ìò äøåéå íéëøãä úéá íâ ¬äîëçä úéá 2àåäù åøîà ïë ìò ¬ùôçì íå÷îì íå÷îî êìåää íãàä óåâ äøåé àåä íâù éùéìùä úéáä ìò åøîà ¬äëëå àåäå ¬ìôåð 6øùò íéðùä úéá úåéä øåáòáå

(15)

®äîëçä ïî 3äðåîàä éë äðåîàä

äøåé àåä éë åøîà úéùù èáî úçîåöä ìà èéáéù øåáòáå ¬äáåø÷ äîëç 4ìë ìò

(16) ®5íäì äîåãäå íéáåø÷äå íéçàä ìò

¬ø÷òä àéäù ¬úìòåôä úãìåúá çîåöä ìæîä úãìåúî äðåùî íìåòì úåìæîä êøãá äøåé úçîåöä íò øåù÷ 7åðéàù øåáòá »äôøçäå ïåì÷äå úåáéøîä ìò äøåé ïë ìò äúéä àì íà ¬øùò íéðù úéáá çîåöä ìæîä é÷ìçî úåéä øåáòáå ¬øäåñä úéá ìò úáëøîì íäù úåîäáä ìò äøåéù åøîà ïë ìò ¬ìæîä úìçú úçîåöä äìòîä úîçìî ìò äøåé õøàä úçú åúåéä øåáòáå ¬éùùä úéáä øàùð äðäå úåìæîä éîëçå ¬íéúáä éøáãá ììë 8äðäå êë ìò åøåéù úåùéìùä
13 11

(17)

®íãàä

(18)

®íéîåîäå íéàåìçúä íäå ¬øúñ

éìòá éøáãå

(19)

®10ïåéñð 9êøãá íäì àöé éë íéøîåà

éãàæ ïá

12

øâæåøãðà øôñá ÷ø íéðåîã÷ä éøôñî ãçàá íúåà éúéàø àì ¬êëå ®åì íéãåî

åéøçà íéàáä ìàòîùé éîëçå ¬åäåîë úåìæîá íëç åøåãá äéä àìå ¬éãåäéä êåøô


øàùå éàúáùå ÷ãö íòè
15

éúøëæä øáë º14íäøáà øîà ®éòéáøä øòùä

(1) 1
ìâìâ

íéëøòä úîëçî éë øîà ñåéîìèáå

(2)

®16íé÷éæî íäù åøîà äîì »íéúøùîä
18

ìà åìâìâ êøòî ç÷ìð äæå ¬íéùåìùå íéðù ïåáùçá éàúáù åàöî éë ¬17äæ åàéöåä íéøùò ïåáùçá íéãàîå ¬íéøùòå äòáøà ïåáùçá ÷ãö éë åøîàå ¬äîãàä
19

¬øùò äùù ïåáùçá äîç áëåëå äâðå ¬øùò äðîù ïåáùçá ùîùäå ¬ ùéìùå ãçàå äæå
20

¬åúéùéìùå åäåîë ÷ãö ìà ùîùä êøò äðäå

(3)

®øùò íéðù ïåáùçá äðáìäå

éë3 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [àåäù åøîà ®®® íéëøãä úéá2 ®ãéìàå è »ùéìàå ÷ »îàøô [ñéìàå1 éúùò ø »÷îèàô [øùò íéðùä6 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [íäì5 ®øñç î÷ô »èàø [ìë4 ®øñç î »è÷àøô [äðäå8 ®àåäù øåáòáå è »î÷àøô [ åðéàù øåáòá7 ®ì§§ö øùò íéðù ºáåúë íééìåùá ìáà ¬øùò è »î÷àøô [éìòá11 ®ïåéñðä è »î÷àøô [ïåéñð10 ®êøãî àô »î÷èø [êøãá9 ®äæ è »î÷àøô øîà ì »èô [íäøáà øîà14 ®äàæ ÷ »îèàøô [éãàæ13 ®øàâæåøãðà î÷ »èàøô [øâæåøãðà12 ®ìòá ®øñç ÷ »îèàô [éúøëæä øáë15 ®øñç ÷ »íäøáà §ø øîà î »íäøáà §éáø §îà à »íäøáà åðéáø è »î÷àøô [äæ17 ®åäåøéëæä øáë íé÷éæî åà íéáéèî íúåéäá ÷ »îèàøô [íé÷éæî íäù åøîà äîì16 íéîòè äàø ®íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúð÷éú [ùéìùå ãçàå íéøùò19 ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [ìâìâ18 ®øñç ÷ »åúåùéìùå îèø »àô [åúéùéìùå20 ®íéøùò ôîè÷àø ®øúà ìò úåøòäå §5.5:7 §á íéîòèå §4.1:2 §à ®åùéìù

[äðåîàä

chapter four

69

of Doronius, Vettius Valens,[15] and the Babylonians; and they are correct.[16] (14) Because the ninth house falls from the cardo, and because when the Sun is there it declines from the line of midheaven, which is a cardo, they said that it is the house of journeys and indicates a person who is degraded from his high position ; and because wisdom in the soul bears a likeness to the body of a man who goes from one place to another and seeks, they said that it is the house of wisdom, and also the house of belief, because belief comes from wisdom. (15) Likewise, they said that the third house indicates any familiar wisdom[17]; and because it is in sextile with the ascendant, they said that it indicates brothers, relatives, and the like.[18] (16) Because the twelfth house is falling, and because it is always incompatible with the active nature of the sign of the ascendant, which is the fundamental principle, it indicates quarrels, dishonor, and shame; because it is not bound to the ascendant it indicates prison. And because parts of the sign of the ascendant may be in the twelfth house, namely, when the degree of the ascendant does not coincide with the beginning of a sign, they said that it indicates animals that men ride on.[19] (17) The sixth house remains. Because it is underneath the Earth, it indicates hidden wars, which are like illnesses and deformities.[20] (18) This is a general rule about the houses, and the astrologers said they learned it from experience. (19) As for the lords of triplicities of the houses and why they indicate what they do, I have not seen this in any of the books written by the Ancients except for the book by Andruzagar ben Sadi Faruk the Jew, who surpassed all astrologers of his generation; and the Arab scientists who lived later agree with him.[21]

§4 1 (1) Fourth chapter. Abraham said: I have already mentioned the explanation for the nature of Jupiter and Saturn and the rest of the planets; why they said that they are malefic.[1] (2) Ptolemy said that they gleaned that from the science of proportions; they found that the number of Saturn is 32, which was obtained from the ratio of its spherical surface to the spherical surface of the Earth, and they said that the number of Jupiter is 24, the number of Mars is 211/3, the number of the Sun is 18, the number of Venus and Mercury is 16, and the number of the Moon is 12.[2] (3) So the ratio of Jupiter to the Sun is its own [i.e., the Sun’s] value plus a third of its value , which

70
3

first version of the book of reasons (4) ®ãáëð àåä íâ ¬2ìôë êøò ÷ãö ìà äðáìä 1êøòå ¬ãáëð êøò | øîàéå (5) ®íé÷éæî íäù åøîà ïë ìò ¬íéãàîå éàúáù íò êøò úåøåàîì 4ïéà

êøãä äæ ìò äðäå

á33

ïáà

äøåé ÷ãöå ¬ïåùàøä úéáä äøåé øùàë íãàä óåâ ìò äøåé éàúáù éë 5äðéîã éáà êøãë íéçàä ìò äøåé íéãàîå ¬éàúáù ìâìâì éðù åìâìâ àåä øùàë ïåîîä ìò úéáë áàä ìò äøåú ùîùäå ¬6éàúáù ìâìâì éùéìù åìâìâ éë øåáòá éùéìùä úéáä úéáä äøåé øùàë äéáøå äéøô ìò äøåé äâðå ¬éàúáù ìâìâì éòéáø åìâìâ éë éòéáøä
7

äøåé øùàë íéãáòä ìò äøåé äîç áëåëå ¬éàúáù ìâìâì éùéîç åìâìâ éë éùéîçä

úéáä 8äøåé øùàë íéùðä ìò äøåú äðáìäå ¬éàúáù ìâìâì éùù åìâìâ éë éùùä úéáä ìò ¬10éðéîùá ùîù"ì éàúáù áù äðäå

(6)
11

®éàúáù 9ìâìâì éòéáù äìâìâ éë éòéáùä

éòéùúä úéáä ÷ãö ÷ìçá äéä äðäå » éðéîùä úéáä äøåé øùàë úåîä ìò äøåé ïë íéãàîì éøéùòä úéáä áù äðäå »÷ãö úãìåúë íùä úãåáòå úåðîåàä ìò äøåéù ®12ùîùì øùò ãçà úéá áùå ¬äìùîîä ìòå çëä ìòå äøøùä ìò äøåé àåä íâ éë øùò íéðù úéá áùå ¬15øùò éúùò úéá äøåé øùàë ïåì÷å äôøçì
16 14

úéá äøåé øùàë ãåáëå ïç ìò

13

äøåú àéä íâ

(7)

íéâåðòúä óåñå ¬íéâåðòúä ìò åúãìåúá äøåéù äâðì ®øùò íéðù

íò øå÷ úåîä

18

ø÷òå ®ùáéå ø÷

17

àåä êéà íòè éúøëæä øáë ®éàúáù

(1) 2

øåáòá íéðåîã÷ íéøáã ìò äøåéå ¬ìáàå ïåáöòå úåî ìò äøåé ïë ìò ¬19úùáé ¬ïåùàøä ìåáâä àåä éë åãåä õøà å÷ìçáå ¬21åúéá àåäù
23 20

(2)

®äðúîäá åúòåðúå ïåéìò áëåë àåäù

éìã íìæî úåéä øåáòá íéãåäéä ìòå ¬íúåøçù øåáòá íéùåëä ìòå
25

å÷ìçá 맧ò ¬22å÷ìçá äîãàä éë äîãàä éãáåòå ¬ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòá íéð÷æäå ãåáëä éúá íé÷ðîäå úåøåòä éãáòîå ¬ìåçèä íãàä
24

¬äøîä éë øåáòá
28

óåâî

åá ïéàå ãáë åúåéä øåáòá úøôåòä ìò äøåéå ìòá éë
27

(3)

®óåðéè ìò äøåú ¬åúãìåú àéäù
26

øåáòá êùåç íå÷î ìëå úåøòîä õøàäî å÷ìçáå ®èòî

àìà úìòåú

®åæ êøãá ÷ »îèàøô [êøãä äæ ìò3 ®ìåôë ÷ »îèàøô [ìôë2 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [êøòå1 íéãàîå6 ®äðéîã åáà è »äðéîàã éáà ÷ »äðåîã éáà ïáà î »àøô [äðéîã éáà ïáà5 ®øñç è »î÷àøô < î »è÷àøô [äøåé8 ®äøåéù åîë ÷ »îèàøô [äøåé øùàë7 ®øñç ÷ø »îèàô [éàúáù ®®® äøåé éðéîù åîë è »(à 駧ëá ã÷åðî òéôåî) î÷ôàø [éðéîùá ùîù"ì 10 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [ìâìâì9 ®ìò àåä ÷ô »îèà ø [äøåú àéä13 ®éë < î÷ô »èàø [ùîùì12 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [éðéîùä11 ®ùîùì ®øñç è »î÷àøô [íéâåðòúä óåñå16 ®äæ ÷ »îèàøô [øùò éúùò15 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [úéá14 ®äøåé ÷ »úåùáé íò î »èàøô [úùáé íò19 ®ø÷òù éôìå ÷ »îèàøô [ø÷òå18 ®åúåéä è »î÷àøô [àåä êéà17 äîãàä éãáåòå22 ®íúéá î »è÷àøô [åúéá21 ®éìã àåäù íìæî ÷ »îèàøô [éìã íìæî úåéä20 ®ùáåéå ®óåâîå ô »îè÷àø [óåâî24 ®øñç ô »å÷ìçá ÷ »îèàø [å÷ìçá 맧ò23 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [å÷ìçá ®®® è »î÷àøô [øåáòá27 ®÷ø è »î÷àøô [àìà26 ®úåôùà é÷ðî ÷ »îèàøô [ãåáëä éúá íé÷ðîäå25 ®øñç îø »è÷àô [ìòá28 ®øñç

[ïéà4

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is a noble ratio, and the ratio of the Moon to Jupiter is a twofold ratio, which is also a noble ratio.[3] (4) In this way, then, the luminaries have no noble ratio to Saturn and Mars; hence they said that they are malefic.[4] (5) Ibn Abi Damina said that Saturn indicates the human body, just as the first mundane house does;[5] that Jupiter indicates money, inasmuch as its orb is the second counting from Saturn’s orb; that Mars indicates brothers, like the third house, inasmuch as its orb is the third counting from Saturn’s orb; that the Sun indicates the father, like the fourth house, because its orb is the fourth counting from Saturn’s orb; that Venus indicates procreation, inasmuch as this is the signification of the fifth house and its orb is the fifth counting from Saturn’s orb; that Mercury indicates slaves, inasmuch as this is the signification of the sixth house and its orb is the sixth counting from Saturn’s orb; and that the Moon indicates women, inasmuch as this is the signification of the seventh house and its orb is the seventh counting from Saturn’s orb. (6) Saturn serves again in the eighth mundane house , and therefore indicates death, which is the signification of the eighth house; the ninth house, which indicates art and divine worship, like Jupiter’s nature, is in Jupiter’s portion; Mars serves again in the tenth house because it [i.e., Mars] too indicates authority and power and government; and the Sun serves again in the eleventh house. (7) It [i.e., the Sun] also indicates beauty and honor, inasmuch as this is the signification of the eleventh house. Venus serves again in the twelfth house, because by its nature it [i.e., Venus] indicates pleasures, but the end of pleasures is shame and dishonor, which are the signification of the twelfth house.[6] 2 (1) Saturn. I have already mentioned the reason why it is cold and dry.[1] The essence of death is cold and dryness, so it indicates death and sadness and mourning; it indicates primordial things because it is an upper planet and it moves sluggishly.[2] (2) The land of India, which is in the first climate, is in its portion; it is in charge of the Ethiopians on account of their blackness, and of the Jews because their sign is Aquarius, which is its house,[3] and of the elderly because it is uppermost, and of farmers because the ground is in its portion. So its portion of the human body is the spleen, and its portion includes tanners and privy-cleaners, because black bile, which is its nature, indicates filth. (3) It indicates lead because it is heavy and because it is almost useless. Its portion of the Earth is caves and dark places, because it suits a melancholy nature to be in solitude and not to stay

72
äéç ìë ìò äøåéå

first version of the book of reasons (4) ®áùåéî íå÷îá ãåîòé àìùå ããåáúäì åúãìåú äøåçùä äøîä

äøåö äùòú àì äøåçùä äøîä éë øåáòá úøòåëîå ¬ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòá äìåãâ éë øåáòá úåîä íñ 2åá ùéù øáã ìëå ¬1åúãìåú øåáòá å÷ìçá íéöôòä ïìéàå ®äôé áò ãâá ìë íéãâáä ïîå ¬øåöéò äá ùéù øåáòá äø÷ä ìò äøåéå ®úåî ìò äøåé àåä
4

úáùçîä å÷ìçáå

(5) ®áò øáã ìë àìà áäàé àìå 3äáò äøåçùä äøîä úãìåú éë

åúåéä øåáòá úåúôìå ñåòëìå ñîç úåùòìå 5úåãåñä úòã äëëå ¬ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòá åúåéä øåáòá íé÷åçøä íéëøãä ìò äøåéå ®äáøä úòâéî úåðîåà ìë äëëå ¬÷éæî äòáù å÷ìçå

(6)

®óåâä ø÷ò íäå íéùáéå íéø÷ íä éë úåîöòä å÷ìçáå ®ïåéìò

éàúáùì íéðæàäå ¬úåøåàîì íéðéòä íäå ¬íéúøùîä 8äòáù ìò 7ùàøáù 6íéøòù åñðå »äîç áëåëì äôä íò ïåùìäå ¬äâðå íéãàîì íééøéçðäå ¬íéðåéìòä íäù ÷ãöå ¬äøåçùä äøîäî 9åáåø éë ïåòâùä ìò äøåéå
10

(7)

®íãéá äìòå úåìæîä éîëç ìë äæ

® åúëéìäá åúðúîä øåáòá íéáø íéîé ãîåò áàë ìò äøåéå ¬úòøöäå âåìéôä äëëå øçàå ¬íéðù òáøà ùîùú äðáìä éë ¬ñåéîìèá ùøéô øùàë ¬äð÷æä ìò äøåéå

(8)

¬äðù äøùò òùú ùîùä åéøçàå ¬íéðù äðåîù äâð ïë øçàå ¬íéðù øùò äîç áëåë ïë »11éàúáù íéðùä óåñå ¬äðù äøùò íéúù ÷ãö åéøçàå ¬íéðù òáù íéãàî åéøçàå
13

åúåéä øåáòá éë éúøîà øáëå

(9)

®íãàä úãìåúî úåéàø úåîãë
14

12

äæ ìò àéáäå

íéîéä úìçú éë òãå
à34

(10)

®éçøæî àåäù åøîà ïë ìò »çøæî úàôá åçë øùéúé ø÷ äðäå »ïåùàø íåéî
15 17

¬íéîéä øàùî øúåé ùîùì çë ùé äæ íåéá éë úåìæîä éîëç åñð ¬ùîùì äðåùàøä äòùä åðúð ãéîú úåòù ìòá éë åøîà ïë ìòå ®ùîùä
16

|

äøùò íéúù ìò íåéä å÷ìç øùàëå úìòá úéðùä

ìâìâ úçú åìâìâù ¬äâðì úéðùä äòùäå ¬íåéä

çëä áåø éë ¬íåéä úìòá ¬ùîùä íò óúúùî àåäå ¬äâð àåä ïåùàø íåéá àì åúøåöå åéúåéúåà øáãå

àöé êøãä äæ ìòå ¬18ùîùì úéðéîùä äòùä äáù äðäå ®íéáëåëä øàù äëëå ¬äìù

(11)

®éòéáø

20

ìéì

19

úåìéìäîå ¬úáù íåé éàúáù ÷ìçá

úòã ìò åîå÷îì éàúáù áåùé äæä øôñîá éë úåîåöòä åéúåðù íòèå ®íòè åá éúéàø

[úáùçîä4 ®áò ÷ »îèàøô [äáò3 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [åá ùéù øáã2 ®ùáåéä ÷ »îèàøô [åúãìåú1 [ùàøáù7 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [íéøòù äòáù6 ®úåãçä ô »îè÷àø [úåãåñä5 ®ìë > ø »÷îèàô [åúëéìäá10 ®äéä ÷ »àåä î »èàøô [åáåø9 ®äòáùì ÷ »îèàøô [äòáù ìò8 ®àøáù ô »îè÷àø [äæ ìò àéáäå12 ®íéðùä óåñ ãò éáúù åéøçàå è »î÷àøô [éàúáù íéðùä óåñå11 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô »îè÷àø [úìòá15 ®øáëå è »î÷àøô [äðäå14 ®åúåéäì ÷ »îèàøô [åúåéä øåáòá13 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô ®øñç ÷ »èàøô [ùîùì18 ®úéðùä äòùä è »î÷àøô [úéðùä17 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [ìâìâ16 ®ìòá ô ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [ìéì20 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [úåìéìäîå19

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in an inhabited place. (4) It indicates any animal that is big because it is uppermost, and any animal that is ugly because black bile does not shape any handsome image. The gall-oak is in its portion on account of its nature, as well as anything that contains a deadly poison, because it indicates death. It indicates frost because it has retention of fluids [i.e. freezing], and of garments any garment that is thick, because the nature of black bile is thick and it loves only what is thick. (5) Thought is in its portion, because it is uppermost, and so are knowledge of the arcane, violence, anger, and seduction, because it is malefic; and also all crafts that are exhausting. It indicates long journeys because it is uppermost. The bones are in its portion, because they are cold and dry and they are the mainstay of the body.[4] (6) The seven orifices in the head were assigned to the seven planets; namely, the eyes to the luminaries, the ears to Saturn and Jupiter, which are upper planets , the nostrils to Mars and Venus, and the tongue and mouth to Mercury; this was successfully verified by experience by all the astrologers.[5] (7) It indicates madness because it stems mostly from the black bile, and also hemiplegia and leprosy. It indicates pain that lingers many days because of its sluggish motion.[6] (8) It indicates old age, as expounded by Ptolemy, because the Moon is in charge for four years, then Mercury for ten years, then Venus for eight years, then the Sun for nineteen years, then Mars for seven years, and then Jupiter for twelve years; and the final years are under the charge of Saturn; and he [i.e. Ptolemy] furnished proofs of sorts for this, drawn from human nature.[7] (9) I have already said that its power turns temperate in the east because it is cold;[8] for this reason they said that it is eastern. (10) Know that the days of the week begin from Sunday; the astrologers found out by experience that the Sun has more power on this day than on any other day. When they divided the day into twelve hours they always assigned the first hour to the Sun, the lord of the day, and the second hour to Venus, whose orb is beneath the Sun’s orb. For this reason they said that the lord of the second hour of Sunday is Venus and that it is in partnership with the Sun, the lord of the day, which has most of the power, and similarly with the other planets. Then the eighth hour is again under the charge of the Sun. Proceeding with this method, the diurnal part of Saturday is in the portion of Saturn, and of the nights Wednesday night is in its portion .[9] (11) I have not found the reason for its letters and shape. The reason for its greatest years, in the opinion of the Indian scientists, is that in this number of years Saturn returns to its place; the reason for the great years, in the opinion of the Egyptian scientists, is that they

74

first version of the book of reasons

úòã ìò úåìæîá éàúáù éìåáâ ïåáùçë íäù úåìåãâä 1íéðùä íòèå ¬åãåä éîëç
3

åúìòîî áåø÷ áåùé äðù íéùåìù óåñì éë úåðè÷ä åéúåðù íòèå ¬2íéøöî éîëç

úåðùå ®úåðè÷ä éöç íò 7åøáçå úåìåãâä éöç 6åç÷ìù 5úåéòöîàä íòèå ¬4äðåùàøä çë úåéä íòèå

(12)

®9äéàø àìá ñøô éîëç ïë 8åøéëæä øàãøôìà àø÷ðä ÷ìçä
12

ùîùä øçà ïéàå ÷ãö óåâî áåø÷

àåä éë ¬åôåâ

11

ìãåâ øåáòá úåìòî òùú

10

åôåâ

¬äéøçàì íâ äéðôì úåìòî äøùò ùîç ùîùä øåà éë åøîà ïë ìò ®íäî íéìåãâ øåà åì ùéù éî íéáëåëá ïéàå ®ùîùäî úåçô äøåàù øåáòá äøùò íéúù äðáììå øåáòáå ®éàúáù åîë úåìòî òùú
17 14

÷ãö øåà éë åøîà äëëå ®ùîùäî

13

ãáì äåîë

äðåîù åøåà éë åøîàå äìòî åì åøñç õøàä ïî áåø÷ àåä íäî ïè÷ íéãàî óåâù äìòå äæ åñðå ¬16íéðåîã÷ä úøáñ äúéä êë ®úåìòî òáù äîç áëåëå äâðå ¬15úåìòî ®íãéá úôñåú ìò äøåé áåè
18

áëåë åúåéä øåáòáå ®åúãìåú íòè éúøëæä øáë ®÷ãö
21

(1) 3

¬éàúáùì éðù àåä øùàë ¬éðùä

íéìåáâäî åì åðúðå
24

(2)

®20äéáøå äéøôå

19

äáåè ìë ®íäéìò

èéìù åìåáâ íå÷îá åãåáë úéá éë ¬íéìááäå ¬23íéâã íìæî éë ¬22íééñøôä íééåâäîå ïîå ¬åúãìåúá éúøëæä øùàë úåìéôúä úãìåúä åæ éë íãåà íò
29 27

éúáå ¬øåäè íå÷î ìë åì åðúðå

(3)

ïáì

26

óåâä äàøîå

(4)

® åúåé÷ð øåáòá íéàðä íéãâáä
25

àåä éë íãäå ¬éàúáù øòùá åéúøëæä øáë úéìàîùä ïæàä å÷ìçáå ¬28äøùéä

ïîå ¬31éàúáùî äèîì àåäù øåáòá äð÷æäå úåøçáä ïéá íéðùä ïîå

(5)

®30åúãìåúá

íòèë úåîåöòä åéúåðù íòèå ¬íééìàîù úåçåø ãéìåî àåä éë úéìàîùä úåàôä ®éàúáùì éúøëæäù ìòå
36 32

äâéøää ìò äøåé åîåç áåøîå ®åúãìåú íòè éúøëæä øáë ®íéãàî
35

(1) 4

àåä øùàë éùéìùä

ìåáâäî å÷ìçáå

(2)

®ñòëäå

34

äîçìîä ìòå

33

úåáéøîä

ïéàå

(3) ®37äéàø àéáä àìå êåðç úòã åæ »àøéè àìâðéà éùðà å÷ìçáå ¬éàúáùì éùéìù

®åúìòîì è »î÷àøô [åúìòîî3 ®åãåä ø »÷îèàô [íéøöî2 ®åéúåðù ô »îè÷àø [íéðùä1 ®úåîåöòä íéðùá ïåéãä éøçà òéôåî äæä òè÷ä ô 駧ëá »î÷àø [äðåùàøä ®®® úåðè÷ä åéúåðù íòèå4 ®íåøáçå à »îè÷ôø [åøáçå7 ®å÷ìçù è »î÷àøô [åç÷ìù6 ®åéúåðù > ô »îè÷àø [úåéòöîàä5 [ìãåâ11 ®úåôåâ ô »îè÷àø [åôåâ10 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [äéàø àìá9 ®åøîà è »î÷àøô [åøéëæä8 »î÷àøô [÷ãö14 ®øñç î »õåç ÷ »èàøô [ãáì13 ®àåäå è »î÷àøô [àåä éë12 ®çë > ô »îè÷àø »î÷àø [äìòå17 ®íéîëçä > ô »îè÷àø [íéðåîã÷ä16 ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [úåìòî15 ®ùîùä è îèà »÷ôø [äéáøå20 ®øáã è »äáåè ô »î÷àø [äáåè ìë19 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [áëåë18 ®ìò ô àåäù < ÷ »îèàøô [íéâã23 ®ñøô ÷ »îèàøô [íééñøôä22 ®ìåáâä ô »îè÷àø [íéìåáâäî21 ®øñç ®åäàøîå ÷ »îèàøô [óåâä äàøîå26 ®íúåé÷ð àô »îè÷ø [åúåé÷ð25 ®úéáå è »î÷àøô [éúáå24 ®åúéá ÷ »äøùéä úãìåúä î »äøùéä åúåãìåú àåä ô »àø [äøùéä úãìåúä åæ28 ®ïáåì î »è÷àøô [ïáì27 ®åúãìåú ÷ »îèàøô [åúãìåúá30 ®íä è »î÷àøô [àåä29 ®äøùé úãìåúä úàæ è »äøùé åúãìåú ô »îè÷àø [úåáéøîä33 ®âøä è »î÷àøô [äâéøää32 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [éàúáùî ®®® íéðùä ïîå31 øùàë36 ®íéìåáâäî ÷ »ìåáâä è »îàøô [ìåáâäî35 ®úåîçìîä îèô »÷àø [äîçìîä34 ®äáéøî ®åéøáãì < à »îè÷ôø [äéàø37 ®àåäù åîë è »î÷àøô [àåä

[5] The reason for its greatest years is the same as the reason I mentioned for Saturn. and they successfully verified it by experience.[3] and of garments the handsome.[2] Because it is a benefic planet. but he did not bring any proof. None of the stars gives as much light as the Moon. The years of the part that is called the fardâr were mentioned by the Persian scientists without any proof. This was the opinion of the Ancients. and the light of the Moon twelve degrees . and Venus and Mercury are seven degrees. and the reason for the middle years is that they took half of the great years and added them to the half of the least years . since it is almost of the size of Jupiter. as I have explained regarding its nature. The left ear is in its portion.[6] 4 (1) Mars. Because the body of Mars is smaller than theirs and it is closer to the Earth. except for the Sun. the reason for the least years is that after thirty years it returns approximately to its first degree [i..chapter four 75 are as the number of Saturn’s terms in the signs. (3) There is no .[2] Because of its great heat it indicates slaughter. inasmuch as it is the third [counting] from Saturn. war. because it is of its nature. and also the Babylonians. as I have already mentioned in Saturn’s chapter. (4) The appearance of the body is white with red. (2) The third climate is of its portion.[1] I have already mentioned the reason for its nature. because of its cleanness.[1] I have already mentioned the reason for its nature. those between youth and old age. it indicates an increase in any goodness and procreation. because this is the temperate nature. They also said that the light of Jupiter is nine degrees. and of the nations the Persians. because its light is less the Sun’s. because it is underneath Saturn. (5) Of the years. quarrels. and of the edges of the horizon the northern. like Saturn’s.[11] 3 (1) Jupiter. they subtracted one degree and said that its light is eight degrees. because its house of exaltation in the place of its term governs them. because their sign is Pisces.[4] The blood is in its portion . and anger. (2) They assigned the second climate to it. inasmuch as it is the second [counting] from Saturn. and except for the Sun no planet is bigger than they are.[10] (12) The reason that the power of its body covers nine degrees is the size of its body. The inhabitants of England are of its portion. because it generates the northerly winds. it completes its cycle]. This is why they said that the light of the Sun extends fifteen degrees before it and also after it. this is Enoch’s opinion. (3) They assigned all pristine places and houses of prayer to it.e.

76 first version of the book of reasons (4) ®÷ùð éìë ìëå úéøôâäå íåãàä ìæøáä íòè øéëæäì êøåö ìë äîãàä ùîøîå 3 øåáòá ìãøçäå ìôìôä äëëå ¬íåãà àåäù 2øåáòá 1ñ÷á ìàå ¬åúãìåú ïë éë ÷éæî äøåé äîì íòè åðøëæä øáëå (5) ®íéèñì äùòî àéä éë äáéðâäå ¬íéùáéå íéîç íäù (6) ®åéìò äøåéù áø÷ò úéá ìòá àåä éë øáàä å÷ìçáå ®åìù ïéîéä øéçðä äîìå íéçàä ìò úåàôä ïîå ¬éàúáùì éùéìù àåäù øåáòá úåøçáä 4éîé íãàä úåðùîå ®éàúáù åîë åéúåðùå íéîéä íòèå ¬äçìå äø÷ àéä éë ¬åúãìåú 5øùééú éë úéáøòîä éë äîò áëåë øáçúäá ùîùä åîë ÷éæî áëåë 6ïéà ºøùòî åáà øîà ®ùîùä 9 (1) 5 ¬ãàî äáåè àéäå »íé÷éæîä øàù äëë úåùòì åìëåé àìå ¬8äîò 7çë åì øàùé àì ä÷ìçáå 12 (2) ®èáî ìëá äãáì äðáììå ¬úéùùå úéùéìù èáîá ¬äâðå ÷ãöî øúåé éòéáøä ìåáâä ä÷ìçáå ¬äéøà ïîå (3) ®ñéìèåèñéøàì ùôðä øôñá 14 10 òåãé äæ Ð úùâøîä ùôðä 11 íìæî úåéä øåáòá íåãà íééåâäî ä÷ìçáå ®éàúáùì éòéáø 15 äìâìâ øùàë äáåèå äìåãâ íìåòá äàéøá ïéàù øåáòá íéëìîä íãà éðá ïîå ®13äúéá àåäù (4) ®áäæì äîåãù äî ìëå úåø÷éä íéðáàäå áäæä ä÷ìçá ¬ïë ìò ®äðîî 16 úåùéìù äì ùéù øåáòá íéñåñäå ¬äçëá äéåìú á34 íãàä úîùð éë íãàä íééçä øåáòá íéìåãâä íéùáëäå ¬äúéá øåáòá úåéøàäå ¬ñåñä úøåö íùù ¬úù÷ ìæîá äøåúå ®äîùðä çë øåáòá äðéáäå úòãä äì ¬úåôåâä ìë ø÷ò àåä éë 18 17 | ùéå (5) ®äãåáë úéá äìè ìæîù éë øåáòá úåáàä ìòå ¬÷ãö êøãë íé÷åçäå úåøåúä ìò íéîåã íäù ãåìéä ïî íéìåãâ íäù íééòöîàä íéçàäå áìä ä÷ìçáå (6) ®áàì 19 ìë éöçå ¬äîùðä íùù ùàøä çåîå ¬øåàä ø÷ò àéä éë íåéá úéðîéä ïéòäå ¬çåøä íù úåàôäîå (7) ®óé÷úä 21 ä÷ìçá åðúðå úåøåàîä éðù ìò óåâä å÷ìç éë éðîéä óåâä 22 úåîåöòä äéúåðù íòèå ®åéúøëæä ïåùàø íåé íòèå ®20äçë ìçé íù éë çøæî øáçúú äæä øôñîá éë 23 úòã ìò úòøâî àìáå ÷ìç úôñåú àìá äðáìä íò éë úåðè÷ä íòèå ¬úãìåúä ééç úåðù äìà éë úåìåãâä äéúåðù íòèå ¬åãåä éîëç ÷ »îèàøô [øåáòá ®®® íåãà àåäù3 ®øñç ÷à »îèôø [øåáòá2 ®ñà÷á î÷ »ñ÷àá àô »èø [ñ÷á1 > ÷àô »îèø [ïéà6 ®øùéúé íù ÷ »øùéúú îà »ôø [øùééú5 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [éîé4 ®úåìàä øúéå ÷ »îèàøô [ä÷ìçáå9 ®øñç è »ùîùä ÷ »îàô [äîò8 ®øñç è »î÷àô [çë åì øàùé àì éë7 ®éë [íìæî úåéä øåáòá12 ®ìâìâ àåä ÷àô »îèø [äìâìâ11 ®òåãéäå ø »÷îèàô [òåãé äæ10 ®å÷ìçáå »è [äîåãù äî15 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [íãà14 ®åúéá ÷ »îèàøô [äúéá13 ®íìæîù éôì ÷ »îèàøô [áìä18 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [éë17 ®øñç à »îè÷ôø [íãàä úîùð éë16 ®äîåãä ÷ »äîåãù éî îàøô »îèàøô [íòèå21 äñë ô »îè÷àø [äçë20 ®ùîù ÷ìçá ÷ »îèàøô [ä÷ìçá19 ®áìäî ÷ »îèàøô ®íù ô »éðù äìà è »î÷àø [úåðù äìà23 ®øáçúä ô »îè÷àø [øáçúú22 ®øñç ÷ .

where there is the shape of a horse.. the other planet] is left devoid of power. (4) Of living things. according to the opinion of the Indian scientists.[4] (7) Of the edges of the horizon the east.e. which is cold and moist. because it is the principle of light. (6) The heart is in its portion. "Edom[3] is in its portion. I have already mentioned the reason for Sunday. because its power begins there. because the spirit is there. in any aspect. gold and gemstones are in its portion. only. and all weapons.. Abû Ma#shar said: No planet is as malefic as the Sun when it conjoins a planet. to the Sun]. It is very benefic. Of the edges of the horizon the western. the . which indicates it. in trine and sextile. is that in this number of years it conjoins with the Moon. because Mars is the third [counting] from Saturn. (2) The sensitive soul is in its portion—as is made known in Aristotle’s Book on the Soul. because it tempers its nature. and theft because it is the work of bandits. (5) It has wisdom and understanding because of the power of the soul. where the soul is.e. the reason for the great years is that these are the years of natural life. (6) Of human years. inasmuch as its orb is the fourth [counting from] Saturn. youth is in its portion . and the right eye by day. because it has the triplicity in the sign of Sagittarius. and al-baks because it is red.[5] The reason for its greatest years. Of human beings kings. because Mars is the lord of the house of Scorpio. and the middle brothers who are older than the native and are similar to the father. and the entire right half of the body. horses. because their sign is Leo. which is its house.[5] The reason for the days and its years is the same as for Saturn. like Jupiter. and sheep because Aries is the house of its exaltation. it indicates fathers. human beings. without any added or subtracted part.[4] The penis is in its portion. and lions because of its house. because it is the essence of all bodies.[6] 5 (1) The Sun.chapter four 77 need to mention the reason why it is associated with copper.[1] but the other malefic planets cannot do that. sulfur. (4) All noxious creeping things on Earth belong to it because that is its nature. because they divided the body between the luminaries and the stronger side was assigned to it [i. more than Jupiter and Venus. and the brain. because no created object in the world is greater or more beneficial than it is. and to the Moon. because their soul depends on its power. and so too pepper and mustard because they are hot and dry. because it [i. For this reason. and anything resembling gold.[2] (3) The fourth climate is in its portion.[3] (5) We have already mentioned the reason why it indicates brothers and why the right nostril belongs to it. It indicates ordinances and laws. Of the nations.

78 first version of the book of reasons íéèòî íé÷ìç ÷ø íäéðéá äéäé àìå ùîùä íò äðáìä øáçúú äøùò òùú ìëá éöç ìà äúåà åøáçå úåìåãâä 1úéòéáø åç÷ìù úåéòöîàä íòèå ¬åãåä éîëç úòãì ®åéúøëæä äôåâ çëå ®åñð äëëå åøîà äëë ®úåðè÷ä å÷ìçáå 6 (2) ®äåàúîä ùôðä ìò 2äøåé àåä éë åñéðå ®åúãìåú éúøëæä øáë ®äâð (1) 6 5 úøåú ìò àåäù éî íééåâäîå ¬3éàúáù ìâìâ ãâðë åìâìâ äëë éë éùéîçä ìåáâä éàúáù úåøáçúäá íù äéäå ¬äâð ìåáâá áø÷ò 7 4 íìæî úåéä øåáòá ìàòîùé äøåé àåäå ¬íéùðä íå÷î å÷ìçá åîù äåàúä ìò äøåéù øåáòáå (3) ®÷ãö íò ìë ìò äøåé äåàúä øåáòáå ¬8íéòåáö íäù øåáòá íéòãøôöäå ¬éôåéå øàåú ìò úåðáä íòè äæå ¬çìå ø÷ åúãìåú éë äá÷ð åúåéä øåáòá íàä ìòå ¬ä÷ùîå ìëàî íãàä úåðùîå çë 10 (4) ®äâð óåâî ìåãâ äôåâù ¬9äðáìä ÷ìçá äìåãâä éë ¬äðè÷ä úåçàäå 13 íâ íéúøëæä úåòùäå íéîéäå ¬õøàä ãâðë úéùéìùä äìòîá àéä éë ¬úåøçáä ÷ìç úôñåú 12 úòøâî àìáå àìá åîå÷î 11 ìà áåùé æà éë úåîåöòä åéúåðùå ¬åôåâ ®éàúáù êøãë úåðè÷äå úåéòöîàäå úåìåãâäå ¬åãåä éîëç úòã ìò »úãìåúäå íãàä óåâ ìò 14 äøåú äðáìä éë íéðåîã÷ä ìë åøîà ®äîç áëåë 16 (1) 7 íå÷îä éôë òåá÷ éìåç åì äéäé ¬íé÷éæîä ãçà íò 15 íãà ãìåîá äúéä íà ¬ïë ìò ìòå úòãä ìò äøåé ïë ìò ¬äðîî äìòîì äîç áëåëù øåáòáå øúåé õøàä ìà áåø÷ àåäù úøùî ìë éë ñéìèåèñéøà øîàéå éë ¬íéììëä ìò åðéãé íéðåéìòä 20 17 (2) ®åá åøáçúéù (3) ®äîùðäå øåáãä äìòîì àåäù éîì õøàá çë ïéà éë øîà ¬ïë ìò »÷åçøäî íãàä éðéðò ìò äøåé úøáçîî éë íéðåîã÷ä ìë åðéàø äðäå »ùîùäî åìâìâ äëë éë éùùä ìåáâä å÷ìçáå (4) ®íéèøôä ìò åøåéù äîî íäéìò 19 18 åøåé øúåé êøåö ïéàå ® ïè÷ áëåë àåäù øåáòá ì÷ óåò ìë å÷ìçáå ¬ éàúáù ìâìâ ãâðë éë åçëå à »äøåéù åñéðå ÷ »îèôø [äøåé àåä éë åñéðå2 ®ìâìâä úéòéáø ô »òáåø ÷ »îèàø [úéòéáø1 [íìæî úåéä øåáòá4 ®éàúáùì éùéîç åìâìâ ÷ »îèàøô [éàúáù ìâìâ ãâðë åìâìâ äëë3 ®äøåé àåä è »î÷àøô [éàúáù6 ®øáçúäá ÷ »úøáçîä úòá è »îàøô [úåøáçúäá5 ®íìæîù éôì ÷ »îèàøô ®äìåãâä î »è÷àøô [äðáìä9 ®úåòåáö ô »îè÷àø [íéòåáö8 ®å÷ìçì ÷ »îèàøô [å÷ìçá7 ®éúáùî ®øñç è »î÷àøô [÷ìç13 ®éìá è÷ »îàøô [àìá12 ®ìò ÷ »îèàøô [ìà11 ®íò ÷ »îèàøô [íâ10 [úøáçîî17 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [ãçà16 ®ãçà ø »÷îèàô [íãà15 ®äøåî äéäú è »î÷àøô [äøåú14 [ïè÷20 ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [éàúáù ®®® ìåáâä å÷ìçáå19 ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [åøåé18 ®úøáçî ô »îè÷àø ®øñç ô »îè÷àø .

[1] but we have seen that all the Ancients pronounced judgments about general affairs on the basis of the conjunction of the upper planets . because it is feminine. whose body is bigger than Venus’ body. because it is in the third level above the Earth. in the opinion of the Indian scientists. those who follow the Muslim law. it indicates wisdom. because their sign is Scorpio in the term of Venus. it indicates shapeliness and beauty.e. hence if it is together with one of the malefics in a man’s nativity he will suffer from a chronic disease. inasmuch as its nature is cold and moist. so he said that no power is exerted on Earth by any planet that is above the Sun. It indicates the mother. Venus] was there when the conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter took place. this is also the reason it indicates daughters and the younger sister. It indicates frogs. and it [i. (3) Aristotle said that any planet that is close to the Earth is more indicative of human affairs than a planet that is distant.. and the rational soul.[6][7] 6 (1) Venus. every light bird is in its portion. I have already mentioned the days and the hours as well as the power of its body. according to the place where they conjoin. All the Ancients said that the Moon indicates the human body and nature. is that the Sun conjoins the Moon every nineteen years . (2) The fifth climate is in its portion. I have already explained its nature. speech.chapter four 79 reason for the least years .[3] According to the opinion of the Indian scientists the explanation for its greatest years is that then it will return to its place without any addition or subtraction. I have already explained the power of its body.. (2) Because Mercury is above it [i.[2] (4) The sixth climate is in its portion. the reason for the middle years is that they took a quarter of the great years and added it to a half of the least years . the Moon]. Because of desire it indicates any food and drink.[1] They found through experience that it indicates the appetitive soul. but the elder sister is in the portion of the Moon. because they are highly colored. because that is the relationship of its orb to Saturn’s orb. with only a few parts of a degree between them. of the nations.[2] (3) Since it indicates lust they assigned the gynaeceum to it. (4) Of the years of man.[4] 7 (1) Mercury. it indicates youth. This is what they said and this is what they verified by experience. because that is the relationship of its orb to Saturn’s orb.e. because it is a small . the explanation for the great and middle and least years is the same as for Saturn. because they indicate more about general than about private affairs.

80 first version of the book of reasons (5) ®åðîî ïè÷ áëåë ìâìâá ïéàù øåáòá íéðè÷ä íéçàä ìò äøåéå ®1úåîëç ìëä éë ¬íéøáãä øàùå ùåçéðä øéëæäì ®õøàä ìà áåø÷ àåä éë úåãìéä íãàä úåðùîå íòèå ¬åéúøëæä 2øáë íéîéä êøãå (6) ®áåøä ìò ùáéå ø÷ àåä éë õåîç åîòèå ®åéúøëæä åôåâ çëå ¬éàúáù êøãë åéúåðù áåø øåáòá úåôåâä 6ìë 5äìáú àéäå ®äúãìåú íòè 4éúøëæä øáë ®3äðáìä ìà 8úåöøàä ïîå ¬éàúáù ìâìâì äìâìâ äëë éë éòéáùä ìåáâä ä÷ìçáå àéäù øåáòá íéçìîä íãà éðáîå (1) 8 (2) ®7äúåçì (3) ®äúéá àåäù ïèøñ íìæî úåéä øåáòá äéáàö 10 äëëå ¬äëìäî úåøéäî øåáòá íéëøã éëìåäå ¬äçìå äø÷ àéäù ¬9íéä ìò äøåú ãéñäå çìåãáäå óñëäå ¬íéúøùîäî äèîì øáãä êôäå ¬ äøåà óéñåéùë åìãâé 13 12 äúåéä øåáòá íéúøùîäå íéçåìùä ¬íãàä úáëøî ìëî äèîì íä éë íéøåîçä ä÷ìçáå 11 (4) ®íäáù ïáåìä øåáòá éë ¬ íúåçì øåáòá íéçéèáàå íéàåùé÷äå øåáòá úòãä ïåøñçå úåáùçîä íòèå à35 15 áåø íãàä úãìåúî ä÷ìçáå 19 (5) ®14äøåà øñçéùë 16 (6) ®äáåø÷ äîëç 20 17 àéä éë úåãâää úòãå ¬äçëùä áåø äëëå äøåà ìë 18 øñåç ¬íéúøùîä ìëì äçë ïúúå äìôù äúåéä øåáòá ¬úãìåú íàä íòè éúøëæä íò äèåð àéäù | øáë ®õøàä ãâðë ïåùàøä òé÷øá àéä éë ìåîâä úåðù ìòå 22 éë áøòî ïéîé úåàôäîå ®áìä íòè éúòãé àìå ùîùì éë øåáòá äàéøä ä÷ìçáå (7) ®21úåéçàäå 23 (8) ®íéáëåëä øàùë úåòùäå íéîéäå ®óéñåäì äøåà ìçé íùî úåìåãâä äîçä úåðùù øåáòá øùòî åáà øîàù ÷ø ¬úåìåãâì íâ úåîåöòä åéúåðùì ¬úåìòî äøùò íéúù ùîùäî ä÷çøî úåéä ãò äàøú àì äðáìäå íéøùòå äàî ïä úåðè÷ä äéúåðù íòèå ®äðù äðîùå äàî 24 äéðù åéäå úãìåúä úåðùî íåøñç ïë ìò ®äôåâ çë éúøëæä øáëå ®úåéòöîàä ùîùä úåðù êøãë úåéòöîàä íòèå ¬åéúøëæä àì ïë ìò ¬éðéòá øùé àì »îèàøô [éúøëæä4 ®çøé ÷ »îèàøô [äðáìä3 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [øáë2 ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [úåîëç1 áåø øåáòá7 ®ìà ø »÷îèàô [ìë6 ®äìëú àéä è »äìáé àåäå ÷ »îàø [äìáú àéäå5 ®éúøëæ ÷ ®øñç àø »íéåâä ô »î÷è [úåöøàä8 ®áøä åúåçì ãòá ÷ »äáøä äúåçì øåáòá è »îàøô [äúåçì [éë12 ®íúçéì àø »îè÷ô [íúåçì11 ®àéäù è »î÷àøô [äúåéä10 ®íäéìò ø »÷îèàô [íéä ìò9 øñçéùë øáãä êôäå14 ®åôåâ ìãâéùë ÷ »îèàøô [äøåà óéñåéùë13 ®ãåòå > ÷ »ù ãåòå è »îàøô [øñåç16 ®áåøá è »î÷àøô [áåø15 ®äøåà øñçéùë åøñçéå è »åôåâ øñçéùë åøñçéå ÷ »îàøô [äøåà ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [ìë19 ®ìò îè »÷àøô [íò18 ®øñç ôø »îè÷à [àéä17 ®ïåøñç è »î÷àøô àåä éë ÷ »ùîùä è »îàøô [ùîùì éë22 ®úåçàäå è »î÷àô [úåéçàäå21 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [éúøëæä20 ®øñç ÷ »åéðù è »äéúåðù ô »îàø [äéðù24 ®íù è »î÷àøô [íùî23 ®ùîùì .

al-Sabia is in its portion . (5) Of the years of man. because all of them are sciences. because of their whiteness.[5] (7) The lung is in its portion. because of its rapid motion.[4] I have already mentioned the reason it indicates the mother and sisters. (3) Of human beings. because it is deficient in light. of countries. which is cold and moist. and similarly extreme forgetfulness.[3] (6) The reason for its capacity to be assimilated into any nature is that it is the lowest planet and gives its power to all the planets.[4][5] 8 (1) The Moon. they grow when its light waxes. because it is below the planets.[8][9] . sailors are in its portion .[6] The explanation for the days and hours is the same as for the other planets. because that is the relationship of its orb to Saturn’s orb. because . because it is cold and dry more often than not.[1] It causes all bodies to decompose on account of its great moisture. (5) Of human nature. Its taste is sour.[2] and silver and crystal and lime. because that is a familiar wisdom. because the heart belongs to the Sun. (8) I do not know the explanation of its greatest and great years.[3] (6) I have already mentioned the rule of the days. so I will not mention it. The explanation of its middle years is the same as that of the Sun’s middle years. (2) The seventh climate is in its portion. There is no need to mention divination and the other matters. so they subtracted them from the natural years and its years are 108. because that is where its light begins to wax. because it is close to Earth. childhood belongs to it . and the opposite when its light wanes. excessive thinking and dementia are in its portion. and wayfarers. I have already mentioned the reason for its nature. because it indicates the sea. and squash and melons on account of their moisture. I have already mentioned the power of its body. the explanation for its years is the same as for Saturn. the southwest is in its portion . their sign is Cancer. because they are the least of the animals men ride on. which is its house. other than what Abû Ma#shar said: that the great years of the Sun are 120 and the Moon cannot be seen until it its 12 degrees away from the Sun. It indicates younger brothers because there is no planet smaller than it in the heavens. and similarly messengers and servants. and the comprehension of homiletics. It indicates infancy. (4) Donkeys are in its portion.chapter four 81 planet. Of the edges of the horizon . because it is in the first heaven above the Earth. I have already explained the power of its body.[7] I am not satisfied with the explanation of its least years.

82 first version of the book of reasons (1) 9 »ùôðä ìò åøåé íäéðù éë ïåùàø úéáá 2äîç áëåë º1äòáùä úçîù úåîå÷î íäéðù éë éùéîçá äâð »íéúãäå íéáåø÷ íéëøã ìò åøåé íäéðù éë éùéìùá äðáìä éë éòéùúá ùîùä »íéàåìçú ìò åøåé íäéðù éë éùùá íéãàî »íéâåðòúä ìò åøåé ìæî ìò åøåé íäéðù éë ১é úéáá ÷ãö »úåðåîàäå íé÷åçø íéëøã ìò åøåé íäéðù úéáå úåáéøîå äôøç ìò åøåé íäéðù éë øùòä íéðù úéáá éàúáùå »ãåáëå ïçå áåè ®3 øäåñä 5§ íòè ù÷áì 4êøåö ïéà íúòøå íéúøùîä úáåèá øëæðä ìë ®éùéîçä øòùä éåàø äéäå ¬éãâî øúåé éìãá éàúáù çë úåéä íòèå 9 (1) 1 (2) ®íéòåãé íä éë ¬ íäéìò 5 ùáéå ø÷ éàúáù 7úåéä øåáòá ÷ø ¬åúãìåúë éãâ éë øåáòá êåôä 6øáãä úåéäì úéá íòè äëëå (3) ®áåè ìò äøåéå åúãìåú íù øùéúú äðä ¬çìå íç éìã 8ìæîå 10 äìè àåäù ¬ïåùàøä åúéáá ¬ãåòå àåä 13 äéä íà äðäå ¬äùáéå äîç åúãìåú éë ¬íéãàîì áø÷ò (4) ®åúãìåú 12øùéúú áø÷ò 11ìæîáå ¬áåàëî ìò áåàëî óéñåé ¬ùáéå íç àåäå éë íéãàîì áø÷ò äëëå ¬åäåîë øëæ àåä éë ¬åì äàð øúåé éìãá éàúáù éë úéá àåäù øåáòá äìåúáá äîç áëåë íòèå ¬øåù ìæîá äâð çë íòè äæå (5) ®äá÷ð ®åãåáë ¬ìàîù úàôá áåùéäù øåáòá êôäå ®íåøãå 17 úéìàîù úàôá äìåò åúåéäá áëåëä çë íòèå (1) 2 (2) ®õøàá ìåãâ çë åì äéäéå åøåà õåöéð 15÷æçé æà ìàîù úàôá áëåëä úåéäáå 14 ìàîù úàôá äúåéäá 16 ùîùäî øøáúé øáãä äæå ¬éîåøã àåäùë øáãä 18 ùé äðä ¬õøàä ÷öåîî ÷åçø å÷öåîù áëåëä úåéäá éë íéøîåà åãåä éîëç úåäáâä ìâìâá äìåò áëåëä úåéä íòèå (3) 19 éë ¬ñåéîìèá ïéáå åãåä éîëç ïéá ú÷åìçî ãáòì äîåã úåìôùä íå÷îá åúåéäáå ¬åñåñ ìò áëåø íãàì äîåã úåäáâä íå÷îá úåáéøîå äôøç ®®® ºäòáùä úçîù úåîå÷î3 ®øñç ô »à [äîç áëåë2 ®íéáëåë < à »ø [äòáùä1 øòùá àöîð äæä òè÷ä ô »390 ïà÷éèàåå 駧ë éôì ¬øùééìô 짧é úàöåäá íâ êë ¬àø [øäåñä úéáå ÷ »îèàøô [øáãä6 ®íäéìà è »î÷àô [íäéìò5 ®êéøö îø »è÷àô [êøåö4 ®øñç î÷è »éùéîçä äðäå10 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [úéá9 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [ìæîå8 ®øñç î »è÷àøô [úåéä ®®® éãâ éë7 ®øñç [éë13 ®øùéúé ÷ »îèàøô [øùéúú12 ®úéááå ÷ »îèàøô [ìæîáå11 ®äéäùëå ÷ »îèàøô [äéä íà [ùîùäî16 ®÷æçúé î »è÷àøô [÷æçé15 ®ìàîù à »úéìàîùä è »î÷øô [úéìàîù14 ®øñç î »è÷àøô »îèàøô [éë19 ®äáâä ÷ »îèàøô [úåäáâä18 ®ïåôöá ÷ »îèàøô [ìàîù úàôá17 ®øñç îô »è÷àø ®øñç ÷ .

and Saturn in the twelfth house. (5) This is also the explanation for the power of Venus in Taurus. and this also applies to Scorpio and Mars.. and when a planet is in the north its rays are stronger and it has great power on Earth. Mercury in the first mundane house. because it is known. Saturn’s] nature is tempered in this place [i. because both indicate pleasures. is simply that Saturn is cold and dry and Aquarius is hot and moist. because it is masculine like the latter. Aries. even though the contrary ought to be true. Venus in the fifth. because both indicate the soul. Its [i. why Mars has more power in Scorpio than in Aries]. inasmuch as Capricorn is of the same nature as Saturn .e. because both indicate shame and quarrels and prison.e. because both indicate diseases. (2) The opposite happens when it is southern. Jupiter in the eleventh house. because it [Scorpio] is feminine. but in the sign of Scorpio it is tempered. (3) The same explanation applies to the sign of Scorpio and Mars [i. it suits Saturn better to be in Aquarius. (4) In addition.chapter five 83 9 (1) The places of joy of the seven planets . so that if it were in its first house. because both indicate long journeys and beliefs. so that its [i. Mars in the sixths.[2] 2 (1) The explanation for the power of a planet when it rises in the north is that the ecumene is in the north [with respect to the equator]. There is no need to explain everything mentioned in Reshit Hokhmah about the beneficence and maleficence of the plan. this can be seen when the Sun is in the northern and in the southern cardinal point. in Aquarius] and indicates good fortune. because both indicate good fortune and beauty and honor. and the explanation for the power of Mercury in Virgo is that that is its house of exaltation. the Sun in the ninth. Mars’] nature is hot and dry. which is also hot and dry.[2] there is indeed a disagreement between the Indian scientists and Ptolemy: the Indian scientists say that when the planet is at apogee it resembles a man riding his horse[3] and that when it is at . (3) As for the explanation of the power of a planet when it rises in the circle of the apogee whose center is far from the center[1] of the Earth. pain would be added to pain.[1] (2) The reason that Saturn has more power in Aquarius than in Capricorn.e.e. because both indicate short journeys and religions.[1] §5 1 (1) Fifth chapter. ets. the Moon in the third.

84 1 first version of the book of reasons (4) ®õøàä ìò êìåää äéäé æà õøàäî áåø÷ áëåëä úåéäá éë øîåà ñåéîìèáå íìåë éøáãù éúòã éôìå íà äðäå (5) ®åúåäáâ íå÷îá äéä íà 2øáãä êôäå ¬ìåãâ çë åì (6) ®íéðåéìòäî áø çë ìá÷é æà õøàäî ÷åçø áëåëä úåéäá éë ¬3íéðåëð äøéúé äîëç ãìåðì äéäé æà ¬ïåéìò øáã àåäù ¬ùôðä 4øáã ìò äðåîî áëåëä äéä äéäé àìå äøö÷å ä÷ã åúîå÷ äéäú æà ¬óåâä øáã ìò äðåîî 5äéä íàå ¬ïéðò ìëá äøåé æà ¬ùôðä ìò äðåîî àåäå 7åúåìôù íå÷îá 6äéäé áëåëä íàå åãîòîá åúåéäá çë áëåëì ùéù íòèå íéáëåëä çë øéëæäì êøåö ïéàå (7) ®ïâåäë çë åì ìåãâ 8óåâ åì äéäéù äøåé óåâä ìò äðåîî àåä íàå ¬øòáå ìéñë äéäé ãìåðä éë (8) ®íéîòô 9äáøä åéúéñð øáãä äæå ®÷æçå 10 (9) ®åúëéìäá øùé úåéäì ìçé íùî éë øåáòá ¬éðùä íéøëæä úåìæîá íéøëæä ®åðåì÷ úéá àåä éë ùîùì íéðæàîî õåç ¬íäì íéîåã íäù øåáòá úòã úàæ ¬åáðæ åà éìúä ùàø íò åúåéäì áëåëä úòøî éë ¬11åøîàù äæå ®áåè íà éë åððéà ùàøä íò ÷ø ¬òø àåä áðæä íò éë úîàäå äîåãä íò äðáìä ìù á35 16 (1) 3 (3) (2) ®12åãåä éùðà úòã äëëå ¬13äðåëð åøáã àì ¬åáðæ åà äðáì ìù éìúä ùàø íò åøîàù äîå úåìæîì äîåãä ìâìâ úøáçî 15 ÷éæé äî éë ¬14ñåéîìèá ìù éìúä ùàø ¬äëëå 20 (4) ®19çåø éøáã äìà »18áëåëì áëåëä ìù | 17úåìæîä ìâìâì íò áåè ùàøä éë ¬åãåä íëç øîàù äîå (5) ®úøã÷ð äúéä íà ÷ø äð÷éæé àì äðáì ®íòè íéëéøö íðéàå íéòåãé íä íéøáãä øàùå ®ïåëð àåä ¬íéáåèä 6§ 22 äàøî ãâðë àåä åôåâ 23 21 íöåòá óéñåé áëåëä øåàù åøéëæäù äæ ®éùéùä øòùä (1) 1 äæå ¬äðîî å÷çøá äàøé øùàî ìåãâ øúåé äàøé õøàä ìà áåø÷ åúåéäá éë ¬ïéòä ®íéçåëð è »î÷àøô [íéðåëð3 ®êôääå ÷ »îèàøô [øáãä êôäå2 ®ùé ÷ »îèàøô [äéäé1 íå÷îá7 ®áëåëäùëå ÷ »îèàøô [äéäé áëåëä íàå6 ®äéäé î »è÷àøô [äéä5 ®éøáã è »î÷àøô »î÷àè ô [äáøä9 ®åìù óåâä ô »îè÷àø [óåâ åì8 ®åìôù íå÷îá ÷ »åúåìôù íå÷î àøô »îè [åúåìôù úàæ12 ®åãåä éîëç åøîà ÷ »îèàøô [åøîàù äæå11 ®øñç à »îè÷ôø [íéøëæä úåìæîá10 ®øñç ø [ñåéîìèá úòã äëëå14 ®úîà åðéà ÷ »îèàøô [äðåëð åøáã àì13 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [åãåä éùðà úòã ìâìâì äîåãä ÷è ®îàøô [úåìæîì äîåãä ìâìâ16 ®÷éæéù è »î÷àøô [÷éæé15 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô »àøô [áëåëì áëåëä18 ®úåìæîä ìâìâì äîåãä ìâìâ ÷è »îàøô [úåìæîä ìâìâì äîåãä17 ®úåìæîä ô »îè÷àø [íò20 ®ñåéîìèá øîà ïëå ÷ »èàøô [çåø éøáã äìà19 ®áëåëä ÷è »áëåë ìà áëåëä î ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [äàøé23 ®äàøîì è÷ »îàøô [äàøî ãâðë22 ®íöåòå ôàø »÷îè [íöåòá21 ®øñç [øáã4 .

this is the opinion of the Indians.[4] (5) But my opinion is that all of them are right. (4) But Ptolemy says that when the planet is close to the Earth it has great power and the opposite when it is at apogee. (7) But if a planet that is at perigee is in charge of the soul. the Head of the Dragon of the Moon is not detrimental to it [i.e. (8) The reason that a planet has great power when it is in its second station is that this is where its motion begins to be direct. because the former are similar to the latter.[5] the native will be exceedingly wise in any undertaking. which is something superior.[6] 3 (1) As for what they said. (5) As for what one Indian scientist said. for how could the intersection of the Moon’s parecliptic with the parecliptic of a planet afflict the planet? That is nonsense. require an explanation.[1] §6 1 (1) Sixth chapter.chapter six 85 perigee it resembles a slave walking on the ground. and if it is in charge of the body he will be lean and short and not as strong as he should be. because it [Libra] is its [the Sun’s] house of dejection. (3) As for what they said about a planet’s being with the Head of the Dragon of the Moon or its Tail. namely. (4) In like manner. that the light of a planet increases the size of its body. I have verified this by experience many times. (9) There is no need to mention the power of the masculine planets in the masculine signs. this is correct. (6) So if a planet that is at apogee is in charge of the soul. it indicates that the native will be a fool and ignoramus. (2) But the truth is that when it is with the Tail it is malefic.[1] What they have mentioned. refers to what is visible to the eye: when it is closer to the Earth it appears larger than when it is far . with the exception of Libra and the Sun. The rest of the things mentioned in Reshit Hokhmah are well known and do not . because when a planet is far from the Earth it receives great power from the upper stars . but when it is with the Head it is only benefic. and if it is in charge of the body it indicates that he will have a large and powerful body. to the Moon] unless it is in eclipse. they were wrong (that is also Ptolemy’s opinion). namely. that a planet is afflicted when it is with the Head of the Dragon or with its Tail. namely. that the Head is benefic with the benefics.

86 first version of the book of reasons 1 ®õøàä ÷öåîî ÷åçø å÷öåîù úåäáâä ìâìâ úàôî íãàä åúòãì ìëåé øáãä ®íéòåãé íéøëæðä íéøáãä øàùå áåø÷ øôñîä äæ 2úåéä øåáòá ¬íé÷ìç øùò äùùî úåçô ÷áãä úåéä íòèå äø÷é àì äæå (2) (1) 2 äãå÷ðä äéäú ¬ùîùä íò ÷ìçá ÷ìç 3÷áã áëåëä úåéäá éë ¬ùîùä ïåñëìà éöçî (2) ®ùîùä 5ìù úéòöîàä äãå÷ðä íò ä÷éáã 4áëåë ìù úéòöîàä ÷åçø äéäé æà ¬7ïè÷ä åìâìâ úåäáâ íå÷îá åúåéä ãò íéðåéìòä íéáëåëäî 6ãçàì ÷åçøä ÷çøîá äéäé æà ¬ìåãâä ìâìâä ãâðë åúåäáâ íå÷îá äéä íàå ¬õøàäî ¬åãåä éîëç úòã 8àéä ¬÷áã åúåéäá áëåëì çë ùéù ¬åðøîàù äîå ¬ïéðéãä éìòáì ùàø àåäù ¬9ñåéðåøåã øôñá éúéàø ÷ø íòèå (3) ®õøàäî (4) ®íäéìò âòåì ñåéîìèáå æà ¬ùîùä íò ÷áã äîç áëåë äéä íà ºåøôñá øîà äëëå ¬åãåä éøáã äñð éë (5) ®íéúøùîä øàù äëëå ¬åçë 11ìôëéù íòèäå ¬äîç éáëåë éðù ìâìâá 10åéäé ®íéòåãé íéøáãä øàùå ¬úåìòî øùò íéãàîì åðúð ïë ìò »íäåîë íéãàî óåâ ïéàå ¬12íôåâ ìãåâ øåáòá úåìòî ùùá äôéøùä ìåáâî ÷ãöå éàúáù úàö íçë íéðåéìòä éë ¬íéðåéìòäî øåáòá 17 15 (2) 14 ®äðîî íéðåéìòäî ùîùäî íéìôùá íéðéãä åðúùäå 13 (1) 3 øúåé äúëéìäá äøéäî ùîùä éë øåáòá ¬áøòîá íéìôùäå çøæîá íçë ìãâé æàå ¬16äðîî íééçøæî íä åìòéå íçéðú íäîò øáçúú øùàëå íéøéäî íúåéä øåáòá ¬ùîùä íò íéìôùä ÷áãäáå 21 (3) ®18äúëéìä úåøéäî íéøéäî åéäé æà éë íçë ìãâé æàå ¬19äðîî íééáøòî åàøéå äåçéðé ïë ìò ¬äðîî øúåé íúëéìäá äø÷é àìù 20 ãçà äø÷î äîç áëåëìå äâðì äø÷éå (4) ®íúëéìäá íéáù íäå 22 íâ ¬íúëéìäá íéøùé íäå ùîùä íò íé÷áã åéäé íä éë ¬íéúøùîä øàùì åäåîë ÷ø ùîùäî å÷çøé àìù øåáòá ïë äéäå (5) ®úéðøåçà äîò íé÷áã åéäé ®íéåù íä íéìåãâä íäéìâìâ ÷ø ¬ïè÷ä ìâìâä øåáòá àåä ÷çøîä äæå ¬òåãé ÷çøî ®íìåòä øôñá íøàáà äðáìä úåçúôîå (6) îô »è÷àø [÷áã3 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [úåéä2 ®úòãì ìëåð ÷ » îø »èàô [íãàä åúòãì ìëåé1 åìâìâ7 ®øñç îô »è÷àø [ãçàì6 ®ìà îô »ïî ÷è »àø [ìù5 ®áëåëä î÷è »ôàø [áëåë4 ®øñç »î÷àøô [åéäé10 ®ñåðééøåã è »÷àøô [ñåàéðåøåã9 ®íò è »î÷àøô [àéä8 ®ìâìâä î »è÷àøô [ïè÷ä ®øñç ô »éôì ÷ »îèàø [øåáòá13 ®äôåâ î »è÷àøô [íôåâ12 ®ìôëåéù î »è÷àøô [ìôëéù11 ®ùé è ®äèîìî ô »åðîî ÷ »îèàø [äðîî16 ®øñç ÷ »îèàô [øúåé15 ®äëìäîá è »î÷àøô [äúëéìäá14 åàøéå19 ®íúëéìä ø »åëìäî ÷ »äúëéìäá î »èàô [äúëéìä18 ®äçë è »åçë ÷ »îàøô [íçë17 [äø÷é àìù21 ®äî ÷ »îèàøô [ãçà äø÷î20 ®äðîî äáøòîì åãîòéù ô »îè÷àø [äðîî íééáøòî ®åîò å÷áãé ÷ »îèàøô [äîò íé÷áã åéäé22 ®äø÷î ïéàù ô »îè÷àø .

namely. that a planet has power when it is in conjunction. the center of the planet coincides with the center of the Sun. and this distance is caused by the epicycle. (3) As for what they have said. but Ptolemy laughs at them. (3) When the lower planets are in conjunction with the Sun. that they can be in conjunction with the Sun when their motion is direct and can also be in conjunction with the Sun when they are retrograde. for this reason they assigned to Mars 10 degrees. and this is what he said in his book: if Mercury is in conjunction with the Sun. A person can know this from the circle of the apogee whose center is far from the center of the Earth. but not to the other planets. I have seen that he verified by experience the statements of the scientists of India. but Mars’ body is not as big as theirs. then their power increases because of their rapid motions. and similarly with the other planets.[2] because its power is doubled. 3 (1) The astrological judgments about the planets that are below the Sun differ from the astrological judgments about the planets that are above it. (4) In the book by Doronius. (4) The same thing happens to both Venus and Mercury. namely.chapter six 87 from it.[1] (6) I shall explain the keys of the Moon in the Book of the World. this is the opinion of the Indian scientists. The other things mentioned in Reshit Hokhmah are well known. (5) This happens because they never get more than a certain distance from the Sun. whereas the power of the lower planets is in the west. when it is far from the Earth.[2] (2) The rest of what was mentioned in Reshit Hokhmah is well known. . they pass it and are seen to its west. because they are quicker than it is. because the Sun’s motion is quicker than that of the upper planets .[2] . and if it is also at apogee with respect to its eccentric circle[1] it is at its furthest distance from the Earth. (2) For the power of the upper planets is in the east. then. the leading expert in astrological judgments. (5) Saturn and Jupiter emerge from the domain of burning[3] at six degrees because of the size of their bodies. 2 (1) The reason why a planet in conjunction is less than 16 minutes away from the Sun is that this number is close to half the diameter of the Sun. although their eccentric circles are the same. when a planet is in full conjunction with the Sun. and then their power increases because of its rapid motion. (2) This occurs only when one of the upper planets is at the apogee of its epicycle.[4] . when it is in conjunction with them and passes them they rise to its east. there will be two Mercuries in the orb.

88 first version of the book of reasons 7§ äøùò ùîç 2áåøé÷ä úìçú íéøîåà úåìæîä éîëç ®1áåøé÷ä ®éòéáùä øòùä 3 (1) 1 ¬åéøçàì åà åéðôì áëåëä øåà çë éôë áåøé÷ä úìçú éë øîåà ñåéîìèáå ¬úåìòî úåéäá úîà àåä ¬ãáëä úà ì÷ä øéúñéù ¬åøîàù äæå ºäùòú äëëå íàå (2) ®éðéòá ïåëðä àåä äæå (3) ®úîà 6äéäé 5åéìò åøåé øùà 4ìëå ¬áçåøáå êøåàá äåù úøáçîä (4) ®8úîà úøáçî àéä úàæ »äãåôàä áùçá íéáëåëä éðù åéä íà 7ìëúñú 10 åìâìâ úåäáâ íå÷îî áåø÷ íäî äååää ìëúñä ¬9íéøáçðäî çëä éîì úòãì úéöø ¬11úåçë òáøà ïåáùçë äååääå àåäù çåöéðä äæ áåùçå 13 (5) ®åøéáç úà çöðé àåä ¬ìåãâä (6) ® 12 úåçë äùìùá åøéáç úà çöðé ïè÷ä åìâìâ úåäáâ íå÷îá íäî äååääå øçàä äéäéù ïéá ¬åøéáçî ìàîù úàôá íäî ¬éîåøã äéäéù åà ìâìâä úãåôàá çöðé éìàîù øúåé íäî äååää ¬íééìàîù íäéðù íàå ¬çöðîä äéäé éìàîùä äðäå áåùéä ìà áåø÷ áëåëä äéäéù äî ìë éë ¬éúøëæä øùàë ¬äæ íòèå úà çöðé èòî äìùîî à36 18 15 (7) 16 ®øçàä úà åáçø øùà øúåé åáçø 14 ùéù éî íééîåøã íäéðù íàå (8) ®çë øúåé åì äàøé íúøáçî äùòîî äàøé àì äáøä íäéðéá áçøîä äéä íàå ¬17äáøä øúåé åì ùéù éîå ¬úåçë éðù åì ùé äàôá çåöéðä äæå àåä éî òãú æà ¬19úåçëä áùçú øùàëå (9) ®éöçî úåçô íà éë ®20çöðîä | ®ãçà çë åì ùé åá åøáçúéù íå÷îá èáîä äðä ¬äãåôàä éë 25 23 áùçá 22 íäéðù íäå çëð èáîá íä 21 íéáëåëä éðù íàå (1) 2 24 äàôá íäéðù áçø íàå ãçàä áçø íàå äæ ãøéù éôë éë (2) ®úååù úåìòî íéðîùå äàî íäéðéá ùé éë íìù 27 àåä äæ íòèå ¬íìù çëð èáî äæ ïéà ¬íééîåøã åà íééìàîù åéäéù ïéá ¬äåù úçà (3) 29 ®íäéðù áçøî éôë úåìòî íéðîùå äàîî 31 ïåøñç 28 26 íäéðéá ùé íìù çëð èáî äæ äðä ¬äåù íäéðù áçøîå éîåøã èáî äéäé àì 30 32 éðùäå éìàîù úôñåú éôë ïåøñçä äéäéå ¬íìù èáî äéäé àì éîåøã åà äåù áçøîä ïéà íàå (4) ®äæ äìò éìàîù éðùäå äãåôàä áùçá ãçàä íàå ¬éðùä ìò ãçàä ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [çë3 ®åúìçú áåøé÷ä è »î÷àøô [áåø÷ä úìçú2 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [áåøé÷ä1 î »è÷àô [ìëúñú7 ®åéä îè »÷àøô [äéäé6 ®øñç ÷àô »îèø [åéìò5 ®ìëáå è »î÷àøô [ìëå4 [íéøáçðäî ®®® íà ìëúñú9 ®úîà àéä úøáçîä úàæ ô »îè÷à [úîà úøáçî àéä úàæ8 ®ìëúñä îôø »è÷à [úåçë12 ®íéçåë îôø »è÷à [úåçë11 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [àåäù10 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [øúåé15 ®øñç ÷ »äéäéù è »èôø [ùéù14 ®ãçàä è »î÷àøô [øçàä13 ®íéçåë îôø »à [úåçëä19 ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [øúåé18 ®áø ÷è »îàøô [äáøä17 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [åáçø16 ®øùàëå ÷ »îàøô [íéáëåëä éðù íàå21 ®øñç ÷ »øîàô [çöðîä ®®® áùçú øùàëå20 ®øñç è »íéçëä ®æà ÷ »îèàøô [àåä24 ®øñç è »÷îàøô [áùçá ®®® òãú æà úåçëä23 ®øñç ÷ »îàøô [íäéðù íäå22 [éðùäå28 úåçô è÷ »îàøô [ïåøñç27 ®øñç ô »îè÷àø [íäéðéá26 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [äæ íòèå25 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [èáî31 ®äåùá ÷ »îèàøô [äåù30 ®äåù îô »è÷àø [íìù29 ®øçàäå è »î÷àøô ®ìàîù úàôá ø »÷îèàô [éìàîù32 .

(2) If their ecliptical latitude is the same. and the deficit is equal to the excess of the one over the other.. the northern will emerge victorious.. as I have already explained. whether the latter is in the ecliptic or is southern.e. this is true when the conjunction is in both longitude and latitude.chapter seven §7 89 1 (1) Seventh chapter. if the [difference in] latitude between them is great.[6] (8) But if both are southern. (6) If one of them is north of its companion. (10) When you add up the powers you can know which of them is victorious. is that the closer a planet is to the ecumene. (2) As for what they said. because one has descended as the other has ascended. and this is correct in my opinion. the more power it appears to have. but Ptolemy says that the beginning of “getting close” depends on the light of the planet that is in front of or behind it. The one that exercises more lordship in the place where they are in conjunction has one power. the one that is more northern will be victorious over the other. quicker] planet hides the heavier [i.[5] the one that is at the apogee of its epicycle will be victorious over its companion by three powers. because there are less than 180 degrees of latitude between them.e. if both of them are northern. both are northern or southern]. (3) If the latitude of one of them is northern and of the other is southern and their latitude is the same.[1] “Getting close”. whether northern or southern [i.e. this is full opposition. if one is in the ecliptic and the other is northern or southern. this is a true conjunction. the one whose latitude is smaller will be victorious over the one whose latitude is greater. that the lighter [i. The astrologers say that “getting close” begins at 15 degrees. it is not full opposition.[4] this one will be victorious over its companion. (3) Do as follows: observe whether the two planets are in the ecliptic[2]. (9) The victory on account of the direction with respect to the ecliptic is assigned two powers. and everything that is indicated by them comes true.[1] then the aspect is complete because there are 180 equal degrees between them. namely. (5) Consider this victory as equivalent to four powers. (4) But if the latitude is not the same then the aspect [of opposition] is not full.[3] (4) If you wish to know which of the conjoining planets has power. (7) The reason for this.[7] 2 (1) If the two planets are in opposition and both are in the ecliptic. look for the one that is closer to the apogee of its eccentric circle.. slower] one. less than half their conjunction will be seen. the aspect [of opposition] is not full .

90 first version of the book of reasons (5) ®áçøîä éôë èáîä ïî ïåøñçä äéäéå ¬íìù ®íéèáîä ìò éøéùòä øòùá øáãà ãåòå 2 äæ ìò íòè ù÷áì êøåö ïéà íäéãòöîá úååù ïäù úåìòîä ìò 1åøîàù äîå ¬øåà úáùäå ¬3õåá÷å ¬ä÷úòäå ¬íîåùå ¬ããá êåìéäî ¬úåîùä äìàå (1) 3 (2) ®òåãé àåä éë ¬6ìåîâúäå íòåðäî 5õåç ñåéîìèá äãåî ìëä ìòå ¬4ìùî ãâðë íä ¬íéøáãä øàùå ®éúòãé àì éëðàå 8§ íä éë íäéìò íòè ù÷áì ïéëéøö ïéà åá íéøëæðä ïéðéãä ììë ®éðéîùä øòùä äáåø÷ àéäù øåáòá äìåòä ìæîä íò úåôúåù 8äðáìì íåùì íòèå 10 (1) 1 (2) ®7íéòãåð ïéã ¬äøåîâ äòø àéäù çëð åà úéòéáø èáî ìò åøîàù 13 9 äæå (3) ®õøàä ìà ì÷é äáäà úéùùäå 15 12 úéùéìùä 11 èáî àåäù øåáòáå ¬äáéà ìò åøåé íä éë àåä øåçéà ìò äøåé ù÷åáîä øáãä ìòá ÷éæî äéä íà ¬14åøîàù äæå 16 (4) ®äòøäî (5) ® 17 íéãàî äëë àìå ¬åúëéìäá ïéúîî àåäù øåáòá éàúáù ìò úîà äæ ¬øáãä 20 éîëç úòã åæ ¬ìæîäî úåìòî ùîçá åúåéä ãò ùìç àåä áëåëäù ¬18åøîàù äîå éë ¬äæî äæ íéìãáð úåìæîä ïéà éë ¬21åîò ïéãäå íäéìò âòåì 19 ñåéîìèáå 22 (6) ®ñøô íå÷îî åà íéìåãâä íéìâìâä éðù úøáçî úìçúî áìä úáùçî éôë íä íú÷åìçî äî äëëå »íéìãáð úåìæîä ïéà íéëøãä éðù ìòå ¬òåãé íå÷î ìà ïéòä úåøåáä øáãå äæå 27 äàøîì òåãé (7) ®ïåùàøä ìæîäî åçë ãáà ìæîä óåñá áëåëä äéä íà ¬23åøîàù 24 (8) ®25åãåä éîëç åøîà 28 êë »÷æð ìò åøåé íéëåùç íéáëåë íä éë åðøîà øáë 26 àåä úîà ¬òø ìò àìå áåè ìò äøåé àì éðéîùä úéáá áåèä áëåëä éë øùë àåäù éî ìò øáãà 30 åøîàù ®äðåùî äúéîî ìöðéù ¬ úçà äáåè åì ùé ÷ø ¬ïåîîä ìòå íééçä ìò óéñåé àì éë 31 úåãìåîä øôñáå ¬íéðåëð íä åðøëæäù 32 29 úåéãòäå (9) ® øùë åðéàù éî ìòå úåãòì ®øñç è÷ »îàøô [õåá÷å3 ®øñç è »äæ ø »î÷àô [äæ ìò2 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [åøîàù1 è÷ »îàøô [íéòãåð7 ®ìåîâäå è »î÷àô [ìåîâúäå6 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [õåç5 ®ìùåî ø »÷îèàô [ïéã äøåîâ10 ®øñç è »î÷àøô [äæå ®®® äáåø÷ àéäù9 ®çøéì ÷ »äðáìä îô »èàø [äðáìì8 ®íéòåãé [äáäà13 ®ùéìù ÷ »îèàøô [úéùéìùä12 ®èáîù è÷ »îàøô [èáî àåäù11 ®øñç ÷ »ïéãî è »àøô ÷ »èàøô [ù÷åáîä15 ®øîàù øà »§îàù î »íøîàå ÷ »ôè [åøîàù14 ®øñç ô »èáî > ÷è »îàø íéãàî ïéàå è÷ »îàøô [íéãàî äëë àìå17 ®íà è »éë ÷ »îàøô [øåáòá16 ®ù÷áîä î »ùåøãä [âòåì20 ®ìáà > è »î÷àøô [ñåéîìèáå19 ®§îàù à »øîàù øîô »íøîàå ÷ »è [åøîàù18 ®äëë [åøîàù äî23 ®úéàøîì è »î÷àøô [äàøîì22 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [åîò ïéãäå21 ®÷ìåç à »îè÷ôø äæå26 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [åãåä éîëç åøîà25 ®øñç ÷ »ïë ìò è »îàøô [êë24 ®åøîà ô »îè÷àø áåè ÷ »úøçà äáåè èô »îàø [úçà äáåè28 ® è÷ »îàøô [àåä úîà27 ®åøîàå ÷ »îèàô [åøîàù ÷ »îèàøô [øùë àåäù éî31 ®øñç ÷ »îèàøô [úåãìåîä30 ®úåéåãòäå è »î÷àøô [úåéãòäå29 øçà ®ìåñôä ÷ »îèàøô [øùë åðéàù éî32 ®øùëä [ìùî4 .

namely. Ptolemy accepts them all except “pleasantness” and “recompense”. because they indicate antagonism. given that their divisions. are well known.e. for it does not add to one’s length of life or wealth.[5] (6) But Ptolemy laughs at them and he is correct. begin at the intersection of the two great circles or at a particular observable spot and end at another particular spot. that the native will be saved from an unnatural death. based on a mental construct. there is no need to explain this. and because trine and sextile are aspects of love. but not for Mars. namely.[1] (2) The reason for making the Moon the partner of the sign of the ascendant is that it is close to the Earth. this is true. namely. that their rising times are the same.[8] (7) As for the pits. because the signs are not separated one from the other. and the others. this is true for Saturn because it tarries in its motion. that it is complete misfortune.chapter eight 91 and the deficit from the aspect [i.[10] (9) The testimonies that we have mentioned are correct. this follows logically.[2] (3) As for what they said about the aspect of quartile or opposition.[9] (8) As for what they said.[11] in the Book of Nativities I shall refer to what is fit to give testimony and to what is unfit.[2] §8 1 (1) Eighth chapter. that a planet is weak until it is five degrees from the beginning of the sign. namely. are used as a metaphor. namely. “translation”.[2] (5) I shall say more about the aspects in the tenth chapter. “void of course”. namely. that is what the Indian scientists said.[4] (5) As for what they said.[7] The same applies to what they said.[3] 3 (1) As for what they said about the degrees. because it is well known. There is no need to find a reason for all of the judgments mentioned in this chapter of Reshit Hokhmah . namely.[12] . “desolation”. but I do not know why .[1] (2) These expressions. because they . that if the lord of the requested thing is a malefic planet it indicates delay in the matter. this is the opinion of the Persian scientists.[6] following either method the signs are not separated. we have already said that they are dark stars that indicate harm. the misfortune is mitigated. from full opposition] is equal to the latitude..[3] (4) As for what they said. but it has one benefit. “reflecting the light”. namely. that a benefic planet in the eighth mundane house indicates neither good fortune nor misfortune. “collection”. that if a planet is at the end of a sign it loses its power coming from that sign.

92 first version of the book of reasons 9§ éë øåáòá ¬úîàä àåä åãáì 2äðáìä ìøåâ éë 1äãåî ñåéîìèá ®éòéùúä øòùä 4 3 (1) 1 äìòîä êøòë ¬õøàä ìà äáåø÷ àéäù ¬äðáìä ìà äëøò äéäúù äìòî ù÷áé äìéìáå íåéá ç÷åéù øîà ïë ìò »äðáìä ìøåâ àåä äæå ¬5ùîùä ìà úçîåöä ¬÷æç øúåé ¬äìéìá äîåìòúä ìøåâ àåäù ¬7ùîùä ìøåâ éë 6íéøîåàäå øáã ìë ìò äøåé éàúáù ìøåâå íò ÷áã éðåòä ìøåâ øåáòáå 10 (2) ®äðáìäî øåáòá ÷ø »úåìøåâä øàù ìò âòåì àåäå ¬ñåéîìèá ìù äðáìä ìøåâ åîöòá àåä äæ (3) ®íéúøëæä 8ñåéðåøåã øôñá íéáåúë íéúéàøù ¬9åúãìåú éôë åéìò àåä äøåéù 11 äéäå (4) ®íäî ãçà ìë äëëå (5) ®íìåòä éøáãá àìå äîëçá ÷ñòúäì åúãìåú éë øåáòá äîç áëåë éúá úåéä øåáòá éë íéùðà åøîà ïë ìò ¬åðøëæä øùàë ¬ïåîîä ìò äøåé ÷ãö éë ®íéîëçä éáåøì ïåîî ïéà ïë ìò ¬ïåîîä ìò äøåéù ÷ãö éúá çëðì äîç áëåë ¬äãéìä òâøá çøæî úàôá äìåò àåäù ìæî ìë éë ¬úîàä ìà áåø÷ øáãä äæå äéåàø äðéàù äçôùîî »äéøà åìæî úøùî á36 14 13 12 (6) äéäéù åìéôà ¬ìæîä ìòá úãìåú ãìåðá äéäé íìåòì äéäå ïá éðøåô úøùî àåäù íãàì ãìåéù äæ ïåéîãå (7) ®ääåáâ äìòîì íéùéù äøøù ãìåðä úãìåúá äàøú ¬òø íå÷îá ùîùä äéäúù ô§§ò§§à åúçôùîá ïéàù | ô§§ò§§à ¬äîç áëåë çîåöä ìæîä ìòá äéä íà ¬äëëå (8) ®åéúçú 16 áåè íå÷îá äéä íà éë »íìåòä éøáãá ïéáî äéäé ¬15òø íå÷îá äîç áëåëå íëç ®íëç åéáà äéä àìù ô§§ò§§à íëç äéäé ¬íééçä ìøåâ åì ùé ïåùàø úéáì äðä éë »íéúáä íòèî íéúáä úåìøåâ íòèå éðù ïéá ùéù 19 18 (1) 2 ÷çøîäî ìøåâä äæ ç÷ìðå 21 (2) ®17íééçä ìò äøåé ïåùàøä úéáäå ïúé ¬íééçä ìò äðåîî äéäé íà ¬íúìåæ úøùî ìëå ¬íéø÷éò íúåéä øåáòá íéðåéìòä ãòñîä ìøåâ ¬äëëå 22 ïåùàøä úéáä íâ ¬óåâä ÷æåç ìò äøåé ¬úåøåàîä éìøåâ íäù ¬úåìøåâä éðù ïéá ùéù ÷çøîäî (3) ®20íäî ãçàì çëä åäåàéöåäå (4) ®äæ ìò äøåé ®øñç è÷ »îàìøô [àéäù3 ®äðáì à »äðáìì ì »î÷èôø [äðáìä2 ®øîåà à »îè÷ìøô [äãåî1 »øîåàäå è »îàìøô [íéøîåàäå6 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [ùîùä ìà5 ®äáåø÷ä î÷ì »àøô [äáåø÷4 [åúãìåú9 ®ñåðééøåã è »ñåàéðåøåã ÷àìøô »î [ñåéðåøåã8 ®äðáìä ÷ »îèàìøô [ùîùä7 ®§åàå ÷ [äéäéù12 ®éôì ÷ »éë è »îàìøô [éë øåáòá11 ®äðäå è÷àô »îøì [äéäå10 ®íúãìåú î »è÷àøì íå÷îá äîç áëåëå15 ®íéùéå à »îè÷ìøô [íéùéù14 ®äéäéå îø »è÷àô [äéäå13 ®øñç è »î÷àìøô ìò äøåé17 ®éøáã ìëá è »î÷àìøô [éøáãá16 ®áåè íå÷îá äîç áëåë ïéàå ô »îè÷àøì [òø ®÷çøîä ìøåâäî ÷ »îèàìøô [÷çøîäî ìøåâä äæ18 ®íäéìò äøåéå íééçä åì ùé è »î÷àìøô [íééçä »ãîòîä è÷ »ãòöîä ô »îàø [ãòñîä21 ®íéúáä > ø »÷îèàìô [íäî20 ®äéäé ì »÷èîàøô [ïúé19 ®åàéöåäå à »îè÷ìøô [åäåàéöåäå22 ®øñç ì .

(3) Likewise. given that the houses of Mercury are in opposition to the houses of Jupiter. (5) Because Jupiter indicates money. even though none in his family is wise and Mercury is in a malefic place. even if the Sun is in a malefic place. (7) As an illustration. therefore. for if it is in a fortunate place he will be wise even though his father was not wise.. as the first house indicates that too. as I have mentioned. they are actually referring to Ptolemy’s lot of the Moon itself. the planetary house of the Sun]. lordship will appear in the native’s nature and he will have a servant under him. and the first house indicates life. which is the lot of the absent by night. (4) The lot of poverty is attached to Mercury. which indicates money. if Mercury is the lord of the sign of the ascendant. is stronger than the lot of the Moon . he said that it [the lot of the Moon] should be taken by day and by night from the Moon.[3] (3) The lot of Saturn indicates everything that is indicated by Saturn itself in accordance with its nature. as we have mentioned.e. because he seeks a degree whose ratio to the Moon.e. is as the ratio of the degree of the ascendant to the Sun.[6] 2 (1) The reason for the lots of the mundane houses stems from the reason of the houses. (4) It is cast from the distance between the two lots.[4] some people said that. Saturn and Jupiter]. because they are fundamentals. a baker’s servant[5] begets a son whose sign is Leo [i. and he laughs at all the other lots.[1] (2) As for those who say that the lot of the Sun.[1] for the whole right side of the body belongs to the Sun and the . even if he comes from a family that is not worth of high status. most scholars do not have money. the first house has the lot of life. the native is always endowed with the nature of the lord of the sign.chapter nine §9 93 1 (1) Ninth chapter. because its nature is to be engaged with wisdom and not with worldly affairs. Ptolemy acknowledges that the lot of the Moon alone is true. if any other planet except for them is in charge of life it gives the power to one of them. the lot of firmness indicates strength of body. he will understand worldly affairs.[2] I have mentioned them only because I saw them recorded in Doronius’ book. (2) This lot is taken from the distance between the two upper planets [i. and the same applies to each of them [i. which is close the Earth. which are the lots of the luminaries. and this is the lot of the Moon. for when any sign rises in the east at the time of birth.e. to the other planets]. (6) This is close to the truth. (8) Likewise. because they indicate the body.

94 first version of the book of reasons (5) ®äðáìì 1éìàîùäå ùîùì ïéîéä ãö ìë éë ¬éúøëæä øùàë óåâä ìò åøåé íä éë áëåë éë øåáòá ¬íéãàîå äîç áëåë 2ïéá ùéù ÷çøîäî åäåç÷ì úòãä ìøåâ íâ êøåö ïéà »úåìøåâä øàù äëëå (6) ®úåøéäîä ìò íéãàîå äîëçä ìò äøåé äîç ®íøéëæäì ïéàå ¬íéëìîä 3éîé øôñî ìøåâ äëëå¬ ñøô éîëç åäåàéöåä äëåìîä ìøåâå äðáìä úéáî áëåë ìë 9úéá 8÷çøî éë éúøëæä øáë ùîçá äìåúá éë ¬íéîåàú øîàù äîå 14 12 (1) 3 »ãçà áëåëì íäù 7íéúáá 6íéàöåé 5íìåòì 4úåìøåâ éðùäå ¬íäì äãåî ñåéîìèá (2) ®ïåáùçä êøãî òåãé íîòè 10 ùîçî àìà ãéîú äåù êøòä äéäéù íå÷î ïéàå ¬ùîùä úéá ìà úìçúá 11 øçàä åúéá ÷çøîë áëåë äéä íà éë (3) 13 ®úåøåàîä éúá éðùî úåìòî äøùò ìæîî úåðåøçà úåìòî ùîçá øçàä ìøåâä àöé ¬úåðåùàø úåìòî (4) ®ìëä äëëå ¬úåìòî íéøùò úåøåàîä éúá éöçî ÷çøîä úåéäì éåàø ®åéìòá úãìåúë ìæîä úãìåú éë åîòèå ¬ïåëð àåä íåé ìëá íùâä ìøåâ ìò êåðç 10§ ®íéèáîá åùáúùä íìåë åðøåã éîëçå íéðåîã÷ä ºíäøáà øîà ®éøéùòä øòùä äëëå ¬17íìåèá ìò úåøåîâ úåéàø íéùùî úéá éùéîçä ìåáâá øôñá 21 18 16 ùéù íéøáã êåðçì 15 íéèáîá åðàöî äðäå 19 (1) 1 (2) íéîòô àöîéù ãò ¬øùò íéðùä íéúáä ïå÷ú ìò øçàå úåìòî 22 àöîð íâ (3) 24 ® äæë øîàé àì êåðçù éúòã éôìå ¬íéøùòî 20 23 ïúð ¬éøéùòä úéáä 26 úìçúá áëåëä äéä íàù øîåà ñåéîìèáù 25 íéøòù äòáøà ¬øùåéä ìâìâ úåìòîá íéøùòå äàî úéùéìùìå ¬úåìòî íéòùú äðåîù ãìåðä íå÷î áçøî äæ ìò íâ 31 28 úéòéáøä åèáîì úåìòî íéøùòå äàî úéùéìùä åèáîì ïúð ¬úçîåöä äìòîá áëåëä äéä íàå äéä íà 27 äðä éë ¬äìåãâ úåòè úàæå 30 (4) ®õøàä éãòöîá 29 úéùéìùä èáî äéäé äðä ¬éãâ úìçú úçîåöä äìòîäå ¬úåìòî íéòáøàå 32 (5) ®çëðä èáî íù éë íéîëçä ìë úòã ìò ÷ôñ ïéàå ¬ïèøñ úìçúá êøãä øôñî ÷ »îàìøô [éîé øôñî3 ®ïéáù ÷ »èàìøô [ïéá ùéù2 ®éìàîù ãö ìëå ô »î÷àèøì [éìàîùäå1 é§§ë ¬äîëç úéùàø ìù çñåðä ô§§ò éúð÷éú [íìåòì5 ®ìøåâ ô »îè÷àì [úåìøåâ4 ®øôñî éîé è »éðù »î÷àøôøì [íéàöåé6 ®íìåòìù ì »íìåòì ìù ø »íìåòä îè÷ »íìåòä ìù àô »á25 §îò ¬1055 ñéøàô ®øñç è÷ »îàìøô [úéá9 ®áçøî è »î÷àìøô [÷çøî8 ®íéúáì è÷ »îàìøô [íéúáá7 ®íéàöåéä è ùîçá13 ®ùàøá ÷ »îèàìøô [úìçúá12 ®øñç è »î÷àìøô [áëåë11 ®ãçàä ÷ »îèàìøô [øçàä10 »è÷àøì [íéèáîá åðàöî äðäå15 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [ìæîî14 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [øçàä ®®® úåìòî ÷ »åéøáã ìåèá ìò è »îàìøô [íìåèá ìò17 ®øñç ÷ »ùéù îè » àìøô [ùéù íéøáã16 ®øñç îô è »î÷àìøô [äæë20 ®úçàå ì »ãçàå îèô »î÷àø [øçàå19 ®íòô ô »îè÷àøì [íéîòô18 ®íìåèáá »è÷àìøô [áëåëä23 ®äòáøàä ÷ »îèàìøô [íéøòù äòáøà22 ®åàöîð àôîøì »÷è [àöîð21 ®äæ ®®® øùåéä ìâìâ26 ®òáåøä ÷ »îèàìøô [úéòéáøä25 ®ùàøî ÷ »îèàìøô [úìçúá24 ®áëåë î úéáä < î »è÷àìøô [äéä28 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [äðä27 ®íééìåùá òéôåî è »øñç îô »÷àøì [úåìòî [úéùéìùä31 ®ùàø ÷ »îèàìøô [úìçú30 ®ã§§ô è »÷àìøô [íéòáøàå äðåîù29 ®åèáîì ïúð éøéùòä ®åæ êøãá ÷ »îèàìøô [êøãä äæ ìò32 ®ùéìùä ÷ »éùéìù ì »îèàøô .

in my opinion Enoch did not make such statements. and similarly the lot of the number of days of kings. there is no need to mention them. according to this procedure.[2] there is no place where the ratio is always equal. would be the beginning of Cancer. he gives its aspect of quartile 90 degrees and its aspect of trine 120 degrees at sphaera recta. made incorrect statements .[4] §10 1 Tenth chapter.[2] (6) Similarly with the rest of the lots. (5) Also the lot of wisdom is cast from the distance between Mercury and Mars. too. (2) There are incontrovertible proofs that some statements made by Enoch regarding the aspects are incorrect. and the explanation is that the nature of the sign is like the nature of its lord. (2) I have already mentioned that the distance between the house of a planet and the house of the Moon is equal to the distance between the other house of the planet and the house of the Sun. because if the latitude of the native’s birth place is 48 degrees. (5) Mâshâ"allâh. since it is fitting that the distance from the middle of the houses of the luminaries be 20 degrees. too.[1] they can be explained arithmetically.chapter ten 95 left to the Moon. then the other lot is cast at the last five degrees of Gemini.[2][3] (4) This is a great mistake. in the first five degrees.[3] 3 (1) The lot of kingship was cast by the Persian scientists. (3) In the Tetrabiblos. and likewise regarding the correction of the twelve mundane houses.[1] and if the planet is at the degree of the ascendant he gives its aspect of trine 120 degrees at the rising times for the country. we find that Ptolemy says that if a planet is at the cusp of the tenth house. These two lots are always cast in the houses of a single planet. and the degree of the ascendant is at the beginning of Capricorn.[3] (4) What Enoch said about the lot of rain every day is true. Abraham said: All of the Ancients and the scholars of our generation are confused about the aspects. but Ptolemy does not agree with them. (3) For if the planet is in the beginning of Virgo. but in the opinion of all the scholars there is no doubt that that is the aspect of opposition. because Mercury indicates wisdom and Mars swiftness. and similarly with all. except from the fifteenth degree in both houses of the luminaries. then the aspect of trine. to such an extent that sometimes one may find in the fifth climate one house of 60 degrees and another house of 20 degrees.

96 first version of the book of reasons íéèáîä éë ¬êì øîåàù äî úîàäå »ïë àì øùà íéøáã íéèáîá øéëæä äììàùî êøã ïúð àì ÷ø éãðëìà á÷òé øîà äëëå ¬íéúáä ÷åìç ìò íúåéäì íééåàø íä ®íàéöåäì ãçàä 3êøãä (2) ®íéëøã 2éðù ìò íéúáä ïå÷ú éë òã º1êáì íéù äúòå (1) 2 åà ¬åéöç åà ¬äìè ùàø äìåòä ìæîä äéäéù ïéá úåøùé íäù ¬úåìæîä ìâìâ úåìòîá (3) ®íéìåáâä ìëá ¬åéöç åà ¬ïèøñ ùàø õøàä áçøî éôë íéð÷åúî íéúáä úåéäì éðùä 4êøãäå (4) ®úçîåöä äìòîäî ìçúå ¬éùéîçä ìåáâá ïèøñ úìçú 5çîåöä ìæîä äéä íà éë (5) ®äéìò úåìæîä éãòöîå ¬úåìòî íéùìù úéáå úéá ìëì ïúúù ììëäå íà äæ êôäå ¬éòéùúä úéáä àåäù ¬íéâã éöçî úåçô íéîùä éöçá äéäé íìåòì ®íåøãå ïåôö 8óåñ íäéðù 7äìà úåéä øåáòá ïë äéäå ¬6éãâ ùàø çîåöä ìæîä äéä úåáø úåéàø 9ùé éë ¬úùåçðä éìë éîëç íâ ¬ïë íéãåî úåìæîä éîëç ìë äðäå 13 (6) ìò úìçú íäù úåãúé 12 äòáøà ìò 14 11 íúòã äîéëñä úåìæîä éîëç ìëå (7) ®10äæ íéúáä äòáøàä ïå÷úá àéä ú÷åìçîäå ¬éøéùòäå ¬éòéáùäå ¬éòéáøäå ¬ïåùàøä úéáä çëðì íäù íéúá äòáøàä åéäé íìåòì éë ¬éùùäå ¬éùéîçäå ¬éùìùäå ¬éðùä íäù ®íéðå÷éúä ìëá úååù íúåìòî õøàä ïî äìòîì äìà 16 âåäéðä (2) ®íéëøã éðù ìò íäù à37 äìòîä äúéä íà éë ¬äðúùî éðùä àéä âäðì äöøúù äìòîä íàå äöøúù äìòîä äúéä àì íàå íéâåäéðä ìò íìë úòã äîéëñä ¬äëëå (1) 3 | 17âåäéðäå ¬úåøùéä úåìæîä ìâìâ úåìòîá ãçàä 15 19 åà éøéùòä úéáä úìçúá ¬íù äéäéù úåøåàîä ãçà åà ¬äúåà 18 âäðì äöøúù (3) ®øùåéä ìâìâ úåìòîá âäðú íìåòì ¬éòéáøä ¬úò÷åùä äìòîä âäðì úéöø íà ¬äëëå (4) ®õøàä éãòöîá äðâäðú ¬úçîåöä (5) ®úçîåöä àéäù ¬21äúìòî çëðá äðâäðú 20íìåòì äìòîä äúéä íà ¬íéîùä éöç å÷î ä÷çøî ìëúñä ¬22úåøëæðä úåãúéä ãçàá âäðì ®øñç è÷ì »îàøô [êøãä3 ®éðùá ÷ »îèàìøô [éðù ìò2 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [êáì íéù äúòå1 ìëù < ì »éãâ àô »îè÷ø [éãâ ùàø6 ®äìåò ÷ »îèàìøô [çîåöä5 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [êøãäå4 [óåñ8 ®éë äæå ÷ »îèàìøô [äìà úåéä øåáòá ïë äéäå7 ®íéîùä éöç åøáò íéðæàî áøå äìåúá ìæî úåìæîä éîëç11 ®äæá ÷ »îèàìøô [äæ ìò10 ®øñç è÷ »îàìøô [ùé9 ®øñç ø »úàôá è÷ »îàìô [úìçú13 ®òáøàá ÷ »îèàìøô [äòáøà ìò12 ®åîéëñä íéîëçä ÷ »îèàìøô [íúòã äîéëñä [íéâåäéðä ìò íìë úòã äîéëñä äëëå15 ®äìà < àô »îè÷øì [åéäé14 ®ùàø ÷ »úìçúî ô »îèàøì ÷ »îèàìøô [âåäéðäå17 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [âåäéðä16 ®íìåë åîéëñä íéâåäéðä ïëå ÷ »îèàìøô ®øñç ô »îè÷àøì [íìåòì20 ®øñç è »î÷àìøô [åà19 ®äâäðì ÷ »âåäðì îè »àìøô [âäðì18 ®øñç ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [úåøëæðä22 ®äìòîä ÷îèàô »øì [äúìòî21 .

or its middle. you should always direct in sphaera recta degrees. (3) But if the degree you want to direct is the ascendant. (7) All the astrologers agreed that the four cardines are the cusps of the first. (3) The general rule is that you should assign 30 degrees to any mundane house and begin from the degree of the ascendant. the truth is what I shall tell you.e.[4] 2 (1) Now pay attention: know that there are two methods for correcting the houses. then less than the middle of Pisces. the beginnings of Cancer and Capricorn] are in the extremes of the north and of the south [i.[1] (6) All the astrologers agree about that. (4) The second method is to correct the houses according to the latitude of the country [i. given that the degree is in the quadrant between midheaven and the degree of the ascendant. of the native] and the rising times of the zodiacal constellations there. the opposite happens if the degree of the ascendant is the head of Capricorn. and the second method of direction follows several different procedures: if the degree you want to direct[2]. which is the ninth house. that the aspects should be arranged according to the division of the houses. fourth. you should calculate the direction in rising times for the country.[4] . or the head of Cancer. which is the ascendant. all agreed that the directions[1] are reckoned by two methods.e.. as well as the experts with the astrolabe. in the tropics]. namely.[3] (4) In like manner. you should always calculate it as if it were the diametrically opposed degree.[2] 3 (1) In like manner. (5) For if the degree of the ascendant in the fifth climate is the beginning of Cancer. if you want to direct the degree of the descendant. is at the cusp of the tenth house or the fourth.e. find its distance from midheaven. (5) If the degree you want to direct is in none of the above-mentioned cardines. third. this is what Ya#qub al-Kindî said but he did not provide any instructions to work them out. and tenth houses. fifth. seventh. which are equal whether the degree of the ascendant is the head of Aries. but they disagree about the correction of the four houses—the second.chapter ten 97 about the aspects.. and sixth—because the degrees of four houses that are diametrically opposed to these and are above the Earth are always the same in any of the corrections.. (2) The first method is in degrees of the zodiac. in any of the climates. This is so because these two [i. because there are many proofs for that. will always be at midheaven. or its middle. or one of the luminaries that happens to be there. (2) The first method of direction uses equal zodiacal degrees.

98 øéëæäì êøåö ïéàå first version of the book of reasons (6) ®úçîåöä äìòîä ïéáå íéîùä éöç å÷ ïéá àéäù 1úéòéáøá ®åøôñá àéùðä íäøáà §ø 2íøéëæä øáë éë ¬íéâåäéðä äìà úåìòîá ãçàä 4êøãä 6 8 (2) ®íéëøã 3éðù ìò úåéäì íééåàø íéèáîä ¬äëëå (1) 4 úéòéáø èáîìå ¬åéøçàì íâ åéðôì úéùù èáîì úåìòî íéùù ¬5úåøùéä úåìæîä ìâìâ øáëå (3) ®åéøçàì íâ åéðôì íéøùòå äàî úéùéìù èáîå 7¬åéøçàì íâ åéðôì íéòùú éåàø äðäå 13 14 (4) ®áçøî åì äéä íà áëåëä úìòî àéöåäì êøã 9øëæðä àéùðä øéëæä 12 úåìòîá ÷ìçðä úéáäî ìçéù ¬áëåë èáî úøçàä êøãäå ìà úéá 11 úìçú âäðì äöøéù 10 éî (5) ®úåøùé úåìòîá åéèáî åéäéå ¬äðù äìòî ìëì ïúéå ¬úåøùé èáî äðä ¬úçîåöä äìòîá áëåëä äéä íà éë ¬íéúáä ïå÷ú éôë ï÷åúîä èáîä éòéáøäå éøéùòä úéáä úìçú íäù ¬íåäúä å÷å íéîùä éöç å÷ úìçúá åúéòéáø úåãúéä øàùá åèáî ¬ãúé úìçúá äéä íà ºììëäå èáî 16 úìçúá ¬úéùù èáî åèáî äéäå úçîåöä äìòîá äéä íàå ììëäå (6) ®úåìæîä éãòöîá íéð÷åúîä (7) ®çëðå úéòéáø 15èáî åèáîå ¬øùò éúùò úéá úìçúá éðîéäå ¬éìàîùä èáîä àåä éùéìùä úéáä (8) ®éòéùúä úéáä úìçúá éðîéäå ¬éùéîçä úéáä úìçúá éìàîùä úéùéìù 18 åèáîå ¬úéìàîùä úéùù èáî çëð úéðîéä úéùéìù èáî 17 åèáî úåéäì éåàø àåäù 19 éåàø ¬úéáä éöçá áëåëä äéä íàå ¬úéðîéä úéùù èáî çëð éìàîùä úéùéìù èáî ®íéãòöîä éôë ï÷åúîä úéáå úéá ìë éöçá åéèáî úåéäì úåìòî äîë ìëúñä (2) ®íéúá äòáøàä ïå÷ú àéöåäì êøã êì ïúà 20 äðäå (1) 5 äìòîä ìò íôéñåäå íúéùéìù ç÷å ¬íåäúä å÷ ïéáå úçîåöä äìòîä ïéá ùé úåøùé çëðì úåáåúëä úåúååòîä úåòùä õøàä çåìá ù÷áå úåìæîä éãòöî ìò íôéñåäå 21 åé÷ìçå úåòùä ìåôëå íù àöéù äìòîä ãâðë àöé íà øáåçîä ù÷áå äìòîä ìò úåôñåð úåìòîá äéäé øáåçîä íàå (3) ®úåøùé úåìòîá úçîåöä (4) ®ïåáùçä íù àöéù äìòîä (5) ®úçîåöä äìòîä ãâðë íäù (6) ®éðùä úéáä 22úìçú íù ¬ïåáùçä ÷ »îèàìøô [éðù ìò3 ®øéëæä ô »îè÷àøì [íøéëæä2 ®øñç ÷ »éòéáøá è »îàìøô [úéòéáøá1 ®øñç èø »òáåø ÷ »àìô [úéòéáø6 ®øñç ø »÷îèàô [úåøùéä5 ®øñç è÷ »îàìøô [êøãä4 ®éðùá »èàìøô [øëæðä9 ®ïëå ÷ »äëëå ì »îèàøô [øáëå8 ®øñç èø »÷àìô [åéøçàì ®®® úéòéáø èáîìå7 ®øñç ô »è÷àøì [ìà12 ®ùàø ÷ »äìçú ô »èàøì [úìçú11 ®ìë > ì »÷àìôèø [éî10 ®øñç ÷ ®øñç ô »îè÷àøì [èáî15 ®éðùäå ÷ »îèàìøô [úøçàä êøãäå14 ®úåìòîì è »÷àìøô [úåìòîá13 ô »îè÷àøì [èáî18 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [åèáî úåéäì éåàø àåäù17 ®èáîå à »îè÷ìøô [åèáîå16 ÷ »îèàìøô [äðäå20 ®úéùù èáî åèáîå îô »ùéìù èáîå ÷ »èàøì [úéùéìù èáî åèáîå19 ®øñç î »÷èàìøô [úìçú íù22 ®äé÷ìçå äòùä ô »åé÷ìçå äòùä î »è÷àøì [åé÷ìçå úåòùä21 ®øñç ®úìçúá .

and 120 degrees for trine before it or behind it. take one third of them and add it to the degree of the ascendant in equal degrees. and its left aspect of trine should be diametrically opposed to the right aspect of sextile. and the right one is at the cusp of the eleventh house .[1] find the seasonal hours recorded opposite the degree obtained by this reckoning. (5) The other method is to correct the aspect according to the correction of the houses. the Nasi. which are the cusps of the tenth and the fourth houses corrected according to the rising times of the zodiacal signs. then the left sextile aspect is at the cusp of the third house. (3) The aforementioned Nasi recorded a method for calculating the degree of a planet from its latitude. there are two methods for reckoning the aspects. if the planet is in the middle of the house. and assign a year to each degree.[2] (4) So if someone wants to direct the cusp of a house to the aspect of a planet. 90 degrees for quartile before it or behind it. because if the planet is in the degree of the ascendant. because R. divided into equal degrees. (3) Then. when the houses are corrected according to the rising times. he should begin from the house. its aspect of quartile coincides with the line of midheaven and the line of lower midheaven. has mentioned them in his book. its aspect should fall in the middle of the respective houses.[1] (2) The first method is in equal zodiacal degrees.[3] 5 (1) Now I will give you a method for calculating the correction of the four houses. (7) And if it is in the degree of the ascendant and its aspect is sextile. and the right one at the cusp of the ninth house. then its aspects will be in equal degrees. (5) Then check whether the result is equal to the number of degrees given by the reckoning. if it is this is the location of the cusp of the second house. Abraham. (8) The general rule is that its right aspect of trine should be diametrically opposed to the left aspect of sextile. (4) Double the hours and the minutes and add them to the rising times of the signs opposite the degree of the ascendant. (2) Find out how many equal degrees there are between the degree of the ascendant and the line of lower midheaven.chapter ten 99 (6) There is no need to mention these directions. and its left aspect of trine is at the cusp of the fifth house. 60 degrees for sextile before it or behind it.[5] 4 (1) In like manner. on the latitude plate of the astrolabe . (6) But if the result yields more degrees than the degree . (6) This is the general rule: if it is at the beginning of a cardo. its aspects of quartile and opposition are at the other cardines.

100 first version of the book of reasons (7) ®ïåøñçä øçà ïåáùçä íù àöéù äìòîä çëðì íäù úåúåååòîä úåòùä äîë òãå ¬úçà åà úåìòî éúù òøâ ¬ïåáùçä íù àöéù àöîúù ãò äùòú äëëå éåàøå äëëå 2 1 êôä 3äùò ¬úåçô øáåçîä àöé íàå (8) ®úéáä úìçú àåäù ÷ìçä íâ ¬äìòîä (9) ®èôùîë äùòå ¬ïåáùçä íù àöéù äìòîä ìò äìòî óéñåúù ¬4øáãä òáøà øùåéä 5ìâìâ úåìòîá íåäúä å÷ úìçú ìà éðùä úéáä úìçúî ÷çøîä úåéäì (10) ®éðéîùä úéáä úìçú àéäù ¬éðùä úéáä úìòî çëðì íäù úåúååòî úåòù (11) ®÷ìçäå äìòîä àöîúù ãò òøâú åà óéñåúå ¬úçîåöä äìòîä 7ìò úåøëæðä 6úåéùéìùä éúù óéñåäì ¬éùéìùä úéáä úìçú àéöåú úìçúá ÷çøîä úåéäì éåàøå éåàø äëë á37 úåúååòî úåòù òáøà ¬úçîåöä 9äìòîäî ¬8õøàá úåìæîä éãòöîá éùéìùä úéáä (12) ®10éòéùúä úéáä úìçú àéäå ¬úéáä úìçú àéäù äìòîä çëðì íäù 11 ìâìâ úåìòîá úåúååòî úåòù éúù íåäúä å÷ ãò úéáä äæ úìçúî úåìòîä ù÷áúù ¬éùéîçä úéáä úåòùä ç÷å ¬ïåáùçä çåìá àöîúù éåàøå íäù 18 16 ÷çøîä úåéäì | 13 úìçú 12 àéöåäì äùòú äëë íâ (13) 15 ®øùåéä óéñåúå äùìù ìò í÷ìçúå ¬14úò÷åùä äìòîä ïéáå íåäúä å÷ ïéá ïäù úåøùéä íù àöéù äìòîä òãå ¬íåäúä å÷ úìòî ìò 17 úéùéìùä úåìòîä ìò íôéñåäå äìòîä çëð ãâðë íäù íäé÷ìçå úåúååòîä úìçú íù ¬äðåùàøä äìòîá ïåáùçä àöé íà äðäå 19 (14) ®íåäúä å÷ ãâðë øùåéä ìâìâ (15) ®÷ìçäå äìòîä àöîúù ãò òøâú åà èòî óéñåú àì íàå ¬éùéîçä úéáä úåúååòî úåòù òáøà úò÷åùä äìòîäî ÷åçø éùéîçä úéáä úìçú úåéäì óéñåú íâ (16) ®õøàä çåì éãòöîá 21 úéáä úìçú íùù äìòîä çëðì 22 20 úåàöîð åúåéäì éåàøå ¬éùùä úéáä úìçú àéöåäì íåäúä å÷ ìò úåøëæðä úåìæîä éãòöîá ÷åçø åúåéäì éåàø ¬24äëëå 26 úåéùéìù éúùä çëðì úåàöîð íäù úåúååòî úåòù òáøà øùåéä ìâìâ úåìòîá íåäúä å÷î ÷åçø (17) ®23éùùä úéáä úìçú àéäù äìòîä 25 íâ ¬ éùùä úéáä úìçú àéäù äìòîä çëðì íäù úåúååòî úåòù éúù õøàä çåìá ì »÷èàøôîì [äùò3 ®úåìòîä î »è÷àøô [äìòîä2 ®çëðì ãâðë ì »ãâðë è÷ »îàøô [çëðì1 éðù ÷ »îèàìøô [úåéùéìùä éúù6 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [ìâìâ5 ®øñç ô »îè÷àøì [øáãä4 ®äøùò ®äìòîá è »÷àìøô [äìòîäî9 ®øñç è÷ »îàìøô [õøàá8 ®ìà î »è÷àìøô [ìò7 ®íéùéìù ®÷çøîä äæ ô »îè÷àøì [÷çøîä11 ®éòéùúä úéáä ÷ »îèàìøô [éòéùúä úéáä úìçú àéäå úéáä10 »î÷àìøô [úò÷åùä14 ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô [úìçú ®®® úéáä äæ13 ®àöîú ÷ »îèàìô [àéöåäì äùòú12 »îàìøô [íäé÷ìçå17 ®êì ì »÷îèàøô [íù16 ®ùéìùä ÷ »îèàìøô [úéùéìùä15 ®úçîåöä è < ÷ »îèàìøô [úåúååòî19 ®øñç ÷ »îèôàøì [úåìòîä ìò íôéñåäå18 ®í÷ìçå ÷ »äé÷ìçå è »îèàìøô [úåéùéìù éúùä22 ®à§§éä < à »îè÷ìøô [úéáä21 ®ãâðë ÷ »îèàøô [úåàöîð20 ®í÷ìçå ®ïë íâ è »íâ ÷ »îàøô [äëëå24 ®úéáä îè÷ôø »á§§éä úéáä à »ì [éùùä úéáä23 ®íéùéìù éðùä ÷ ®øñç ø »÷îèàô úéáä »ì [éùùä úéáä26 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [çåìá úåìæîä25 .

is four seasonal hours. (16) Add also the aforementioned two-thirds to the line of lower midheaven to calculate the cusp of the sixth house. calculate the equal degrees between the line of lower midheaven and the degree of the descendant. at sphaera recta. the cusp of the ninth house. according to the rising times on the latitude plate of the astrolabe .. and add the third part to the degree of the line of lower midheaven. that is. (12) Similarly. and find on the plate the seasonal hours opposite the degree obtained by the calculation after the subtraction. add the aforementioned two-thirds to the degree of the ascendant. which comes out to be opposite the degree of the second house. should be four seasonal hours. its distance from the degree of the descendant . (10) In this manner you can calculate the cusp of the third house. which comes out to be opposite the degree of the cusp of the fifth house.chapter ten 101 obtained by the calculation. (7) Proceed similarly until you find the degree and the minute that correspond to the cusp of the house. i. its distance from the line of lower midheaven should be four seasonal hours in sphaera recta degrees. (11) The distance of the cusp of the third house. do the opposite. should be two seasonal hours. (8) But if the result is less than the degree obtained by the calculation . (14) Now.e.[2] subtract two degrees or one. namely. divide them by three. (17) Likewise. which comes out to be opposite the degree of the cusp of the sixth house. Then find out the degree that was obtained by this reckoning. the cusp of the eighth house. that is. the cusp of the fifth house is in this place. and take the hours and minutes opposite this degree and add them to the degrees you find in the sphaera recta table at the point facing the line of lower midheaven. otherwise add or subtract a little till you find the degree and minute. according to the rising times of the signs on the latitude plate of the astrolabe . add a degree to the degree that was calculated and proceed according to the rule. (15) The distance between the cusp of the fifth house and the degree of the descendant should be four seasonal hours. the distance from the cusp of this house to the line of lower midheaven. namely. which comes out to be opposite the degree that is the cusp of the third house. according to the rising times of the signs for the country. at sphaera recta. if the reckoning gives the first degree. from the degree of the ascendant. should be two seasonal hours. (13) Proceed in the same manner to calculate the cusp of the fifth house. (9) The distance from the cusp of the second house to the beginning of the line of lower midheaven. which are opposite the degree of the cusp of the sixth house. and then add or subtract until you find the degree and the minute. you should .

102 íìåòì ºììëä äæå first version of the book of reasons (18) ®2úçøåæä ãò äìòîä çëðì íäù 1íéãòöîä ç÷úù éåàø ïë ìâìâä éöçá íàå ¬íä øùàë äìåòä ìâìâä éöçá 3åéä íà íéçå÷ì íéãòöîä åéäé äìòîì íäù úåìòîäî úåúååòîä úåòùä åç÷ìé íìåòì äëëå ¬íçëðì åç÷ìé ãøåéä êøåö ïéà íìù éìë êì äéä íà éë úùåçðä éìë øôñá éúøëæä øáëå ìò éøáãá ¬úåãìåîä øôñá êì ïúà ãåòå (19) ®õøàäî (20) ®4íù éúùøéô øùàë ¬úàæä äòéâéì ®éúøëæäù úàæ íò äåù äéäúù úøçà êøã ¬úåôå÷úä íäå ¬íãáì äùìù íà éë úåùòì 6êøåö ïéàå ¬íéèáîä äùòú 5äëë äðäå úåøùé úåìòî äîë ìëúñä äðäå (1) 6 (2) ®8úéùéìùå úéòéáøå úéùù èáî 7íééìàîùä 10 íò åéä íàå ¬íéùìù ìò åúåà êåøò äååääå ¬úéáä úìçúî áëåëä ÷åçø 9àåä ®íçéðä úåçô íàå ¬úçà äìòî óñåä ¬íéùåìùî øúåé åéäå íéôñåð íé÷ìç úåìòî øôñî 12 åúìòî ãò ï÷åúî úéá úìçú ïéá íäù úåøùéä úéáä úåìòî øôñî ìò øáåçîä ÷ìçå äîë ç÷ íâ 13 (3) (4) ®åðøîù ïåáùçá 11 äìòéù äîå ¬ï÷åúî úéá úìçú úìçú ïéá íäù úåìòîä øôñî äîë òãå ¬äöøúù èáî äæéà ¬åèáî íùù úéáä ìò øôñîä äæ êåøòå åà óéñåúå ¬16åèáî ìà (5) 15 ®åéøçà àåäù ï÷åúîä úéáä úìçú ïéáå ï÷åúîä úéáä úìçú ìò åðôéñåä ïåáùçá äìåòäå ¬14íéùìù ìò øáåçîä ÷ìçå øåîùä øôñîä äáåø÷ àéäù äìòîä àöîú æà (6) ®èáîä íù øùà úéáä ®17äðð÷úúù ãò òøâú äìòîä ïéáå íéîùä éöç å÷ ïéá áëåëä äéä íà ìëúñä ºäùòú äëëå ìâìâ çåìá úåàöîðä úåìòîä øñçúù íéîùä éöç å÷î å÷çøî äîë äååääå ¬íéîùä éöç å÷ ãâðë çåìä åúåàá úåàöîðä 19 18 (1) 7 òã ¬úçîåöä úåìòîäî åúìòî ãâðë øùåéä áëåëä úìòî ãâðë íäù úåúååòîä úåòùä ìò åð÷ìç úåúååòîä äòùä úåìòî áùäå (2) ®÷çøîä àø÷é íäéðéá 20 22 ¬íéùù ìò íúåà êåøò ÷ìçúé àìù øàùé íàå ¬úåòù íä äìåòäå õøàä çåìá 21 (3) ®úøçà íòô íéùù ìò 24 íúåà êåøò 23 äìåòäå äìåòäå ¬ïåùàøä ïåáùçä íäéìò ÷ìçå ¬íé÷ìçä äìåòä íò íéùå ¬ íéåù íé÷ìç »úçøåæä äìòîä îô »÷àøì [úçøåæä ãò äìòîä2 ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô [íéãòöîä ®®® çëðì íäù1 øùàë è »îàìøô [íù éúùøéô øùàë4 ®øñç ô »îè÷àøì [åéä3 ®úçøåæä úìçúä ãò äìòîä è äùìù íà éë7 ®êéøö ÷ »îèàìøô [êøåö6 ®øñç è »î÷àìøô [äëë5 ®øñç ÷ »íù êì éúùøéô íééìàîù §â ºáåúë íééìåùá »íà éë è »íééìàîùä íäå äùìù ÷ø ÷ »îàìøô [íééìàîùä íäå íãáì [åúìòî10 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [àåä9 ®ùéìùå òáåøå ÷ »îèàìøô [úéùéìùå úéòéáøå8 ®íäå íãáì »äîë ïë íâ ô »îè÷øì [äîë ç÷ íâ12 ®äìåòäå ÷ »îèàìøô [äìòéù äîå11 ®åéúåìòî ô »îè÷àøì [äáåø÷ àéäù15 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [íéùìù14 ®úéáä úåìòî è »î÷àìøô [úåìòîä13 ®äëë íâ à ®øñç à »äúåà ï÷ú è »î÷ìøô [äðð÷úúù17 ®èáî à »îè÷ìøô [åèáî16 ®äáåø÷ä ÷ »îèàìøô »î÷àìøô [äìåòäå20 ®øñç îô »è÷àøì [úåìòîäî ®®® çåìá úåàöîðä19 ®øñç îàô »è÷øì [òã18 [íéåù23 ®øñç îà »åúåà ø »è÷ôì [íúåà22 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [äìåòäå ®®® íúåà êåøò21 ®íù < è ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô [íò24 ®øñç è÷àøô »îì .

but drop them if there are less than 30 . but if they correspond to the descending semicircle they should be taken opposite them.chapter ten 103 also take the rising times opposite the degree until the ascendant. in like manner the seasonal hours should always be taken from the degrees that are above the Earth [i. the planet’s] degree from the degrees in the same table opposite the line of midheaven. (3) Convert the degrees of the seasonal hour into equal minutes.[3] (19) I have already mentioned in the Book of the Astrolabe that if you have a complete astrolabe there is no need to go to such great pains. add the result to the remaining minutes.[1] (2) Find the distance in equal degrees between the planet and the cusp of the house and multiply the result by 30. if there are additional minutes along with the degrees and the minutes are more than 30.[4] (20) In the Book of Nativities.. divide the result by 30. and trine. from the cusp of the corrected house to the cusp of the next corrected house. then add one degree. (6) You will obtain the degree that is closest to its aspect. the result is in hours. and set down the result obtained. (3) Divide the result by the [size of the] house in equal degrees. the left aspects of sextile. if something remains that is indivisible [i.” (2) Divide this by the seasonal hours opposite the planet’s degree in the latitude plate of the astrolabe . namely. less than 60] multiply it by 60.e. above the horizon].e. the difference between them is called the “distance. (4) Also take the number of degrees of the house in which the aspect lies—any aspect you wish—and calculate the number of degrees between the cusp of the corrected house and the cusp of the following corrected house. and add the result of the calculation to the cusp of the house wherein the aspect lies. and then . and add or subtract until you correct it. namely. then determine its distance from the line of midheaven by subtracting the degrees found in the sphaera recta table opposite its [i. when I discuss the revolutions.[5] 6 (1) So proceed in the following manner to calculate the aspects. I will give you another method that is as good as the one I have mentioned here . (18) This is the general rule: the rising times should be always taken as they are if they correspond to the ascending semicircle. quartile..e. as I have explained there. you have to calculate only three of them. (5) Then multiply this number by the number that you set down before. 7 (1) Proceed as follows: observe whether the planet is between the line of midheaven and the degree of the ascendant. and then multiply the result by 60 again.

104 äðäå first version of the book of reasons (4) ®íéùùî 1äòù é÷ìç åéäé èáîì íäé÷ìçå úåòùä äìà ìò óéñåäì êì ùé äðäå (5) ®äðîù úéùéìù èáîìå ¬ ùù úéòéáø èáîìå ¬úåîìù úåòù òáøà úéùù 2 äìòîä ù÷á ¬áëåëä íùù 4úéòéáøä äúåàá ¬úéùù 3èáî àåäù ¬èáîä àöé íà äéä íà ìëúñäå õøàä çåìá úúååòîä äòùä ç÷å ¬5èáîä íù àöéù êì éúøîàù »íäîò úåòù òáøàå áëåëä úåòùë íéîùä éöç å÷î øùåéä ìâìâ éãòöîá ÷çøîä éôë íéúù åà úçà äìòî óéñåú ¬àì íàå à38 äìòîä ïéá àéäù úéòéáøá àöé èáîä íàå (6) ®èáîä íù éë úîà êðåáùç ¬äðä (7) ®ãéî äðàöîú àì 6éë | ¬êøåöä ®úçîåöä äìòîäî ÷çøîä úåéäì úåéåàø íä úåòù äîë ìëúñä ¬íåäúä å÷ ïéáå úçîåöä úçà äòù íéîùä éöç å÷î ÷åçø áëåëä äéä åìéàë ºïåéîã êì ïúà äðäå 8 (1) 8 íéîùä éöç å÷î úéùù èáî ÷çøî úåéäì éåàø äðäå 9 (2) 11 ®íé÷ìç øùò äòáù 7íâ úçîåöä äìòîäî ÷åçø 12 10 úéòéáø èáî úåéäì éåàø ¬úéòéáø èáî íàå ¬íé÷ìç øùò äòáù íâ úåòù ùîç úåòùäî íé÷ìç øùò äòáù íâ úçà äòù õøàä çåì úåìòîá ®éúøëæäù úéòéáøä èáîä 13 äìòîäî ÷åçø äéäé úéùéìù èáîå ¬õøàä çåìá äìòîä çëðì úåàöîðä íâ úåòù éúù íåäúä å÷î ä÷åçø úéùéìùä íàå 19 20 14 êøãë ¬íé÷ìç øùò äòáù íâ úåòù ùìù úçîåöä èáî íùù äìòîä äúåéäì éåàøå (3) çëðì úåçå÷ì äðééäú úåòùä ÷ø ¬øùåéä ìâìâ éãòöîá íé÷ìç äùìùå íéòáøà (4) ®úåúååòî úåòù ùù 18 15 ãúéì ãúé ïéá ùé íìåòì éë ¬õøàä çåìá äìòîä 16 ¬íåäúä å÷ ïéáå úçîåöä ïéá àéäù úéòéáøá úåìòîä øñç ºäùòú äëëå åéèáî úåùòì äöøúù áëåëä äéä (5) ® úçîåöä äìòîäî áëåëä ÷çøî äîë òã 17 21 õøàä çåìá úåàöîðä úåìòîäî úçîåöä äìòîä ãâðë õøàä çåìá úåàöîðä úìòî ãâðë êøãë úåòù íéèáîä ìò óñåäå ¬÷çøîä úåòù àöîú æà ¬õøàä çåìá áëåëä úìòî çëðì úåàöîð íäù úåúååòîä úåòùä ìò äìåòä ÷ìçå ¬áëåëä 22 ¬23äîöòá úéòéáøä äúåàá èáîä àöé íà äðäå (6) ®äðåùàøä úéòéáøá úôñåäù ä÷çøî àåä íà ìëúñäå äìòîä ãâðë úåàöîðä õøàä çåìá úåìæîä éãòöî ç÷ àåäù3 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [ùù úéòéáø èáîìå2 ®äìåòä ô »äòùä è÷ »îàøì [äòù1 ÷ »èáîä íù ùéù ì »îèàøô [èáîä íù àöéù5 ®òáåøä ÷ »îèàìøô [úéòéáøä4 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô ø »÷îèàìô [íéîùä ®®® úçà äòù8 ®øñç è »î÷àìøô [íâ7 ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô [éë6 ®áëåëä íùù äìòîäî11 ®øñç ô »òáåø èáî ÷ »îèàøì [úéòéáø èáî10 ®äðäå > àô »îè÷øì [éåàø9 ®øñç ®êøãëå ô »îè÷àøì [êøãë13 ®úåìòîäî è÷ »îàìøô [úåòùäî12 ®øñç è÷àøì »îô [úçîåöä äìòîäî17 ®èáî ÷ »îèàìøô [åéèáî16 ®äèîì ÷ »îèàìøô [ãúéì15 ®èáîä è÷ô »îàøì [èáî14 ÷è »îàìøô [úåìòîä19 ®øñç è÷ »îàìøô [øñç ºäùòú äëëå18 ®úçîåöäî ÷ »îèàìøô [úçîåöä [êøãë22 ®úåìòî è »î÷àìøô [úìòî21 ®øñç ÷èà »îìøô [õøàä ®®® äìòîä ãâðë20 ®úåìòîä ïî ®äîöò ÷ »îèàìøô [äîöòá23 ®åîë ÷ »êøãá ô »îèàøì [èáî .

as for the quartile aspect. six hours for quartile. Suppose that the planet is one hour and 17 minutes distant from the line of midheaven. because you will not find it immediately. (4) Add to these hours and minutes four complete hours for an aspect of sextile. (2) The sextile aspect should be 5 hours and 17 minutes distant from the line of midheaven. and eight hours for trine. in the same manner as the aspect of quartile that I have just mentioned. comes out in the same quadrant where the planet is. determine the degree where the aspect comes out. degrees] on the latitude plate of the astrolabe . but the hours should be taken directly opposite the degree on the latitude plate of the astrolabe . then divide the result by the seasonal hours read off on the latitude plate opposite the degree of the planet. if so. (4) If the planet whose aspects you wish to calculate is in the quadrant between the ascendant and the line of lower midheaven. measuring by the graduations [lit. your calculation is correct because the aspect is in this place. (3) The trine aspect should be two hours and 43 minutes away from the line of lower midheaven in sphaera recta rising times. is the same as the hours of the planet plus four hours. (7) If the aspect comes out in the quadrant between the degree of the ascendant and the line of lower midheaven. degree] that is directly opposite the point on the latitude plate of the astrolabe . determine how many hours the distance from the degree of the ascendant should be. as much as you need. (5) If the aspect. find out the distance of the planet from the degree of the ascendant. (6) If the aspect comes out in the same quadrant. it should be one hour and 17 minutes from the point [lit.chapter ten 105 divide them by the first calculation. (5) Then proceed as follows: subtract the degrees read off on the latitude plate of the astrolabe directly opposite the degree of the ascendant from the degrees read off on the latitude plate opposite the degree of the planet. and the trine aspect should be three hours and 17 minutes away from the degree of the ascendant. then find the hours of the distance and add the hours to the aspects in the same manner that you added for the first quadrant. 8 (1) Now I will give you an illustration. which are opposite the . add one degree or two. and find out whether the distance from the line of midheaven. take the rising times of the signs on the latitude plate of the astrolabe . the result is in minutes. take the seasonal hour from the latitude plate of the astrolabe . as I have told you. which is sextile. (6) Otherwise. because there are always six seasonal hours from one cardo to another. in rising times at sphaera recta.

106 first version of the book of reasons (7) ®äìòîä çëðì íäù úåòùá äùòú äæ íâ »èáîä úôñåú íò ÷çøîä úåòù øôñîë úçîåöä äìòîäî õøàä çåìá å÷ ïéá àéäù úéòéáøá èáîä äéä íàå íåäúä å÷ ãâðë øùåéä ìâìâ çåìá íéàöîðä íéãòöîä øñç ¬úò÷åùä ïéáå íåäúä çåìá úåàöîðä úåòùä ìò äìåòä ÷ìçå ¬èáîä å÷ ãâðë 1íéàöîðä íéãòöîäî äðä ¬èáîä 2úôñåú øçà ÷çøîä úåòùë åéä íà äðäå (8) ®äìòîä çëðì õøàä ®ãéî èáîä úìòî àöîú æà òøâú åà èòî óéñåú àì íàå ¬úîàá 3èáîä íù éöçá úåøåàîä ãçà åà áëåëä äéä íà íéèáîä àéöåäì êøã éúøëæä äðäå 4 (9) äùòå åúìòî çëðì áëåëä éë áåùç ãøåéä ìâìâä éöçá äéä íà ÷ø ¬äìåòä ìâìâä åàöéù äìàù ÷ø ¬ùøôä íäéðéá ïéàå (10) ®5íéèáîä àöîú æà ¬êéúéàøäù êøãë ®áëåëä çëð úìòî úç÷ìù øåáòá ¬íééìàîù íééðéîéäå íééðéîé íä íééìàîù ñøô éîëç úòã úàæ ¬úåøùòäå úåàîäå íéôìàäî 6àåäù ¬éúøëæäù íéâåäðäå íâ ¬äñåðî àåä øàãøôìà àø÷ðä ïîæä âåäéð ÷ø (1) 9 (2) ®íäéìò âòåì ñåéîìèáå ¬åãåäå íäîòå äæ ìò äîéëñä íéðåîã÷ä 8ìë úòãå ¬7äñåðîå òåãé øáã äðù ìëì ìæî âåäéð úåàî òùúì úåùéìù ìà úåùéìùî å÷úòé íéðåéìòä éë ¬10åðøîàù äîå äæ íâ (3) ®9ñåéîìèá (4) ®òøâé 15 12 íéîòô íâ óéñåé íéîòô éë ¬11áåøé÷ êøã ìò àåä ¬äðù íéùùå 14 íéîòô ùé ¬åøáçúéù íéîòô äøùò íéúù íäù ¬äðù íéòáøàå íéúàîá éúøëæäù åà íéðåéìò éðù 18 úëéìä úåøéäî øåáòá 17 äø÷é äæå ¬13íéîòô äøùò ùåìù åøáçúéù 16 ® íìùð øôñä äðäå ® íìåò éäìà úøæòá íìåòä øôñá äæ ùøôà ãåòå ¬íúðúîä íù äðä3 ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô [úôñåú2 ®øñç ô »îè÷àøì [íéàöîðä ®®® ìâìâ çåìá1 ô »îèàøì [àåäù6 ®íéèáîá ô »îè÷àøì [íéèáîä5 ®äéäú ì »îè÷àøô [äéä4 ®øñç ì »îè÷àøô íäîòå äæ ìò äîéëñä9 ®ìëå ÷ »îèàìøô [ìë úòãå8 ®øñç ÷ »îèàìøô [äñåðîå7 ®øñç ÷ »íäù ®åøîàå ÷ »åøîàù äîå è »îàìøô [åðøîàù äîå10 ®åá åîéëñä ñåéîìèáå ÷ »îèàìøô [ñåéîìèá [íéîòô ®®® ùé åøáçúéù13 ®åà ÷ »íéîòô è »àîìøô [íéîòô íâ12 ®áåøé÷ä ô »îè÷àøì [áåøé÷11 è »àô [äæ ùøôà16 ®øñç è »÷àìøô [úëéìä15 ®øñç ô »îè÷àøì [äø÷é14 ®øñç ø »÷îèàìô øôñä äðäå ô ®ø [íìùð øôñä äðäå18 ®øñç è÷ »îàô [íìåò éäìà úøæòá17 ®ùøôà ÷ »íùøôà ®íéîåøî ïëåùì çáùä ®íéîòèä øôñ íìùð »íìùðå ÷ »øôñä íìùð äðäå à »íìåò ìàì äìäú íìùð ®íìùð øôñä äðäå î »íéîúáå úîàá [èáîä .

. (7) If the aspect is in the quadrant between the line of lower midheaven and the descendant. subtract the rising times in the sphaera recta table opposite the line of lower midheaven from the rising times opposite the line of the aspect.e. 9 (1) As for the directions that I have mentioned. except that those that came out on the left are right and the right ones are on the left.chapter ten 107 degree of the aspect . this was said by way of approximation.e. that 240 years are the time of 12 conjunctions. namely. (4) Also.[1] this is the opinion of the scientists of Persia and India.[6] with the assistance of the God of the Universe. All the Ancients concur in this opinion.. proceed likewise regarding the hours opposite the degree. but Ptolemy laughs at them. namely.[2] (2) Only the direction of the period called the fardâr has been verified by experience. but if it is in the descending semicircle [i. that the upper planets [i.e. hundreds and decades. since sometimes this period is longer and sometimes shorter.[3] the annual direction of a sign is also known and has been verified. (10) There is no difference between them. The book has been completed. and find out whether the distance from the sign of the ascendant on the latitude plate is equal to the number of hours of the distance added to the aspect.e. below the horizon] assume that the planet is opposite its degree [i. including Ptolemy. and then divide the result by the hours on the latitude plate of the astrolabe opposite the degree of the aspect . (8) If they are equal to the hours of the distance after the addition of the aspect. assume that it is in the opposite degree below the horizon] and proceed in the same way that I have already shown and you will find the aspects. sometimes they conjoin 13 times. because you took the degree opposite the planet.. because of the rapid motion or lagging behind of the two upper planets . above the horizon].[5] I shall explain this topic further in the Book of the World.[4] (3) As for what we have said. Saturn and Jupiter] move from triplicity to triplicity in 960 years. of thousands. otherwise add a little or subtract and then you should find the degree of the aspect right away. if the planet is above the horizon. . (9) I have mentioned the method to calculate the aspects if the planet or one of the luminaries is in the ascending semicircle [i.. then the aspect is truly in this place. as for what I have mentioned.

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part two NOTES TO THE FIRST VERSION OF THE BOOK OF REASONS .

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pp. 2006. By means of this stylistic feature (they said …. §§ñåéîìèá íùàøù ïåéå åãåäå ñøô éîëçå íééìááä ïî íéðåîã÷ä úòã åéìò (“In this book I will mention everything about which the opinions of the Ancients among the Babylonians. 2006. I. The most prominent expression of this type is they said … (see § 1. he considers the astrological lore compiled in Reshit Hokhmah I to be the product of a collective and cumulative . For a similar terminology. [1] 1: From half to one tenth . p. pp. 1874. I.1 111 1: They divided. 1. pp. The advantage of this method is explained in Sefer ha-Mispar as follows: äðä姧 [4] íéãçà íäù úåìòî øáåçîä äéäé úåìòî ìò úåìòî åìôëé øùàë úåìæîä éîëç íäù úåìòî ÷åìçá äìåòä äéäé úåìòî ìò úåìòî å÷ìçé øùàë ¬äëëå »íéîìù §§íéîìù íéãçà (“So. see #Ibbur. when they divide degrees by degrees the result of the division is given in degrees that are whole numbers”). Hebrew úéøéùò ãò éöçî. The introduction to the second chapter. on which Te#amim I is commenting. 101. 30–31). when the astrologers multiply degrees by degrees.).2:4.4:5. [3] 1–5: They divided the circle … more fractions than 12: Quotes from and comments on Rh. they concluded …. § 1.chapter one §1. they put …. India and Greece. an arithmetical textbook written by Ibn Ezra ca. 17. vi:6. 7a. .6:2 et passim). agree on”). provides a virtually identical account of the division of the degrees of the circle into 360. 3a. § 1. similarly. on division. moons. see ‘Ibbur. and of the scientists of Persia. I. The third-person plural is how Ibn Ezra usually introduces verbatim quotations from Reshit Hokhmah I into Te#amim . He expresses this idea at the end of the first chapter of Reshit Hokhmah I. For a similar explanation by Ibn Ezra. and 30 parts. lit. the result is given in degrees that are whole numbers. 1874. 12–13. Ibn Ezra seems to want to convey the idea that. . vi:4–8. 179). viii:17–18: äîéëñäù äî ìë äæä øôñá êì øéëæà éðà姧 . See also Sefer ha-Middot. etc. Hebrew úåðáì. 1895. See Mispar. 1146 (see Sela-Freudenthal. 12. This addition appears explicitly at Rh. See Rh. . although he drew on specific astrological sources. they divided …. whose chief is Ptolemy. n. enterprise. [2] 4: Lunar months. I. of Sefer ha-Mispar.49 (Middot. p.

5:3). which speaks of the girdle of the ceremonial vestments of the High Priest Aaron. Pinsker 26. ff. He derived these three expressions from Ex.6. 40b.7:5) is defined in #Ibbur. 86a. 336. the sun’s annual path in the sky. 48a. the same term appears to be identical with the beginning of the zodiacal sign of Aries and different from the beginning of the zodiacal constellation of Aries. lit heart of the lion. 10. . 40a. Nehoshet C. 1985.1:6. §1.2:1–3 and note.2:4). . [2] 3: Cor Leonis. 61a. 2003a. band of the girdle of the orb. See Long Commentary on Exodus. as “the place of intersection of the two higher circles. this statement points to Tb § 8.9:5. § 8.” In ‘Olam A. § 4.12:1–15. 164a. which is the date of the earliest extant manuscripts. 61b. 1976. Hebrew ÷ãöä å÷. see Sela. § 7.112 notes to the first version of the book of reasons §1. See also Yesod Mora’.7:9 and note. Ibn Ezra also employs two other cognate Hebrew expressions to designate the same thing: (i) ìâìâä úãåôà. This Hebrew expression was coined by Ibn Ezra to designate the ecliptical component of the astrolabe’s rete. ff. § 8. p. lit. their crystallization in the second half of the thirteenth century. a stereographic projection of the ecliptic. p. Ibn Ezra suggests that the high priest’s vestments included some sort of graphical representation of the zodiac and the equator. 37a. 1976. f. bnf 1061. see below. § 7. lit. Hebrew äéøàä star. lit. pp. 59a. § 7. . see Tb § 8. vest of the circle (Ta § 7.7:1–6). 323–324. This term (see § 2. which begins as follows: “End of the book: I shall now reveal a secret to you. 28:8.7:1. pp.2:5–6. and of a number of the brighter fixed stars.3:3. .2:1. bnf 1056. band of the girdle (Ta § 3. In his commentary on this verse. See Nehoshet A. 10a. . Tb § 4.2 1: Ecliptic. This suggests that the material related to the motion of the fixed stars was mixed up in the earliest renderings of the texts of Te#amim I and Te #amim II.12:3. For Ibn Ezra’s explanations of this expression and its usage in his work. Mant.1:3. 63a. In Te#amim I this topic is not . For this 3: Equator. [1] 3: At the end … zodiacal constellations. Hebrew ìâìâä úãåôà áùç. Tb § 1. (ii) äãåôàä áùç. Nehoshet B. Surprisingly. 137–139. f.1:6.” and continues with an account of the motion of the fixed stars (Tb § 8. 43b. 1874. [3] [4] áì. prior to . lit. 186–187. For the distinction between zodiacal signs and constellations. Short Commentary on Exodus. addressed at the “end of the book” but at § 2. line of justice. pp.

Ibn Ezra frequently mentions Enoch’s astrological and astronomical work. pp. a philologist. 19). bnf 1058. To denote the same meaning. since it was referred to (1) in a preface to a variant text of Raymond of Marseilles’ Iudicia. 83b. p. 19. I. 1989. 82: “Similiter invenimus quod Ptholomeus probavit in suo tempore cor leonis in 3° gradu leonis esse fere. This work was evidently known by twelfth-century Latin writers. 89 n. were made by Ibn Ezra in his commentary on Amos 5:8 and in Liber de rationibus tabularum. his scientific oeuvre. 257–273. 1991. Tabaqât al-"Umam.chapter one 113 See also Mivharim B. 1968. 2003a. 3: Ptolemy said that Cor Leonis … it is at Leo 18o. . the scholar Ptolemy found that Cor Leonis was located at Leo 2° and now this star is at Leo 18°”). For this commentary. roughly a thousand years ago. or Hermes. in Ta § 2. it turns out that Ibn Ezra believed that Enoch lived 1. Te#amim II (see Appendix 5: Authorities and Sources) and throughout . pp. 13. natural philosopher.4:4 Ibn Ezra uses the similar Hebrew expression øùåéä å÷.700 years before his own time. p. See also Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. Astrological History of Mâshâ"llâh. bnf 1056. 1947. 10a. This work is in all likelihood the same as Hermes’ Book of Latitude and the Book of Longitude and the Key of the Stars in Milan. f. 328). are ascribed. which refers to “librum quem Mercurius rex Egipti de fide [6] . p. 2003a. a myth to which Ibn Ezra subscribes in ‘Olam A.. see Sela. in Te #amim . “equator”. hodie vero invenitur probatione in 18° gradu leonis. 1971. historian and judge who lived in alAndalus in the eleventh century (Tabaqât al-"Umam. usually in an approving tone. is a legendary figure to whom the so-called Hermetic writings. Abû Ma#shar was probably responsible for the creation of the triple Hermes (Kitâb al-Ulûf. 85a. Ambros. 213–214: óìà ÷ø åì ïéàå íëçä ñåéîèìá éîéá äðä姧 §§äøùò äðîù ìò íåéä äðäå úåìòî íéúù ìò äéøàä áì àöî íéðù (“In his time. representing an attempt to calculate the rate of the motion of the fixed stars by comparing the location of Cor Leonis in Ptolemy’s time and his own. The Book of the Longitude ascribed here to Enoch is mentioned in Categories of Nations by Sa#id al-Andalusî. p. 36). 1991. 184–185. Virtually identical statements. See Glossary. 1984. See Commentary on Amos [5:8]. s. Enoch. ar. See Sela. pp.v. pp. 86. 14–19. On the basis of the position of Cor Leonis ascribed here to Enoch (Cancer 25°). ff.” [5] 3: Enoch recorded in the Book of the Longitude. emulating Ptolemy in Almagest VII:2 (see Almagest. C. which include significant astrological material.

2:1). The name of the star alludes to the . and (2) in the preface to the twelfth-century cosmology. Vega (Alpha Lyrae). in their ecliptical longitude (§ 1. et distant eius cornua ab initio illius distinctionis 22 gradus. recently re-edited by Paolo Lucentini and Mark D. 1–3: The signs were named … it was at Cancer 25°. 1 in the constellation of Lyra in Ptolemy’s star catalogue. a zodiacal constellation is one of the twelve groups of asterisms. Nec cum audieris caput arietis ociose cogites quia caput illius figure ibi sit. 349. Librum longitudinis et latitudinis. Identical arguments. In this passage Ibn Ezra wants to highlight that although the zodiacal signs were named for the images projected by the asterisms of the zodiacal constellations (§ 1.2:3): whereas the positions of the zodiacal signs are fixed. Secundum hoc etiam debes intelligere quod dicunt magistri probationum qui asserunt illud hodie esse 18 gradu. located in the zodiac. the zodiacal constellations constantly move away from the equinoxes on account of the slow motion of the fixed stars (as in the case of Cor Leonis). 2006). Royal 12. of different sizes.XXV and Oxford.” I am grateful to Prof. interspersed with virtually the same supporting evidence. 84: “Sententia Ptholomei est ut dividamus gradus circuli firmamenti. are put forward in Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. p. that is. 1947. Second. in their size (§ 1. mentioned as “the bright star on the shell. tota illa distinctio aries dicitur.E. immo potius quod ibi est initium prime distinctionis. II. qui distat ab intersectione 138 gradus. Delp (Hermes Latinus. First. Turnhout.” No. p. the signs differ from the constellations in two main respects. Charles Burnett for this information. et ita intelligendum est quod dicit Ptholomeus se invenisse cor leonis in 3° gradu leonis. per 12 equalia … et quia figura arietis continetur infra 30 gradus prime distinctionis. qui sunt 360. British Library. Digby 57). Bodleian Library. quia dicit se invenisse illud distans a primo puncto prime distinctionis 123 gradus. VII:5. p. See Almagest. 1984.2:2): whereas a zodiacal sign refers to one of the 30° arcs along the ecliptic.114 notes to the first version of the book of reasons Trinitatis (!) qui et longitudinis et latitudinis intitulatur composuit” (London. et alia multa opere luculento complevit. Liber Hermetis de sex rerum principiis.” [7] [8] 5: Ptolemy called the Falling Eagle the Almond Tree. nam figura arietis non optinet de circulo nisi vix 7 gradus. 147: “Hermes Mercurius Triplex…Virgam auream. called Lyra. the belt centered on the ecliptic. Librum electionis et Ezich id est canones super adaequationem planetarum et super astrolapsum.

Epitome. For Ibn Ezra’s motives and the uses and meanings he gave to the term toledet. This biblical neologism (Gen. . such as the four elements and their qualities. vi:10. Hebrew íéúøùî: For this neologism coined by Ibn Ezra. in fact) is in sharp contrast with the complete absence of the stock Hebrew word . II. Heaven. A cursory analysis of its numerous occurrences in Te #amim I and Te #amim II suggests that Ibn Ezra construed toledet . see Sela. the planetary and mundane houses of the horoscope. Almond Tree is a later ascription. Maimonides. (see Glossary s. t such as Abraham Bar Hiyya. borrowed from its t Arabic cognate .3 1: The 48 constellations … uppermost orb … zodiacal signs: Follows Rh.2:5 and note.” See Smithuis.7 the uppermost orb is placed above the orb of the zodiacal signs. . “nature”). Judah Ibn Tibbon. in Greek myth. [1] 2: “Servants”. 1548. the planets and the stars. Hebrew úãìåú. the quintessence. that at Rh. Here Ibn Ezra conveys an idea that is common all through his work: the planets [3] . p. Notice. 130–137.chapter one 115 shell of the tortoise from which. [2] 2: They undergo variations … dwell on Earth. [9] §1. lxxxv:3 and at Tb § 1. (and throughout Ibn Ezra’s oeuvre. the infant Hermes constructed the first lyre. as meaning nature and its variegated phenomena.2:5. etc. accounted for by the shell that encloses this fruit. see Tb § 1. 2004. For Ibn Ezra’s ambiguous attitude towards the position of the uppermost orb. II. and .iva #a and widely used by Ibn Ezra’s contemporaries.eva #.2:1 and note. C(i): “Est ibi Aquila Cadens … quam Amigdalam Ptolomeus dicit. 5: Nature.” The widespread use of toledet in Te #amim I and Te #amim II . Samuel Ibn Tibbon. where the uppermost orb is made identical with the eighth orb. man and its physical configuration. The attribution by Ptolemy of the same name (amigdala) to the same star appears in the twelfth-century in Epitome totius astrologiae (Ysagoge and Liber quadripartitus). pp. Chapter 3. 2:4 et passim) is defined by Ibn Ezra (long commentary on Exodus 23:25) as “a power (koah) that protects the body and which man receives from . however.v. 4. the whole numbers. see Tb § 1. 2003a.

following Rh. v:20–vi:1 et passim. offers a top-to-bottom description of the universe. 1976. in the context of a presentation of the universe. and along which are located the 12 mundane houses and zodiacal signs.116 notes to the first version of the book of reasons exhibit disordered motions. see above. See Yesod Mora’. includes only eight orbs. 1976. is found in the introduction to Sefer ha-Me"orot. See Me"orot. 3: Ecliptic. For a discussion. that is. a feature which makes them similar to the creatures of the sublunary world and entails the risk of blurring the proper borders between the super. lit. [7] [8] 7: Zodiac. 102b–103a.3. see Sela. vii:15–18. I. 1999. 1525. pp. “zodiac” and “orb of the zodiacal signs”. [6] 6: The lower hides the upper: Corresponds closely to Tb § 1. where Ibn Ezra also refers to the irregular motions of the planets. the band of the girdle of the orb. § 1.2:1 and note. the result of our observing them from the center of the universe. II. Long Commentary on Exodus. Here Ibn Ezra refers to the great circle of the ecliptic. which. 258–265. [9] . A similar separate treatment of the Moon (§ 1.v.2:3. This is a reference to the 15 constellations that are north of the zodiac and the 21 constellations that are south of the zodiac. the circle of the zodiacal constellations. 3:15. 19:2.2:2. Hebrew ìâìâä úãåôà áùç. See Glossary s. § 1.3:4). München 202. p.and sublunary worlds. Commentary on Psalms. Hebrew úåìæîä ìâìâ. Rh. whose stars are listed at Rh.2:1 and note. For an additional closely related although not identical meaning of the term zodiac. XII. 7: The other method … twenty-eight days: Corresponds to Tb § 1. which represents the apparent annual path of the sun in the heavens. from the earth. 1985. ff. See above. see note there. I. 3:13. vii:1–7. Short Commentary on Exodus. lit. vi:17–30. [4] 3: The Northern and the southern constellations. Ibn Ezra usually resolves the contradiction by arguing that the planets’ erratic motion is only an apparent visual phenomenon. is usually divided into 360°. [5] 1–4: The 48 constellations … action and thought: This passage. in contrast to Tb § 1. 341.2:1–5. vi:10–12.

419): “But concerning the spheres of Venus and Mercury. For the multiple uses of this expression in Ibn Ezra’s work. Venus. p.chapter one [10] 117 9: Still others asserted … sometimes beneath. the same as in Tb § 1. to explain the rationale behind the seventh. Ibn Ezra indulges in a fairly long deduction of the existence of these orbs in a definite order and from top to bottom.5:2. where the relative positions of the planets and their orbs is provided (Saturn. Jupiter. 9: This book was not intended to discuss these topics. Long Commentary on Exodus. The values for the elongation of Venus and Mercury are similar. (b) the occultations of the planets. This is a reference to Rh. but by some of their successors these too are placed above the sun’s. the account of the disagreement about the positions of Venus and Mercury with respect to the Sun is based on Almagest IX:1 (Almagest. 5–11: The Ancients knew … Venus and Mercury … away from the Sun. to those offered in Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. Corresponds to Tb § 2. without any discussion about the relative positions of Venus and Mercury. II. Mercury. scholars of the zodiacal signs. Moon).5:1–2. IX:1. Cf.2:2–3: (a) the various cycles of the planets. .3:9 Ibn Ezra informs about a theory according to which Mercury and [13] . pp.5:1–2. While commenting on Rh. and ninth of the Ten Commandments. although not identical. p. p. mathematicians. 1984. vii:15–17. II. See note there. widely employed in both versions of Sefer ha-Te #amim (see glossary) and throughout his . Two main arguments are provided. Tb § 2. Mars. This is a new coinage by Ibn Ezra.6:6 and note. eighth. 1976. 122. for the reason that the sun has never been obscured by them [Venus and Mercury] either. but also to astronomers. we see that they are placed below the sun’s by the more ancient astronomers. Te #amim I is intended to provide the reasons for them. lit. where it was inserted to achieve an astrological objective. and in Ibn Ezra’s long commentary on Exodus 20:13. Sun. 20:13. 84–86. vii:15–18. This is also an allusion to the fact that whereas Reshit Hokhmah I presents raw astrological concepts. Notice that at Ta § 1. and calendrists. see Sela. [11] [12] 10: Astrologers.” A similar briefer account of this disagreement can be found in Tb § 2. Hebrew úåìæîä éîëç. 2001a. See Tb § 2. 140. 1947. and as a sequel to the previous description of an eight-orb universe. oeuvre to refer predominantly to astrologers.

1847. 2. München 202. see note there. § 3. See Kitâb al-Madhal. p. This passage comments on Rh. This recurrent term has been rendered here as “experience” but in fact goes further and refers to the method employed by the astrologers.1:6–9. own opinion about the nature of the triplicities (§ 1. vii:18–21. except the Moon. 1899. are called “stars of light”). where a succinct account of the nature of the triplicities is offered.4:2). indicates that their science is based on induction and analogies (Tb §1.1:11–14. “experience”. II. [14] §1. and in his answer to three queries about the calendar posed by David b. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. Cf. Three Queries. f. 2. Hebrew ïåéñð. rather than on deduction from theoretical principles. II:5. 6: I shall explain … the aspects. See Glossary. [1] [2] 2–3: Ya#qub al-Kindî … smaller agent. v. 102b.3:9 and note.4 1: Experience. For signs in the form of human beings or animals.5:2. [4] .4:4–7) corresponds closely to that conveyed by him in Tb § 2. Joseph of Narbonne. Ya#qub al-Kindî’s account (Ta § 1.118 notes to the first version of the book of reasons Venus “sometimes they are above and sometimes beneath” the sun. 12: Themselves luminous. see Tb § 2.v. Ibn Ezra’s . and astronomical observation (Ta § 2.4:2–3) is somewhat amplified in Tb § 2. Ibn Ezra endorses this partially heliocentric theory in Tb § 2. See note there. See Me"orot. There is a similar reference to heat and cold as the two agents in Abû Ma#shar’s Great Introduction. see note there.12:14–15). mathematical calculations (Ta § 2.1:6–10. p.1:5. Ibn Ezra conveys a similar opinion about the light of the planets in his commentary on Psalms 148:3. 76–77.2:17). in Sefer ha-Me"orot (where the planets. pp. See below. 1996. [3] 1–7: As for the reason that Aries … these signs are like that.3:2). Bouché-Leclercq. s. knowledge accumulated in books over the generations (Ta § 2.2:5. Ta § 3. 89 n.

pp. I:4. II:1–51. pp. [2] 5: I shall explain in the Book of Nativities. Ibn Ezra’s own approach to the same subject (Ta § 1. 35). See below. 97 and Tb § 5. 1934. a notion to which Ibn Ezra subscribes throughout his work. 34–39). .e. What is more. 231–232) or as part of the description of the general astrological properties of the planets (Abbreviation. 1947. § 7. at the beginning of this section Abû Ma#shar reveals that Ptolemy.1:1. the Tetrabiblos]. 61–69. either separately (Art of Astrology.chapter one §1. p.1:4. 296–313.5 [1] 119 2: Domain of burning. 381.. al-Qabîsî. 2004. For he mentioned in his book that if the Sun and the Moon are in a bicorporal sign.16:5 and note. which mentions “Ptolemy the King. then the §§®äìåãâ úåòè úàæå ¬åéäé íéîåàú éë ¬ïèáá åãáì äéäé . the astrologer. . 31. See Sela. and Tb § 5. Although Ibn Ezra claims that he is drawing on Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos (see Tetrabiblos. but also offers a criticism of Ptolemy’s account of the nature of the planets that is consistent with. 1980. f. See Moladot. 2003a.5:7–17). including Mâshâ"allâh. Ta § 2. All those who came after him. IV:1. 1994. n. 137–140). or if the Moon or the Sun are in an ascending sign which is bicorporal. 2006. p. 63–89). § 5. pp. pp. was an Egyptian king. v. 1996. par. Abû Ma#shar not only declares that his source is Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos. I have mentioned this so that you will not rely on everything written in that book [i. bnf 1056.2:6 et passim. his account may be grounded on a section of Abû Ma#shar’s Great Introduction devoted to the nature of the planets. and they are right. laugh at him.5:6.” Similar accounts of the nature of the planets may be found in manuals of astrology. Refers to the “place of burning”. 1–4: The explanation of the natures … taken to be mixed. This is a reference to the first version of Sefer ha-Moladot (see Sela-Freudenthal. In this section (see Kitâb al-Madhal. because it has no substance. pp. The same topic is developed by Ibn Ezra in Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. 54a: íéøòù §ãä øôñá øîà ñåéîìèá姧 [3] àùàîå åéøçà íéàáä ìëå ®à§§é úéáîå §éä úéáäî ïáä éøáãá ìëúñð íìåòì éë ìë ìò êîñú àìù øåáòá äæ êì éúøëæä ®íäîò ïéãäå åéìò íéâéòìî íäîò äìà ìæîá äðáìäå ùîùä äéä íàù åøôñá øéëæä äæä éë ®ùîî åá ïéà éë øôñä éøáã àì ãìåðä úåôåâ §á åì ùéù çîåöä ìæî íà ùîùä åà äðáìä åà ¬úåôåâ §á åì ùéù (“Ptolemy said in the Tetrabiblos that regarding children we should always observe the tenth and eleventh mundane houses. although not identical to.

7. For the Hebrew neologism toledet. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. the comparison with bovine flesh and the statement that all flesh is hot—may be found in a passage of Liber de rationibus tabularum that comments on Ptolemy’s opinion about the nature of the Moon. The other comparisons of the size of the Earth and of the other planets made in this section (§ 1.7:3 and note. . Sed quia corpus lune parvum est nec equiparatur soli in effectu caloris nec reddit calorem sufficientem complexioni humane. Corresponds to Tb § 5. A similar argument is offered in Abû Ma#shar’s Great Introduction. Ta § 2.1:1–4. See also below. 15. and this is a great error.5:13. 7: Made of a fifth element. Hebrew úéùéîç úãìåúî. Alpha Tauri and Alpha Scorpionis in Ptolemy’s star catalogue (Almagest.2:5 and note. as well as their distance from the Earth (§ 1. 9. IV:3. Liber de Rationibus Tabularum.18:2. i. Qua ratione magistri philosophice carnem bovinam frigidam dicunt. [4] 7: Aristotle explained with incontrovertible proofs. cum tamen omnis caro calida et humida sit. 147. see above § 1. See also Tb § 2.2:1.120 notes to the first version of the book of reasons native will not be alone in the womb. Motu tamen et lumine effectivas esse caloris. [6] 7–12: But the truth … and harms them. where the attack on Ptolemy’s astrological doctrines is resumed.” [7] [8] 13–15: The same applies to Saturn … applies to Mercury. 1947.15. for they will be twins. lit. p. [9] 17: Aldebaran and Antares.3:2–3. that they generate heat only as a consequence of their motion and of the nature of their light. 16).13. Ta §2. Ta § 4. Hebrew áø÷ò áìå øåùä ïéò. p. The elements of this passage—the statements that stars are neither cold nor hot. are consistent with the values given in Ptolemy’s Planetary Hypotheses.e. 97: “Bene autem cognovimus omnes stellas in se neque calidas neque frigidas esse. 1996. See Kitâb al-Madhal. [5] 8: 166 times larger: The same ratio appears in Ptolemy’s Planetary Hypotheses.1:1. see notes there.16). of a fifth nature. See De Caelo I:2–3. nature.5:9. 1967. ideo in comparatione dicta est frigida et humida. v.”) See also below. the reference to human complexion.

or commentaries on Sefer Yesirah (Shabbetai Don. 40.6 [1] 3: When I come to the appropriate place. §2. Latin: caput draconis et cauda) represented the nodes of the planets. the commen. Ta § 5. viii:25–26. pp. Baraita de-Shemu"el (Baraita de-Shmu"el. [2] [3] 7: In its proper place. 1987. This name recalls the cosmological fate of Tiamat. that is. 362.3:1. Sefer Yesirah. Hebrew éìú. In the Middle Ages. [1] . 2. 1. Persian and Arabic astrologers assigned specific astrological characteristics and influence to the nodes of the Moon. 33–51. 4. a solar god. To denote this concept Ibn Ezra employed the Hebrew word éìú (teli). the points where the planets cross the ecliptic from south to north and from south to north. He could have borrowed this word from a variety of sources such as Baraita de-Mazzalot (Baraita de-Mazzalot. See Bouché-Leclercq.#aqrab. see Sharf. 5. a mythological dragon slain by Marduk. 192–199. pp. mystical treatise interspersed with some scientific material that was well known to him (§§åàñë ìò êìîë íìåòá éìú§§ [“Teli is in the world like a king on his throne”]). ch. pp. See below. 8). Sa#adiah Ga"on’s Tafsîr Kitâb al-Mabâdi. Ta § 4. For their identification in star lists compiled by Ibn Ezra.chapter two 121 1984. pp. 14). 1928. 372). Quotes from and comments on Rh. Arabic: Al-dabarân and Qalb al.3:1–5. Subsequently astronomers employed this myth to explain celestial phenomena: the Head of the Dragon and its Tail (Hebrew: åáðæå éìúä ùàø. taries by Dunam Ibn Tamim and Judáh ben Barzilai al-Bargeloni). Indian. 1985. 7: Dragon. ch. thus shaping the heavens with its head and its tail. For the place of the teli in Hebrew literature prior to Ibn Ezra’s times. 1901. 1976. pp. See below. II. Arabic: Ras wa dhanav al-tinnîn. §1. 120–121. a . 1899.1 1: The six signs … the southern. 97. nolo’s Hakhmoni. respectively. Tester. in the Babylonian creation myth. see Goldstein.

For the usage of this word in Ibn Ezra’s . [2] 1: Masculine because … is hot. § 1. lit.”) This coinage is widely used in Te#amim I (see Glossary. Ibn Ezra endorses an opinion that is more harmonious with his Jewish background in "Iggeret haShabbat. 1996.v. pp.1:9 et passim).4:1–4. 76–79. Ibn Ezra took this word from Psalms 74:17. [3] §2. see Sela. etc. s.6:7. Libra. 2003a. but is not found in Te #amim II. II:5.2:1.2:9 et passim).8:7 et passim). directions on the horizon that are intermediate between the cardinal points or that are given with respect to the cardinal points (Ta § 3. lit. 74:17: óìçúé àìå íìåòì íéáöð íä úåìåáâ äòáùä éë øéëæä姧 ¬íåøã úàôá åúö÷å ìàîù úàôá áåùééä áåø úåéä øåáòá óøåçå õé÷ íòèå ¬áåùééä øçà íå÷îá àåä õé÷ ãçà íå÷îá úåéäá éë õøà úåìåáâ íò äæ øéëæäì íòèå §§óøåç (“And he mentioned that the ‘seven climates’ are fixed forever. Corresponds to Tb § 2. such as the four cardinal points (Ta § 2. § 4. For masculine signs. f. Ibn Ezra uses the Hebrew term äàô. Notice that Ibn Ezra’s position in . pp. § 7. 14a and Kitâb . 1: East. to the effect that “it is fitting that the beginning of the year be in the sign of Aries” conflicts with the normative Jewish start of the year.122 [2] notes to the first version of the book of reasons 2. According to introductions to astrology. 1894/5. see Tb § 2. [3] . al-Madhal. lit. border (Arabic "iqlim. which occurs close to the moment when the Sun enters the sign of Libra. and the ecumene will not change. Climate. bnf 1058. § 4. directions relative to the equator or the ecliptic (Ta § 2. Commentary on Psalms. pp. work. 68–70. 1525. The reason for writing ‘summer and winter’ is that most of the ecumene is in the north and only a slight part is in the south. corner or side. Hebrew ìåáâ. Leo. Gemini. The reason for mentioning this together with the climates is that when it is summer in one place it is winter in the other.2:9.2:1.3:11 and note. v. See also Mishpetei haMazzalot. Latin clima). identifying it in his commentary there with the concept of the seven climates. eastern edge of the horizon .2 [1] 1: As I have explained: See above. this passage. 2–6: Many peoples began … among all the signs. 107–112. Hebrew çøæî úàô. the diurnal signs are identical with the masculine signs (Aries. in a number of senses. “climate”) .

II. [5] 4–5: They said that it is a four-legged … one after the other. For eastern . xix:28–29 (Leo “has the left of the east and the eastern wind”) and Rh.3:1. Corresponds to Tb § 2. 1934. 1996. II:8–9. both in his Great Introduction (Kitâb al-Madhal. [6] 7: Half a voice … not of a man. Notice that Abû Ma#shar. and Tb § 2. see note there.13:8– 9 presents the opinions of Ptolemy and Ya#qub al-Kindî concerning the signs’ cardinal points. see Tb 2. 2004. 71. p. legged signs do not include Aries. Corresponds to Tb 2. . 1994. 1996. states that Aries’ taste is “bitter. [7] 8–9: They said that the heart … Sagittarius is in the southeast. See Tb § 2.” [9] [10] 12: Of the metals … fiery nature.3:1–2.3:13. p. 211–212.2:1–7. [8] 11: Of the tastes the sweet. I:12. Corresponds to Tb § 2. 1980. v. pp. xxviii:19 (Sagittarius “has the right of the east and the eastern wind”). Ta § 2. see Tetrabiblos. v. [4] 1–2: Its rising times grow … in its rising times. 1980.3:1–4 and note. I:24.3:18. ix:4 (Aries “has the heart of the east and the eastern wind”). Ta § 2. II. Rh. Capricorn. VI:1. 216) and in the Abbreviation (Abbreviation. 83–84. and al-Qabîsî. II. see note there. p. 15). where the four. see below. 69–71. See Tb § 2.2:7 and note. see below.2:8. Virgo. par. For the four-legged signs. 1: Tropical because … grow shorter. In contrast to these partial and limited accounts. See Tetrabiblos.chapter two 123 Sagittarius and Aquarius) and the nocturnal are identical with the feminine signs (Taurus. Cancer. 33. I:12. a comprehensive and detailed discussion of the signs’ cardinal points and of their positions on the horizon relative to the cardinal points is offered in Tb § 2. See note. p. Art of Astrology.3:5 and note. 349. Scorpio. Pisces). signs.3:17 and note. Ta § 2. This passage comments on Rh. . For the signs whose limbs are cut off or “deformed”. pp. Kitâb al-Madhal. p.

[12] 16: As I shall explain in its proper place. 1996. See above.2:17 (see previous note). v.1:1. enable us to get a better [16] . Aries is in charge of the house of worship because it begins at the equator (lit. 2b. p. 1934.124 [11] notes to the first version of the book of reasons 13: They said … is temperate. reads as follows: “In the opinion of Ptolemy. 224.2:11. here Ibn Ezra employs the Hebrew term ÷ãöä å÷. . Art of Astrology. where these two characteristics of Aries are ascribed to Ptolemy. and Te #amim I comments on that . [14] 17: I saw it in Abû Ma#shar’s book. in the latter work. Although Reshit Hokhmah I assigns . [13] 16: Its years are 15 … for its months. Great Introduction. 220. VI:9. v. p. ch. lit. the passage “in Abû Ma#shar’s book” mentioned in Ta § 2. 1934. § 6. VI:9. the line of justice) and the place of the judges” (éë úåìôúä úéá å÷ìçá ñåéîìèá úòã ìòå íéðééãä íå÷îå ÷ãö å÷ åúìçúá). As for the ascription of the place of judges to Aries. Arabic introductions to astrology ascribe a list of geographical places but not a specific climate to each of the signs. par. 5. for example. v. 1996. VI:9. Similar values are offered in Kitâb al-Madhal.2:13) and Taurus (§ 2. Comments on Rh. 247. § 4. Comments on Rh. § 7. 247. 247 and Art of Astrology. . p. in the cases of Aries (§ 2. “line of justice”. and Glossary s. Ta § 5. Rh. II. p. For the dependence of Reshit Hokhmah I on the . pp. . see also Smithuis. a fact which is not indicated by any explicit reference . II. ix:11. II. 2004.13:6). [15] 17: I verified it by experience. Tb § 2. par. ix:9–10. ix:11–12 and refers specifically to Kitâb al-Madhal. Ta § 4. VI:9. 372.4:6 cf. namely. The contents of Kitâb al-Madhal. 247–250. 1996.v.1:1. one of the seven climates to each sign.2:3 and note.1:1 and notes. 14: Houses of prayer … place of judges belongs to it . See. f. Kitâb al-Madhal. for the equator. note that. besides the fact that Aries begins at the equator. v. Te #amim I comments here on . p. The version of Reshit Hokhmah I in MS Vatican 49.4:13 (“In the equator originate the houses of divine worship”) and note. § 1. Ibn Ezra thus reveals that the Great Introduction by Abû Ma#shar is one of the main sources of Reshit Hokhmah I. 365. 1996. Cf. . . where precise arithmetical rules are given for the calculation of the “days and hours” of some sign. See below. see below. “equator”.

1934. deinde proicias de secundo dimidio similitudem planete minorum. IV:1. quod vero remanserit erunt hore. s. p. 216–217. et quod exierit erunt dies. et quod collectum fuerit divides per x. 262–263. et adde postea desuper numerum similem numero annorum planetarum minorum. but the reference to the images of the woman. see Rh. II. In this particular case. “Et ascendit in prima facie eius mulier … et cauda tructe marine … et [17] . it means that Ibn Ezra had followed the arithmetical rules prescribed by Abû Ma#shar’s in the Great Introduction for the calculation of the “days and hours” of some sign. Primo: ut multiplices annos eiusdem signi minores xii quousque reddantur menses. See also Art of Astrology. Babylonians and Egyptians to the first decan of Aries as offered in Kitâb al-Madhal. “experience”). VI:9. have tested the accuracy of some astrological doctrine. p.” 18–19: The image of a woman … we do not know their secret. This passage deals with the association of each of the three decans of each of the twelve signs with the images of the stars that rise together with the corresponding decan.v. x:1–2 and cf. the head of the triangle. Te#amim I quotes from Rh. for Taurus. . and the bull is ultimately a verbatim quotation from the approach of the Persians. . As for the present passage.” frequently employed by Ibn Ezra in Te #amim I. par. p. 247) runs as follows: “Dies autem eius et hore extrahuntur unicuique signo duobus modis diversis. II. v. ix:12–29. 216: . 1996. 1996. and. after performing the calculations. . and then those of the Indians and Ptolemy—which are for the most part quotations from Abû Ma#shar’s Great Introduction. Kitâb al-Madhal. Et quod collectum fuerit erunt dies eiusdem signi et eius partes. post hoc divides residuum per xxiiii horas et quod exierit erunt dies. Et quod collectum fuerit erunt dies et hore eiusdem signi per modum secundum.9:4 and note. p. . 450. and elsewhere to denote that he. or other astrologers. The Latin translation of the passage (Kitâb al-Madhal. Ta § 2. Te #amim II (see Glossary. see Rh. . see below. quod vero remanserit erunt partes de x unius diei.chapter two 125 grasp on the meaning of the stock phrase “verifying by experience. 218–219. v. the tail of a fish. xii:4–24 and cf. v. Reshit Hokhmah I offers three different approaches for each decan—the first .8:1–8 and notes. Post hec duplicabis ipsos menses. for Aries. II. anonymous. . For the doctrine of the decans. IV:1. Kitâb al-Madhal. v. had found that the values given by Abû Ma#shar are correct. 1996. Secundus autem modus est ut accipias annos planetarum minores et pones eos menses. post hoc proicias dimidium eius. Tb § 2. ix:12–13. p. Thus. IV:1. 1996.

For the deformed signs and signs with human images see Tb § 2. the version of Te #amim I in MS ô (Paris. The underlying idea here is that the planets indicate pains in the human body. each of them commenting on two astrological properties of Aries as presented without explanation in the separate [3] .3:17 and notes. In the following lines Ibn Ezra expands on this doctrine and explains the mechanism by which the pains of the planets are allocated in the zodiacal signs. 37. . usually headed by the customary formula “they said” or “they concluded” (see above § 1. Quotes from Rh. This passage is divided into two parts. adds the following: “in my opinion sentence 96 of Sefer ha-Peri (Centiloquium) gives an explanation for that.” The same applies to the references to Ptolemy and the Indians (§ 2.3 1: This sign … the health of the body. These quotes.126 notes to the first version of the book of reasons initium trianguli et caput althemor. 1055). which are the other two approaches mentioned in Reshit Hokhmah I as well as in Kitâb . quod est thorail. p. II. 2004. 1996.1:1 and note). It consists of a series of verbatim quotes from a whole and . II. I:37. almost continuous section in Reshit Hokhmah I describing the astrologi. f. [18] 20: The body … ears flaccid. see Appendix 2. § 2. example II. See Ta § 2. viii:27–x:3 are embedded in Ta § 2. x:2–3). x:2–3 and refers to the physical appearance of a native whose ascendant is in some decan. and that in every sign the planet has a limb that is special to it. For a comparison showing how quotations from Rh. 216–217. . ix:17.2:1–20. v.2:19). The entire section is a telling example of Ibn Ezra’s explanatory strategy in Te #amim I. [19] §2. which in some cases correspond to those offered in Te#amim II. IV:1. Bnf. 1–20: They concluded … things through experience. [2] 2–7: They assigned the head … each of the signs. [1] 3: The chest is the pain of Saturn in it.3:3–7 and Tb § 4. See al-Qabîsî. this passage. 29b.10:1–7 and notes. MS Héb. cal properties of Aries (Rh. al-Madhal. As for the “secrets” mentioned in . are accompanied by brief explanations. p. .” Note that MS ô also includes the translation of Sefer ha-Peri by Kalonymus ben Kalonymus.3:9. II. viii:27–ix:13.

II. Cf.6:1. some methodological remarks. as is usual throughout . [4] 8: The power of the Sun is in this sign. comments on Rh. is a succinct description of the “thema mundi. lit. 362. resembling the excursus pattern in his biblical commentaries: instead of commenting on a quote from Reshit Hokhmah I. see also Ta § 1. The next two sections (§ 2. Likewise. §2. he prepares the reader for a long discussion. [1] 4: Equator. comments on Rh. has virtually the same literal meaning as øùåéä å÷. 2004. § 4. par.3:3–7 corresponds closely to Tb § 4. of the planets in the signs in the separate sections devoted to each of the signs. following . “equator”.v. (b) Ta § 2. . and. pp.3:2 corresponds to Tb . which corresponds to Tb § 2. Hebrew øùåéä å÷. p.5:1–12) correspond to Tb § 5. I and Te#amim II Ibn Ezra uses the Hebrew expression ÷ãöä å÷.4 1: Now I need to amplify further. For an explanation of the mechanism of distribution.10:1–7 and note.2:3 and note. See Glossary s. provides an eclectic account of the topic that includes sporadic disclosure of his sources. See below. al-Qabîsî. see Tb . 1934. Ta § 2. § 2. houses.” that is. Reshit Hokhmah I eschews explanations and records the pains . I:37–48. II. although it differs somewhat from the lists in Reshit Hokhmah I. The explanation of the planetary houses in Te #amim I is a telling example of Ibn Ezra’s method of digression. Art of Astrology.chapter two 127 section on Aries in Reshit Hokhmah I : (a) Ta § 2.4:9. x:11–14. 219. [2] 4: Cancer is the sign of the world … the root: This passage.1:1–10.4:20–21 (see note there). By contrast. 39–41 offers lists of the . Latin domicilia). Arabic buyût al-kawâkib.1:1–7 and offer an explanation of the planetary houses (Hebrew íéúá.4:1– 12. § 2. x:14–16.” the horoscope of the creation of the world.10:1–7. Te #amim I. In Te#amim . the mechanism by which the pains of the planets are allocated in the zodiacal signs. and offers a complete account of the distribution of the parts of the body amongst the zodiacal signs—the doctrine of “melothesia”. pains of the planets in the signs without any explanation of the mechanism of distribution. line of straightness. and gives an explanation of the doctrine of “pains. § 6. lit. which . where Cancer [3] .

Add. p. 69b.2:1 it is called Sefer ha. § 10. 1899. This is a reference to the first version of Sefer ha. I.128 notes to the first version of the book of reasons was the ascendant and the Sun was in midheaven. 250. The sign of Cancer is also labeled “the sign of the world” in ‘Olam A. in § 6. see Bouché-Leclercq. Besides Ibn Ezra’s two versions of Sefer ha. Tester.” 5: For this reason … from their conjunction. Notice the inconsistency regarding the name of Sefer ha. See #Olam A. bnf 1056.#Olam: #Olam B. Qu. f. 88.4:9–10 mention that if Cancer is the sign where these Saturn-Mars conjunctions are observed every 30 years “to know the affairs of the world. § 2. erit primum minutum Cancer ascendens. p. Bodleian Library. pp. n. probably following Abû Ma#shar’s Kitâb al-qirânât.” this is because of Cancer’s role at creation. bnf 1056. p. see Ibn al-Muthannâ’s Commentary. 1996. pp. f. Ideoque dixerunt antique quod Cancer sit Ascendent Mundi. 299. MS ø (Oxford. Art of Astrology. Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. 94. f. 1967. 35. f. par. 192: .3:6. 89. these conjunctions were also studied by Abû Ma#shar and Al-Bîrûnî: On the Great Conjunctions. V:7.9:4 and Tb § 6.#Olam (see Sela-Freudenthal. 1947. 82b (see [6] . 82b: çëùú àì øîùä姧 ìæî àåäù ïèøñ ìæîá íéãàî íò éúáù úøáçî ìà äðù íéùìù ìëá ìëúñäì §§íìåòä (“Be careful and don’t forget to observe every thirty years the conjunction of Saturn and Mars in the sign of Cancer.4:4– 5 and Tb § 2.#Olam: whereas in the current passage. at the beginning of the sign of Aries. 119–120. 529–543. adds in the margin further information about Cancer’s role: äé䧧 §§àøáð àåäùë çîåö (“it was rising when it was created”) meaning that Cancer was the ascendant when the world was created. bnf 1058. 1934.5:3.#Olam (íìåòä øôñ). For the “thema mundi” in Greek and Latin sources and its connection to the placing of the planets in their houses. 4–6: Enoch said that Cancer … the house of the Moon. it is designated Book on Conjunctions (úåøáçîä øôñ). 2006. 152. 151. 87b. [4] [5] 5: As I shall explain in the Book on Conjunctions. 123–137. 1987. v. “Et iam novimus quod cum fuerit primum minutum Arietis in medio celi super lineam equalitatis. pp. 2000. pp. Both Ta § 2. which is the sign of the world”). The same conjunction is also mentioned in the second version of Sefer ha. 36). pp. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. 160).#Olam (see next note). For references to this horoscope in Ibn Ezra’s work.4:6–11. 185–188. Cancer’s role at creation is also mentioned in Kitâb al-Madhal.

The angular distance between two planets in quartile is 90°.6:2. xviii:16–17.3:6–8 and note. [11] 12: When I come to the subject of the aspects.5:3–4. See Glossary s. v. [9] [10] 12: Aspect of antagonism. considered to be hostile or unfavorable.v.3:8. [7] [8] 8–9: Because those are the luminaries … enters these signs. Aries.2:11. §2. I:10. Libra. See Rh. 1996. In addition to Te#amim I. Gemini. p. “aspect of antagonism”.6:3–4. See . Corresponds to Tb § 2.1:1–4. f. which is also mentioned in Tb § 2.5 [12] 1–4: Enoch said … the end of Cancer. the distance between the beginning of a sign and the fourth sign next to it. Corresponds to Tb § 2.chapter two 129 previous note). correspond closely to al-Qabîsî. pp. 12: Because the Sun … the house of Saturn. Aquarius). especially Tb § 2. Pisces.6:1–2. II. This is a reference to the solar planetary houses (Leo. . to Ibn Ezra.” Cf. Virgo. Ta § 3.1:3. Ibn Ezra generally uses this term to denote the aspect of quartile. Hebrew äáéà èáî. 6–7: Since this sign … heat increases then. § 5. Corresponds to Tb § 2. Enoch in Reshit Hokhmah I and in Liber Nativitatum. Capricorn) and the lunar planetary houses (Cancer. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. Taurus. The claim that the Sun and the Moon have power in their halves as the planets have in their terms. 2004. Kitâb al-Madhal. § 5. this attribution is ascribed to .2:9. Here Ibn Ezra widens this meaning to include the distance between a planet’s orb and the fourth orb next to it. a treatise ascribed . 53a: “Dicit Enoc in libro suo quod signum mundi vel seculi est Cancer.3:6–8. namely. See below. 21–22. Erfurt. Nativitatum. 10–11: Because Jupiter is next … third counting from Saturn’s: Corresponds to Tb § 2. § 8. 192. Sagittarius. V:7. Scorpio. [1] .

79–81. x:18. lit.130 [2] notes to the first version of the book of reasons 6: When you observe … Saturn and Mercury. 9–10: The houses of Saturn … to the trine. [1] 1: This sign … in the world.12:1–15. [4] 3: Detriment. lit. Quotes from and comments on Rh. [5] 12: Ptolemy said … have great power. II. towards the side of the inhabited part of the Earth. here Ibn Ezra means that when the Sun enters Aries it begins to be in the northern part of the ecliptic (with respect to the celestial equator). Corresponds to Tb § 2. [3] 9: As I shall explain. Ta § 4. x:18. [4] 11: The house of Mercury … away from it. where the same term is called äòø úéá. Tetrabiblos. äàðù úéá. Quotes from and comments on Rh. pp. See below. but has moved since then because of the slow motion of the fixed stars of the zodiac with respect to the equinoxes. See below. Heb.6:5–6. This is a reference to the opposite of the planetary house or the seventh sign from the planetary house of each planet.7:1.5:6–9. see note there. I:17. Here Ibn Ezra asserts that the exaltation of the Sun was Aries 19° when the Indian scientists established this value. Since the ecumene is in the northern hemisphere (relative to the terrestrial equator). Latin alienation).7:4.4:10. II.3:4. lit. Ta § 2. 2: But if this was correct … dark degrees. [2] [3] 2: The Indian scientists … Jupiter and Venus. Hebrew áåùéä úàôì. Corresponds to Tb § 2. [5] . house of evil.5:5. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. 1980. Cf. Corresponds to Tb § 2.6 1: Towards the ecumene. Corresponds to Tb § 2. [6] §2. house of hate (Arabic wabâl. Corresponds to Tb § 2.

. I. 1985. 2004. Cf. Art of Astrology. . 1996. and each decan is assigned to a planet that functions as lord of the corresponding decan. 449. §2.5:7. Each of the twelve zodiacal signs is divided into three equal divisions called decans.18:3–4. that in Ta § 2. [2] §2.1:1–5.7 3: Know that when I said … make it easier for students. Tb § 2. Latin facies). pp. long commentary on Exodus.7:8). Quotes from and comments on Rh. IV:18. and in Ta § 2. 97. 1976. Tb § 8. see Tb § 2.8 [1] 1: Decan. pp. For the triplicities. He returned obsessively to this issue not only in Te#amim I and Te#amim II (Ta § 1. 1934. II. p. 451. x:18–19. first and second commentary on Genesis 1:1. notice. Quotes from and comments on Rh. 262–263. [1] 1–4: They said that the lords … its great heat. in his biblical exegesis. and in his theological monographs. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. 33:21. Hebrew íéðôä. . See Kitâb al-Madhal. I:20. 1947. 131. however. The term is widely used in Ibn Ezra’s astrological work although his approach to this topic varies from work to work: (a) In Te #amim I the methods of allocation of the lords of the decans . commentary on Psalms 148.chapter two [6] 131 3: They also said … geometry. 319. devised by the Egyptian and Indian scientists is explained. pp. 202–203. lit. x:19–21.8:1 and note. p. faces (Arabic wujûh. par. . II. Yesod Mora’. See Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. Ibn Ezra was very concerned about the risk that some astrological tenets might blur the rigid borders that Aristotelian cosmology established between the sublunary and supralunary realms.8:1 Ibn Ezra assigns to the Egyptian scientists the method that Abû Ma#shar and Al-Bîrûnî assign to those of India.8:2 he assigns to the scientists of India the method that Abû Ma#shar and Al-Bîrûnî assign to the Egyptian scientists. . commentary on Ecclesiastes 1:4.8:1–4. § 2. 29. V:15–16. v. al-Qabîsî. but also in Liber de rationibus tabularum.

nor the Indian scientists are mentioned. see also Ta § 2. See .9:4. p. [1] . see Tb § 2. . f. 1934. to both the Egyptian and Indian scientists in each of the sections allocated to each of the twelve signs (for Aries. x:21–23). [2] 2: The Indians began … assigned to Mars. however. xv:30–xvi:1 et passim.ei ha-Mazzalot lists lords of the decans of all the twelve signs t according to only one of the aforementioned two methods.2:18–19. 1996. See. p. See . p. [4] §2.9 1: The terms. V:15. . Latin fines). but neither the Egyptian . 449. see Rh. I:21. Tb § 2. Mishpetei haMazzalot. p. 15b. According to Abû Ma#shar (Kitâb al-Madhal.9:1 and note. 263). i. v. Hebrew íéìåáâä (Arabic hudûd. al-Qabîsî. 31. According to Abû Ma#shar (Kitâb al-Madhal. par. Rh. (c) In Te #amim II (Tb § 2. which turns out to be the one that Te #amim I assigns to the Egyptian scientists. (d) Mishpe. For this . term. that according to the Levy-Cantera edition the lords of the decans in these lists are at odds with those produced by the two methods of allocation described in Te #amim I. For the decans.132 notes to the first version of the book of reasons (b) In Reshit Hokhmah I there are lists of lords of the decans according . Corresponds to Tb § 2. par. xiii:12–14.9:4–6) the two methods of allocation are . v.e. 202) and Al-Bîrûnî (Art of Astrology. 1996. V:15. bnf 1058. 1934. A similar procedure to find the lords of the decans according to the method of the Egyptian scientists is found in al-Qabîsî’s Introduction to Astrology. 262) it is that of the Persians and Greeks. 2004. 449. . note. 202). . p.9:6. Corresponds to Tb § 2. .9:4 and notes. and according to Al-Bîrûnî (Art of Astrology. presented along the same lines as in Te#amim I. the method assigned to the Egyptian scientists in the current passage is that of the Indian scientists. [3] 3–8: For there are 36 decans … underneath the Sun. 1: The Egyptian scientists … in the triplicity. II. the method described in the current passage is that of the Egyptians and Babylonians.

1:10 as well as in Ibn Ezra’s commentary on Genesis 6:3. correspond to the natural life-span of human beings is echoed in Ta § 4. p.5:7 and Tb § 5. 1980. "Ehad. see note there. the ancient manuscript from which Ptolemy derived his own terms. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. Hebrew çîåöä ìæîä. the rising or growing sign. [3] §2. The three main points of this passage—the Egyptian and Ptolemaic methods.9:9. Hebrew úåéòéùú. [2] 1–5: Because the triplicity … a tropical sign. the long commentary on Exodus 3:15. I:20–21. pp. p. 120 years. I:20. Ta § 4.9:3. See. p. Ptolemy writes in Tetrabiblos. 2: The number of degrees … its great years.9:9 (“there are a total of nine digits”). V:8. V:8. 20:13. the idea that the great years of the Sun. lit. . 91–107 cf. The rule is later corroborated for the particular case of Saturn. “ascendant”. 93 about a doctrine according to which the sum of the terms of each planet determines the life-span of those born under its influence. The same corroborating idea. [1] 3: The sign of the ascendant.10 1: Nine is the last of the digits. x:23–27 et passim). for example. v. See BouchéLeclercq. Arabic nawbahra. . Corresponds closely to Tb § 2.9:2. see note there. based on the feature that the Indian decimal positional system employs nine digits—the zero is a symbol whose position in the number gives value to the nine digits—may be found elsewhere in Ibn Ezra’s work. This section deals with the ninth-parts. The two methods mentioned here—Egyptian and Ptolemaic —are enumerated separately in Reshit Hokhmah I for each sign (Rh. pp. See Kitâb al-Madhal. Latin novenarii. See Glossary s. p. 1985. and the preference for the Egyptian method— are explicitly mentioned in Tetrabiblos. 408. 403. II. namely. 1899. 1996. 197. 1996. [3] . The same rule occurs in Abû Ma#shar’s Great Introduction. . v. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. In addition. .chapter two [2] 133 1: The terms … verified by experience. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. See below.v. Kitâb al-Madhal. 1980. 196–200.2:11.

59.9:7. 1934. See Rh. p. 456. xi:2–5: äìòîä éë åøîà íä éë ¬úøçà êøã ìò øùò íéðù çë å÷ìç íéðåîã÷äå êåðç ÷ø§§ ¬åì éðù àåäù ìæîä úãìåú ìò úéðùä äìòîäå ¬åîöòá ìæîä úãìåú ìò äðåùàøä §§åîöòá ìæîä úãìåú ìò íéøùòå ùîç úìòî íâ äøùò ùìù úìòî áåùú äðäå (“But Enoch and the Ancients divided the power of the dodecatemoria by another method.134 notes to the first version of the book of reasons §2. p. et passim.#Olam. 83a: àöî éë êìîä ñåàéðéøåã øî১ [3] éúáù úøáçîä úðù úôå÷úá íìåòì íãà ìëúñéù äåöù êåðç ìù úåãåñä øôñá ñðëä úìçúá íéúøùîä íå÷î ìà äðè÷ä åà úéòöîàä åà äìåãâä úøáçîá ÷ãöå áåèä åà ÷éæîä áëåëä ïî øùòä íéðù çë ìåôé ìæî äæéàá äàøéå äìèá ùîùä úéòöîàä ïëå úéòöîàä ïî äìåãâä úøáçîá ÷æç øúåé øùòä íéðù çë éë òãå §§äðéãîì áåè àáé … áåè áëåëì øùòä íéðù çë äéä íàå äðù ìë úôå÷úî øúåé äðè÷äå ¬äðè÷ä ïî (“Doronius. . 267–269. Abbreviation. Art of Astrology. or small conjunction). 204–205. 1996. usually in contemporary introductions to astrology. See Mishpetei ha. § 2. Corresponds to Tb § 2. This method occurs . V:18. p. [2] 3: It has a great power in the revolution of the world. 15b. bnf 1058. middle. f. The same method is ascribed to Enoch and the Ancients by Abû Ma#shar’s in Kitâb alMadhal. IV:15. said that he found in the Book of the Secrets by Enoch that he instructed that in the revolution of the year in which there is a conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter (whether a great. par. x:28–29. 205. 1994. 129. Hebrew øùòä íéðù çë. the next degree to the nature of the sign that is adjacent to it. f. 2: Another method … the correct method . because they said that the first degree of the sign is assigned to the nature of the sign itself. Refers to the second of the two methods that are presented in Reshit Hokhmah I for the division of the . 1996. xi:1–2. pp. the King. bnf 1056. V:18. lit the power of the twelve (Arabic ithna ashriyât. Latin duodecatemorion). a man should always observe the location of the planets at the moment when the Sun first enters . See #Olam A. Mazzalot. The role of the dodecatemoria in general astrology is amply documented in both versions of Ibn Ezra’s Sefer ha. 2004. v. . see note there. and thus the thirteenth and the 25th degree are again assigned to the sign itself ”). II. Corresponds to Tb § 2. v. Kitâb al-Madhal.16:3 and note. For the “revolution of the world” see below. signs into dodecatemoria. See Rh.9:7–8 and refers to the first of the two methods mentioned in Reshit Hokhmah I. pp. II. al-Qabîsî. .11 [1] 1: The reason … all of them.

” see Tb § 6. They are listed separately in Reshit Hokhmah I.12:1–15) is devoted to revealing the “reasons” behind them in a comprehensive discussion that corresponds to Tb § 8.chapter two 135 the sign of Aries and find out in which sign the power of the dodecatemoria from the malefic or benefic planet falls. al-Qabîsî. (iv) the use of astronomical tables to locate the bright and dark degrees (§ 2. 1996. f. pp. They are endowed with astrological influence and are usually mentioned in contemporary introductions to astrology.12:2–6) Te#amim I offers a simplified . Art of . Latin gradus lucidos et tenebrosos). II. Abbrevia. Hebrew úåëåùçå úåøéàî úåìòî (Arabic al-darajât almudiyah wa"l-muzlimah. p. 270. 458. 1994.12 1: The Indian scientists said … reason for them. This entire section (§ 2. 90a. 139–141. and similarly in a middle conjunction stronger than in a small conjunction. and if the power of the dodecatemoria is assigned to a benefic planet. For “revolution of the year. … Know that the power of the dodecatemoria is stronger in a great than in a middle conjunction.7:1–6. I:50. [1] 2–3: Know that there is … equals the length of the night: Here and in the following lines (§ 2. See Kitâb al-Madhal. these “reasons” have to do less with their astrological properties than with the eminently astronomical problem of locating them in the zodiac: since the position of the bright and dark degrees is given with respect to the images of the zodiacal constellations. see Rh. To Ibn Ezra’s mind. (ii) the motion or immobility of the fixed stars (§ 2. an adjustment is necessary when the astrologer comes to locate them in the zodiac using astronomical tables that take account of the motion of the fixed stars (and the zodiacal signs) with respect to the equinoxes. Hence the remainder of this section consists of a relatively long excursus that discusses the following topics: (i) the beginning and the length of the solar year (§ 2.12:13). . par. 2004. 43. p. p. bnf 1058.12:7–12). then good will befall the state. These topics are explained in the following notes. For the bright and dark degrees in Aries. V:20. v. are two categories of degrees in each of the zodiacal signs. alongside other categories of degrees. in the sections allocated to each of the twelve signs. §2. 1934. (iii) the division of the zodiac (§ 2. xi:5–10.3:1–5 and note. tion. 207. The bright and dark degrees. Astrology.”) See also #Olam B.12:14–15). [2] .12:2–6). and in a small conjunction stronger that in the revolution of any year.

[3] 5: The truth is that the deficit is 131th of a day. 274–280. Moladot. [4] 7: Another disagreement … head of Aries and Libra. Ibn Ezra presents similar and usually longer accounts of this controversy in many and different parts of his work. 1998.#Ibbur (#Ibbur. 59a–59b. f. usually present a confrontation between Greek. 273–286. 81a–81b. and in Sefer ha. 74–76.#Olam (#Olam A. 1874. based usually on calendarics but in some cases also dealing with astronomical and astrological issues. . p. Ibn . p. f. . is the value obtained by al-Sûfî and later by al-Zarqâl.#Olam. 77: #Ibbur. p. 276–279. For these theories. 221–222. 2003a. . Indian. p. pp. "Iggeret haShabbat. 1976. see Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. These accounts. 59b). pp. 8a. and (b) in two small wheels around the equinoxes. 1874. pp. 10a) in very similar terms: [5] . Dreyer. 1847. f. 77) and in Ibn Ezra’s Sefer ha. 79. 196–200.12:5. ‘Ibbur. Evans. From Sefer ha-Moladot (Moladot. 2003a. pp. and Jewish methodologies and provide rich information about the scientific contributions of individual scholars. see Sela. endorsed by Ibn Ezra in Ta § 2. 1546. pp. 64–65. 1894/5. and al-Battânî. pp. It is worth noting that the proponents of the to-andfro motion around the poles of the orb of the zodiac are identified in Liber de rationibus tabularum (Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. 1874. Because the underlying problem in the current passage is finding the position of the bright and dark degrees with respect to the equinoxes. . Persian. bnf 1056. 5: Someone said that it is 106th of a day. For an account in a Hebrew source contemporary with Ibn Ezra. p. we learn that the deficit of the 106th part of a day is the value proposed by Yahyâ b. al-Marwâdhî. . 93–94. f. Three Questions. 81a) we learn that the deduction of the 131th part of a day. Abî Mansûr. #Olam A. in Tb § 8. 1947. 25:9. Surat ha"Ares. see Abraham Bar Hiyya. Arabic. Commentary on Leviticus. the center of gravity of the controversy is placed on the question of whether the beginning of the solar year should be fixed when the Sun reaches the vernal equinox. bnf 1056. See Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. bnf 1056. For an analysis of some of these texts. From the first version of Sefer ha.2:10. Sela. al-Muqaffa#. This is a reference to two well-known versions of the theory of trepidation: (a) around the poles of the orb of the zodiac. bnf 1056.136 notes to the first version of the book of reasons account of the controversy about the beginning and the length of solar year. 10a. 1953. 1–2.

8: Indian scientists drew … signs do not move. A similar statement is made by Ibn Ezra in Liber de rationibus tabularum. Surat ha"Ares. For an account of these theories. 39r°.3:2 “is forbidden by the law of God because it resembles idolatry. a II. who are engaged in úåøåöä úîëç. astrologers who are experts in the judgments and the images. scholars of the images. 76–79. f. 1953. i. B. 1947. Nehoshet C.12:6. Dreyer. p. 1546.e. where we learn that Al-Battânî proposed 1° in 66 years and al-Sûfî 1° in 70 years.2:4 as well as in all the four versions of the Book of the Astrolabe. [7] 10: The correct value is that the motion is one degree in 70 years. f. 63a. . 196–200. [6] 9–10: The Ancients said … one degree in 70 years. in all likelihood. 1998. f. p. See Liber de Rationibus Tabularum.e. identical with the úåøåöä éîëç. according to which the Indian scientists measure the length of the year from the recurrent conjunction of the Sun with a fixed star. however. As mentioned above. pinsker 26. the science of the images. 66r°. . See Nehoshet A.7:2).7:8. 81b.3:10 (see note there). Tb § 1. Azofi vero 70 annis uno gradu. 65.. 1947. see also Tb § 8. Notice also that in Tb § 7.” Cf. 20. 248. Ibn Ezra seems to [8] . Astrolabio. éìòá úåìæîä éîëç úåøåöäå íéèôùîä. In his long commentary on Exodus 34:22. bnf 1056.2:4. this is the rate proposed by al-Sûfî for . This is the value that Ibn Ezra also endorses in Tb § 1. 159a. Mant. 78: “Azofi vero 70 annis uno gradu”). i. § 5. see Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. the motion of the eighth orb (Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. or úåøåöä éùðà.” They are also mentioned by Ibn Ezra in Tb § 2. Arundel 377. "Iggeret haShabbat. 1894/5.e. ‘Olam A.6:4. Evans. 10. 78: “antiqui vero et Ptholomeus dicunt quod 100 annis unum gradum pretereunt Albateni vero probavit quod 66 annis uno gradu moventur. Astrolabio. 39a. § 5. He appears to infer this theory from a previous statement. f. Nehoshet . These are. . This is the only account of the controversy about the motion of the fixed stars in which Ibn Ezra credits the scientists of India with maintaining their immobility. 1940. bnf 1061. f. in the latter. . 259–262.7:1 the doctrine of the dark and bright degrees and of the pits is made a direct consequence of the Indian methodology for the beginning of the solar year. p. . f. those who trust in imagines. Astrolabio. ignoring the moment when the Sun passes through the equinoxes (Ta § 2. i. vesp.chapter two 137 doctores ymaginum or magistri ymaginum in the former. 202–206. which according to Tb § 8.

13: The Indian scientists divided … method of giving proofs. pp. Corresponds to Tb § 8. § 8. The . 10a. nam sententia Ptholomei est scientia et ratio altera vero probatio iudiciorum. Adda.” See also the continuation of this passage up to p. where Ptolemy’s methodology. 45. [10] . This seems to be Ibn Ezra’s stance also in #Ibbur. par. al-Qabîsî. V:21. pits are characterized by Al-Bîrûnî in Art of Astrology. the version of trepidation that propounds a motion in two small wheels around the equinoxes (see above. although it requires two corrections. but rather on the length of the solar year as propounded by R. 1996. 207– . et utraque harum vera est et ad artem tota admodum necessaria. 1934. 86. is presented as “based on a mental construct” (áìä úáùçîá).1:6. xi:11–12 for the pits of Aries. as compared to that of the Persian scientists. [9] 14: The pits (so called … fallen into into a pit). For instance. separate sections allocated to each zodiacal sign. 141–143. See Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. 2004. … The second correction is because of the motion in the small wheel around the head of Aries. altera vero sine illa nequaquam. Abbreviation. Similar ideas are conveyed in Ibn Ezra’s long commentary on Exodus 28:6. ea quidem que secundum cogitationem sententia est ea Ptholomei sententia est. Sciendum est ergo quod partitio circuli firmamenti per 12 secundum duas sententias facta est. que vero secundum visum est antiquorum et indorum est. 1947. 208. See Kitâb al-Madhal. See also below. are usually mentioned in contemporary introductions to astrology alongside the bright and dark degrees. 1994. 1874. pp. 271 as the degrees “in which the planets are enfeebled in their action. Sed ea que Ptholomei est stare potest per se. p. Latin gradus putei). II.12:7 and note): àéäù 駧ôòà ®àãà áø úôå÷ú ìò ÷ø ¬ìàåîù úôå÷ú ìò êåîñú ìà姧 §§äìè ùàøá ïè÷ ìâìâ úòåðú øåáòá éðùä ïå÷úäå … íéðå÷éú éðùì äëéøö (“You should not rely on the length of the solar year as propounded by [the talmudic sage] Samuel. The pits (Hebrew úåøåá. 83–84: “De particione circuli in 12 partes secundum duas sententias. Arabic âbâr. pp. I:51. p. Corresponds closely to a passage in Liber de rationibus tabularum. see Rh. p.7:2–3.138 notes to the first version of the book of reasons endorse. altera secundum cogitationem. to some extent. altera secundum sensum visus est sententia. being neither able to affect good if lucky nor evil if unlucky. § 2. 459. a category of zodiacal degrees that diminish fortune. v.” The pits are listed in the second chapter of Reshit Hokhmah I in the .”).

Ptolemy’s account of the cardinal points of the watery and airy signs is presented here incorrectly. pp. xi:17 … xii:3 and comments briefly on it. II.” [12] 15: The positions of the large stars … in this time [i. p. in a discussion of the “places injurious to the eyes”: “Our forefathers settled the position of these stars in their time. 273.. . the year 5908 A. a star that is designated ‘End of the River’ and it is at Aries 16° at the present time. Quotes from Rh. but this passage reflects that there was significant disagreement about the cardinal points of the triplicities from Antiquity until Ibn Ezra’s time. Cf. we however show them in their present position but it must be remembered that their position increases by a degree every 66 years. 199–206. see note there. namely. see Tb 2. see Bouché-Leclercq. Quotes from and comments on Rh. Taurus … stable when the Sun is there . 1934. xi:16–17. just after he mentions the pits of this sign. II. in the final part of the section on Aries. of the large stars of the first magnitude. For feminine and nocturnal signs. [3] .e. For Antiquity. II. Quotes from and comments on Rh. It is not clear on which account Ibn Ezra bases his agreement with Ya#qub al-Kindî’s position. see above § 2. For example.7:4. xi:22–23.2:1 and note. we read (Rh. This is a reference to the fact that in the second chapter of Reshit Hokhmah I Ibn Ezra not only gives the positions of large stars in each of . I:18. the twelve zodiacal constellations but also keeps emphasizing that these positions correspond to the date of composition of Reshit Hokhmah I.13 1.chapter two [11] 139 14: Subtract eight whole degrees: Corresponds to Tb § 8.”) §2.3:1–4 and note. approximately a minute a year. For fixed signs. since which 600 years have elapsed. 8–9: From experience they said … this is correct. 1980. For an explanation of why Taurus is as a southern sign and a general account of the cardinal points of the signs.2:1–7 and note. 460. Tetrabiblos. II. par. 1899.M. see Tb § 2. 82–87. in 1148].e. pp. i. See also what Al-Bîrûnî says in Art of Astrology. [1] [2] 2–7: It indicates procreation … Venus’ least years. xi:13–14): àø÷ðä áëåëä ïåùàøä ãåáëä ïî íäù íéìåãâä íéáëåëä ïî åá ùé姧 §§äìè ìæîî äøùò ùù úìòîá äæä ïîæá àåäå øäðä óåñ (“There [in Aries] we find.

xviii:11–12. xxiii:12–14 and comments on it. See Tb 2. lit. pp. houses of honor (Arabic ashrâf. Quotes and comments on Rh. xv:26–27. The entire section (Ta § 2. Tetrabiblos. Ibn Ezra provides an identical value for the year 1160 in his Hebrew translation of Ibn al-Muthannâ"s Commentary on the Astronomical Tables of al-Khwârizmî (Hebrew Translations of Ibn al-Muthannâ’s Commentary. bnf 1056. [3] §2. Quotes from and comments on Rh.140 notes to the first version of the book of reasons §2.15 1–2: Cancer … than thirty degrees: Quotes from and comments Rh. 1967. f. II. where Ibn Ezra also states that the Sun’s apogee in 1148—the date of composition of Reshit Hokhmah I —is Gemini 27°. II. § 2.3:4 and note. Latin exaltatio). xxviii:13–14. xxxiv:27–28. III:14. . [4] 6: They said that Virgo … house of Mercury. 1980.3:5 and note. Hebrew ãåáëä éúá. 369–371. [1] 2: Since it has the shape … nature is airy. [1] 3: We have … to this sign: See above. Quotes from Rh. Cf. II. Sagittarius. [2] [3] 4: Venus indicates sexual intercourse. Quotes discontinuously from Rh. xxii:6. II. 300).16:1– 14) is an excursus that deviates from the previous method—based on [1] . xiv:7–8. and Pisces. xvii:1. 150. where he adds that in the time of Hipparchus and Ptolemy the Sun’s apogee was at Gemini 5°. II. §2. pp.16 1: Houses of exaltation. Additional information about the Sun’s apogee is provided in ‘Olam a. Quotes discontinuously from and comments on Rh. xiv:12–17 and comments on it. xxii:11.14 1: Gemini … Virgo. [2] 2: At the place of the Sun’s apogee. II. 81a. See Tb § 2.3:2.

pp. 1996. It continues and stands in contrast to Ta § 2. as will be shown in the following notes. a special horoscope to forecast world affairs that is cast annually when the sun (in a geocentric system) enters the sign of Aries. This excursus corresponds closely to the parallel discussion of the houses of exaltation in Tb § 2.7:1–14. p. giving each of them a fixed motion until they come together again where God created them. p. see note there. [2] 3: Signifies the beginning of the world. 88: “et medius cursus omnium planetarum secundum indos sumptus est a diebus Acintdeindi. their apogees and nodes in the first part of Aries and commanded them to go around. 443.11:3. 299: “God created the seven planets.#olam (íìåòä úôå÷ú) “the revolution of the world”. par. this section is a unique approach to the subject. pp. may be found in contemporary introductions to astrology. and Enoch—and expands considerably upon the limited information given in Reshit Hokhmah I. mentaries on them—and embarks on a freestanding discussion of the houses of exaltation. Quotes from Rh. 187–196. Abbreviation.6:1–2. 2: They said that the exaltation of the Moon … Indian scientists. V:5–7. 25. in the form either of lists alone or of lists accompanied by theoretical explanations. pp. where the exaltation of the Sun was explained in the section studying the properties of Aries. 1994. Art of Astrology. 1967. which Ibn Ezra recounts in some of his scientific works. 152. accompanied by com. 15–23. II. qui dixerunt Dominum omnes planetas in capite Arietis creasse … et secundum eos omnis planeta revertitur ad punctum sui loci sine fraccionis superadictione. See Hebrew Translations of Ibn al-Muthannâ’s Commentary.chapter two 141 fairly continuous quotes from Reshit Hokhmah I.” There is a very similar statement in Ibn Ezra’s Hebrew translation of Ibn al-Muthannâ"s Commentary on the Astronomical Tables of al-Khwârizmî. v. Here Ibn Ezra offers three approaches to the houses of exaltations—those of Ptolemy. which merely states the degree of exalta. When [3] . I:15. . al-Qabîsî. p. Although similar discussions. xiii:9 and reveals its source: the Indian scientists. 1934. creation occurs when all the planets meet in conjunction in the head of Aries. 258. 1947. The revolution of the world is mentioned above in § 2. 2004. . This is a reference to tequfat ha. According to Indian cosmological theories. the world undergoes long and recurrent cycles of creation and destruction. the Indian scientists. See Kitâb al-Madhal. tion in the separate sections allocated to the signs. See Liber de Rationibus Tabularum.

7:4 and continues the account of the Indian scientists as conveyed above in § 2. A planet is said to be in its t degree of dejection or “dishonor” if it is in the degree and sign opposite its exaltation or “honor” (ãåáë). since the moon. Hebrew ïåì÷ úìòî. in the first sign of her own triangle. p. This term. 13b: äìè úìéçúá ùîùä ñðëäá äðä姧 . this was called her exaltation. Abbreviation.000 days. See Mishpetei . degree of dishonor (Arabic hubû.7:3 and refers to Ptolemy’s explanation of the Moon’s exaltation. p. “dejection”. God will do what he wishes with them. . 1996. see Kennedy–Van der Waerden.4:10 et passim. as it were. p. Hebrew äôéøùä íå÷î (Arabic al-tariqah al-muhtariqah. f. I:19.hâ.142 notes to the first version of the book of reasons they return there. 1934. the same Hebrew phrase (äôéøùä íå÷î) as Te#amim I. See Tetrabiblos. Corresponds to Tb § 2. 105. Corresponds to Tb § 2. Latin via combusta). Ibn Ezra provides an explanation of this curious name in Ta § 2. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.16:2. . is commonplace in introductions to astrology.450. Art of Astrology. path” and denoting the interval from Libra 19° to Scorpio 3°.v. §§íìåòä ùãçúé æà úîàä úôå÷ú àéä (“The true revolution occurs when the sun enters the head of Aries. 316–317. adds here: “which is Aries 19°. 47) f. al-Qabîsî. 306. Taurus. 3: Ptolemy says … sign of Taurus. Corresponds to Tb § 2. (The Hindus) said that the time from the beginning of their motion until their return to the point where they began is 1. 1994. See glossary s.” [5] [6] 4: The Indian scientists … degree of Taurus. which is not mentioned in Reshit Hokhmah I. This is an idea briefly acknowledged by Ibn Ezra in Mishpetei haMazzalot. III:29. since it is close to the beginning of the image of the ram.577. bnf 1058.16:5. p. her height.” For a similar account in Arabic sources. usually called “the burnt . 1980. 89: “And . Here there is a terminological link between Te #amim I and Mishpe. p. lit. shows her first phase and begins to increase her light and. v. 55. and then the world is renewed”). See also Kitâb al-Madhal.” [4] 4: The exaltation of the Sun: MS è (Vatican. 317.916. par. 28a. 1963. . 2004. 514. [7] 5: “Place of burning”. which employs t . pp. VII:6.ei haMazzalot. coming to conjunction in the exaltation of the sun. 5: Degree of the dejection. [8] . Latin servitus). in Aries. ebr.

395–396. xviii:17. A similar reference to Ptolemy. contrariwise.3:3.16:8).7:9–10. 1884. see note there. see Tetrabiblos. The exaltations of the Head and the Tail of the Dragon are mentioned in Rh.7:2. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. which is based on the assertion that Mars [13] . 11–12: Because Mars generates … with [i. took.7:5 has êùåçä êøã “path of darkness” and Rh. (“The Ancients said that Gemini is the house of exaltation of the Head of the Dragon.7:2.16:7).e. the first opinion offered by Ibn Ezra about Mars’ exaltation (Ta § 2. f. A similar criticism is made by Ibn Sînâ. [10] [11] 9: Indian scientists scientists … he is correct. Two opinions are given regarding Jupiter’s exaltation: the first is based on Ptolemy’s explanation in Tetrabiblos I:19. By contrast. 14b. and where the former diminishes cold on the contrary increases. II. II. see note there. Enoch’s (Ta § 2. in order to have a position opposite to the sun. 14b: . the second is quoted from Rh. I:19.7:7.” The second opinion. as also in the matter of their houses. bnf 1058. see note there. bnf 1058. is repeated in Tb § 2. but Ptolemy mocks them. Libra as his exaltation and Aries as his depression. xxv:19.16:6) corresponds to Ptolemy’s opinion in Tetrabiblos I:19 and is repeated in Tb § 2. xxix:25. The third explanation. p. Tb § 2. deriding the idea of considering the Head and the Tail of the Dragon as stars. éîìúå ¬úù÷ ìæîá áðæä ãåáëå ¬éìúä ùàø ãåáë úéá íéîåàú éë åøîà íéðåîã÷䧧 §§®åîò ïéãäå íäá ìúäî [12] 10: They said that Jupiter’s house … middle of the sign.16:11). 89: “Saturn again. is quoted from Rh.” See also Ta § 5. pp. II. xv:27. 6–8: Libra is the house … befall the the Sun. and that the exaltation of the Tail is in Sagittarius. 1980. The first (Ta § 2. and he is right. Corresponds to Tb § 2. Three approaches are offered here about Saturn’s exaltation.chapter two 143 haMazzalot. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. [9] 6: They also said… house of exaltation. Although Ptolemy and Abû Ma#shar (who follows Ptolemy) base some of their explanations of the exaltations on the connection between planets and winds. lii:13 has äôéøùä êøã “path of burning”. advanced by the scientists of India (Ta § 2. f. Mars’] its nature. See Ibn Sînâ. appears in Mishpetei haMazzalot. For where heat increases there cold diminishes.7:6. II.

Quotes from and comments on Rh. xiii:10–11 et passim.16:1–15). which comments on a quote from Rh. § 2.6:1–2. [15] §2. [3] 5–7: Saturn was made lord … instead of it. The accounts in Ta § 2.17:1–9 and Tb § 2. see Tb § 2.3:14 and note.8:11–12. appears neither in Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos nor in Abû Ma#shar’s Great Introduction. II. For this special use of the term “triplicity”. xxxii and presents the approach of the Indian scientists. As in the case of the exaltations (Ta §2. xviii:21–22 et passim.8:5–7. [4] 8–9: They assigned … as partner.7:1–4). Hebrew äðåùàøä úåùéìùä ìòá. Here Ibn Ezra is noting implicitly that fish are mute.8:1–12 correspond closely with each other. corresponds closely to Tb § 2. Scorpio. [5] . Quotes from and comments on Rh.144 notes to the first version of the book of reasons generates southern winds and that these winds abound when Mars is in Capricorn. See also below. whereas the lords of the remaining triplicities are discussed comprehensively in a separate section (Ta § 2.17:1–9). For the triplicities. Tb § 2. See Tb § 2. [14] 13–14: They said that Venus’ house … other’s house of exaltation. § 2. Corresponds closely to Tb § 2. thereby equating the watery signs with the dumb signs: Cancer. See above.17 1: I have already discussed the houses of the fiery triplicity. Quotes from and comments on Rh. Pisces. Corresponds to Tb § 2. II. Ta § 2. II.7:7–8 15: As for what they said… born in water.8:1 and note. as will be shown in the following notes. [2] 2–4: Venus was made lord … southerly winds. Corresponds to Tb § 2.8:8–10. II.7:1–4. The second opinion (Ta § 2. Cf. 6.8:9 and note ad loc.7:7. where the same opinion is attributed to Enoch. see Tb § 2.17:5. xv:29–30 et passim.16:11). 9. the lords of the fiery triplicity are treated in the section devoted to Aries (Ta § 2. [1] 1: Lord of the first triplicity.

see above. 1980. § 1. one of the early ‘Abbâsid astrologers who introduced the Sassanian version of the predictive art to the Arabs.18 145 1: Ptolemy disagrees … on the Ancients. She"elot B. p. are considered harmonious or favorable. f. #Olam B. [2] 2: Doronius the king. lxvii:14. For Ibn Ezra’s attitude towards Ptolemy. The aspects of trine and sextile. See Tetrabiblos. who was from India.2:1–12 comments [1] . Ta § 3.1:1–6. bnf 1058. See Pingree.9:1. see Sela. 93.5:5 and note.1 1: The aspects. 2003a. Hebrew íéèáîä (Arabic nazar. 90b. I:18. bnf 1056. The astrological work of Kanaka is mentioned in Reshit Hokhmah I and other parts of Ibn Ezra’s work. 4: Do not imagine … natures on Earth. pp. pp.chapter three §2. 120° and 60°. See especially the introduction to the second version of Sefer ha-She"elot. is crowned a king by Ibn Ezra in various places in his astrological work. IX. the aspects of opposition and quartile. Corresponds to Tb § 6. [3] [4] 2: Mâshâ"allâh. Iraq. The aspects are usually angular relationships between planets. [1] 2: Anything that Ptolemy says … befit his wisdom. See also #Olam a. such as Kanaka. For a similar criticism of Ptolemy’s astrological work. bnf 1058. § 2. 180° and 90°. Mâshâ"allâh. were both Doronius and Ptolemy are made kings. 83–87. It is probably related to the fact that Mâshâ"allâh was well acquainted with the work of Indian scientists. I:20. p. 83a. See above. 1974. This astrologer. This curious notice about Mâshâ"allâh’s Indian origins is also mentioned at Rh. 159. but sometimes they are also angular relationships between zodiacal signs and other celestial objects that play some astrological function. . who visited the courts of al-Mansûr and . Latin aspectus). Hârûn al-Rashîd. § 3. f. are considered disharmonious or inauspicious. was a Jew from Basra. f. [5] §3. 1b. in all likelihood identical with Dorotheus of Sidon.7:3 and note. 240– 256.

p.14 (Middot.2 [1] 2: I shall also mention … using numbers. p. [2] 4: Six is similar to two … the result is an odd number. I:13. [3] [4] 4: As I shall explain: See below. 20a.6:3 (see note there) and Mishpetei haMazzalot. 1895. 84. bnf 1058. al-Qabîsî. see also Tb § 2. 41. and corresponds closely to Tb § 4.2:1–4. 1980. VII:5. I:18. 2004. Corresponds to Tb § 4. [2] 4: Given that any circle … end of a diameter.1:10. 73–75. .6:5 and Mishpetei haMazzalot. pp.5:4–7. 401 and Sefer ha-Middot. xxxix:4—xl:4. See Kitâb al-Madhal. Ibn Ezra refers to the same property in Mispar. f. 225. 2/2 = 1. Ta § 3. par. Tetrabiblos. . 2006.8:1. 6: When you fix … aspect of sextile. 292– . When 6 or 2 is divided by two. 27.6:1–6.146 notes to the first version of the book of reasons on Rh. Art of Astrology. they are also a telling example of Ibn Ezra’s eclectic explanatory methodology and of the means by which he sought to provide scientific foundations for astrological doctrines. . p. . Corresponds closely to Tb § 4. [3] . Here 1 and 5 are said to “preserve themselves” because squares of integers whose last digit is either 1 or 5 are always integers whose last digit is respectively either 1 or 5. § 4. 2. comparison with contemporary introductions to astrology. . Corresponds closely to Tb § 4. Not only are the almost identical theoretical treatments of this subject in Te#amim I and in Te #amim II idiosyncratic in . bnf 1058. [5] 5: The circle can also … the trine aspect. 20a. v. For Ya#qub al-Kindî’s position on the aspects. the result is an odd number: 6/2 = 3. bnf 1058. 1934. . f. Corresponds closely to Tb § 4. § 4. p. 20a. 2: Ya#qub al-Kindî said … into other parts. III. 1. pp. 293. Abbreviation. See below. pp. 207).6:2 (see note there) and Mishpetei haMazzalot.7:1–6. f. 1996. 1994. 373. p. 1985.8:1–5. [6] §3. § 7. "Ehad. 4: One and five are kindred numbers because both preserve themselves.

Hebrew íéëøòä úîëç. based on an interval of three signs. 2 and 5. are expounded several times in his biblical commentaries (see short commentary on Exodus 3:13. Hebrew íéáëøåî. 1985.7:1–8. namely. 423. 400). See below. Consequently. XI. see "Ehad. p. and pairs separated by the constant 3 (1 and 4. 5. prime numbers. marked by Pythagorean hues. hence they are divisible only by themselves or by 1. 422–423. in close association with arithmetic (ïåáùçä úîëç) and geometry (úåãîä úîëç). etc. 1985. pp. 2 and 4. 3 and 7 are odd and prime numbers.) are harmonious. p. pp. 2 and 6. are not composite. long commentary on Exodus 3:15 and 33:21) and theological monographs (see haShem. etc. 3.” An identical explanation of the aspects is offered in Sefer ha-"Ehad (Book . § 3. IV. is of “complete love” and zodiacal signs that are in trine have “one nature” (as in the case of the signs of a triplicity). 338– . pairs separated by the constant 2 (1 and 3. which is based on an interval of four signs.) are also harmonious but to a lesser degree. similar . and 7. 424–426. Abraham have also sought … an aspect of antagonism. the trine aspect.5:9. Yesod Mora". the sextile aspect. V. of the Unit). 341) to explicate secret meanings behind the values of the letters of the Tetragrammaton.chapter three [4] 147 4: Three and seven likewise … divisible by odd numbers. pp. "Ehad.) are disharmonious. in the long commentary on Daniel 2:2 and the long commentary on Exodus 31:3. is of “half love”. 399. is of “antagonism. but the quartile aspect. 1985. Most interestingly. 5: The mundane fifth house … the first house. III. The approach that Ibn Ezra attributes to himself exploits arithmetical features of the integers and draws the following conclusions: pairs of integers separated by the constant 4 (1 and 5. The science of [8] . namely. The underlying idea is that similar mathematical principles underpin both physical and supernal actualities. Thus. p. Ibn Ezra mentions the science of proportions. etc. 400. by odd numbers. 1985. For this term. Corresponds closely to Tb § 4. a theoretical mathematical monograph written by Ibn Ezra prior to 1148 (see "Ehad. mathematical arguments. p. based on an interval of two signs. . [5] 6: Composite. [6] 1–9: I. 1985. [7] 10: Science of proportions. 1. Composite numbers are the product of the multiplication of integers that are greater than 1.

148 notes to the first version of the book of reasons proportions is presented in the Epistle on Music of the Ikhwân al-Safâ" (see . xxxix:26 and comments on it. 100–103. 1934. see Tb § 2.2:1. This is a reference to Rh. pp. See also Tb § 2. § 4. p.”) al-Qabîsî. 12). and Cancer and Sagittarius—which have the same rising times. III. par. III. Sagittarius and Pisces for Jupiter. two signs are the houses of the same planet they are said to be agreeing in the belt of the zodiac. s. Hebrew íéãéâð.3:5 and note. Taurus and Aquarius. xxxix:29–31. 2004. 1:16. p.v. 2: Governors.1:2 and note) as closely connected to the art of musical harmony (Epistle on Music. Gemini and Capricorn. as “agreeing in the path”. established in the band of the girdle. See Almagest. Comments on Rh.” In Art of Astrology. § 3. III. see above. I:14. their houses [Cancer and Leo] are considered as belonging to one ruler. Taurus and Libra for Venus. Even though the Moon and the Sun have only one planetary house each. Quotes from Rh. Reference is made to the pairs of signs— Aries and Pisces. Leo and Scorpio. 1998. “ecliptic”. 110–111. xl:1–2. II:8. such as Aries and Scorpio.3 [1] 1: The rising times … they are equal. Evans. 27. 1978. where the term is explained as follows: íéúá íäù úåìæî íéðù ìë íéðåëð äãåôàä áùçá íäù úåìæîä姧 áëåëì äìåúáå íéîåàúå äâðì íéðæàîå øåùå íéãàîì áø÷òå äìè åîë ¬ãçà áëåëì ùîùìå ãçà úéá äðáìì ùéù ô§§ò§§àå ®éàúáùì éìãå éãâå ÷ãöì íéâãå úù÷å äîç §§®ãçà ìùåîì íä åìéàë íäéúá íéáùçð åéäé ¬íéìùåî íäéðù éë øåáòá ¬ãçà úéá (“The signs that are ‘established in the ecliptic’ are the pairs of signs that are the planetary houses of a single planet. xxxix:31–33. below. where the “governors” are described as stars that are located in the straight signs. pp. p. Hebrew áùçá íéðåëð äãåôàä. since they are rulers (Gen. the signs are designated “concordant in itinere” and in Abbreviation. Gemini and Virgo for Mercury.3:5 and note. 228. 1994. For the expression “band of the girdle” (äãåôàä áùç). . 1984. which are the houses for Mars. 23. refers to these signs as follows: “if . lit.18). [2] [3] 3: “Established” in pairs in the ecliptic. p. Virgo and Libra. 377. Capricorn and Aquarius for Saturn. note on § 1. For the straight and crooked signs.

17 as well as in Kitâb al-Madhal. VI:29. f.14. . v. . are still considered to be “established in the zodiac. see Kitâb alMadhal. VI:31. 1996. The same position is endorsed by Ibn Ezra in the third version of his Keli ha-Nehoshet (Book . Cancer and Leo.” so that they should have been the houses of a “single ruler. and the quadrant between the line of east and the line of lower midheaven is eastern. xl:6. of the Astrolabe). which according to Rh. 1996.10. III.chapter three [4] 149 3: Two stars occupy the place of a single ruler. xl:5–17. For the colors of the quadrants.”) . and the quadrant between the line of west and the line of midheaven is western. Quotes from and comments on Rh. 60a: å÷ ïéá àåäù òéáøä éë òã姧 [5] íåäú å÷ ïéáå çøæî å÷ ïéá àåäù òéáøäå ¬éîåøã àåä çøæî å÷ ïéáå íéîùä éöç àåäù òéáøäå ¬éðåôö àåä áøòî å÷ ïéáå íåäúä å÷ ïéá àåäù òéáøäå ¬éçøæî àåä §§®éáøòî àåä íéîùä éöç å÷ àåäù íåäú å÷ åà áøòî å÷ ïéá (“Know that the quadrant between the line of midheaven and the line of east is southern. [4] 9: This is the way … agree with them. [3] 8: Some say that the quadrant … line of midheaven is western. 266–267. xl:13. p. v. For the properties of the quadrants. see Kitâb al-Madhal. they “occupy the place of a single ruler” because their planetary houses. 1996. pp. III. v. 264–268. pp. [1] 5: The black appearance … cold with moisture. and the quadrant between the line of lower midheaven and the line of west is northern. the “two stars” mentioned in the passage are the Moon and the Sun. Hence. xxxix:xl:1–2 (see quote in previous note).” even though they are respectively the houses of the Moon and of the Sun rather than the two houses of the same planet. Here Ibn Ezra briefly refers to the special case of the pair Cancer and Leo.” § 3. This opinion diverges from the position presented in Rh.4 1–3: They said … of its great heat. . III. See Nechoshet C. are considered to be “established in the zodiac. 17. Quotes from and comments on Rh. VI:27–33. III. III. 265. [2] 6–7: They termed anything … ascending half circle. xl:20–25. Quotes from and comments on Rh.

III. and tenth mundane houses.150 notes to the first version of the book of reasons §3. the intersection of the ecliptic with the eastern half of the local horizon. pp. 1996. the intersection of the ecliptic with the lower half of the local meridian. fourth. Abbreviation.2:1– 6).6:1– 8. 461–473. bnf 1058. [2] 7: Seventh house. which are called “falling from the cardines” (Ta § 3. pegs (Arabic autâd. Art of Astrology. par. xl:26–27. lit. 1934. III. also adopt an analogous idiosyncratic presentation: instead of the customary ascending order. 149–150. lit. 29–31. The astrological indications of each of the twelve mundane houses are usually given in ascending order in contemporary introductions to astrology: see Kitâb alMadhal. calculated with respect to a specific latitude or horizon. are the cusps of the first. . Tb § 3. the seventh house coincides with the descendant and the tenth house with upper midheaven. . xli:10–xlii:2 and Mishpetei haMazzalot. and held to govern a variety of human relationships and experiences. and seventh house. third. tenth. pp.1:11. The same rule applies also to Rh. fourth. see the following .5 1: As for the twelve mundane houses … books of the Ancients. 49–55. which are the houses whose cusps coincide with the four cardines (Ta § 3. pp. and (3) the ninth.3:1–7). (2) the fifth. VI:26. The cusp of the first house coincides with the ascendant. 1934. Comments on Rh. Corresponds closely to Tb § 3. Hebrew éòéáù ãúé. notes. . Greek topoi. the cusp of the fourth house coincides with lower midheaven. . xl:27–29 and corresponds closely to Tb § 3. III. Tb § 3. seventh cardo: Ibn Ezra is in the habit of applying the word “cardo” to the mundane [3] . 2004. seventh. 1994. 16a–17a. f.1:2–10).6:14–18. namely.1:1. 247. Hebrew úåãúé. al-Qabîsî. twelfth and sixth houses. pp. [1] 4: They said that everything … four points “cardines”. By sharp contrast. The four cardines. Tb § 3. which are called “succedent to the cardines” (Ta § 3. that is. Latin domicilia) are twelve divisions of the ecliptic.6:9–13. I:57– . par. Latin anguli). 68. For these and other similarities between Te#amim I and Te #amim II. and eighth houses. 258–260. Arabic buyût. v. Comments on Rh. The mundane houses (Hebrew íéúá. second. 275–278. eleventh. Te #amim I and Te #amim II not only present striking similarities but . For a definition see Art of Astrology. pp. they present the twelve mundane houses in three stages: (1) the first.

“midheaven”.6 [1] 1: Mazzal. Hebrew íåøä å÷. see Tb § 3. III. III. ninth. 5–12: The houses that are adjacent … it is underneath the Earth. Notice that the although both the zodiacal signs and the mundane houses divide the zodiac into twelve parts. See also Tb § 3. Hebrew ìæî.chapter three 151 houses whose cusps correspond to the cardines. III. Corresponds closely to Tb § 3. Quotes from and comments on Rh. xli:10–11.1:12. [3] 3–4: The Ancients said … that is visible.v. line of midheaven. Quotes from and comments on Rh. These houses are given the same designation in Tb § 3.2:5. 2: Line of midheaven. III. [4] 11: Falling houses . lit. [4] 5: Because nothing … property and fields. 9. [5] §3. For a similar case. Comments on Rh.2:3.1:7–8. xl:29—xli:9. § 6. [5] [6] 6: They said … is known. Ibn Ezra is punning on this Hebrew word. and twelfth mundane houses.e.. sixth. This is an unusual and alternative rendering of the Hebrew expression éöç å÷ íéîùä. As for Ptolemy’s diverging opinion regarding the tenth and tenth mundane houses. Ta §3. line of height. III. This is a reference to the third.1:2–4.6:12. but in Rh.2:2. i. xli:24–27. xli:1 they are called “weak” (Hebrew íéùìç). Refers to the first mundane house and corresponds to Tb §3. See below. See Glossary s. in most cases they neither coincide nor have similar sizes. xlii:13–15. [2] 1–2: Because the degree … cardines indicate ancestors. Hebrew íéìôåð. to the best of my knowledge there is nothing like that in the chapter on parents (III:4) or elsewhere in the Tetrabiblos. which usually denotes zodiacal sign but here stands for the first mundane house. . Comments on Rh.

7–8: Because with respect … it indicates wars. Corresponds to Tb § 3. III. seventh cardo: See 13: Vettius Valens.6:11. See also Bouché-Leclercq. § 3. III. Ibn Ezra is playing here on the Hebrew root øæò “help”: whereas in § 3. Hebrew ñéìàå. Hebrew above. Quotes from and comments on Rh. in an enumeration of the lots of the seventh mundane house. lit.6:11 the expression ãìåðä úà íéøæåòä means the “native’s helpers. Corresponds closely to Tb § 3. p. 8: Helpmate to a man. is also mentioned by Ibn Ezra at Rh. [12] 11: Native’s helpers. 20 (åãâðë øæò). . [16] 12–13: Because the eighth … they are correct. Quotes from and comments on Rh. 2:18.2:5–6.6:11 the expression ùéàä øæò. Ta § 3. 1987.2:5.2:4. 1899. “Native’s helpers”. means a “helpmate to a man” and represents a characteristic of the seventh mundane house. § 3. 11: Because the second … the native’s helpers. Corresponds closely to Tb § 3. in § 3. Vettius Valens. [14] [15] éòéáù ãúé. xlii:15–16. III. See below. Corresponds closely to Tb § 3. lxix:15. xlii:7–9.2:1–2. III.152 [7] notes to the first version of the book of reasons ùéàä øæò. [13] 12: Seventh house. 9: Because the nature … for human life.5:7 and note. Tester. which indeed indicates woman.v. Hebrew ãìåðä úà íéøæåòä. 46–49. xiii. xli:16–17. a Greek astrologer contemporaneous with Claudius Ptolemy. [10] [11] 10: Because the eleventh … indicates beauty and honor: Quotes from and comments on Rh. IX. derived from Gen. Corresponds closely to Tb § 3.” describing a feature of the second mundane house.2:3.1:9– 10. [8] [9] 9: Absolute love: See above. and note there. pp. xlii:4–6. Quotes from and comments on Rh. Hebrew s.

xli:21 the third mundane house indicates the “wisdom of the Torah and laws” (äøåúä úîëç íéðéãå) and a very similar wording appears in Mishpetei haMazzalot. Al-Andarzagar is . III. 51. . I:57–68. xlii:1–3. See al-Qabîsî. Ma#shar refer to “jurisprudence and religion” (al-Qabîsî. by contrast. 16a (íéèôùîäå úåøåúä úîëç) and in Tb § 3. This term is the opposite of äðåöéç äîëç or äéøëåð äîëç. that is. “external wisdom” or “foreign wisdom”. 104–115. 2004. where. 276). Quotes from and comments on Rh. esp.3:5. xlii:18–21. xlii:9–13. I:59. where it expressed the idea that the sciences are divided into “Arab” and “non-Arab” or “foreign” disciplines (see Peters. III. f. . bnf 1058. Quotes from and comments on Rh. Notice that whereas according to Rh. p. 2004. Regarding the lords of the triplicities of each mundane house. III. very closely to a complete section of al-Qabîsî’s Introduction to Astrology. Thus “familiar wisdom”. 1994. Quotes from and comments on Rh. denotes the body of knowledge that is close to one’s own law or religion. xli:20–24. [18] 16: Because the twelfth … men ride on. besides the indications of each of the twelve mundane houses. p. 31). where Ibn Ezra writes that the sixth indicates “diseases.” [20] [21] 19: As for the lords … agree with him. p. Comments on Rh.3:1–3. which resemble hidden enemies. The latter was borrowed from Arabic encyclopedias of science and philosophy. which. pp. 461. Corresponds to Tb § 3. Abbreviation. the indications of each of the three lords of the triplicities of each mundane house are specified. Corresponds to Tb § 3. in the same context Al-Bîrûnî mentions “expertness in religious law” (Art of Astrology. Hebrew äáåø÷ äîëç.chapter three [17] 153 15: Familiar wisdom. for its part. xli:10—xlii:21. Refers to the third and ninth mundane houses and corresponds to Tb § 3.3:3 (úåøåúä úéá). Reshit Hokhmah I corresponds . 49–55. pp.3:6. repeatedly adduces Al-Andarzagar’s Nativities as its source. and both al-Qabîsî and Abû . par. [19] 17: The sixth house … illnesses and deformities. certainly identical with Andruzagar ben Sadi Faruk the Jew. III. It was used by medieval Jewish intellectuals to denote the sciences of Greco-Arabic origin that they were introducing into Jewish culture. III. 109). 1934. . who is mentioned in the current passage and frequently elsewhere in Ibn . 14–15: Because the ninth … and the like. 1968.

[2] sphere of fixed stars Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus and Mercury Moon fire and air water and earth [meta] hyperbolaion nete hyperbolaion diezeugmenon nete synemmonon paramese mese hypate meson hypate hypaton proslambanomenos 36 32 24 211/3 18 16 12 9 8 The list in the Canobic Inscription is followed by the number of means— arithmetic (a+ c = 2b).1 [1] 1: I have already … they are malefic.154 notes to the first version of the book of reasons Ezra’s oeuvre. along with three additional parameters that do not appear in Te#amim I or Te#amim II : .5:6 are virtually identical to a list of cosmological orbs and their corresponding numbers that is part and parcel of the Canobic Inscription. See above. 51b. octave (2/1). Astrolabio. geometric (a*c = b2) and harmonic (1/a + 1/c = 2/b)—as well as of the musical concords—fourth (4/3). f. 109a. Astrolabio. pp.5:1–17. the Canobic Inscription presents. an early work by Ptolemy. However.5:7 (see note there) the Saturn-Mars ratio is a .1:1 and Tb § 5. whereas . 2004. § 1. tone (9/8)—that are found in the list. . München 202. ff. next to each of the components. ‘Olam A. the Greek name of a corresponding musical note. In addition. Arundel 377. See Swerdlow. The two lists in Ta § 4. See Moladot. Te#amim I has 20 and the reading . vesp. . 2: Ptolemy said that they gleaned … the Moon is 12. 55b. 40ro. f.5:6. §4. Corresponds closely to Tb § 5. 86a. f. predating the Almagest and containing a list of parameters of his mathematical astronomy. double octave (4/1). fifth (3/2). bnf 1056. others give a value of 6. f. 166–167. 52b. 56b. 85b. Mivharim A. II and that in the Canobic Inscription is related to Mars: whereas the Canobic Inscription gives a value of 211/3. according to Tb § 5. a II. octave + fifth (3/1). One substantial difference between the lists in Te #amim I and Te #amim . which is clearly a scribal error). given that. of Te#amim II is uncertain (some manuscripts have a lacuna. 54b. . 68vo. bnf 1056.

p. as measured by their distances.” See Swerdlow 2004. Elsewhere the Epistle offers the following information (Epistle on Music. Chapter 3. assert that the sound given forth by the circular movement of the stars is a harmony. 1978. p. The lists in the Canobic Inscription and in both versions of Sefer haTe #amim pertain to the tradition of the Pythagoreans who. after a careful analysis of the available data. according . or another work on which this Epistle drew for the . that he derived the information from some Arabic work—closer to his time and cultural climate—that referred to Ptolemy’s list.chapter four 155 “good” or “noble” one. But the contents of this chapter are unfortunately lost. a substantial difference regarding the astronomical import of the numbers in the lists: whereas both versions of Sefer ha-Te#amim assert that the numbers represent the . though.” It adds that Nicomachus. “starting from the observation that the stars’ speeds. 1978. reports that Pythagoras “heard the music produced by the rotation of the spheres and the heavenly bodies” and that “he was thus able to deduce … the principles of music and the relations to notes. are in the same ratios as musical concordances.” There is. Where then. it may be that Ibn Ezra had access to some now-lost part of Ptolemy’s writings. Swerdlow. pp. and other philosophers were the heirs of Pythagoras’ tradition (Epistle on Music. information related to the list. this is presumably where Ptolemy explained the relation between the musical tones and certain astronomical properties of the planets. a comprehensive encyclopedia compiled in Baghdad . I and Te#amim II Ibn Ezra assigned the value 211/3 to Mars. however. ratio of the planets’ orbs to the orb of the Earth. which is part of the Rasâ"il Ikhwân al-Safâ". the Canobic Inscription says nothing substantial in this regard. Ptolemy. did Ibn Ezra obtain these lists and the information that the numbers somehow correspond to ratios between the orbs of the planets and the orb of the Earth? Since both versions of Sefer ha-Te#amim . state explicitly that Ptolemy is the originator of the lists. to De caelo 2. This source is in all likelihood the Epistle on Music of the Ikhwân al-Safâ". as in the . The Epistle. 165–170. Euclid. one may conclude that in the lists of Te#amim . 38). concludes that “it appears that there is nothing of astronomical significance or with an astronomical basis in the tones and numbers of the Canobic Inscription. in the tenth century.14 of Ptolemy’s Harmonics is entitled “By which least numbers the fixed tones (notes) of the perfect system may be compared to the primary spheres in the universe”. Canobic Inscription.9. N. 45–46): “The mathematician philosophers have . It is more plausible.

and that of the sphere of the fixed stars by 32. to the same extent that the blind cannot see the awful works of God” (alluding to Isa. Now if we establish the tuning of these notes according to the noble proportions mentioned and if they are plucked in successive and coordinated movements. 2004.156 notes to the first version of the book of reasons advanced the theory that a harmonious proportion exists between the diameters of the celestial spheres and those of earth and air. Among the noble and superior proportions we include: that which is equal (octave). 34–35): “Some of these proportions are superior and noble. lows (Epistle on Music. pp. that of the sphere of air by 9.úåìå÷ä äìàå … úåìå÷ íéìâìâì éë ¬úåàì äæ姧 §§®íéàøåðä íùä äùòî íéøåòä åèéáé àì (“This indicates that the orbs have sounds … and these sounds cannot be heard by the deaf. they will then produce successive and coordinated notes. 24 = 18 + 6. that of 4:3 (fourth). 93:4. so the ratio Jupiter-Sun. The proof of this is that if we express the diameter of the earth by 8. that of the sphere of Saturn by 274/7. 42:18). 1978. that is. is 2:1. that of the sphere of sun by 18. plus a third of the Sun’s number.” For the Greek and Ptolemy’s explanation of these ratios. 3: The ratio of Jupiter … a noble ratio. which represents the musical concord of a fourth and is indeed a “noble” ratio. 130– 150. that of 5:4 (natural third) and that of 9:8 (tone). 18. See also his commentary on Job 38:7. which is also one of the noble ratios. notes high and light.5. The same happens with Jupiter and the Moon: the ratio of Jupiter’s number.” Ibn Ezra found scriptural support for the Pythagorean theory of the music of the spheres in the text of Ps. 24:18. [3] . that of the sphere of Mars by 21. to the Moon’s number. The notion of “noble” ratio is explained in the Epistle on Music of the Ikhwân al-Safâ" as fol. this represents the musical concord of the octave. or low and heavy. 2. the number of Jupiter. that of the sphere of Venus by 16. pp. which he glossed as follows: øùàë ¬íéùøçä åòîùé àì . that of the sphere of Jupiter by 24. 24. is equal to the Sun’s number. 6. that of the sphere of Mercury by 13. the diameter of the earth and that of the moon will be in the proportion 3:2. then the diameter of the sphere of the moon by 12. As explained by Ibn Ezra. others less so. 24. see Swerdlow. based on these figures. the diameter of Venus compared with that of the Earth will be in the double proportion of 16:8 (2:1). that of 3:2 (fifth). the diameter of the moon and that of the air will be in the proportion of 4:3. is equivalent to the ratio 4:3.

46): . Mars and Saturn.5:13–14. Corresponds closely to Tb § 5. See Olam B.2 [1] 1: Why it is cold and dry. A similar explanation of the maleficence of Saturn and Mars is given in the Epistle on Music of the Ikhwân al-Safâ" (Epistle on Music. is not referred to elsewhere in Ibn Ezra’s work. none of those ratios is a “noble” or “good” ratio. f. f.6:1. Corresponds to Tb §5. Quotes from Rh. Tb § 5. pp. Comments on Rh. which molded the history of the Jewish people in connection with a Saturn-Jupiter conjunction that occurred in the sign of Aquarius prior to the Exodus from Egypt. v. Ibn Abi Damina. See below. 33:21.” See also long commentary to Exodus 32:1. where the notion of “noble ratio” (Hebrew: ãáëð êøò) is designated “good ratio” (áåè êøò).3:2–3. The same doctrine is mentioned in Kitâb alMadhal. above. xlii:27. Mars-Sun is 211/3:18 and Mars-Moon is 211/3:12. The problematic association between Saturn and the Jews is already present in Roman and early Christian literature and may be readily [3] . Ibn Ezra repeatedly refers in his astrological treatises and biblical commentaries to Aquarius as the sign of Israel. 89a: ìæî姧 §§ìàøùé ìæî àåä éìã (“The sign of Aquarius is the sign of Israel. Ta § 4. See. 1484. pp. without mentioning a specific . e1r: “Sciendum etiam quod adunatio Iovis et Saturni qui in Aquario ante exitu iudeorum de Egypto. IV. where a different method for the allocation of the planets to the mundane houses is offered. That is why these heavenly bodies are called maleficent. bnf 1058.”) Liber de nativitatibus. 5–7: Ibn Abi Damina said … the twelfth house. xlii:25 and comments on it. 1996. 2: The Jews because their sign is Aquarius.” [5] 5: As the first house does. § 1. The ratio Saturn-Sun is 32:18 (16:9) and the ratio Saturn-Moon is 32:12 (8:3). source. IV. which is its house.9:1.chapter four [4] 157 4: The luminaries … they are malefic. “As for Mercury. [2] 1: The essence of death … it moves sluggishly.4:3–6. Cf.5:7.3:7. an unidentified astrologer. § 3. they do not have a proportion. VI:26. 260–262. [6] §4. See above. commentary on Esther 3:7. Corresponds closely to Tb § 5. 1978.

As for the connection between Saturn. 1968. pp. II:4. Ibn Ezra’s long commentary on Exodus 20:13. Augustini. 587–592. p. 2–5: The land of India … of the body. Art of Astrology. that moment is made the startingpoint of the period whose length is equivalent to the number of degrees of the sphere [that is. pp. J. on the analogy of the solar year. covering the years 860 to 500 BC. 65 (quoting Mâshâ"allâh). Migne. pp. a clear connection between the mighty fardâr and the Saturn-Jupiter conjunction may be found in Abû Ma#shar’s Kitâb al-qirânât. Patrologiae Latinae. par. Oxford 1967. See Kitâb al-Ulûf. par. On the Great Conjunctions. 4. col. Ibn Ezra seems to have drawn on the doctrine of the mighty fardâr or dawr. On the Great Conjunctions. See Cornelii Taciti Historiarum Libri.” For the connection between Saturn and the Jews. p. Corresponds to Tb § 5. 1055. p. caput xxi–xxii. See Kitâb al-Ulûf.158 notes to the first version of the book of reasons found in works by medieval Arabic astrologers. For a comprehensive survey of this connection in Ibn Ezra’s work. . is referred to as the period in which Moses appeared and is described as ruled by the sign of Aquarius and the planet Saturn. 2000. 1934.-P. See esp. S. 1968. to be concerned with the astrological elements of the SaturnJews myth and to make a significant contribution towards its further development and absorption within medieval Jewish society. I. . 44–45. 433– 434. If the conjunction indicates a change of religions and dynasties. 321–322. 2004.2:10 and note. [25]. 253. 1979. See On the Great Conjunctions. see Sela. 68–69. al-Qabîsî. Turnhout 1969. I. 2004a. see also below. Moreover. lib. and the Jews. 518. Abraham Ibn Ezra was the first Jewish thinker. IV. See also Zafran. pp. 2000. the Saturn-Jupiter conjunctions. In an astrological history connected to Abû Ma#shar’s Thousands and based on a sequence of mighty fardârât. [4] [5] 6: Seven orifices … the astrologers. pp. I. 60. a cycle of 360 years ruled by a planet and a sign. 1980. 20–25: “One observes when the conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter shifts from one triplicity to another. Tomus 32. Ta § 4. as far as we know. 315. Historiae V. 1934. 1. xlii: 27—xliii:26 and comments on it. p.3:1. Art of Astrology. 2000. the period of the mighty fardârât]. I. Aquarius. De Consensu Evangelistarum. the eighth fardâr in this sequence. which was further divided into four quarters. Quotes verbatim and almost continuously from Rh. ed. Memorias de ‘Abd Allah.

Te #amim I follows Reshit Hokhmah I and employs the .3:14. xliv:12. see note there. 390. Jupiter. … The sun … [is in charge] for the period of nineteen years. … After the sun. expression óåâä çë. Mercury [is dominant]. p.2:2 and note.3:6. fifth in order. See Kitâb al-Madhal. [is in charge for] twelve years. Corresponds closely to Tb § 4. § 2. xliv:10–11.9:2. IV. … In the following period of ten years. . IV.6:1 and note. IV. IV:10. 1994. Mars. 477–486.” Corresponds closely to Tb § 6. … Venus. see below. Notice that ˇ in Hebrew Saturn is called Sabbetai because it is the planet in charge of Shabbat. Comments on Rh. For the doctrine that assigns each of the planets to a day of the week and hours of the day. pp. § 4. pp. taking as his lot the elderly age. i. IV. Comments on Rh. that of youth.3:13. see Art of Astrology. See above. See above. 1996. Tb § 5. which was borrowed from Abû Ma#shar. 10: Know that the days of the week … Wednesday night is in its portion .1:12. Bouché-Leclercq. cf. See Tetrabiblos.2:1–4. … the moon takes over the age of infancy. Comments on Rh. and Tb § 6. For the years of the part of the fardâr. “power of the body”. Quotes from and comments on Rh. xliv:17. [9] 11: I have … any proof. xliv:14–17. [10] 12: The reason … by experience. assumes command of manhood for the space of fifteen years. … Finally to Saturn falls as his lot old age. 8: It indicates old age … from human nature. … Sixth. par. the seventh (and holiest) day in the week. Abbrevia.9:2 and note. 281.e. IV. p. [11] . Ta § 10. “light”. v.chapter four [6] 159 7: It indicates madness … its sluggish motion. again for the space of his own period. taking in charge the third age. 442–447: “For up to about the fourth year.. which lasts for the rest of life. Besides the term øåà. 1899. This is an additional connection between Saturn and the Jews. tion. xliv:13 and corresponds closely to Tb § 5. 35. 1980. Corresponds to Tb § 5. [is in charge] for the next eight years. Quotes from and comments on Rh. the latest period. pp.7:3. VII:3. 1934. 237–238. [7] [8] 9: I have already said … it is cold. Corresponds to Tb § 5.

xliv:19–22.2:6. see Art of Astrology. Here Ibn Ezra employs two different Hebrew roots. and the second of Greek and talmudic origin to denote “bandits” (íéèñì). 9–11. xlv:6. is virtually identical with Ibn Ezra’s approach. IV. xlivi:2–3. xlvii:4–5. For the . § 4. [3] 4: I have already mentioned in Saturn’s chapter.2:6. §4. 22a. 5: I mentioned for Saturn. which Al-Bîrûnî gleaned from Nayrîzî’s Book of Nature. bnf 1058. 1: I have … its nature. See above. See above. § 1. This section quotes verbatim from Rh. 7–8. [4] . Cf. IV.4:1–19. [1] [2] 1: I have … its nature. § 1. 21–24.2:11. § 4.5:15. 7–8 and comments on it. 25–26.5:16. See above.1:6. [2] 4: Theft because it is the work of bandits. connection between the planets and the points of the compass. § 4. 23. the first of biblical origin to denote “theft” (äáéðâ). pp. f. par. 21b–22a. § 4. xliv:24. where three methodologies are reported. bnf 1058. .4 [6] [1] 1: Mars. See above. 20. See also Mishpetei haMazzalot. f. 16.3 1: Jupiter. Comments on Rh. Corresponds loosely to Tb § 5.5:1–12 and Mishpetei haMazzalot. [4] [5] 5: Of the edges … northerly winds. 1934. See above. IV. 236–237.1:5. 3: As I have explained regarding its nature. See above. 389. [3] 5: We have already mentioned … nostril belongs to it. § 4. The first.160 notes to the first version of the book of reasons §4. This section consists of a series of annotations on verbatim quotations from Rh. Tb § 5.

v. § 4. Here Ibn Ezra is probably referring to a supercommentary on this work. See above. [6] 6: The reason for the days … for Saturn.”) [3] 6: The stronger was assigned to it.5:3. See above.3:2. Christendom]. On the connection between "Edom [i. Corresponds to Tb § 5.e. see ‘Olam B. 25–31. xlvii:8. § 8. xlvii:15–20. § 4. §4. 22b: ùîùä åîë òøä úåùòì ìëåéù òø áëåë ïéà ºíéðåîã÷ä ìë åøî১ §§áëåëä äùòî ìèáé éë ¬óøùðì (“All the Ancients said: no malefic planet can cause more harm than the Sun causes to a burned planet . 314: “Sol … et ipse impedit ipse cum sibi coniunctus fuerit aut ei appropinquaverit ultra modum”. IV. Comments on Rh. bnf .chapter four [5] 161 6: Of the edges of the horizon … is cold and moist.2:10.e. For the idea that the Sun is a malefic when it conjoins a planet. Quotes verbatim from Rh. Christendom]. 1996. xlviii:2–6 and comments on it. See above. See above. § 4. . § 4. see Tb § 4. because it cancels the action of the planet. but see De anima 405a29–405b1. Mishpetei haMazzalot. p. VII:9. Corresponds to Tb § 5. and the sign of Leo. 1058. [1] 2: The sensitive soul … Aristotle’s Book on the Soul.1:3. 7: I have already … its body. [6] 1–7: The Sun … power of its body. § 2.1:2. the Sun. see Kitâb al-Madhal. in Leo] a conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter occurred which ushered in the birth of the person whom they deem to be God. and that there [i. See above. bnf 1058.3:5 and note. [2] 3: "Edom. Hebrew íåãà: This is a generic reference to the Christian lands. 89a: àåä äñåðî øáã ÷ø§§ §§äåìà àåäù íéáùåçù ùéàì ãìåéù úøáçîä äúéä åáå ¬íåãàì ùîùå äéøàù (“It has been proven by experience that Leo and the Sun are assigned to "Edom [i. IV. [4] [5] 7: I have already … for Sunday. f. f.e.1:4.2:10–11.5 1: Abû Ma#shar said … devoid of power. [7] .”) For the concept of a “burned” planet.2:12.

according to them. which preceded the rise of the Muslims’ prophet occurred. II:7. [3] [4] 6: I have … power of its body. § 4. 2000.2:11. pp.9:3–4 and note.”) For this Saturn-Jupiter conjunction. xlviii:8– 11. See De Caelo.162 notes to the first version of the book of reasons §4. 89a: íøáã éôì íéìàòîùéä àéáð íå÷ íøè äéää úøáçîä姧 §§áø÷ò ìæîá äéä (“The conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter . 48–52. 2: Those who follow Muslim law … Saturn and Jupiter took place. 24–25. See above. Ta § 10. [2] 5: Its taste is sour … more often than not. bnf 1058. Quotes verbatim from Rh. [5] . I. See above. p. 22. see also On the Great Conjunctions. 127. § 4. 433–434. See below. For the tastes of the planets.5:15. 17. This is a reference to the Saturn-Jupiter conjunctions. [4] §4. the main macro-astrological technique employed by Arab astrologers. § 4. 10. but Ibn Ezra is probably following a super-commentary. pp. § 4. f. Meteorologica I:3. Art of Astrology.6 [1] 1: I have already explained its nature. [3] 1–4: Venus … for Saturn. § 4. § 4. IV. See above. xlix:9–10. see Tb § 5. 253.7 [1] 3: Aristotle said … above the Sun.2:10. 155.2:10. l:6–12 and comments on it.2:22 and note. 3: The Ancients pronounced judgments … about private affairs. and the sign of Scorpio. 1934. As for the connection between Islam. 1971. in the sign of Scorpio. a specific conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter. 16. IV. xlix:1–5 and comments on it.2:11. 20. 1–6: Mercury … power of its body. par. Quotes verbatim from Rh. § 1. Astrological History of Mâshâ"allâh. [2] 4: I have already mentioned … of its body. 28. See above. see #Olam B.2:12.2:12.

[7] 8: I have already explained the power of its body. § 4. see Kitâb al-Madhal. Ta § 4. 311) nor in his in his Abbreviation (cf. v. Abbreviation. Hebrew íéúøùîäå This puns on the Hebrew word íéúøùî. p.2:17. [9] §4. Corresponds to Tb § 5.2:15. See note there. IV. 3: Servants.5:9–12. 1996. 264.9 1: Places of joy … quarrels and prison. [3] [4] 6: It indicates infancy … above the Earth.2:12.v. [5] [6] 7: Of the edges of the horizon … begins to wax. [8] 1–8: The Moon … power of its body. See above. 8: Abû Ma#shar said … its years are 108. This explanation appears neither in Abû Ma#shar’s Great Introduction (cf. See above. IV. § 4. Quotes verbatim from and comments on Rh. [2] íéúøùîäî äèîì äúåéä øåáòá. li:3–8.12:1–6.6:15 and note. because it is below the planets. 1996. It corresponds closely to Tb § 5. See above. See above § 3. Kitâb al-Madhal. and Glossary s.chapter four §4.6:3. p. 1994. li:3. VI:27. 5: Familiar wisdom. § 1. p. 81). l:13–26.8 [1] 163 1: I have already mentioned the reason for its nature. . where Abû Ma#shar is not mentioned as the source. V:8. . which literally means “servants” but functions in Ibn Ezra’s idiosyncratic scientific nomenclature as a technical designation for the planets. See Tb § 1. Art of Astrology. § 4. Corresponds to Tb § 4. “planet”. 6: I have already mentioned … mother and sisters.3:5 and note. [1] . v. For the doctrine of the joys of the planets in the mundane houses. 31.1:5 cf. Comments on Rh.2:1 and note. See above.

308. Hebrew ÷åçø å÷öåîù úåäáâä ìâìâá äìåò õøàä ÷öåîî. powers and weaknesses of the planets. in his . 23. [2] §5. which quotes from Kitâb al-Madhal. p. p. pp. commentary on Job 37:10 he even asserted that it is equivalent to the earth. Thus the corresponding section of Te #amim I. . avoided altogether the standard Hebrew word merkaz. par.1:5–7. [1] 2–5: The reason that Saturn … its house of exaltation. 257. 441. 2004. p. which stands as a point in the middle of the orbs. misfortune. 511. §5. This literal expression is a reference to a planet when [2] . 277. 304– . I:14. See Sela. [1] 3: Rises in the circle of the apogee whose center is far from the center of the Earth. li:28–30. In his commentaries on Job 38:16 and 38 Ibn Ezra explained that musaq denotes the center point of the circle. p. 1996. par. I:70. which derives from the Arabic markaz and was freely employed by contemporaneous Jewish writers. Abbreviation. 1996. is an almost verbatim translation into Hebrew of Kitâb al-Madhal. men Astrologicum. Art of Astrology. 162. par. from Reshit Hokhmah I and referring to it. V. p.2 3: Center. or strong. I:1. 2004. without connection to the account of the planets or of the mundane houses. al-Qabîsî. The fifth chapter of Reshit Hokhmah I (Rh. v. pp. Car. p. p. 2003a. Comments on Rh. 1934. 55.1 1: Fifth Chapter … because it is known. . Ibn Ezra frequently used the peculiar neologism musaq throughout his work and . 1976.164 notes to the first version of the book of reasons 1934. 1994. stable. where a different method for the allocation of the planets to the mundane houses is offered. V. 113–116. although quoting . as specified in the following notes. al-Qabîsî. See above. . Hebrew ÷öåî. solid. p. relevant parts of the Great Introduction by Abû Ma#shar. 31. This doctrine is mentioned only once in Rh. lii:18. § 4. 53. li:9–liii:18). 515. VII:6. 305. See also Abbreviation. VII:6. V. 1994. lit. v. p. dealing with the good fortune. is a commentary on the . 469.

2004. See also Abbreviation. See note there. lii:28–29—liii:1–4. p. Identical expression are employed in Rh. 1996.6:5 the word íéðåéìò describes the stars of the superlunary domain that exert astrological influence on the Earth. 1994. lii:1–3. pp. I:4. p. 57. V. [1] §6. See also Abbreviation. in § 5. 1994. lii:1–2 and Ibn al-Muthannâ’s Commentary. Tb § 4. pp. uppermost. VII:2. al. VII:6. [3] 3: As for the explanation … riding his horse. 101. p. dealing . Tetrabiblos. [5] 1–9: The explanation for the power … its [the Sun’s] house of dejection. v. closely to Tb § 5. namely. lxvi:9. 297. 307. corresponds to Kitâb al-Madhal. p.6:6 the word ïåéìò characterizes the human soul. p. . Hebrew ïåéìò. It corresponds . 1994. which according to Ibn Ezra is of the nature of the angels (see Ibn Ezra’s long commentary on Exodus 3:15). which quotes from Kitâb alMadhal. with the conditions of the planets in themselves and with respect to the Sun. Cf. Whereas in § 5. v. 32–39. § 4. 2004.1 [1] 1: Sixth Chapter. VII:1. VII:6. 1971. V.9:1–5. . p. [6] § 5. 305. p. Cf. See also Abbreviation. V. “eccentric circle”. which quotes from Kitâb al-Madhal. 149. Qabîsî. The sixth chapter of Reshit Hokhmah I. This plays on the Hebrew word ïåéìò.chapters five and six 165 it reaches the apogee of its eccentric circle. 53.1:1 and see also Glossary s. . al-Qabîsî. II:48. Corresponds to Tb § 4. 1996. 1996. . [4] 6: Superior. 1967. 89. 4: But Ptolemy says … is at apogee. Comments on Rh.v.3 1–3: As for what they said … require an explanation.7:3. VIII. pp. See above. 1980. v. Comments on Rh. 35–39. Kitâb al-Mawâlîd. 273–281.1:1 and Rh.

9–24. liii:23–31. 90a.v. VI. 93 b: ìâìâ àø÷ðä ìåãâä åìâì⧧ §§÷öåîä (“Its great circle. VI. VII:2.3 1–5: The astrological judgments … circles are the same. VII:1. Refers to the “place of burning. which corresponds to Kitâb al-Madhal. 278–280. pp. which corresponds to Kitâb alMadhal. 1996. pp. p. 1996. lv:24–lvi:8. are phases of the Moon that are considered to have influence on the weather. v. particularly on rain. Corresponds to Tb § 4. Hebrew ìåãâä ìâìâä. v. Comments on Rh. 1996. lit. variously given as 8 or 12. [1] 6: I shall explain … in the Book of the World: Comments on Rh. VI.3:3. [1] [2] 4: Two Mercuries in the orb. bnf 1058. the great circle: For this meaning. I. 51b: §§õøàä ÷öåîî ÷åçø å÷öåîù ìåãâä åìâìâá åúåäá⧧ (“Its apogee in its great circle whose center is far from the center of the Earth. §6. § 1. “eccentric circle”.” See above. v. VII:2.”) See Glossary s. 273–276. § 2. which is called the eccentric circle. bnf 1058. Corresponds closely to . .2:3 and note. See also On the Great Conjunctions. Comments on Rh. [3] 5: Domain of burning. [2] . f. § 5.5:2. The keys or centers of the Moon. 1996. 280–281. 2000. pp. Tb § 4. v. Comments on Rh. pp. VII:2. see #Olam B. which corresponds to Kitâb al-Madhal. bnf 1056. VI.2 2: Eccentric circle. . although the keys of the Moon are also described in detail in #Olam B. bnf 1056. 84b. which corresponds to Kitâb al-Madhal. liv:28–lv:23.16:5 and note. Reference is here made to #Olam A. 276–278. [4] § 6. See above. f. 481.3:1–11. f.166 [2] notes to the first version of the book of reasons 1: What they have mentioned … center of the Earth. .”) See also Moladot. 1–5: The reason why a planet in conjunction … are well known. f.

2:1 and note. Corresponds to Tb § 4. the lord of the decan has four. I. viii:13–15. band of the girdle. two powers to the lord of the term. íå÷îá íâ ¬äøøùä úåîå÷î äùéîçá úøùî ìëì ùé äìùîî äî ìëúñä ®íéúøùîä ìòáìå ¬äòáøà ãåáëä ìòáìå ¬úåçë äùéîç úéáä ìòáì ïúå ®åîöòá úøùîä (“I now explain you the powers of the planets. the lord of the term has two. 48a. VII:5. 1996. See Abbreviation. See above. bnf 1058. 292–304. Hebrew äãåôàä áùç. 41. f. For an example in an Arabic introduction to astrology. “ecliptic”. VII. § 6. see al-Qabîsî. Moladot. VII:5. p. 89a. 4–10: If you wish to know … of them is victorious. 1994. one power to the lord of the face.2:1. f. p. [5] 5: Powers. § 3. See above. § 1.1 167 1: Seventh Chapter. ff. Comments on Rh. defin. p. which is a translation of Kitâb al-Madhal. ing a series of astrological scenarios in which more than one planet participate. 33: “Knowledge of the powers … . three powers to the lord of triplicity. four powers to the lord of exaltation.” §§®ãçà íéðôä øùìå ¬íéðù ìåáâä ìòáìå ¬äùìù úåùéìùä [6] 7: The more power it appears to have. See Mishpetei haMazalot.”) For similar examples in Ibn Ezra’s work. . See above. [1] [2] 3: Ecliptic.v. See Glossary.3:3. the lord of the house has five powers. lvi:31–lvii:5. #Olam B. v. I:22. is an almost verbatim Hebrew translation of Kitâb al-Madhal. lit. § 5. 1–3: “Getting close” … a true conjunction. see note there. The seventh chapter of Reshit Hokhmah I. 22a–22b: úåçë êì ùøôà äúò姧 . Hebrew úåçë. . pp. bnf 1058. Assign five powers to the lord of the house. s.chapter seven §7. This word conveys the notion of quantifiable astrological influence or of a scale of astrological powers. 2004. 293. bnf 1056. [3] [4] 4: Eccentric circle. the lord of the triplicity has three. v. see Rh. [7] . the lord of the exaltation has four. Observe the sway which every planet exerts in the five places of domination and in the place where the planet is as well.2:2 and note.4:1–3. 1996.

VIII. Cf. VII. lxiii:24–25 and comments on it. § 4. [2] § 8. VII:5. pp.1:1–5. VII.5:1–4. [3] 4: As for what they said … but not for Mars.8:1–10. Ta § 10. 2: These expressions … I do not know why . VIII. . Kitâb alMadhal. See above. Comments on Rh. VIII. VII.v. Quotes from Rh. specified in the following notes. See above. § 10. [3] §7. 299. 8. [1] [2] 2: The reason for making … to the Earth. Comments on Rh. the eighth chapter of Te #amim I comments on a miscellany of them. VIII. lviii:20. the doctrines of nativities and interrogations (Rh.. § 10.2:1.168 notes to the first version of the book of reasons § 7. v.4:1–8. 9. See above. 1996. Quotes from Rh. lxii:9—lxvii:5). 292–293. lxiii:25–26 and comments on it. s. Hebrew äãåôàä áùç.1 1: Eighth chapter … are well known. Comments on Rh. “ecliptic”. § 10.2:1. [1] 1–4: If the two planets … equal to the latitude. [2] 5: I shall say … in the tenth chapter. [4] .2 1: Ecliptic. See below. 3: As for what they said … misfortune is mitigated. There is no trace of these names in Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos.6:1–6. § 3. band of the girdle. note on § 1.7:1–7. Quotes from Rh.2:5.3 [1] 1: As for what … is well known. lit. . VII:5. Whereas the eighth chapter of Reshit Hokhmah I consists of 120 astrological “judgments” related to . lxii:17–18 and comments on it. Corresponds closely to Tb § 4. lviii:10–14. 1996. Corresponds to Kitâb al-Madhal. § 10. pp. lviii:28—lix:11. as . v.

VIII.12:14 and note. Quotes from Rh. which is based on rational thinking.chapter eight [5] 169 5: As for what they said … the Persian scientists. et exibunt 30 gradus equales qui vocantur signun et est eorum initium a puncto intersectionis duorum circulorum maiorun. See above. Quotes from Rh. 9: The testimonies … are correct. By means of this expression Ibn Ezra seems to convey the idea that according to Ptolemy’s method for dividing the signs. § 2. Evans. per 12 equalia. See also Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. Ptolemy’s methodology is virtually identical with that presented in Ta §2. lxiv:29–30 and comments on it. 6: But Ptolemy laughs … another particular spot. 1947. [9] [10] 8: As for what they said … unnatural death. 1998. 83–84) and between úåéàøä êøã “method of giving proofs” and ïéòä úéàøî “observation” (Ta § 2. 213–214. [8] 7: As for the pits … the Indian scientists said. p. which represents Ptolemy’s methodology. VIII. Quotes from Rh. which represents the methodology of the Indian scientists. Here Ibn Ezra is probably referring to the Babylonian method. The same distinction corresponds to the contrast between “secundum cogitationem” and “secundum visum” (Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. 1969. VIII. lxiv:13–14 and comments on it. lxiv:28 and comments on it. Notice here the contrast between áìä úáùçî “mental construct”. VIII. VIII. 84: “Sententia Ptholomei est ut dividamus gradus circuli firmamenti. 1947. p. 188. 104. 15. pp. See Neugebauer. Refers to Rh.12:13). which shifted the equinoctial points by 8° or 10° with respect to the Greek approach that was accepted by later astronomers and astrologers. lxv: 18—lxvi:5. the signs are an arbitrary and mental construct rather than physical entities.” [6] [7] 6: The signs are not separated. 6: The same applies … from that sign. and ïéòä äàøîì òåãé íå÷î “a particular observable spot”.12:13 (see note there). pp. 485 n. [11] . qui sunt 360. in a comparison with the approach of the scientists of India for the division of the zodiacal signs. Quotes from Rh. lxiv:3 and comments on it.

Testimonies: a testimony given by a planet burned by the rays of the Sun. which begins as follows: íéãò §á éô ìò ÷ø ïéã íåù ïéãú àì êì øîùä姧 óøùð àåäù áëë úåãò ºúåéãòä ®íúåìñôå íúåøùëå úåéãò êì ùøôà äúòå ¬íéøùë áåèì úéðøåçà áù áëë ìë úåãò ®úîé÷ òøì íà äìåñô áåèì íà ùîùä øåàá §§… äìåñô òøìå (“Take care to pass judgment only by means of two fit witnesses. The word éðøåô derives from the Latin furnus “oven”. if it indicates evil it comes to pass. Beisah . which is the distance from the sun to the moon. par. 476. 1980. § 4.”) § 9. and which extends to an equal distance from the horoscope in the order of the following signs. [1] 2: As for those who say … the other lots. whatever relation and aspect the sun bears to the horoscope. For the term in Hebrew. lxvii:14–16. 275–277: “Take as the Lot of Fortune always the amount of the number of degrees. pp. For a similar statement about Ptolemy. lit. p. both by night and by day. and that it may be as it were a lunar horoscope. [5] . [2] 2: I saw them recorded in Doronius’ book. This is not the Arabic translation translated and edited in Carmen Astrologicum. as recorded in Rh. This passage refers to Moladot. where no systematic treatment of the lots is noticeable. is unfit. lxvii:15–16. See Tetrabiblos. 1934. Comments on Rh. if it indicates good. see Babylonian Talmud Pesahim 31b. 1976. a servant who tends an oven. This is a reference to Mâshâ"allâh’s Book of the Experiments (úåðåéñðä øôñ). IX. Hebrew éðøåô úøùî. the moon also may bear to the Lot of Fortune. [3] [4] 5: As we have mentioned.1:1. the meaning is clearly astrological.170 [12] notes to the first version of the book of reasons 9: In the Book of Nativities I shall refer to what is fit to give testimony and to what is unfit. See above.1 1: Ptolemy acknowledges … from the Moon. the testimony given by every retrograde planet is unfit. ff. in order that. . ìåñô = unfit). 48a– 48b. Although here Ibn Ezra is employing halakhic terminology (øùë = fit. 7: A baker’s servant. whether it indicates good or evil. see Art of Astrology. IX. 282. which are fit and which are unfit.” Corresponds to Tb § 7. III:10. Now I will explain the testimonies. bnf 1056.1:5.

§ 4. . then the son of the duke will become king and the son of the servant will become a merchant. Cf. . because of the increased heat of the sun there . … The fifth rule is concerned with the social rank of the family. therefore. See Moladot. bnf 1056. 46a). Ibn Ezra expanded on the same two ideas of this illustration in the second and fifth rules of the introduction to Sefer ha-Moladot.5:6. 1996. Ibn Ezra employs a similar s illustration in the introduction to Sefer ha-Moladot (Moladot. 2004. one of them the son of a duke and the other the son of a baker’s servant. inasmuch as it is impossible for a wise person to be born in Ethiopia. and the horoscope of each predicts that they will rise to higher rank and supreme power. p. 283. bnf 1056. lxviii:6–11 and corresponds to Tb § 7.”) §9. See above. IX. pp. See following note. etc. v. f. 7–8: As an illustration … his father was not wise. where he compares the astrological fate of a man who tends a furnace and a prince born at the same time and in the same city. V:4. 476. 1934.chapter nine 171 34a. his temperament will not be balanced and we will judge that he will be cleverer than his countrymen. par. p. … Thus. 46a: áëë ãìåîä ìò èéìùä äéä íà äëëå … íéìåáâä úàôî §áä êøãä姧 [6] ùåë õøàá íëç úåéäì ïëúé àì éë ¬äîëç éðéî ìëá íëç äéäéù ïéãð àì äîç ãâðë ïéáî äéäéù ïéãð ÷ø äøùé åúãìåú äéäé àì 맧ò ¬ùîùä íåç øáâúä øåáòá äðéãîá §à òâøá íéãìåð §á åéä íà éë ¬äçôùîä úàôî §ää êøãäå §§øçåñ äéäé úøùîä ïáå êìî áåùé äðùîä ïá äðä ¬äðåéìò äøøùìå … åæåçî éùðà ääåáâ äìòîì úåìòì ãìåîä çëá ùéå ¬éðøåô úøùî ïá §áäå äðùî ïá ãçàäå ¬úçà (“The second rule is related to the climates. If two children are born at the same moment in the same country. 335–337. [2] . 1–5: The reason for the lots … Mars swiftness. if the lord of the nativity is the planet Mercury. Art of Astrology. Avodah Zarah 35b. VIII:4. where additional lots are . al-Qabîsî. assigned to the first mundane house. which he completed just after the first version of Sefer ha-Te#amim. we will not judge that the newborn will be wise in any science.2 [1] 4: As I have mentioned. Kiduˇim 62a. Comments on Rh.2:1–3. 141. See Kitâb alMadhal. f.

See also Art of Astrology. etc. His brief.172 [3] notes to the first version of the book of reasons 6: Similarly with the rest … to mention them. so that “that the distance from the middle of the houses of the luminaries is 20 degrees. 478.” thereby denoting the idea that only if one begins counting degrees from Cancer 15° and from Leo 15° is the symmetry of both lots in both planetary houses of a single planet preserved. IX. and cast out from the Moon. §9. First. it is implied that the count should begin from the same degree in both Cancer and Leo. thereby making clear that the counting of the degrees is clockwise from Cancer 15° and counterclockwise from Leo 15°. 5:12. IX. II. then it is taken from the Moon to the fifteenth degree of Cancer and cast out from the Sun. par.” Second..e. Here Ibn Ezra attempts to give an arithmetical explanation of why one should begin counting degrees precisely “from the fifteenth degree in both houses of the luminaries” (Cancer and Leo) in order to cast out the lots of the number of days of the kings in the two houses of a single planet (i. preserve the symmetry but have different values. is that “there is no place where the ratio is always equal. see On the Great Conjunctions.3 1: The lot of kingship … a single planet.. [1] [2] 2: I have already mentioned … of the Sun. Cancer 1° and Leo 29°. Corresponds to al-Qabîsî. . and that only Cancer 15° and Leo 15° meet the requirement of preserving the symmetry. the picture is clarified at § 9. [3] . lxxii:2–20. 2004. Cancer 30° and Leo 30°. and not at Gemini 5°. § 2. V:17. See above. 151. p. pairs like Cancer 0° and Leo 0°. Note in this regard that whereas pairs such as Cancer 29° and Leo 1°. 290. pp. 2–3: There is no place where the ratio … similarly with all. etc. where he explains that if one lot is cast at Virgo 5° the other is cast at Gemini 25°.. and similarly with all. Virgo and Gemini for Mercury). p. 2000.2:4–31. but not very clear. answer. 151–153: “The lot of the duration of the rule is taken at the time of the accession of the king from the Sun to the fifteenth degree of Leo.5:1–2.” The same lot is also studied by Abû Ma#shar in The Book of Religions and Dynasties. Refers to Rh. 1934. Cancer 14° and Leo 14°.3:3. lxviii:11—lxxi:16 and corresponds to Tb § 7. Two points are useful for understanding Ibn Ezra’s meaning. Quotes from and comments on Rh.

5:11. IX. see above. [2] [3] 3: Rising times for the country. 3: In the Tetrabiblos … rising times for the country. 1934. Mâshâ"allâh and the Ancients. § 3. bnf 1058. Mesella. Albumassar et posteri omnes. Enoc. 1998.2 1–5: Now pay attention … of the south [i. 1–5: All of the Ancients … instructions to work them out.1 [1] 3: Sphaera recta. is found in the fourth Latin version of Ibn Ezra’s Book of the Astrolabe. III:10. A similar discussion of the aspects. [1] . lxxii:32–lxxiii:9. . pp. 67ro: “Sed magistri probationum Ptolomeo super hoc non consentiunt et iudicant respectus sine uariatione in omni loco secundum gradus equales quomodo cumque se habet planeta uel in qualibuscumque sit signis … et de hoc quidem genere scilicet secundo dissentiunt Ptolomeus.3:3.e. 4: What Enoch said … the nature of its lord. Ibn Ezra uses this expression to denote the entry in a set of astronomical tables where the rising times for specific terrestrial latitudes (representing different countries or cities in the ecumene) are given.ei ha-Mazzalot and in the Latin version t of Ibn Ezra’s Book of the Astrolabe.. § 10. [4] §10. See Art of Astrology. See Tb § 1. pp. Evans. See Mishpetei haMazzalot.1:2. 1980.chapter ten 173 have the same values but do not preserve the symmetry. in the tropics]. Enoch. 100–103. 15. An identical twofold methodology for calculating the mundane houses is noticeable in Mishpe. II:8.” For Ya#qub alKindî’s approach. 291. § 10. f. See also below. 1984. Comments on Rh. pp. 479. 110–111. Arundel 377. [4] §10. p.2:7 and note. Thus the only pair of degrees in Cancer and Leo that both preserves the symmetry and has the same value is Cancer 15° and Leo 15°. 17. par. See Astrolabio. For an example of such tables. Hebrew õøàä éãòöî. See Tetrabiblos. with the participation of Ptolemy. see Almagest. 287–307.

64b–65a. IV:11. 17–18. IX. duas tertias. It is explained in al-Qabîsî. . See Nehoshet A. Hebrew íéâåäéð (Greek. 22: “Unus autem modus equationis domorum est ut cuique domui XXX gradus tribuantur. Hebrew âäðì. For this term and the astrological procedure underlying it see Tb § 8. 1940. Mant. Arabic. incipiendo a gradu oriente. 6–7: All the astrologers agree … the corrections.3 [1] 1: Directions. The problem of calculating the twelve mundane houses is discussed in similar lines in the four versions of Ibn Ezra’s Book of the Astrolabe. Alteri uero que est secundum cuiusque terre latitudinem. f.174 f. f. 2004. This division is called “planar division” and it has one-third of the power in the judgments of the zodiacal signs. pp. do likewise for all the houses. p. or if two houses fall into one sign. what [2] . and do not be disturbed if one house comes out small and another very large. . The planet that is calculated by the ‘division of the rising times’ has two-thirds of the power. 1940. 158a–158b. Calculate the cusps of all the houses by the method of the rising times. 16a: notes to the first version of the book of reasons §ì ïåùàøä úéáì ïúå ìæîäî äìåòä äøùéä äìòîä äàø ºäùòú äëë姧 úéùéìù åì ùéå øåùéîä ÷åìç àø÷é ÷åìçä äæå ®íéúáä ìëì äëëå ¬úåøùé úåìòî êéúàøä øùàë ¬íéãòöîä êøãá íéúáä ìë úìçú äùòå ®úåìæîä éèôùîá çë åéäéù åà ¬ãàî ìåãâ øçàå ïè÷ ãçà úéá àöé íà ùåçú àìå ¬úåçåìä øôñá §§®íéãòöîä ÷åìçá äååää áëåëì çëä úåéùéìù éðù äðäå ®ãçà ìæîá íéúá éðù (“Proceed as follows: observe the equal ascending degree of the sign and assign 30 equal degrees to the first mundane house. tasyîr. and you want to know what is the distance between the two in equatorial degrees—that is. Astrolabio.”) See Astrolabio. bnf 1061. Iudiciorum quidem auctores huius equationis domibus tertiam uirtutis iudiciorum secundum domos attribuunt. indicator to a position on the ecliptic. 121 as follows: “This is that you move an . Latin: ductus). p.” Ibn Ezra presents a similar twofold method for calculating the lots in Rh. 2: Direct. Nehoshet C. 46b–47a. . lxxiv:27– lxxv:4. aphesis. Pinsker 26. This verb denotes the calculations associated with the procedure of direction (see previous note). Nehoshet B. as I showed it to you in the Book of the Tables. [2] §10.6:2 and note. f. 10.

Kokhavim. See Astrolabio.chapter ten 175 is rotated of the time-degrees of the equator with regard to the position from which it is moved until it is in the position to which it is moved. pp. has mentioned them in his book. Ibn Ezra applies the same twofold methodology to the mundane houses. This chapter depends on chapter LIV of Al-Battani’s Zîj al-Sâbi. 129–131. A similar twofold methodology for calculating the directions is found in the Latin version of Ibn Ezra’s Book of the Astrolabe. the aspects. As in Ta § 10. See Heshbon Mahalkhot haKokhavim. et est unus modus cum gradibus equalibus … alteri modo que est secundum latitudinem terre. See Astrolabio. 25: “Ductus bifarii sunt.” [1] 3: The aforementioned Nasi … its latitude. 1903. pp. Ibn Ezra was in all likelihood aware of this. in chapter XX of Abraham Bar Hiyya’s . respectus planetarum et ductus. [5] §10.2:1. See above.4 1: There are two methods for reckoning the aspects. Hebrew õøàä éãòöî. as well as in the Latin version of Ibn Ezra’s Book of the Astrolabe. and the directions. Heshbon Mahalkhot ha-Kokhavim (Computation of the motions of stars). equatio domorum. Quotes from Rh. 111–112. in altero uero dissentiunt. since he explicitly mentions “the book by Al-Battani” as one of his sources in Rh.” [4] 6: R. § 10. . 1959. p.3:1. See Heshbon Mahalkhot haKokhavim. 1959. [2] . Abraham. the Nasi. Opus Astronomicum. lxxv:9–21 and comments briefly on it. et in uno modo subsistendi omnes sapientes consentiunt. X. . tria autem hec sunt. § 10. lxxv:22. and § 10.1:3 and note. . 22: “Tria sunt coherentia et quidque illorum trium duobus modis subsistit. X. This is a reference to another section of chapter XX of Bar Hiyya’s Heshbon Mahalkhot ha. This is a reference to the section headed íéáëåëä úåëåìäú ïåáùç øãñ òé÷øä éúá ìëá. “procedure for calculating the processions of the stars in all the heavenly houses”.” [3] 3: Rising times for the country. pp.4:1. cf. 1–5: In like manner … degree of the ascendant. 1940. 112–117. 1940. p.

Nehoshet . Nehoshet C. 64v°. 45a. . [3] 19: Book of the Astrolabe … I have explained there. 1947. f. f. n. 59b. 30–31. . Pinsker 26. we read: äùòîá íà éë ïâåäë íúåùòì ìëåú àì äìà íéèáî䧧 §§åéöç åà íìù àåäù úùçð éìëá íð÷úì ìëåúå ¬úåçåìä (“You would not be able to calculate adequately these aspects unless you use astronomical tables. Nehoshet B. cf. 36a. in the third version of Keli haNehoshet. as in the Latin version. 160–161. vesp. f. 10. 2003a. . f.5:3–4. . 65b. as well . Astrolabio. which corresponds to the degree that comes out from the calculation in § 10. Comments on Rh. 2006. Pinsker 26. Mant. pp. [2] 1–18: Now I give you a method … above the Earth [i. p. [1] 6: If the result yields more degrees than the degree obtained by the calculation. See Nehoshet B. Nehoshet A. bnf 1058. 150a. . ff. n. Sela-Freudenthal. C. which corresponds to the result of the calculation in § 10. f.176 [3] notes to the first version of the book of reasons 1–8: In like manner … rising times. 48b. Hebrew õøàä çåì. . shet C. pp. arundel 377. Ibn Ezra informs us that a standard astrolabe is equipped with seven thin plates—symbolically representing the seven climates of the ecumene—on which is engraved a stereographic projection of the heavens for these particular geographical latitudes. §10. lot. . 10. 26a–26b and Liber de Rationibus Tabularum.. 2006. f. 10. p. ff. Astrolabio. 28. and you would be able to correct them by means of an astrolabe that is complete or semi-complete. that is. Astrolabio. 1940. a II. above the horizon]. 34) and before Reshit Hokhmah I (see Sela. 28.e. X. f.”) According to the third version of [4] . In all three versions of Sefer Keli ha-Nehoshet (Book of the Astrolabe). lxxv:9–21. See Nehoshet A. 34). 163a. A similar method is offered in Mishpetei haMazza. bnf 1061. Pinsker 26.5 3: Latitude plate of the astrolabe . 62a. In Neho. Here Ibn Ezra compares two values: (a) “the result” (øáåçîä). Mant. 38v°. In Hebrew these plates are referred to as õøàä çåì “plate of the country”. f. and (b) “the degree obtained by the calculation” (àöéù äìòîä ïåáùçä íù).5:2. bnf 1061. written in 1148 (see Sela-Freudenthal. 64b.

proceed in the following manner … quartile and trine. bnf 1056. and find the sum in the rising times of the signs on the plate of the astrolabe for the country. that there are 87° and 15 between one revolution and another. A similar method for the calculation of the aspects is given in Mishpetei haMazzalot. add the remainder to them.chapter ten 177 Keli haNehoshet.3:1–5. consists of adding 87° 15 to the revolution of each year. [1] . … Take the plate of the astrolabe for the country where the native was born and take the rising times you find for the ascendant. … This method is equivalent to the method of adding 87 degrees 15 minutes . The equivalent method. f.”) úôñåú êøã íò äåù àöú êøãä äæå §§éúøáñä øùàë äðù ìëì 姧è 槧ô §10. See Nehoshet C. but the rete of the semi-complete astrolabe divides each zodiacal sign into 15° and its plate has 45 arcs of equal azimuth. The same method is described in Tb §6.6 1: So. as explained in the section devoted to íéðùä úåôå÷ú “revolutions of the years” in Sefer ha-Moladot. as I have explained. Pinsker 26. ff. . and from the ascendant you can find the seasonal hour. . ff. take what you find opposite the number of equal degrees of the zodiac. 59a–59b. the rete of a complete astrolabe divides each zodiacal . from which you know the ascendant at the beginning of the year. 20: Book of Nativities … I have mentioned here . sign into 30° and its plate has 90 arcs of equal azimuth (íéøùâ). bnf 1058. 25b–26a. See Moladot. 58b–59b: ÷åãá àåäù úîàäå … íéðùä úåôå÷ú§§ [5] äôå÷ú ïéá äéäúù ¬ãçà ÷ìç åìéôà åá ùáúùð àìå ¬äðù §øî øúåé íåéäî äñåðîå ç÷å ãìåðä íù äéäù õøàä çåìá ñðëäå … íé÷ìç 姧è íâ úåìòî 槧ô äôå÷úå ù÷áå ¬øàùðä ïåáùçä íäéìò óñåäå ¬úçîåöä äìòîä ãâðë àöîúù íéãòöîä øôñîä ãâðë àöîúù äî ç÷å ¬õøàä çåìá úåìæîä éãòöîá øáåçîä ïåáùçë äìòîäîå ¬äðùä úìéçúá úçîåöä äìòîä òãú æà ¬úåìæîä ìâìâî úåøùé úåìòîî … úúååòîä äòùä àéöåäì ìëåú úçîåöä (“Revolutions of the years: … By now it has been tried and tested for more than 200 years and there has not even been an error of one minute.

bnf 1058. and so on. 57–59). which moves one sign every 100 solar years. p.#Olam. 1964. lxxv:27–lxxvi:10. X. beginning with Aries. He was probably acquainted with it through Abû Ma#shar’s Kitâb al-Ulûf. see Tb §6. This is a reference to the small fardâr. f. distributed to the seven planets and to the Head and Tail of the Dragon in the order of their exaltations. [3] 2: The annual direction … including Ptolemy. 517. 1964. 60a–60b. § 10. 1: This is the opinion … Ptolemy laughs at them. [4] . lxxvi:6–9. Kennedy. See #Olam A. 1980. or a later work based on it. see Tetrabiblos. It corresponds to Tb § 5.6:1.6:1 and note. IV:10. f. par. 1934. 321. pp. 1968. bnf 1056. 438. See Kitâb al-Ulûf.178 notes to the first version of the book of reasons §10. [2] 2: Only the direction … verified by experience. and the small intihâ". This is the typical way in which Ibn Ezra denotes that Ptolemy does not mention the Intihâ"t in the Tetrabiblos.1:13. hundreds and decades. The astrological impact of these cycles is proportionate to the length of their periods. 63–64. 1968. 28–29. pp. ff. 62–63. the big intihâ". thus. par. pp. which has a period of 75 years. pp. pp. and with respect to genethlialogy in Sefer ha-Moladot. pp. which study general astrology. which moves one zodiacal sign every 1000 solar years. As indicated by Ibn Ezra. This refers to a system of four cycles called Intihâ"t. this technique is of Sassanian origin (See Kitâb al-Ulûf. 1968. Kennedy. see above.9 [1] 1: As for the directions … thousands. Art of Astrology. bnf 1056. For Ptolemy subscribing to the direction of the sign each year. which moves one sign every 10 solar years. For the latter quote. These are the mighty intihâ". 516–517. 319–321. p. 255. which moves one sign every solar year. utilized in general prognostications to determine the dominant zodiacal or planetary influence at any particular moment in time. For the direction of the sign each year. Art of Astrology. the mighty intihâ" indicates prophets and law-givers.9:1 and note. #Olam B. the big intihâ" indicates revolutions in dynasties and religious disputes. the middle intihâ". 91a. Notice that Ibn Ezra does not mention these cycles in the two versions of Sefer ha#Olam. See Kitâb al-Ulûf. Moladot. § 6. Comments on Rh. 60. 453. Comments on Rh. Ibn Ezra expands considerably on the subject with respect to general astrology in both version of Sefer ha. 82a. 1934. X. 26–28.

1934. f. 320: “The degrees at which Saturn and Jupiter meet in conjunction. the periods of the three well-known types of Saturn-Jupiter conjunctions but instructs the astrologer to “direct” them (§§úøáçîä âäðì êì ùé äëë姧). ‘Olam B. where Ibn Ezra not merely describes. all move in the direction of the succession of the signs through a whole sign in a complete year. X. For this special type of directions. Cf. as is usual. bnf 1056. 517. par. [6] . bnf 1058. together with the ascendant of that time. and the ascendant of the year of the conjunction. 13–21. 88b.chapter ten [5] 179 3–4: The upper planets … two upper planets .” 4: I shall explain this topic further in the Book of the World: This is a reference to the various types of Saturn-Jupiter conjunctions. 81a. p. as expounded in #Olam A. f. Comments on Rh. see Art of Astrology.

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part three SECOND VERSION OF THE BOOK OF REASONS BY ABRAHAM IBN EZRA hebrew text and english translation .

182 second version of the book of reasons à26 1 íéîåøî éðãôà ïëåù øæòá íéîòèä øôñ ìçà 1§ ìë éë éúòãé íðîàå (2) ®4äîëç úéùàø øôñì 3ãñåî íåùì éúìàåä 2àð äðä (1) 1 äîëç éúãîì àìå ºøåâà 5éøáãë ¬àøåðäå ãáëðä íùä ãåñá ãåîòì äàìé øöåð àìù íòèäå 6¬ãøéå íéîù äìò éî ºøîà ïë ìò íãà éðáì 9òéãåä åúãøáå äîù äìò éî éë áì éîëç ¬11íìåàå åñð íâ ¬íéîùä 14 (6) 10 ¿íéîù úå÷åç 13 (3) ®íéëàìîä íäù ¬íéùåã÷ úòãå (4) ®íéîù 8úëàìî äîìù úòã 7òãð úòãéä ºáåéàì øîà íùäå (5) ¿úîà éøáã 12 ìà íùôð äúìò úåãîä úîëç íìñáå øåã øçà øåã åùôç ®íãéá äìòå úåáø íéîòô ®åìâìâá ãçà ìë ¬íéúøùî äòáù øåáòá ¬äòáù íä íéìâìâä éë åðéàø ¬ãåòå 15 äðäå íéáø íéîéá åúòåðú íéìùîä ïî äèîì àåä íéèòî íéîéá åúòåðú íéìùîäå (1) 2 (2) 18 (3) ®17äìåãâ äéäú äðåéìòä íìåòìå äìåâò êåúá äìåâò úåéä øåáòá ¬16åéîéî úà ìôùä øéúñé åøáç íò íéúøùîäî ãçà øáçúé øùàë åðéàø éë ¬ïåéìòä 19 áøä ïåîää àåäù ¬íéîùä àáöù åðòãé ïë ìò øåáòáå (4) ®úåìæîä éáëåë åøéúñé íéúøùîäå 20 ¬íéúøùîä éìâìâî äìòîì àåä ¬íéòáøàå äðîù ìò úåøåöä úåìæîä éîëç å÷ìçù (5) ®äðù íéòáùá úçà äìòî çøæîì áøòîî 22 òòåðúî àåäù åðàöîå áøòîì çøæîî íéëìåä íéáëåë äòáùä éìâìâå 21 úåìæîä ìâìâ íåé ìëá åðéàøù î »íéøçà íéîòè ìéçúà íéøåöé ìë øöåé íùá è »ô [íéîåøî éðãôà ïëåù øæòá íéîòèä øôñ ìçà1 ®íéîòèä øôñá àøæò ïáà íëçä øîà ìð »íéîòèä øôñ éà »íéîòèä øôñ ìçà íéîåøî ïëåù íùá [éøáãë5 ®úéùàøá ô »éàèîì [äîëç úéùàø4 ®øñåî à »éðèîìô [ãñåî3 ®øñç éô »àèîì [àð2 »éëàìî à »ðîèôì [úëàìî8 ®òãåð ðà »éèîìô [òãð7 ®øñç è »éàðîìô [ãøéå6 ®øáãë è »éàîìô [íìåàå11 ®íéîùä î »ìéàðèô [íéîù10 ®åúãøáå à »òéãåäå ô »éðèîì [òéãåä åúãøáå9 ®éëàìîë é ð »éàèîìô [ìà14 ®úñîç à »ìðîèéô [úåãîä13 ®øñç à »ìðîèéô [íìñáå12 ®íðîàå ðô »ìéàîè [äìåãâ äéäú äðåéìòä íìåòìå17 ®åðîî é »øñç è »ðàîìô [åéîéî16 ®øñç ô »éàðèîì [äðä15 ®ãò àåäù20 ®øñç è »àðéîìô [úà19 ®øñç è »éàðîìô [éë18 ®(íééìåùá òéôåî) øñç è »éàðîìô ìâìâù ô »úåìæîä ìâìâù íåé ìëá éè »ðàì [úåìæîä ìâìâ íåé ìëá21 ®òòåðúîå ô »éàðèîì [òòåðúî ®íéëìåää ìè »àðéô [íéëìåä22 ®íåé ìëá úåìæîä .

they also tested it often by experience and achieved their purpose. 30:4).[6] that is. in a direction opposite to their own motion. 28:58).[8] is above the orbs of the planets. we have seen that there are seven orbs. that I should have the knowledge of the holy (Prov. and their souls ascended to heaven by the ladder of geometry.[2] (2) And the one that completes its motion in a few days is beneath the one that completes its motion in more days than it does.[3] (3) This is why he asked: “Who has ascended to heaven and come down again?” (Prov. 30:3).[1] each of them in its orb. we have seen that whenever one of the planets enters into conjunction with its companion. we know that there is a sort . §1 1 (1) Behold now. who has ascended there and after coming down informed men of the truth? (5) And God asked Job: “Do you know the ordinances of heaven?” (Job 38:33) (6) However.[3] (3) Moreover. who will redeem me. the wise searched generation after generation. I wish[1] to lay the foundation of the Book of the Beginning of Wisdom.[5] (4) Therefore we know that the host of heaven. 7:18 et passim). This means that we never have complete knowledge of the workings of the heaven (Jer. hide the stars of the zodiacal constellations.[9] (5) Because every day we observe that the orb of the zodiacal signs and the orbs of the seven planets move from east to west. who are the angels.[5] 2 (1) Behold.[4] and the planets .[4] (4) For. because there are seven planets. we have found that it [the host of heaven] moves from west to east at a rate of one degree in 70 years. (2) I certainly knew that all intelligent creatures will take pains to learn the secret of the Glorious and Awe-Inspiring Name (Deut.chapter one 183 I begin the Book of Reasons with the help of Him who dwells in the Heavens. because when one circle is inside another circle the uppermost circle is always the larger. in their turn.[2] as Agur son of Yaqe said: I have not learned wisdom. the lower hides the upper. the immense multitude of stars that the astrologers[7] have divided into 48 constellations.

184 second version of the book of reasons (6) ®åúòåðúá åòòåðúé 3ìëäù íìë ìò 2ïåéìò ìâìâ 1úåîãë ùéù åðòãé ¬íúòåðú êôä æàå ¬úåìæîä ìâìâ íò ¬íéðæàîå äìè ùàø àåäù ¬úåîå÷î éðùá øáçúî àåäå ìâìâä ãâðë ïåôö ãöì ùîùä íìåòì äèú äìè ùàøîå 5 (7) ®äìéìäå íåéä 4ååúùé úåìæîä åàø÷é ïë ìò (8) ®úåìæîä å÷ ìò ùîùä êìäî éë ¬ïåéìòä àåä ¬øùéä ®íééîåøã íéøçàäå á26 | íééðåôö (1) 3 úãîå ¬íúãîå íéúøùîä ìò íãàä úòã éôë úåøåîâ úåéàø 6ùéù åðòãéå éèôùî ìò ÷ø (2) ®íúåìôùå íúåäáâ íå÷îå ¬õøàä ïî í÷çøîå ¬íéðè÷ä íéìâìâä ùéù åîë ¬10úåðåéñð íäî ùéå 9úåðåéîãë íä ÷ø ¬úåîìù 8úåéàø 7íäéìò ïéà úåìæîä úåéàø úåìæîä úîëçá ùé íâ (3) 13 ®úãìåúä 11 êôä íäù íéøáã úåàåôøä úîëçá ®íéáø íéøáù äæä øôñîì úåéä øåáòá ¬14úåìòî ñ§§ù ìò úåìæîä ìâìâ å÷ìç øùàë ¬12íéøçáîå 2§ ïî íéáëøåî íðéà äððéà ùîùä ãéìåîä ÷ø 18 16 úåìæîä éë äéàø åðúð 15 äééùåúä éîëç ®ùàä úåìæî 17 (1) 1 íåç äëëå (2) ®äîöò éðôá úéùéîç úãìåú íä ÷ø ¬äòáøàä 22 íéãñåîä 20 (3) ®íåç åãéìåé íéáëåëä ìëå ¬íåç ãéìåúù øåáòá 19ïë äàø÷ð ÷ø ¬äîç àø÷ð åëñîîá 23 25 21 éë ¬æòäå øåùä øùáë ¬ø÷ 26 øùéä íãàä êñîî ãâðë èòî ®ùáéäå çìä èôùî äëëå ¬ø÷ íç ùéù íéøîåà åðà ïë ìò (4) ®íç àåä øùá ìë íãà ãìåîá äìåòä ìæîä äéä íà 28 éë åðéñð åðéðåîã÷å åðçðà º24ñåéðåøåã øîà (5) äîåãàä äøîäù ¬úù÷ åà äéøàá åà äìèá äðáìäå ¬ãìåîä ìò äðåîîä íùå ¬äìè ¬éãðë ìà úãìåúì àø÷ðä ¬á÷òé øîàéå (6) ®ìëä êøãä äæ ìòå ¬27ãìåðä ìò úøáâúî äéäú äìè 32 29 ìæîá äñðëäá ùîùäù øåáòáå (7) ®÷ôñ éìá ïä úåôå÷ú òáøà éë 31 äôå÷úä úìçú úåìæîä éîëç åîù ¬øéåàä íîçúéå áåùéäî 30 äáåø÷ æàå4 ®íìëù ô »éàðèîì [ìëäù3 ®øñç ì »ôéàðèî [ïåéìò2 ®øñç ð »éàèîìô [úåîãë1 è »éàðîìô [íäéìò7 ®íù ð »éàèîìô [ùéù6 ®øñç ð »éàèîìô [úåìæîä5 ®åðúùé íàå à »éðèîìô úåðåéñðë è »éàðîìô [úåðåéñð10 ®úåðåéîã à »éðèîìô [úåðåéîãë9 ®øñç ô »éàðèîì [úåéàø8 ®íäì [ñ§§ù13 ®íéøçáîá ð »íéøçáî ô »íéðçáîá è »éàîì [íéøçáîå12 ®êôäá ð »éàèîìô [êôä11 »éàèîìô [úåìæîä16 ®äðåëúä éðèô »àîì [äééùåúä15 ®øñç ðà »éèîô [úåìòî14 ®øñç î »éàðèìô úàøð ðà »éèîì [ïë äàø÷ð19 ®øñç ð »éàèîìô [äëëå18 ®úåãåñéä éô »àèîì [íéãñåîä17 ®øñç ð ð »éàèîô [àø÷ð22 ®øùåë ô »éàèðîì [øùéä21 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [íåç ãéìåîä ÷ø20 ®éë äàøð ô »ïë »àîì [éë25 ®ñðéøåã ð »ñåðéøåã à »ñåðééøåã éè »îìô [ñåéðåøåã24 ®íù < ð »ìéàèîô [ùéù23 ®úàø÷ð è »éàðîìô [àø÷ðä á÷òé28 ®ãìåîä à »éðèîìô [ãìåðä27 ®íãàä ð »éàèîìô [íãà26 ®øñç éðèô ®íîçúå è »éàðîìô [íîçúéå31 ®øñç è »áåø÷ ð »éàîìô [äáåø÷30 ®øñç è »éàðîìô [ìæîá29 ®øñç ®äôå÷ú ô »éàðèîì [äôå÷úä32 [ååúùé .

The philosophers proved that the zodiacal signs are not compounded of the four elements but they are composed of a fifth and distinct element.[1] (2) Similarly. as compared to the complexion of a human being. the head of Aries and the head of Libra.[3] (5) Doronius said: we and our predecessors have found by experience that if Aries is the sign of the ascendant[4] in a person’s nativity. the astrologers assigned the beginning of the first season to the nature .[4] too.[5] (6) Ya#qub. and in the same way everything else . namely. but is called so because it generates heat. (2) There are no solid proofs about the astrological judgments[1] of the zodiacal signs. and then day and night are equal. who is called al-Kindî. Hence some of the zodiacal constellations are called northern and others southern. said that undoubtedly there are four beginnings of the seasons. (7) From the head of Aries the Sun always inclines to the north of the sphaera recta.. and if the Moon is in Aries or in Leo or in Sagittarius. and all the stars generate heat.[6] (7) Because the Sun is close to the ecumene when it enters the sign of Aries. in Aries].[2] just as there are things in the science of medicine that are opposed to nature.e. 3 (1) We know that there are conclusive proofs in accordance with what men can comprehend about the planets and their dimensions. the uppermost orb . because this number has many fractions. like the flesh of the ox and the goat.[2] (4) So we say that there is something that is hot that is also cold. even though all flesh is hot. but only analogies and experiences. as when they divided the zodiac into 360 degrees. there are [both] proofs and [arbitrary] choices.[12] because the path of the sun is along the line of the zodiacal constellations. namely. is said to be cold.[3] (3) In astrology. the dimensions of their epicycles. and if the planet that is the lord of the nativity is there [i.chapter two 185 of uppermost orb above all the other orbs . the Sun is not hot. and the air becomes warmer then.[5] §2 1 (1) Fiery signs. and the places of their apogees and perigees. then the red bile dominates the native. whose complexion is temperate.[10] and all the orbs are driven by its motion. (3) But a star that generates a small amount of heat. their distance from the Earth. (6) It [the superior orb] intersects the orb of the zodiacal signs[11] in two places. and similarly with the rule about the moist and dry.

186 4 5 second version of the book of reasons ãáëð øúåé àåäå ìòåôä àåä íåçä éë ¬ùàä 3ìù 2àéäù åøîà ïë ìò »1íåçä ìòåôä àåäù ¬øå÷ä ãâðë àåäù ¬íéîì úéðùä äôå÷úä úéùàø åîùå (8) ®øå÷äî (9) ®éðùä 8 éë ¬íéèáîä êøã ìò øàùðä å÷ìç äëë íúòáøà äìà å÷ìçðù øçàå (10) ®7õøàì úéòéáøäå ¬6äìéìäå íåéä úååúùä øåáòá øéåàì úéùéìùä äôå÷úäå 12 éöçî ¬øåù íä äáäà éöçîå ¬úçà úãìåúá 15 14 11 íä äøåîâ 10 äáäàî íéèéáî íäù 9úåìæîä äéäé àåäù íòèäå ¬úãìåúä úéòéáø èáîå ¬ ìeòtá àì 17 äåù ìòåôä úãìåúá 19 13 úøåö ïëå ¬äìè úøåö øåáòá íç äìè åîùù éúòã éôìå éôì çìå ø÷ ïèøñå ¬íãà ïá úøåö 22 (11) 18 ®øáãä 16 êôä äëëù 23 20 ìò àåäù øåáòá çìå íç íéîåàúå 21 ¬äá÷ð äúåéä øåáòá äùáéå äø÷ äìåúá åîùå åãéá íãà ïá úøåö ìò íéðæàîå (12) ®àåä äëëå íç äéøàå ¬åúãìåú úùåáéäå 27 24 (13) ®åéøáç åîë èáîä ÷åìç øåáòá àåä áø÷òå ¬çìå íç úù÷å (14) ®26ïèøñ àåä äëëå ¬çìå ø÷ 25 àåä ïë ìò ¬íéðæàî àåä åãéá íãà úøåö ìò éìãå ¬àåä äëë éãâå ¬åá ùéù ñåñä úøåö øåáòá ùáéå íç ®åòîùîë íéâãå ¬éìã äìéìäå íåéä 29 úååúùä øåáòá ÷ø ¬28äìçú äìåâòì ïéàù åðòãé ®çøæî úåìæî 30 32 (1) 2 »äìçú äìè ùàø úãå÷ð åîù ¬íìåòä ìë ¬ïéîé ãö àåäù ¬íéîùä éöçá à27 ùãçúé æàå ¬äìè ìæîá ùîùä ñðëäá 31 äéäé äðäå ¬çøæî úàôá ø÷åáá äìåò ùîùäå áøòî úìçúáå ¬éãâ å÷ìçúäù øçàå ®éðåôöä àåäå ìôùä 34 ãúéä úìçúá ïèøñ 37 | äéäéå ¬íéðæàî 36 33 35 ®åøáç úãìåúá ãçà ìë äéäé úåìæîä äðä ¬äëë äìà àåä éë ¬åðéîéî úù÷å åðåôöî àåä äéøà ¬íéðæàîì 39 éëå ¬çøæîä éöçá àåä äìè éë åøîàéå (2) (3) áåø÷ äúåéä øåáòá íåøã éöçá äìåúá åîùå (4) ®38íééçøæîä úåìæîäî úåéä øåáòá åìàîùî øåù åîùå ¬äìèî ÷åçø øåù óåñå íéðæàî ùàø äìåúá óåñ éë »éàèîìô [ãáëð4 ®ìæî éè »ðàîìô [ìù3 ®äéäù éô »àèðîì [àéäù2 ®íåç ì »éàðèîô [íåçä1 ®øñç ð »éàèîìô [äìéìäå íåéä úååúùä øåáòá6 ®ìåòôä é »ìòôä à »ðèîìô [ìòåôä5 ®áåø÷ ð [äáäàî10 ®úåìæî à »éðîèìô [úåìæîä9 ®øñç è »åìà é »ðàîìô [äìà8 ®øôòì ð »éàèîìô [õøàì7 àåäù ðì »éèîô [äéäé àåäù13 ®àåä è »éðàîìô [íä12 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [íä11 ®äáäà è »éðàîìô ®øñç ð »ìåòôá åì ô »ìåòôá àìå è »éàîì [ìåòôá àì15 ®äðù è »éðàîìô [äåù14 ®àéäù à »äéäéù »è [ìò àåäù19 ®øñç è »éðàîô [çìå18 ®äøåö ô »éðàèî [úøåö17 ®àåä > è »éðàîìô [êôä16 ð »úåùáéäå à »éèîô [úùåáéäå21 ®øñç èà »øåáòá ð »éîô [éôì20 ®íäù îèéô »íùù à »àåäù ð [àåä25 ®øñç è »éðàîô [àåä ïë ìò24 ®åøæâ è »éðàîô [åãéá23 ®øåáòá ð »éàèîô [ìò22 ®äùáéäå »éàèîì [äìçú28 ®øñç ô »úù÷å éðè »àî [àåä úù÷å27 ®øñç éèàîô »ð [ïèøñ26 ®øñç ðè »éàîô [ø÷åáá31 ®ùãçé éô »ðàèîì [ùãçúé30 ®úååùä é »úåðúùä ð »úååúä ô »àèîì [úååúùä29 ®øñç ô »éðèîìô [ãúéä34 ®áø÷òî à »éðèîìô [áøòî33 ®äéäéå éô »ðàèîì [äéäé äðäå32 ®øñç à »éðèîìô ®ïëå éô »ðàèîì [éëå37 ®øñç éèô »ðàîì [àåä36 ®å÷éìúäù ð »éàèîìô [å÷ìçúäù35 ®øñç à ®äáåø÷ è »éðàîìô [áåø÷39 ®øñç ôéàðèîì » íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúôñåä [íééçøæîä38 .

the tropical or central sign in the triplicity]. (3) Therefore they said that Aries is in the middle of the east.. We know that the circle has no beginning.e. and then all the world is renewed. Accordingly.[12] (11) In my opinion. quality] of heat. they distinguished the rest according to the aspects. the same as Cancer. for the end of Virgo is the head of Libra and the end of Taurus is distant . and the beginning of the fourth season to earth. each of the signs is assigned a position according to the nature of its companion [i. Aquarius’ image is that of a man holding an urn. (4) They located Virgo in the middle of the south because it is close to Libra. so it is hot and moist. but the head of Aries was made the beginning because day is equal to night when the Sun enters the sign of Aries. which is the north.[15] and Pisces’ image corresponds to its meaning: fish. the dryness is because of the division of the aspect. and Capricorn is the same. hence Capricorn is in midheaven.[9] meaning that the signs that are aspecting in complete love have one nature [i. which is the southern side. and similarly Taurus has the shape resembling a bull. and they made Leo hot and it is like that. quality] in common . as in the case of its companions.e.. which is the second agent. because it is one of the eastern signs. and the reason is that they have the same active nature but not the same passive nature [11].e.[13] (12) They made Virgo cold and dry because it is a female. and the opposite holds for the quartile aspect. because heat is the active agent and is more influential than cold. they made the sign of Aries hot because the shape formed by the stars resembles a ram. (2) After these signs have been distinguished in this manner.[10] and those that are in an aspect of half love have half a nature in common .[16] 2 (1) Eastern signs. (8) They assigned the beginning of the second season to water. and that Leo is north of it and Sagittarius is south of it.[8] (10) Once these four were thus distinguished. and Gemini they made hot and moist because it has the shape of a man. because day and night are equal then . (14) Sagittarius is hot and dry because it includes the image of a horse. they said that it [i.chapter two 187 [i.[14] (13) Libra has the image of a man holding a balance in his hand. and Libra is in the beginning of the west.[7] (9) The beginning of the third season was assigned to air. the beginning of the season] belongs to fire. Scorpio is cold and moist.e. which corresponds to cold. and Cancer they made cold and moist because that is its nature. and Cancer is in the beginning of the cardo of lower midheaven.[1] and the Sun rises in the morning at the eastern edge of the horizon .

188 second version of the book of reasons (5) ®íééîåøãä úåìæîäî àåäù øåáòá 1åîåøã úàôá éãâå ¬äìåúáî øúåé øåùá àåä øùàë ìàîù úàôá ùîùä ¬÷ãöä å÷ íò 3àåäù 2øåáòá áøòî éöçá íéðæàîå éöçá íéâãå íòèå (6) ®ïéîé úàôá 5éìãå ¬ìàîù úàôá íù ùîùä éë 4ìàîùî íéîåàúå ÷åçøù áø÷ò ïë àìå ¬äìè úìçúá íéâã óåñ éë ¬äìè ìà áåø÷ åúåéä øåáòá ïåôö (7) ®íéâãî éîåøã øúåé áø÷òå ¬àåä ïë éë åìàîùî ïèøñå ¬íéðæàî ùàøî äéäé ®8íìåë äëëå ¬7äëë àåä ùáéå íç 6ìë éë ¬íúãìåú øåáòá íéîòèîä äéäù øçà äðäå ¬9äìè ìæîá ùîùä ñðëäá ïîæä äðúùéù øåáòá ®íéëôäúîä äéäúå úåçìä øåñúù ¬ïèøñ äëëå ¬éãâá äëëå ¬øå÷ä ìà åàø÷ðå 18 13 (1) 3 øéåàä (2) ®êôäúî àø÷ð ¬íç äéäé çìå ø÷ 12 10 êôäúéå íåçä øåñé ¬íéðæàî äëëå ¬11úåùáéä äîå÷îá ®15úåçìä êôäúúå 17 14 äéøà øåù íäå ¬íéãîåò íéøçàä åàø÷ðå (3) úùåáéä øåñúù (4) ®úçà úãìåú ìò íá øéåàä ãåîòéå íééòöîà íäù øåáòá ¬éìã áø÷ò íäå ¬16íéôåâ éðù íéøçàä 20 úãìåúä óåñá íäù øåáòá ¬íéâã úù÷ äìåúá íéîåàú øåáòá ïë åàø÷ð ®íéëåøà úåìæî ÷ø (5) ®äàáä úãìåúä 21 19 íò íééòöîà íäå äðåùàøä äìòéù ìæîä 24 íéøö÷äå ¬íäî ãçà ìë ¬úåìòî íéùìùî øúåéá áåùéá íå÷î ìëá (7) ®äæ ìò øáãà ãåò ®23ìåãâä ÷ìçä (6) ®22úåçåìä øôñá áåúëù åîë ¬äæ êôä øåáòá 27 ùé ¬26íéìùåîä úåøåàî éðùä íäå ¬25äðáìä úéá ïèøñå ùîùä úéá äéøà ¬åéøçà íéúáäå ùîùä 29 30 úéá ìà èéáéù úéá íéúøùîä äùîçìå ¬ãçà úéá ãçà ìëì 28 ìëúñú øùàëå ¬ìàîùä ÷ìç úàôî éãâ ïë ìò (8) ®äðáìä úéá íò äæ êôäå éãâ óåñ ãò äéøà ùàøî íäù íúåàù àöîú áåùéä ìëá úåìæîä ìâìâ úåìòî äðáììå å÷ìçá çë ùîùìå ¬ïèøñ óåñ ãò éìã ùàøî íäù úåìòîä ïî íéáø úåøåöä äìàù øåáòá ®úåøåöä úåìæî (9) ®íäéìåáâá íéáëåëä 32 çëð 31 ä÷ìçá éô »îàì [àåäù3 ®øñç ð »éàèôìî [øåáòá ®®® íééîåøãä úåìæîäî2 ®éîåøã éèô »ðàîì [åîåøã1 ®ìëì éð »àèìîô [ìë6 ®éãìáå ðàèî »éôì [éìãå5 ®ìàîùäî éðô »àèîì [ìàîùî4 ®øñç ðè »íäù »éðàîìô [äìè ìæîá9 ®øñç ð »íìåëî äëëå è »éàîìô [íìåë äëëå8 ®øñç éèôìî »ðà [äëë7 [øåñé12 ®úùáéä àì »éðèîô [úåùáéä11 ®äéäé øéåàäù ð »ìéàèîô [øéåàä äéäù10 ®äìèá è ð »ùáéä à »úåùáéä è »úùáéä îì »éô [úùåáéä14 ®êôäéå ì »ôéàðèî [êôäúéå13 »øéñé éàô »ðèîì ô »éðàèîì [íäå17 ®íéðù íéôåâ ì »éàðèîô [íéôåâ éðù16 ®úåçìì ð »éàèîìô [úåçìä15 ®äùáéä ®åìòéù éô »ðàèîì [äìòéù20 ®øåáòá è »éðàîìô [íò19 ®úãìåú éô »ðàèîì [úãìåúä18 ®øñç ùéøôîä ïôåà úåìòá äåùä å÷á äðäå < ì »ôéàðèî [úåçåìç øôñá22 ®øúåé ð »éàèîìô [øúåéá21 íò ïëå íéðåùàø äøùò (ùù 짧ö) íùå úåìòî íéúùå íéùìù ïèøñäå éãâä íò äìòé úåìòî íéùìù òùúå íéøùò ùéøôîä ïôåàäî íéùìù íò éìãäå äéøàä äìòéå ®íéëåøà íä äìàå úù÷äå íéîåàúä äìèä êà íéðåùàø íéùîç úåìòî òùúå íéøùò áø÷òäå øåùä ïëå íéðåùàø òáøàå íéùîç úåìòî úåìæî åàø÷ð äìàå íéðåùàø íéùîç úåìòî äðîùå íéøùò ÷ø åîò åìòé àì íéâãäå äìåúáäå íéðæàîäå [ìåãâä ÷ìçä23 ®øö÷ íéøö÷äå êøà íéëåøàä åôéñåé ïåôöä óåñ ãò áçøîå áçøî ìëáå ®íéøö÷ áåúëù åî맧 º5 §îò ¬íçðî ïá ®ð úàöåä äååùä »(§§úåçåìä øôñ§§î ÷úåðîá øåøéáá òéôåî) ðàîèô ®øñç à »éðèîìô [äðáìä úéá25 ®úåéä < é »ðàèîìô [øåáòá24 ®§§ìåãâä ÷ìçä úåçåìä øôñá ®øñç ì »ôéàðèî [éãâ28 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [úéá27 ®øñç è »íéìåãâä > ð »éàîìô [íéìùåîä26 [ä÷ìçá31 ®íéâã éàðèîìô »íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúð÷éú [éãâ30 ®ìëúñä ô »éðàèîì [ìëúñú29 ®çëë é »çëðå ì »ðàèîô [çëð32 ®å÷ìçá àîì »éðèô .

[2] as is written in the Book of the Tables. Gemini.e. (6) Pisces is in the middle of the north because it is close to Aries. (3) The other signs are called fixed—namely. They are called this because each of these signs rises more than 30 degrees anywhere in the ecumene.[2] and Gemini is in the north because when the Sun is there [in Gemini] it is in the north [with respect to the equator]. Aries is called tropical. I shall say more about that in due course . but this does not apply to Scorpio. (4) The others are called bicorporal—namely. Pisces]. because Leo is the house of the Sun and Cancer is the house of the Moon. the Sun has power in its portion and the Moon in its portion. and Cancer is north of it [i. and they located Capricorn south of it [i. Virgo. and they located Taurus north of it [i. because it is like that.e.[1] (5) Long signs.[4] (7) Actually. another house that “aspects” the house of the Moon and the houses that are next to it . and Scorpio is more southern than Pisces.chapter two 189 from Aries. (8) So Capricorn is in the left side. and the same applies to all. Scorpio. hence. and Pisces—because they are at the end of the first nature and are intermediate with respect to the next nature.[3] (6) The larger domain. Taurus. and Aquarius is in the south.e. Virgo] because the Sun is farther north [with respect to the equator] when it is in Taurus than when it is in Virgo.[5] (9) Signs with shapes. and the short signs are just the opposite. which is distant from the head of Libra. since dryness departs and is transformed into moistness. . since heat departs and is transformed into cold. and similarly with Libra. 1:16).. Sagittarius. Virgo] because it is one of the southern signs. since anything that is hot and dry is like that. and when you observe the degrees of the zodiac throughout the ecumene you find that the degrees from the head of Leo to the end of Capricorn are more than the degrees from the head of Aquarius to the end of Cancer. for the end of Pisces is the beginning of Aries. just the opposite. and the five planets have a house that “aspects” the house of the Sun and the houses that are next to it. and because they are the two ruling luminaries (Gen. and similarly with Capricorn. each of them has one house. (5) Libra is in the middle of the west because it is at the equator.[4] 3 (1) Tropical signs . since moistness departs and is replaced by dryness. inasmuch as after the air was cold and moist it turns hot. and Aquarius—because they are intermediate and the air in them keeps them in one nature. and. (2) Similarly with Cancer. Leo.[3] (7) The reason behind the tastes is their natures. like the planets in their terms. Because the weather changes when the Sun enters Aries.

190 ïë ìò ®3éôåéä á27 second version of the book of reasons (10) ®õç 1åãéá íãà éöç úøåö ïåùàøä úù÷ éöç äëëå ¬íãà ïá úåîãá íç íìåòì øëæä éë íéøëæä íä ®íéîçä íéøëæä úøåö ìò íäù èôùî äëëå äëë åñð 2úåøåöä éîëçå ¬íúåîãë íä øùàë ìò äøåé (12) ®äá÷ðäî (11) ®äîäá åîë éãâ íâ ¬éàúáù úéá åúåéä øåáòá éìã ïë àìå ¬íéôé íä íãàä úøåö ìò íäù ìò íäù úåìæîä ®ìå÷ä 6 (13) ®íéøçàäå äìè 5ïë àìå ¬íéâã | äëëå ¬4äîéìù äøåö ìå÷ íäì ùé úåîäáäå ¬åãáì øáãîä àåä íãàäù ¬íìù ìå÷ íäì ùé íãàä úøåö íä 7ïë ìò ¬øåáã éë óà ìå÷ íäì ïéà íéâãå áø÷òå ïèøñ ¬äîäáá 12 10 (14) ®øåáã íäì ïéàå øåáâ àåä éë äéøà ®çëä 9 8 11 (15) ®íéøáã èåòéî ìò åøåéù íòèäå ¬íéîìà ìåãâ çë äéøàìå ¬äéøàä áðæ øáã ®14íéîåîä ïéà 15 àø÷ðä åá ùéù ìåãâä áëåëä øåáòá äìåúá íâ ÷ìçá àåä éë éãâ ïë àìå ¬øëæ úéá àåäå éàúáù úéá åúåéä øåáòá éìãå (16) ®åáðæá (17) ®13ïåéìò àåäù íéúøùîä ìëî óé÷ú éàúáùå ¬ø÷ àåäå úåá÷ðä íãà ïá úøåö ìò íäù úåìæîä éë åà ¬ïåéñðä êøãá úåìæîä éîëç åäåòãé äæ øåáòá úåìæîä íä ®úåëúîä äéøàá ùé ®øèîä ®äñåðî åéä 27 22 (20) ® 19 (18) ®17éðéòá ïåëðä àåä äæå ¬íäîò úù÷ íâ ¬íåî 16íá ïåéñðä êøãá òãåð äæ ®18íéðìéàä (19) ®ùàá åñðëé íìåëù 21 íòèäå ¬íéîä øåáòá éìã ìæîå ¬íéîä ìò äøåú ïë ìò ¬20äðéôñ úàø÷ðå äøåö 23 øáãä äæå ¬ãàî óé÷úå áø äéäé äìàî úçàá ìéçúé øèîä øùàë éë åàø÷ð ®íéúååòîä ¬úåøùé úåòù éúùî úåçô áåùéä ìëá íúåìò øåáòá ïë ääåáâ úåéäì 26 (21) ùàä úãìåú 25 úåéä øåáòá ®íéëìîä 30 (22) ®24íéøùéä äæ êôäå íéîä úåìæîå ¬29åá ùîùä ãåáë øåáòá äìè øúåéå ¬28íéðâñì øéåàäå ¬ùàä úåìæî ùàä úåìæî ®íéàéáðä (23) ®íéãáòì äðîä äèîì ïéàù øôòä úåìæîå ¬íééðåðéáì íãà ïá úøåö úåìæîå ¬çëá äøøù íéù÷áî ®íéøùé íéëñåîî íä 31 ®íéôéä é »ðàèîìô [éôåéä3 ®úåøåöä éöç éîëçå é »ðàèîìô [úåøåöä éîëçå2 ®äéá à »éðèîìô [åãéá1 [ìå÷ ®®® àåä íãàäù6 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [ïë5 ®(äøåùì ìòî) äîäá > è »ðàèéîìô [äîéìù4 ®øåáãå é »éë àì øåáã éë óà è »ïë àì øåáã éë óà ðàîô »ì [ïë ìò øåáã éë óà7 ®øñç è »éðàîìô åá ùéù ìåãâä11 ®äîçìî < ô »éðàèîì [øåáâ10 ®íç ð »éèàîìô [éë9 ®äéøàä éô »ðàèîì [äéøà8 àåä éë ô »éðàèîì [ïåéìò àåäù13 ®úìçúá é »é÷ìçá à »ðèîìô [÷ìçá12 ®åáù è »éðàîìô [àø÷ðä úåøéàîä úåìæîä úìòîå íéòøäå íéáåèä íéìåãâä íéáëåëä íå÷î > ì »ôéàðèî [íéîåîä14 ®ïåéìòä úåôéñåîä úåìòîäå íéáëåëä úåøåá íäù úåìòîäå úåá÷ð åà íéøëæ úåìòîå úåéòöîàäå úåëåùçäå ¬á104 Ð à103 §îò ¬ì 駧ëá úåçåìä äàø ®åá àøå÷ õåøé ïòîì ÷å÷çä çåìá áåúë äæ ìëå ãåáëå ïç íéáëåëä úåøåáå úåá÷ð åà íéøëæ úåìòîå úåéòöîàäå úåëåùçä úåøéàîä úåìòî çå짧 ºúøúåëä úçú »éèîì [íá16 ®íãà à »éðèîìô [íãà ïá15 ®§§íéìåãâä íéáëåëä íå÷îå ãåáëå ïç úåôéñåîä úåìòîå úìçúäá åîë ¬èìåáå ìåãâ áúëá) àîì [íéðìéàä18 ®éðéòá äàøð øùà é »ìðàôèî [éðéòá17 ®äá ðàô ®äðéôö à »éðèîìô [äðéôñ20 ®ïåéñðá éðèîô »àì [ïåéñðä êøãá19 ®éìåàå è »íìåàå éðô »(ùãç ÷øô éô »ðàèîì [åàø÷ð23 ®äéä øáãäå »äæ øáãå î »éðàôì [øáãä äæå22 ®ìçéå è »éðàîìô [ìæîå21 úåéäá ì »øåáòá è »úåéäá à »éðôî [úåéä øåáòá25 ®øñç ð »éèàîìô [íéøùéä äæ êôäå24 ®àø÷ð úåìæî åéä28 ®øñç ð »ääåáâ éèô »àîì [ääåáâ úåéäì27 ®ùàø è »éðàîìô [ùàä úãìåú26 ®úåéä øåáòá äìè øúåéå29 ®íéðâñì øéåàäå ð »íéðâñì ùàø ùàä úåìæî åéä è »éôàîì [íéðâñì øéåàäå ùàä äèîì ïéà éë î »äðîî äèîì ïéàù é »àì [äðîéä äèîì ïéàù30 ®øñç éèô »àîì [åá ùîùä ãåáë è »îì [íãà ïá úøåö úåìæîå31 ®äðîî äèîì ïéàì ð »åðîéä äèîì ïéàì ô »íäî äèîì ïéà è »äðîä ®ïäéúåøåöå úåìæîä éð »ïë úøåö úåìæîå à »ïë úåøåö úåìæîå ô »éë íãà úøåö úåìæîå .

and also to Virgo. and this has been verified by experience. and the signs with a human shape are mixed and temperate.[16] (22) Kings. (21) Crooked. on account of the water.[12] (16) This also refers to Aquarius. which is like a whole image. This is known through experience.[14] (19) Trees. There is a constellation in Leo called “Ship. because it is the mightiest among the animals. (10) Hence. such a sign gives an indication about things that resemble its shape. and Pisces have neither voice nor speech. because it is the house of Saturn and it is a masculine house. (14) Cancer.[17] (23) Prophets.[15] (20) Rain. the lowest of all. and the opposite applies to the straight signs . The signs that have the shape of a man have a complete voice. Astrologers discovered this through experience. Scorpio.chapter two 191 They were called this because these shapes have a human image. on account of the big star in it [i. Capricorn. the fiery signs were assigned to the kings . because the exaltation of the Sun is in it—and the watery signs to the commoners. but not to Capricorn. except for Aquarius. such as the first half of Sagittarius. in Virgo]. The reason is that when it begins to rain and the Moon is in any of these constellations .[11] and a lion has great strength in its tail. too. this is the correct explanation in my opinion. and the earthy signs. which has the shape of half a man with an arrow in his hand.[10] (15) Power. so too Aquarius. meaning that they indicate brevity of speech. because it is the house of Saturn.[7] (11) Masculine and hot. The signs that have the shape of a human being are handsome. They are so named because they rise anywhere in the ecumene in less than two equal hours. Because the nature of fire is to rise. and similarly with Pisces but not Aries and the others.. and the airy to the nobles—particularly Aries.[9] (13) Voice. Saturn is the strongest of the planets inasmuch as it is uppermost.[8] (12) Beauty. which is called the Tail of the Lion. These are the masculine signs because the male is always hotter than the female. (17) Deformities. because it belongs to the feminine signs and is cold. The fiery signs seek power by force.[13] (18) Metals. .e. These are the signs that are so called because all of them can withstand fire.” so it indicates water. for man is the only speaker. therefore they are mute. animals have a voice but do not have speech. it will be abundant and very strong. This refers to Leo. to the slaves. or because the signs that have a human shape have no deformities. and the scholars of the images[6] verified by experience such and such an astrological judgment about the constellations that have the shape of an animal. and Sagittarius is included among them.

192 second version of the book of reasons (1) 4 (2) øåáòá ïë äéäéå ¬1úåàåôøä úîëçá úåôúåù äâðìå íéãàîì ®íéàôåøä áø÷ò äðäå ®áåè çéø íäì ùéù íéø÷ò 4ìë ìò 3äâðå 2íéòöôä ìò äøåé íéãàîù ®ùøôà øùàë ¬7éùùä àåäù øåáòá 6íéàåìçúä 5ìò äøåé åúéáå íéãàî úéá àåä 10 úéáäù øåáòá úòã 9éøñç íäéðù äìà éë éîìú øîàéå ®øåù íò 8íéðæàî 12 äøåéù ¬çîåöä ìæîä ìòá äðäå ¬ïåøñçäå íéîåîäå úåîãá íéáëåë äìåúáá ùé ®íéôðë úåìæîá 16 13 íéàåìçúä ìò äøåé 11 éùùä éìòá 15 19 (3) ®ïåøñçå íåî ìòá àåä ¬ãìåðä ìò ìæî ïéàå çåøä úåìæîî àåä 20 22 íéîåàú ®14íéîùä (4) ®íéâãá ïë íâ íéôðë øåáòá åðîî 21 17 ¬íéîä úãìåúî àåä éë ïèøñ ïë àìå ¬ ïåôö óåñ àåäù éìã éë åøîà ®íéãùä 23 18 äåáâ ¬éàúáù úéá àåäù øåáòá íéãù ìæî (5) ®øéåà àåä íéîùäå ¬éãâ àìå äëë éìã éë åøîàå ¬íéãùä åúàöá ãìåì äøåàá äîåã àéä íâ úåéä øåáòáå à28 äàøîä äøåçùä äøîä ìò äøåé àåä éë ìà äáåø÷ äðáìä úåéä øåáòá ®íìåòä ìæî (6) ®åá éàúáù çë úåàøä øåáòá (7) ®íìåòá äø÷éù øáã ìë ìò äøåú õøàä 27 (8) ®26øñçäì 29 25 äøåà ìçé ïë øçàå ¬24òåãé ïîæ ãò ìãâéå åîà íçøî åäåîù ®åúéá äøåé äëë áëåëä äøåéù äî ìë éë ¬íìåòä ìæî ìæîä äéäé æà ¬åúøåáâ íéùìù 32 | 28 äúéá ïèøñ éë ¬ãåòå ó÷åú íù ¬äìè úìçúá ùîùä åðîù íà 31 33 ìëá ¬íéãàî íò éàúáù úøáçî 35 ìëá 30 åìëúñé ïë ìò (9) (10) ®ïèøñ äìåòä åðåì÷ úéáå ¬ìåãâä ÷éæîä àåäù ¬éàúáù áåèä úéáå ¬÷ãö àåäù ¬áåèä áëåëä úìçúá òø úåìæîä 41 39 úòø úéá àåäù øåáòá äæä ìæîá ¬äðù ãåáë úéáå ¬34ïè÷ä ÷éæîä àåäù ¬íéãàî ìù èáîá ìæîä äæ 43 38 íà ¬ïë ìò (11) ®äðáìä 37 àéäå ¬ïè÷ä 36 40 áëåëä ïî äùìùá ùîùä úåéäá éë òåãé ®ìâìâä (12) ®íìåòä ìëì òø àåä ¬äðùä ®úåìæîä øàù äëëå ¬44íéãìåðä 48 úãìåú úòãì ìéòåé äæå ¬42íçå çì øéåàä äéäé íéðåùàøä íéëñåîîå íéáåè úåìæî íéðæàîå äìè úåéä øåáòá ®íùä úãåáò éúá øáã ìò åøåé ïë ìò ¬47äìéìä íò íåéä 52 46 (13) íäá úååúùä 45 éðôî úåìæîä ìëî øúåé 50 úìçú ìà áåø÷ äìåòä ìæîä äéäéù äî ìëå »49íùä úãåáò éúá ÷ãöäîå ¬÷ãöä äéäé íå÷î ìëá äìè 51 ùàø úåìòá éë äàøú àìä ¬áåè øúåé àåä æà ìæîä ®äøåî é »ðàèîìô [äâðå3 ®íéòöô ð »éèôàîì [íéòöôä2 ®äàåôøä é »ðàèîìô [úåàåôøä1 »éèàîìô [éùùä7 ®íéòöô > ð »éèàîìô [íéàåìçúä6 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [ìò5 ®øñç ô »éðàèîì [éøñç9 ®äâåð úéá ºáåúë äøåùì ìòîå íéðæàî ìòî å÷ ùé è »íéðæàîå é »ðàîìô [íéðæàî8 ®äìèì ð [íéàåìçúä12 ®úéùùä éô »ðàèîì [éùùä11 ®úéáä é »ðàèîìô [úéáäù10 ®éøéñç îìô »éðàè éàîìô »è [íéîåàú15 ®øñç è »éàîìô [íéîùä14 ®ìòá éìô »ðàèî [éìòá13 ®íéàìç ì »éàðèîô ®øñç è »éðàîìô [øåáòá18 ®äìåãâ è »äàð ô »éðàîì [äåáâ17 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [ìæî16 ®øñç »ðèîìô [éìã22 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [àåä21 ®àåäù ô »éðàèîì [àåä éë20 ®íåøã ð »éèôàîì [ïåôö19 ®øñç é »åøåà ð »àèîìô [äøåà25 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [òåãé24 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [äàøîä23 ®ìë é [ó÷åú29 ®øñç ì »éàðèîô [éë28 ®øñç ð »éèàîìô [åäåîù27 ®øéñçäì ôî »éðàèì [øñçäì26 »ðàèîì [ìëá32 ®øñç ð »ìëì éô »àèîì [ìëá31 ®åøáçúé ì »éàðèîô [åìëúñé30 ®ó÷ú îì »éðàèô ®øñç ð »ãåáëä ì »éèàîô [ãåáë35 ®ïåè÷ä ì »ôéàðèî [ïè÷ä34 ®äòø é »àèîìô [úòø33 ®ìëì éô »éðàèîì [èáîá39 ®äéä < é »ðàèîìô [íà38 ®àåäå éàô »ðèîì [àéäå37 ®øñç ô »éðàèîì [áëåëä36 »ôéðèî [íçå42 ®âá ð »úùìùá è »éàîìô [äùìùá41 ®àåäå äåùä é »ðàèîìô [àåä äðùä40 ®ìæîá ô ®íéàìåçä é »íéàìçä ðô »íééçä è »àîì [íéãìåðä44 ®úåãìåú î »éðàèôì [úãìåú43 ®øñç àì [øáã48 ®äìéìäå éè »ðàîìô [äìéìä íò47 ®øñç ð »éèàîìô [íäá46 ®øåáòá é »ðàèîìô [éðôî45 ì »éàðèîô [ùàø51 ®äìåòä < ô »éðàèîì [ìæîä50 ®øñç ì »éàðèîô [íùä49 ®ìë > ð »éèàîìô ®øñç ô »íå÷é ìëá àîéì »ðè [íå÷î ìëá52 ®øñç [ìë4 .

There are stars in Virgo that resemble wings. (9) In addition.[9] (10) For this reason they observe this sign in any conjunction of Saturn and Mars. Cancer] was made the sign of the world. (3) Winged. inasmuch as day and night are equal in them. namely. (7) In its light. Cancer] is the house of detriment[11] of Saturn. where it attains its strongest power. deformities. is deformed and foolish.[15] (13) Houses of divine worship. which occurs every 30 years.[10] because it [i. if this sign is in a malefic aspect at the beginning of the year. because it is of a watery nature. they indicate justice. since it indicates the black bile which makes the demons visible.[16] the closer the sign of the ascendant is to the beginning of the sign [i.[1] Mars and Venus have a partnership in the science of medicine. and the house of dejection[12] of Mars.[3] (2) Libra and Taurus. which is the large malefic planet .[6] (4) Heavens. not so Cancer.e. Ptolemy said that these two are foolish because the sixth mundane house indicates diseases. it [i. and the houses of divine worship [i. and then its light begins to wane.e. which is the small malefic planet . as I shall explain. and the planetary house[13] of the small planet. Jupiter. because anything that is indicated by the planet is also indicated by its house.[4] but the lord of the sign of the ascendant. and in Pisces as well. Gemini is one of the airy signs and no sign is higher than it is because it is in the extreme north. and they said that Aquarius is like that but not Capricorn. and similarly with the other signs. namely. and foolishness. if we place the Sun at the beginning of Aries. Aries or Libra]. (11) Therefore. It is known that when the Sun is in the three first signs the air is moist and hot. They said that Aquarius is the sign of demons because it is the house of Saturn. the Moon. the Moon] indicates anything that occurs in the world. the better. (8) And because Cancer is its house.. misfortune is expected for all the world. Aries and Libra] begin at the equator. Because Aries and Libra are more benefic and temperate than the other signs.[8] (6) Sign of the world.e.[14] (12) The circle.[7] (5) Demons.[2] because Mars indicates wounds and Venus all the essences with a pleasant smell. it is also similar to the fetus that emerges from its mother’s womb and grows until a certain time. since the power of Saturn is perceptible in it. Scorpio is the planetary house of Mars and its house indicates diseases because it is the sixth. and the heavens are air. which you may surely observe since when the head of Aries rises anywhere the head of Capricorn is at . Because the Moon is close to the Earth.chapter two 193 4 (1) Physicians. and this is useful for knowing the nature of the natives.e.e. it [i. and the house of exaltation of the benefic planet. then the sign of the ascendant is Cancer.[5] which gives an indication about the native.

194 second version of the book of reasons (14) ®øåçàì íéðæàî äëëå ¬éøéùòä úéáä úìçúá éãâ ùàø ìò 1íä äìà ®ìâùîä ®äëë íúåà åðã úåøåöä úåîã øåáòáå ¬äìåãâ äåàú íäì ùé äéøàå øåùå ¬äìè úøåö íãà éðá 3éë øåáòá íéø÷ò íä 2íãàä úøåö ìò íäù úåìæî ìë ®íéø÷òä ¬íéîá íä øùàå úåîäá úøåö ìò íäù ¬íééðåðéáä 5 6 (15) (16) ®íéèòåî íéðá íéãéìåî 4 ìò äøåú äðáìäå ¬äðáìä úéá àåäù øåáòá ¬ïèøñ íéä ìæî 10 12 (17) ®íéáø åãéìåé ®íéä éãøåéì ÷æð àáé äæä ìæîá äúìçúá ¬úéáä ìòá ®äìè ìæî ®ùàøá 22 17 éàúáù 9äéäéù 8äðù ìë ¬7ïë ìò »äúãìåúá íéîä 11 àåäù ¬÷ãö éë øåáòá úåøäðä ìë ìò íéâã äéäå (18) øåáòá úåøàáä ìò úåàì áø÷ò äéäéå (19) ®úåàì íéâãå íéîä úåìæîå ¬úåçì 13åá ùé (20) ®úåøäðä íøè åùáééå å÷ñôé úåøàáäå ùáé íéãàîå ¬íéîä ìæî àåäù 16 äéäéù ãìåð ìë éë ¬ùàøä ìò úåàì úåéäì åäåîù úåìæîä úìçú åúåéä øåáòá úåòø åì åéäé àì ¬÷éæî áëåë 21 15 íò àåä íàå ¬14äìè ìæîá åéìò ãé÷ôä 18 ® íéìâøä ìò úåàì íéâã úåéä 20 ãò 19 íãàä éðá éøáà ìò ìæî ìë å÷ìçå (21) ùîùäî äìòîì äîç áëåëå äâð íà íéîëçä ïéá äìåãâ ú÷åìçî ùé ®23íéúáä 25 (1) 5 íéøáçð íúåéäá íúåàøì 24 íãà ìëåé àìù øåáòá ÷ôñä äæ äéäå ¬äðîî äèîì åà 28 éúòã éôìå (2) ®íäî 26 ãçà ìëì äåù ÷öåîä ìâìâ úåéä øåáòá ãåòå ¬ùîùä íò íä íòô éë ¬27úîà íìåë éøáãù 31 33 ®êåøà ùåøéô êéøö äæå ¬äìòîì íä íòôå äèîì íéîòô åñðå ¬áåùéä ìëá ìæî äéäéå ®ùáéå íç á28 äåáâä ìæîä 32 àåä éë äðáìä 36 úéá 30 ïèøñ 29 34 åîù äðäå 35 (3) (4) 39 ®íùâä ïîæá íùâ àáé äæä ìæîá äðáìä ñðëäá éë 38 íäì õ÷ ïéà äéøà äéä äðäå àåä æà øéåàäå ¬37äçë äàøé 43 42 äîù äñðëäá éë ùîùä úéá 41 44 øùàëå | ¬äðîî äìòîì áåøá àéä éë ¬ äîç áëåë ùîùä éøçà 45 40 (5) úéá ìà êåîñ åúéá äéä ïë ìò ¬ìæîî úåçô íà éë ùîùäî ¬äáäà àåäù ¬úéùéìù èáî ìò ÷ãö úéá èáî àåäù ¬úéáä íò 50 49 äîç áëåë ÷çøé àì äéäéå ¬ùîùä úéá íò äáäà éöç èáî ìò àåä éë ¬äâð úéá íéðæàî äéä 48 (6) ®ùîùä ïë ìò ¬47ïè÷ä áåè 46 áëåë àåäå éòéáøä èáîä ìò íéãàî úéá äðäå (7) ®ìåãâä áåèä àåä éë [íéãéìåî4 ®íøåáòá ô »éë è »éàîì [éë øåáòá3 ®íãà éàô »ðèîì [íãàä2 ®íäù ô »éðèîì [íä1 [äðù8 ®øñç àèî »éðìô [ïë7 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [ìò6 ®íãàå ô »éðàèîì [øùàå5 ®øñç ð »éèàîìô î »ðàèéôì [úåøäðä11 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [éàúáù10 ®äéäúù é »ðèîìô [äéäéù9 ®äðùä àì »éðèîô è »äìè ìæî ì »éðàîô [äìè ìæîá14 ®åì è »éðàîìô [åá13 ®àåä è »éðàîìô [àåäù12 ®úåø÷ðä [ìë18 ®úåòéø ô »éðàèîì [úåòø17 ®÷éæé ð »éèàîìô [åéäé àì16 ®øñç éðèô »àîì [íò15 ®äìèá »íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúð÷éú [ãò20 ®íãà è »íãà éðá ð »éàîìô [íãàä éðá19 ®ìë ìò ð »éèôàîì [íéúáä23 ®íéìâøá è »éðàîìô [íéìâøä22 ®íéâã ìæî à »éðèîìô [íéâã úåéä21 ®ìò ôéàðèîì ®íéøáòð ô »éðàèîì [íéøáçð25 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [íãà24 ®ïéðòá àøæò ïáà ãåò øîàå > ì »ôéàðèî [íä28 ®úîà §éøîåà íäî ãçà ìëù ì »ôéàðèî [úîà íìåë éøáãù27 ®íãà ô »éðàèîì [ãçà26 ä÷ñô ìù ùàøáå ùâãåî è 駧ëá òéôåî [ïèøñ30 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [åîù äðäå29 ®äéä ì »ôéàðèî [íäì õ÷34 ®äåáâ ð »éèàîìô [äåáâä33 ®øñç ð »éèàîìô [àåä32 ®ìæî è »éðàîìô [úéá31 ®äùãç ®äæä ìæîá äðáì > ð »éèôàîì [äîù36 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [äéøà35 ®íäì ïéà è »õ÷ íäì ô »éðàîì è »àîìô [äéä40 ®øñç éðô »àîì [àåä39 ®àåäå è »éðàîìô [øéåàäå38 ®çëä ô »éðàèîì [äçë37 è »éðàîìô [áåøá43 ®áúåë è »éðàîìô [äîç áëåë42 ®øçà è »éðàîìô [éøçà41 ®ïéà ð »àéä é »äéäé äðäå à »éðèîìô [áëåë àåäå46 ®äðäå > è »éðàîìô [äéäéå45 ®áúåë è »éðàîìô [äîç áëåë44 ®øñç [éòéáøä50 ®äéäé éðèô »àîì [äéä49 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [ïë48 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [ïè÷ä47 ®áëëä ®úéòéáøä éð »àèîìô .

which is .[3] (3) They made Cancer the house of the Moon because it is the highest sign in all the ecumene. and it is on account of these shapes that they concluded that they are like that. because it [i. (18) And Pisces is in charge of all the rivers because Jupiter. and lion are lustful. and they found out by experience innumerable times that it rains when the Moon enters this sign during the rainy season. but Mars is dry and wells dry up before rivers.[2] and this requires a long explanation. because human beings produce few children. for sometimes they [i. Venus and Mercury] are below and sometimes they are above the Sun . which is the lord of the house. because for the most part it [Mercury] is above it [the Sun]. whenever Saturn is in this sign at the beginning of the year. therefore.[4] (5) Next after the Sun is Mercury. the Sun] enters there [Leo] its power is perceptible.[20] (20) The sign of Aries. There is a great dispute among scholars about whether Venus and Mercury are above or below the Sun.e. Those signs that have the shape of a ram.e. because it is a watery sign. Venus] is the small benefic planet. (21) All the signs were assigned to the limbs and organs of the human body down to Pisces. Jupiter] is the large benefic planet . and in like manner Libra is at the back.chapter two 195 the cusp of the tenth mundane house.e. and the watery signs and Pisces are a portent of that . and the air is hot and dry then. and the Moon by its nature indicates water. its house is adjacent to the house of the Sun. (19) Scorpio is a portent of wells. (7) The house of Mars is in quartile with the house of the Sun .[21] 5 (1) The houses. no harm will befall the head of any native whose lord is in the sign of Aries.[19] (16) Intermediate signs . an aspect of love. (17) The sign of the sea is Cancer. and also because they both have the same eccentric circle.[18] (15) Sterile. consequently the house of Jupiter is in trine with the house of the Sun . even though it is together with a malefic planet. Since it is the first sign. and because Mercury moves away from the Sun less than one sign.[5] (6) Libra is the house of Venus. All the signs that have a human shape are sterile. (4) Leo was made the house of the Sun because when it [i. namely. because it is the house of the Moon.[1] (2) But in my opinion all of them are right. which have the shape of animals that live in water.e. produce many offspring . they made it signify the head.[17] (14) Sexual intercourse.. has moisture. bull. this uncertainty arose because nobody can see them when they are in conjunction with the Sun. harm will befall seafarers. which represents the feet. because it is in an aspect of half love to the house of the Sun and it [i.

196 second version of the book of reasons (8) ®ùøôà øùàë ¬äáéøî èáî íäéðéá ïéà ùîùä úéá íò éàúáù úéá äéä äðäå åøîà ïë ìò úàôî íéúøùîì íéúáäå äðáìä úéá íò íéøçàä íéúáä êøãä äæ ìòå (9) ®ììë (10) ®äðáìä äæ êôäå ¬çøæîá åçë áåøù íòèäå ¬éçøæî 1àåä ¬ùîùä ®ìåãâ çë åì äéäé æà ¬íäéìà åéúá 2êøòå ¬äðáìä íòå ùîùä íò êøò åì ùéù ãìåîá áëåë äéä íà éë íéðåîã÷ä ¬4íù ùîùä 3ñðëäá øå÷ä ÷æçúéù úåìæî éìãå éãâ úåéä øåáòá ºúøçà êøãå èáî àåäù ¬éòéáøä ìâìâá éàúáù íò àåä 7äðä éë 10 (1) 6 íäù íéúáäå ¬éàúáùì íäéðù íéúáä äìà åîù ¬ùøôà øùàë ø÷ éàúáùù òåãéå (2) ®6úåøåàîä 5éðù äìà çëåð ìò åøåé úåøåàîäå ¬çëð èáî àåäù ¬ éòéáùá äðáìäå ¬9éîìú úòã ìò 8äáéøî éúáì øåçàå íéðôì ÷ãö éúá åéäéå ÷ãöî 20 13 12 17 16 (3) ®úåîäå êùåçä ìò éàúáùå ¬íééçäå øåàä 11 øåôñú íàå ¬ éàúáùì éðù ÷ãö äéäé ïåéìòäî øåôñì 15 19 ìçú íà éë ¬éàúáù 14 àåäù ¬ øùò íéðù íâ ¬ éðù äæì äæ úéá ïë ìò ¬ åì éðù éàúáù äéäé íééùéìù íéãàî 25 øôñîä äæ éúáå (4) ®äæì äæ äéäé éòéáù éë ¬éòéáùä 22 18 úéáë íéáéåàä úéá ¬éðù ÷ãö íòå ¬23äæì éùéìù äæ éë ¬íéãàî éúáì éùéîç äâåð úéá áëåëå 28 ïë 21 éàúáù éúáå ¬éàúáù éúáì äðäå (5) ®øùòä íéðù úåîãë àåäù ¬24éòéáù íâ ¬äæ úéá ìà äæ úéá 26 (6) ®äâåð úéáì éùéîç éàúáù úéá íâ ¬íéìâìâá àåä äëëå ¬éàúáù úéáì äîç íä 27 íàå ¬äìåúá íò éìã íâ éãâ íò íéîåàú ïëå ¬éùùä ìâìâá éàúáù íò éë åøîà úåìæîä éîëçå (7) ®éúøëæä øùàë ¬áåø÷ àåáé øáãä íâ ùîùäî äìòîì ®29ìæîå ìæî ìë äëëå ¬íéãàî úãìåúá íäù íéáø íéáëåë úøåöá ùéù åøîàå ¬íéáø úåãìåîá äæ åñðù éøçà åäåòãé íéúáä çë ®ñðëéù ð »éèôàîì [ñðëäá3 ®êøòë é »ðàèîìô [êøòå2 ®àåä éë é »àåäù ð »àèîìô [àåä1 ®øñç éà »ðèìô [äðä7 ®úåøåàî ô »éðàèîì [úåøåàîä6 ®çëåð > éàðîô »èì [éðù5 ®øñç ðè »éàîìô èô »éàîì [éòéáùá äðáìäå10 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [éîìú ®®® èáî àåäù9 ®äáäà é »àèîìô [äáéøî8 äéäé ïåéìòäî13 ®ùîùì î »éàèôì [éàúáùì12 ®øñç ô »éðàèîì [ìçú11 ®øñç ð »éòéáøá äðáìäå éðù éàúáù äéäé15 ®øñç ì »øôñî ô »øôñîî àî »éðè [øôñîä äæ14 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [øåôñú ®®® éðù äæ ìù úéá 맧ò ô »ðàîèì [éðù äæì äæ úéá ïë ìò16 ®åì éðù äéäé éàúáù äæ ðè »éôàîì [åì ®úéáå é »ðàîôèì [éúáå19 ®úéáá éô »ðàèì [úéáë18 ®úéá > ð »éèôàîì [øùò íéðù17 ®øñç é »äæì ®ïë íâ ì »ôéàðèî [ïë22 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [éàúáù éúáå21 ®úåùéìù é »úéùéìù ðô »àèîì [íééùéìù20 áëåëå26 ®àåäå à »éðèîìô [äðäå25 ®éòéáù äæ »úéòéáù é »àèîìô [éòéáù24 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [äæì23 ®®® íéáø úåãìåîá29 ®äéä î »éðàèôì [íä28 ®øùàå ð »éèôàîì [íàå27 ®áúåëå è »éðàîìô [äîç øåçàìå íéðôì úåøåàîä éúáî øåôñì ìçú íà êë àåä íéúáä ïéðò óåñ < ì »øñç éð »àèîô [ìæîå íéðôì ìéçúú íàù éàúáù éúáá åìëé íéøôñîä éðùå íéðôì äìàå øåçàì íéáëåë äùîçä éúá àöîú áø÷òå äâð úéá íéðæàîå äîç áëåë úéá äìåúáäù àåäå øåçàì íäéúá àöîú ùîùä úéá àåäù äéøàî éìã íéðôì íàöîú äðáìä úéá àåäù ïèøñ ãòå íùîå éàúáù úéá éãâå ÷ãö úéá úù÷å íéãàî úéá ïèøñî ìéçúú íàå äîç áëåë úéá íéîåàú äâð úéá øåù íéãàî úéá äìè ÷ãö úéá íéâã éàúáù úéá ®øåçàì ïë íâ íäéúá àöîú éãâ ãò øåçàì áåùúå [íù4 .

and the houses of Saturn are the same with respect to the houses of Mars. the Sun] is in the fourth orb counting from Saturn.e. one house with respect to the other house. since each is the seventh with respect to the other.[7] if they [i. (6) Mercury is in the sixth orb counting from Saturn.e.[8] (7) The astrologers said that they discovered the power of the houses after verifying them by experience in many nativities. to the houses of the Sun and the Moon]. and the house of Saturn is also the fifth counting from the house of Venus. For this reason. and its houses have a ratio to them [i. and because it is known that Saturn is cold. (4) The houses of Mars are the third counting from the houses of Saturn. which is the house of enemies. and if you count from Jupiter the same number then Saturn is the second from it. as I shall explain. and Saturn darkness and death.[7] (10) For this reason the Ancients said that if a nativity contains a planet that has a ratio to the Sun as well as to the Moon. there is no aspect at all between them. and the opposite applies to the Moon. (2) For it [i.chapter two 197 an aspect of antagonism. and likewise Gemini with respect to Capricorn as well as Aquarius with respect to Virgo. then it has a great power.[1] they assigned these two houses to Saturn.[2] and the Moon is in the seventh orb . 6 (1) Another approach: because Capricorn and Aquarius are signs where the cold intensifies when the Sun enters them. meaning that most of its power is in the east. as well as the houses opposite the two luminaries. and the luminaries indicate light and life. because if you begin to count from the uppermost orb then Jupiter is the second counting from Saturn. and it is also the twelfth [counting in the other direction]. and with respect to Jupiter it is the second. and similarly with each sign.[3] (3) The houses of Jupiter are ahead of the houses Saturn or behind them. . because the former is the third to the latter.[6] (8) As for the house of Saturn and the house of the Sun. which is eastern. as I have mentioned. and it is also the seventh mundane house which has the likeness of the twelfth mundane house . (9) And in this manner the other houses are arranged with respect to the house of the Moon as well as the houses of the planets with respect to the Sun.e. as I shall explain. and they said that there are many constellations that have the nature of Mars. and similarly with respect to the orbs. the house of the former is the second from the latter.[5][6] (5) So the house of Venus is the fifth counting from the house of Saturn. according to Ptolemy. which is an aspect of opposition.[4] like the seventh mundane house. which is an aspect of antagonism. Mercury and Venus] are above the Sun the result will be almost the same.

198 second version of the book of reasons (1) 7 (2) ®2íìåòä ùãçúé æà éë ¬1êìî çëë åçë íù äàøéù íòèäå ¬ùîùä ãåáë àåä äìè ìæî ìë éë éîìú øîà ®ãåáëä éúá ¬4íéðæàî ìæîá ùîùä 3ñðëäá äæ êôäå íìåòìå úãìåú úåéä øåáòáå ¬ùôðä íîåùúå úåìçì íãàä ìçéå úåìáì íéìòä åìçé æà éë (3) ®äìèá åúåìôùå íéðæàîá éàúáù ãåáë äéä ùîùä úãìåú êôä 5éàúáù (4) ®äãåáë úéá ìæîä 8ìëå ¬7øåù ìæîá äúåéäá úåàøäì ìçú æà 6äìèá ùîùä íò äøáçúä íàå ¬åúåàøä ìéì úìçúî óéñåé äðáìä çë éë åøîà åãåä éîëçå ãåáë éë åøîàå ¬äâðå ÷ãö úãìåúî àåä åìàë ¬êñåîî áëåë ùé äøùò òùú úìòîá íòèäå ¬øåù ìæîî úéùéìùä äìòîá äðáìä ãåáëå ¬ãáìá úàæä äìòîá ùîùä à29 òùúá ùîùä ïåì÷ 12 10 úìòîå ¬äàøîä 14 | úù÷ úåìòî éãë ùîùäî ÷åçø 9äéäéù àåäù ¬ íéðæàîî úåìòî äøùò òùúî åàø÷é ¬ïë ìò ¬êùåçä êøã ¬äðáìä ïåì÷ àåä éë ¬ïèøñá ÷ãö ãåáëå (5) ®11íéðæàîî úåìòî äøùò íùù ¬áø÷òî úåìòî ùåìù ãò ¬13ùîùä ïåì÷ íå÷î (6) ®äæä íå÷îá çë íäì ïéà íéúøùîäù íéøîåàå 15 óåñá åúåéäá éë óàå ¬íåøã úåçåø ìò ¬íéðæàîî 18 äøåé ÷ãöå ¬äåáâ àåäù íòèäå ¬éðåôö ìæî 姧èá ÷ãö ãåáë éë íéãåî åãåä éùðàå ¬úéîåøãä çåøä ÷æçúú æà ¬16éãâ àåäù íåøã ১ëá éàúáù ãåáë éë êåðç øîàéå (7) ®17秧ëá íéãàîå ¬ïèøñî úåìòî 19 ¬éãâî 秧ëá íéãàî ãåáëå »20åä÷éæé àìù ¬úåìòî éúù ùîùä çëðî ÷åçø äéäéù 22 »úåìòî ⧧é ÷ãö ãåáë çëðî ÷åçø åúåéäì ãåòå ¬åúãìåúá ïåéìò ãåáë éë 24 áëåë 21 íù éë äìåúá åðåì÷ úéáå ¬úéáøòîä çåøä øáâúú æà íù åúåéäá éë ¬íéâã ìæîá äâð ãåáëå êåðç øîàéå (8) ®úéçøæîä 23 çåøä ìò äøåé àåä éë ¬äîç áëåë äæ êôäå ®26äæ ãåáë çëåðî äæ ãåáë 25 éãë ¬äìåúáî úåìòî 姧èá äîç áëåë ãåáëå ¬íéâãî úåìòî òáùå íéøùòá äâð ùàø ãåáë éë åøîà åãåä éîëç íâ 28 (9) ÷çøúéù ìò åøåé àì áðæäå ùàøä éë ¬åäåú éøáã åìàå éë ¬íäîò äðáìä äúéä íà ÷ø (10) ®úù÷á 27 áðæäå íéîåàúá éìúä (11) ®íéìâìâ éðù úøáçî àåä éë ¬òøä ìòå áåèä íò äúåéäáå ¬äðáìä çë æà äàøé ïë ìò ¬áåùéä ìà äáåø÷ àéä ùàøä íò äúåéäá ®äìåòä ô »éðàèîì [íìåòä2 ®êìî äëëå çë ð »êìîä åîë åçë é »éàîìô [êìî çëë åçë1 éàúáù é »ðàèîìô [éàúáù úãìåú5 ®íéðæàîá è »éðàîìô [íéðæàî ìæîá4 ®úñðëäá é »ðàèîìô ìæî úåéäá ðèîô »éàì [øåù ìæîá äúåéäá7 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [äìèá ®®® çë íìåòìå6 ®åúãìåú ð »úåìòîå éô »àèî [úìòîå10 ®äéäù è »éðàîìô [äéäéù9 ®åúòã éôìå > ì »ôéàðèî [ìëå8 ®øåù ®øñç éðè »àîìô [íéðæàîî ®®® åàø÷é ïë ìò12 ®øñç ì »ôéàðèî [íéðæàîî ®®® ïåì÷ úìòîå11 ®äìòîå é »ðàèîìô [äøåé15 ®íå÷î àåäù ð »éèôàîì [íùù14 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [ùîùä ïåì÷ íå÷î àåäù13 [éúù19 ®ç§§ëá ð »éèôàîì [১ëá18 ®éãâî < é »ðàèîìô [秧ëá17 ®íéâã éàðèô »îì [éãâ16 ®äøåî é »ðàèîìô [áëåë22 ®íùù ì »ôéàðèî [íù éë21 ®øñç ì »ôéàðèî [åä÷éæé àìù20 ®§è ð »éèôàîì ð »÷çøéù ô »éàèîì [÷çøúéù25 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [êåðç24 ®çë ô »çåø éð »àèîì [çåøä23 ®çë ®øñç ôéàèîô »ðì [éë28 ®ãåáëå ð »éèôàîì [áðæäå27 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [äæ ®®® ÷çøúéù éãë26 ®øñç [ñðëäá3 .

[3] (3) The power of the Moon always increases from the beginning of the night of its first visibility. and of the Tail in Sagittarius. because the Head and the Tail do not give any indication about good fortune or misfortune. particularly when it is in the far south. for then the leaves begin to wither and men begin to sicken and the soul is depressed. meaning that it is high. They said that the exaltation of the Sun is in this degree only.e. because it indicates the east wind.[12] (9) The Indian scientists also said the exaltation of the Head of the Dragon is in Gemini. the Moon’s power is perceptible then. which is the place of the Moon’s dejection. since it is the intersection of two circles. then the southern wind grows stronger. to Scorpio 3°. as it were. The exaltation of Venus is in Pisces. (7) Enoch said that the exaltation of Saturn is at Libra 21°. meaning that there its power resembles the power of a king. because it is a northern sign.[8] and they say that the planets have no power in this place.[1] Ptolemy said that the whole sign of Aries is the exaltation of the Sun. because when it is there the west wind becomes stronger. and Jupiter indicates southern winds. in order that the exaltation of one be distant from opposition to the exaltation of the other. and the whole sign is its house of exaltation.[10] and the exaltation of Mars is at Capricorn 28°. of the nature of Jupiter and Venus.[7] (5) Therefore. in order that it be 2° distant from opposition to the exaltation of the Sun. namely. in the 19th degree of Aries . (10) This is nonsense.[4] (4) The Indian scientists said that there is a mixed star. .[5] and the exaltation of the Moon is in the third degree of Taurus.[13] (11) But if the Moon is in them (because when it is in the Head it is close to the ecumene). Saturn’s exaltation is in Libra and its dejection in Aries. (6) The exaltation of Jupiter is in Cancer. and its house of dejection is Virgo. they call the interval from Libra 19°. which is the place of the Sun’s dejection. lest it be damaged. the path of darkness. and if it is in conjunction with the Sun in Aries then it [i. because there is an upper star there with its own nature. the Moon] begins to be visible when it is in the sign of Taurus. because Saturn’s nature is the opposite of the Sun’s nature. meaning that its distance from the Sun is equal to the degrees of the arc of vision[6] and the Sun’s dejection is at Libra 19°. Capricorn.[2] (2) The opposite occurs when the Sun enters the sign of Libra.chapter two 199 7 (1) Houses of exaltation. (8) Enoch said that the exaltation of Venus is at Pisces 27° and the exaltation of Mercury at Virgo 15°. the opposite applies to Mercury. because the world is renewed then.[11] and also in order that it be 13° distant from opposition to the exaltation of Jupiter. The Indians admit that the exaltation of Jupiter is at Cancer 15°[9] and of Mars at 28°.

17:7 §à íéîòè äàø ®íéîòèä øôñ ìù äðåùàøä äñøâá úàöîð åæ úôñåú ®åúãìåúá øùé àåäù ®äâåðì é »ðàèîìô [äâð27 ®ãåáëì è »éðàîìô [äâðì26 .7:2 §à íéîòè äàø ®íéîòèä øôñ ìù »éðàîìô [çëù13 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [ìòá12 ®ø÷ é »ðàèîìô [äø÷11 ®íåç é »ðàèîìô [íåçä10 ®éë î »íâå éô »ðèàì [íâ16 ®äçë è »éðàîìô [äçëî15 ®øñç ôéðèîô »àì [äìéìá14 ®çë éë è [íä20 ®äîå÷î à »éðèîìô [íîå÷î19 ®éîåøã ô »éðàèîì [úéîåøã18 ®àåäù > ô »ðàèîìô [ìòá17 ®øñç ðàì »éèîô [äîç23 ®íåéáå àèîì »éðô [äìéìáå22 ®øñç ô »éðàèîì [äéä21 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô ÷ãö åîå÷î åîù ïë ìò ¬íéøùé íä úåìæîä äìàå < ì »éðàîèô [øéåàä25 ®ìòáî ô »éðàèîì [çëî24 ®§2.200 second version of the book of reasons (12) ®äçë øñçéå éîåøã äáçøî äðä áðæä (13) ®ììë áçøî åì ïéàù ¬ùîùäî õåç ¬åáðæ åà ïéðú ùàø íò 1úøùî ìë èôùî äëëå íò íéúøùîäî ãçà äéä íà ¬ïë ìò ùàøäù íéøîåà íéáøå (14) ®÷éæé àìå ìéòåé àì 2úåçåìá íéáåúëä áðæä åà éìú ùàø ®3äæä èôùîë øñçé áðæäå ¬äðåîîä ééç úåðù úéòéáø óéñåé úåùéìùä 5ìòáå (2) ®4äùìù ùàä úåìæî åéøáçå äìè éë åøîà ®úåùéìùä (1) 8 ìëåéå åúéá úù÷ éë äìéìá ìçé ÷ãöå ¬íåéá åçëå åúéá äéøà éë íåéá ùîùä 6ìçú àåäù ô§§ò§§à ¬íéãàî úåùéìùä úàæî åàéöåäå àìå ÷éæé äðäå ¬íéãàî äëëå 10 9 (3) ®7ùîùä ïë àìå ¬äìéìá úåàøäì (4) (5) ®ìéòåé ®11äø÷ íåçä úåìæî äìà 8úåéä øåáòá ¬äìè ìæî ìòá äëëå ¬úëñåîî åúãìåú äéäúå ø÷ åúåéä øåáòá éàúáù åéúçú íùåäå åîùå ¬åúéá øåù éë íåéá ìçéù ¬äâðì øôòä úåùéìù 14 12 äìéìä éë áåè äìéìá íéãàîå ¬íç íåéä éë øåáòá íåéá áåè éàúáù éë åøîà ìòá çë åîùå 15 äìéìá äðáìä 18 13 çëù ¬äìéìá ìçúå ¬éãâ ìæî ìòá àåäù ¬éàúáù åøéñäå çë åîùå á29 (6) ®äðáìä (7) ®íåéá äâð ãåáë ìòá øåù éë åîò äðáìä åîù ïë ìò ¬íåéá 17 19 äçëî øúåé 16 åîùå ¬ úéîåøã çåø ìò åøåé àìù øåáòá ¬äìåúá ìæî ìòá ¬äîç áëåë íâ (8) ®íééîåøã 20 íä øôòä úåìæîù ¬úéîåøã çåø ãéìåéù 21 íîå÷î íéãàî àåäå àåäå øëæ åúåéä øåáòá åðîî íåéá åìçäå ¬åéìòá àåäå åúéá éìã éë éàúáùì çåøä úåùéìù åúéá íéîåàú éë äéðùä úåùéìùä ìòá ¬ äîç áëåëî 23 22 äéä äîç áëåëå äìéìáå éàúáùî íåéá åìçä ïë ìòå 24 (9) | ®íåéä éáëåëî (10) ®äìéìä éáëåëî ¬äø÷ åúãìåú úåéä øåáòá úåùéìùä äðåùàøä úåùéìùä ìòá çë åîùå åúéáù íéãàî ìà äéðùäå ¬íéâãá 27 çëî ¬íéðæàî ìæî ìòá àåäù ¬äâð åøéñäå 26 (11) ®25øéåàä úãìåúë åúãìåúù ¬÷ãö åîå÷î åîùå äâð ãåáë åì ùéù øåáòá äâðì íéîä úåìæîì ð »úøùî ìë èôùî çë øñçéå é »úøùî ìë èôùî äëëå çë øñçéå ôàî »èì [úøùî ®®® äçë øñçéå1 [äùìù4 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [äæä3 ®úåçåìä øôñá è »éðàîìô [úåçåìá2 ®úøùî ìë çë èôùî øñçéå ìëå < ì »éðàîèô [ùîùä7 ®úìçú ð »éèôàîì [ìçú6 ®éìòáå ð »éèôàîì [ìòáå5 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì äðåùàøä äñøâá úàöîð åæ úôñåú ®õøàä úçú äååääî ìåãâ øúåé åçë õøàä ïî äìòîì àåäù áëåë ®úåìæîä éô »ðàèîì [úåìæî9 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [úåéä8 ®§2.

(4) Saturn was assigned [as their partner] in its [Mars’] place. (9) Mercury was made lord of the second triplicity. (10) For this reason they began from Saturn by day and from Mercury by night. because these are the signs of heat and Mars is like that [i. the fiery signs. (13) Hence.e. because the Moon’s power is greater by night than by day.[5] (11) They assigned the power of lord of the first triplicity of the watery signs to Venus because the exaltation of Venus is in Pisces. and assigned Mars [as partner] in their place because it generates a south wind. (6) It [i. is the first by day because Leo is its house and its power is diurnal. as recorded in the tables. and they made it first in the day because it is masculine and because it is one of the diurnal stars. which is the lord of the sign of Libra. because it is cold and its nature is mixed. and the power . (12) This is also the astrological judgment of any planet when it is in the Head of the Dragon or its Tail.chapter two 201 but when it is in the Tail its latitude is southern and its power decreases.[3] (8) They assigned the power of the airy triplicity to Saturn.[14] 8 (1) The triplicity. if one of the planets is in the Head of the Dragon or the Tail. which is not the case for the Sun. and consequently they assigned Venus to day. are three.[1] They said that Aries and its companions. because the earthy signs are southern. the Sun. (14) Many say that the Head adds a quarter to the years of life of the ruling planet. which is the lord of the sign of Capricorn. and the Tail subtracts them.[2] (5) They assigned the power of the lord of the earthy triplicity to Venus. in accord with this astrological judgment. (7) They excluded Saturn. even though it is the lord of the sign of Aries. they also said that Saturn is benefic by day because the day is hot and that Mars is benefic by night because the night is cold. (3) Mars was excluded from this triplicity. and also Mercury. Jupiter is the first by night because Sagittarius is its house and it is visible at night. they excluded Venus. except for the Sun. because Aquarius is its house and it [Saturn] is its [Aquarius] lord. whose nature is like the nature of the air.[4] because Gemini is its house and it is one of the nocturnal stars. from the power of the triplicity because its nature is cold. and they associated the Moon with it because Taurus is the lord of the exaltation of the Moon. which has no latitude at all [with respect to the ecliptic]. because they do not indicate a south wind. the Moon] is the first by night.e. the lord of the sign of Virgo. which is the first by day because Taurus is its house. (2) The lord of the triplicity. and in its place they assigned Jupiter. it is hot]. it will neither help nor harm. and therefore it might cause harm and not be beneficial.

11:1-3 §à íéîòè äàø ®íéîòèä øôñ ìù äðåùàøä äñøâá òéôåî äæä ®÷ìçå é »ìçéå ô »íåìçéå è »ðàî [åìçéå23 ®çë à »éðèîìô [úåçë22 ®åúãìåúá è »éðàîô [åúãìåúë21 ®äòáøàä éàîô »ãä ð »è [òáøàä26 ®øñç è »éðàîô [éë25 ®ìæîá è »ìæîî ô »éðàî [ìæîäî24 ð »éèàîô [äòùú ïåáùçä28 ®íéùàø äðä ð »íéùàøä äðä îè »íéùàøä íä é » ô [íéùàø íðä27 àåä31 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [ò÷ùú óåñáå30 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [úçîåöä ®®® úåîãë ùøåù29 ®úåðåáùçä ®úáùçîá ð »éèàîìô [úáùçîì32 ®äîåã àéä ð »àéä äîåã é »àåä äîåã ô »îàèì [äîåã .202 second version of the book of reasons ®íäîò 2óúåù äúéä ïë ìò ïèøñ äðáìä úéáå (12) ®1áø÷ò (1) 9 3 øîà éîìú íâ (2) 8 ®íéøçà íéìåáâ åãåä éîëçì íâ ñøô éîëçì ùé ®íéìåáâä 7 6 5 4 íäå ¬íéáåúëä íéìåáâì íéáåø÷ íä íâ » íéøçà íéìåáâì úéðåîã÷ àçñåð àöîù úåìòî øôñî øôåñ äúàùëå ¬úéáä ìòáî åìçç ®íéðôä (3) ®íåñð íéèôùîä 11 éìòáå ¬10íéøöî éîëç 9úåìåáâ (4) ®úåìåãâä åéúåðù øôñî àöîú æà ¬úøùî ìë 12úåìåáâ ®íãéá äìòå íåñð äëëå (5) ®ìâìâá åéúçú àåä øùàë ¬ùîùä åéøçàå ¬íéãàî àåäù 15 ìæîä çë åîù äùìù úçà úãìåúî íäù úåìæîä 14úåéä øåáòá ®13úãìåúä (6) íéðù çë (7) ®úåøàùðä 17êøãä äæ ìòå ¬äðåùàøä úåùéìùä àåäù ¬úåìòî 16øùòá éèôùîá çë åì ùéå ¬18íåñð äëëå ¬úåìæî øùò íéðùä çë ìæî ìëá éë åøîà ®øùò íäù ìæîä úåìòî å÷ìç éë ¬éöçå úåìòî éúù ìæî ìëì åðúð ïë ìò ìæî ìëî éòéùúä ìæîä éë øåáòá ® éòéùú çë 20 23 (8) ®íìåòä (9) ® úåìæî øùò íéðù ìò íéùìù 19 25 åìçéå ¬ãçà ìæîá úåìæî äòùú 22 úåçë åîù ¬21åúãìåúë àåäù ïåøçàä ìæîä àåä 26 øåáòá íéøîåà ùéå ¬27íéùàø íðä úåôå÷ú òáøàä éë øåáòá êôäúîä 28 24 ìæîäî ® äòùú ïåáùçä ìë êñ úåéä 3§ éôì ¬äðäå äëëå (2) ®íéúáä éîòè ìò øáãù íéðåîã÷ä ãçàì éúàöî àì ®íéúáä (1) 1 (3) ®êùçä íå÷îî åúàöá ãìåðä úåîãë ¬ùøåù úçîåöä äìòîä åîù ¬éúòã øáãä äæå ¬30ò÷ùú óåñáå íéîùä éöçá äúåéä ãò äìåò àéäå ¬29úçîåöä äìòîä åøîàå ¬íééçä ìò úçîåöä äìòîä äøåú ¬ïë ìò äìòîì äîåã úò÷åùä äìòîä äðäå (4) ®ø÷åáá äçøåæá ùîùá øøáúé 32 (5) ®ïåéîã êøãá úáùçîì 31 äîåã àåä éë [øîà3 ®óúåù äéä à »óúåù äéäé é »úôúåù äúéä ô »îì [óúåù äúéä2 ®úéá > è »éðàîìô [áø÷ò1 [íä6 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [íéøçà5 ®äàçñð ô »àçñð àèî »äçñåð ð »éì [àçñåð4 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [úåìåáâ9 ®íéìåáâä éìåáâì é »ðàèîìô [íéìåáâì8 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [íéáåø÷7 ®ïë ì »ôéàðèî [úåìåáâ12 ®ìòáå à »éðèîìô [éìòáå11 ®íéøöî ìù úåìæîä é »ðàèîìô [íéøöî10 ®éìåáâ ô »éðàèîì [ìæîä çë15 ®øñç è »éðàîô [úåéä14 ®úåãìåúä î »éðàèô [úãìåúä13 ®ìù íéìåáâä é »ðàèîìô äëëå18 ®íéëøãä ô »éðàèî [êøãä17 ®éë ð »øåáòá îà »éèô [øùòá16 ®ìæî çëä ô »éðàèî ìòáì ïåùàøä ÷ìçä åðúðå < ì »úåìòî é »ðàèîô [úåìæî19 ®íãéá äìòå è < è »éðàîìô [íåñð òè÷ä ®íìåòä úôå÷úá ìåãâ çë äæìå íìë ïëå åéøçà àáä ìæîä ìòáì éðùä ÷ìçäå äìåòä ìæîä ®èä ð »éèôàîì [éòéùú20 ®§2.

and the experts in astrological judgments verified them by experience. They began from the lord of the house [Aries].[1] (2) In my opinion. you will find the number of its great years. inasmuch as its [the Sun’s] orb is just below its [Mars’] orb. in each sign. the lords of the decans] by experience in this manner and proved that this is so. (6) The nature. they assigned the power of the sign to the first ten degrees.e. they began from the tropical sign because the beginnings of the four seasons are “heads”. they put the powers of nine signs in one sign. which is Mars. I have not found any of the Ancients who explained the houses. the degree of the ascendant rises until it reaches midheaven and in the end sets. like the native when he emerges from the place of darkness.[7] (8) For this reason they assigned two and a half degrees to each sign.[5] (7) The power of the dodecatemoria. whose house is Scorpio. (3) Similarly.[1] The scientists of Persia and India have [i.[6] They said that. which is the first triplicity. they made the degree of the ascendant a root. Because three signs have the same nature. and assigned the rest of the decans by the same method.. and they tested them in this manner.[2] (5) The degree of the descendant resembles the degree of the ascendant.[2] (3) When you count the number of degrees in the terms of each planet.[8] (9) The power of the ninth-part. (4) Hence.[6] 9 (1) The terms. and after it the Sun. and they said that it [the ascendant] resembles thinking imaginatively. each of the twelve signs has power. and it has power in the astrological judgments of the world. they are close to the terms in the books. describe] other terms.[3] (4) The decans.[4] (5) They tested them [i.[9] but others say that this is because there are a total of nine digits. Since the ninth sign from any sign is the last sign whose nature is as its own nature. this is made plain by the Sun when it rises in the morning and reaches midheaven and in the end sets . (2) Ptolemy also said that he found an ancient text with other terms. and consequently it [the Moon] was made partner with them [Venus and Mars]. (12) Cancer is the house of the Moon. since they divided the thirty degrees of the sign by twelve. since .[10] §3 1 (1) The mundane houses.e.chapter three 203 of the second triplicity to Mars. the degree of the ascendant indicates life. which are the terms of the Egyptian scientists..

6:10 §à íéîòè äååùä ®éøéùòä ®éðùä < é »ðàèîìô [äøåé32 ®çëä ð »éèôàîì [çë31 ®íéèáîä øôñá ô »éðàèîì [íéèáîá30 ®ïåùàøäî éòéáùä úéáä êôä åúåéä ô »éðàèîì [ïåùàøä êôä éòéáùä úéáä úåéä33 .204 second version of the book of reasons ò÷ùé åøôñîá äëë çøæî úàôá 1úåìæîä åìòéù úåìòîä øôñîá éë ¬úçîåöä ®øåøá øáãä äæå ¬íéúáä éðùá äåùá ùîùä úåìòî úåäáâå ¬áøòîá øçàä ìæîä òéðîä ïåéìòä ìâìâä êøãá ¬íå÷î ìëá íéîùä éöç úòåðú 2íìåòì éë åðòãéå íâ úçîåöä äìòîä åãéìåä åìà åìàëå 4 3 (6) ìò äøåé éøéùòä éë åøîàå (7) ®õøàä ãúé úåìòî åäåîëå ¬äåù ¬ìëä (8) ®ïáä åãéìåäù úåáàä ìò úåàì åéä ïë ìò ¬úò÷åùä (9) ®øáãä êôä 7øîà éîìúå ¬õøàä ïî äìòîì 6àåä éë ¬äàøðä àåäù øåáòá 5íàä ¬8ãçà øùáì åéäå åãâðë øæò àéä éë ¬äá÷ðä ìò úåàì éòéáùä úéáä äéäéå à30 øåáòáå àåäù 19 13 (10) ®íéôúåùä ìò úåàì äéä úååù éòéáùä úéáä 9 | 12 úåìòî úåéä øåáòáå éòéáù úéá ìë úåéä íäù ¬íéùðä úéá ïë íâ äéä ¬ò÷åù äæå äìåò äæ éë ¬11êôäì àåäå ¬ïåùàøä çëåð øåáòá ¬úåèè÷äå úåáéøîä úéá íâ ¬íéøëæä êôä 15 18 10 ìò ìâìâä ÷ìçúé íìåòì éë ¬úåãúéä íä åìòå äùìù ìò ãúé ìë íéúá äòáøàä äìàå 17 20 (11) ®çëåð 16 14 èáî å÷ìç óåñå ãîòîå äìçú 23 ìëì ùéù øåáòáå ¬ äòáøà ¬éòöîà çë íäì ùé úåãúéä éøçà íäù äòáøàä éë ®çë íäì ïéà ¬íéìôåð ïåùàøä úéáä 24 åøîàå (12) ®íéúá øùò íéðù 21 íéøçàäå ¬íúééååäì 22 íä íâ åáåùé äøäîáù øåáòá íò äáäà èáî ìò íìåòì éùéîçä úéáä úåéä øåáòáå 25 (1) 2 ìæîä äëë ïéàå ¬íúáäàë íãàì äøåîâ äáäà ïéàù ¬íéðáä ìò ïîéñ äéä ¬ åúãìåúáå äæ åîù ¬íãàä úãìåúì áåùé ìëàîäù øåáòáå èáî ìò 27 (2) ®ìôåð åúåéä øåáòá éòéùú 26 ১éä úéáä úåéä øåáòáå 29 (3) ®âåðòúäå äúùîäå ìëàîä úéá çåéøäå çáùä úéá äéä ¬äìòîì åúåéä øåáòáå ¬íéáäåàä úéá åäåîù ¬äáäà éöç ùøôà øùàë ¬úçîåöä äìòîä ìà èéáé àì éë ¬éðùä ïë àìå 32 (4) ®28áåèä íùäå úåáñî àåäù ¬ïåîîä ìò äøåé ¬ïåùàøä úéáä 31 çë íò åúåéä øåáòáå ¬30íéèáîá úìçú éë åøîà ïë ìò ¬ ïåùàøä êôä éòéáùä úéáä úåéä øåáòáå 33 (5) ®íééçä ®úåìòîä øôñîá àéä éë é »úåìæîä åìòé øùàë éë øôñá úåìòîá è »ðàîìô [úåìæîä ®®® øôñîá éë1 »à [íàä5 ®äìòî ô »ðéàèîì [äìòîä4 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [åãéìåä åìà3 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [íìåòì2 »éèàîìô [ãçà8 ®øîåà èî »éðàìô [øîà7 ®øñç ô »éðàèî [àåä6 ®ùàøä ì »ùéàä ðô »ùàä éèî ®êôäð é »ðàèîìô [êôäì11 ®úéòéáù é »ðàèîìô [éòéáù10 ®äéäú ð »åéä èô »éàîì [äéä9 ®øñç ð »éðèîìô [íéúá15 ®çëî é »ðàèîìô [èáî14 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [øåáòá13 ®àåäù ðà »éèîìô [íäù12 »éèôàîì [å÷ìç18 ®ãçà < é »ðàèîìô [ìëì17 ®§ãä é »äòáøàä ô »ðàèîì [äòáøà16 ®øñç à ô »éðàèîì [äøäîáù21 ®øåáòáå é »ðàèîìô [åøîàå20 ®ìòå ð »éèôàîì [åìòå19 ®é÷ìç åîù ð ®øñç è »éðàîìô [íò24 ®íéøçàå é »ðàèîìô [íéøçàäå23 ®ë§§â à »éðèîìô [íä íâ22 ®äøäîù àèîìô » éð [১éä27 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [ìæîä26 ®íúãìåúáå é »åúãìåúå è »ðàîìô [åúãìåúáå25 ®äìòîá ô »éðàèîì [äìòîä ìà29 ®áåè èîìô »éðà [áåèä28 ®§3.

they said that the cusp of the seventh house[6] . and because it is above it was considered to be the house of praise.[2] (3) Because the eleventh house is in an aspect of half love to the first house they made it the house of lovers. (6) We also know that the motion of midheaven. (8) They said that the tenth house indicates the mother because it is visible. yielding twelve houses. because it is in an aspect of opposition. (10) Because the entire seventh house is in opposition to the first house . it was also seen as the house of women. is always uniform in every place. since no man has a fuller love than he has for them. for the circle is always divided into four. and also as the house of quarrels and disputes.[5] (5) Because the seventh house is the opposite of the first.[5] (12) They said that the four houses that are after the cardines have intermediate power.[7] 2 (1) Since the fifth house is always in an aspect of love to the first house and is of the same nature. it was seen as an indication of the sons.e. because it does not aspect the degree of the ascendant. it indicates partners because the degrees of the seventh house are equal. to the cardines]. as I shall explain in the discussion of the aspects. and an end. and so are the degrees of the cardo of lower midheaven. 2:18. in that one ascends when the other descends. which is among the causes of life. but this is not true for the ninth house . because she is a helpmate to him and they are one flesh (Gen.e. they made this mazzal [1] the house of food. who produce sons. by means of the uppermost orb that propels all. and the apogee of the degrees of the Sun is the same in both houses. (2) And because food is converted into the nature [i. and the other four are falling from the cardines .[4] (11) These four houses are the cardines. a stable stage.[3] (4) But this is not the case for the second house . but Ptolemy said the opposite. 20 and 2:24). and because everything has a beginning.[3] (9) The seventh house signifies the female. and this matter is clear.chapter three 205 the number of degrees that the signs ascend at the eastern edge of the horizon is equal to the number of degrees that the opposing sign descends in the west. and renown. because they will soon return to their basic existence [i. and just the opposite.[6] because they do not have power. and for this reason they signify fathers. and pleasure. (7) It is as though they produce the degree of the ascendant as well as of the descendant. each cardo was divided into three.[4] because it has the power of the first house it indicates wealth. profit. natural constitution] of man. who are the opposite of men.. because it is falling from the cardines . since it is above the Earth. feast.

206 second version of the book of reasons (6) ®éøîâì úååîä ìò äøåé àì ¬6ïåùàøä úéáä 5íò 4øåù÷ åì ùéù øåáòáå ¬3úåîä ìò éòéáùä úéáä ìòá äøåé íâ »2íééçä ÷éñôé éòéáùä 1ãúéä àåä ¬éðéîùä úéáä ÷ø ¬úååîä ìò äøåé ïë ìò ¬ïåùàøä úéáä íò øù÷ åì ïéàå åçëá àåäù 8åîò 7÷áãä ®9íéúî úàôî äùåøé ìò äøåé ¬ïåîîä ìò äøåéù éðùì äîåã àåäù øåáòáå ìò »ãö ìà ãöî øåñé 11 æà ¬áøòî ãö 10 ìà øåñéå íéîùä éöçá ùîùä úåéäáå 12 (1) 3 (2) ®õøàä ïî äìòîì àåäù øåáòá ¬íéëåøàä íéëøãä úéá éòéùúä úéáä äæ åîù ïë èáî ìò åúåéä øåáòáå ¬13úåçô åçë úåéä øåáòá íéáåø÷ä íéëøãì äîùðì êåìäå ùåôç úåîãë äîëçä úåéä ¬úåøåúä úéá 19 21 17 15 14 éùéìùäå øåáòáå ¬ íéçàä úéá åäåîù äáäà éöç éùéìùä äéäå éøéùòä úéáä úåéä (3) ®úåìåãâä úåîëçä úéá éòéùúä äéä 16úòãá øåúìå øåáòáå (4) ®úåîå÷î ìà úëìåä äîùðä 18åìéàë ¬íåìçá íâ 20 åøîà ¬äæä íå÷îá íúåéäá åçéëåé íìåë íéáëåëäå ùîùäå ¬ìâìâä ìë ìò äìòîì øåáòáå (5) 22 ®åì úåëìî åîë àåäù ¬íãàä úåðîåà íâ ãåáëäå ¬äëåìîä úéá àåä éë íéáéåàä úéá äéä ¬ïåùàøä íò ÷áã åððéàå ìôåð øùò íéðùä úéáä úåéä ¬äôøçäå éùùä úéáä éë øåáòáå (6) ®íãàä úáëøî úéá äéä ¬úçîåöäî áåø÷ åúåéä øåáòáå (7) ®íéøúñð íéáéåà úåîãë 24 ìò äøåé ¬õøàäî äèîìå ìôåð àåä éë ¬òø úéá àåäå ïåùàøä úéáä íò ÷áã åððéà ¬úåçôùä ìòå íéãáòä ìò äøåé íâ á30 íä éë ¬23íéàìçä 25 úéá àåäù éòéáùä úéáäî áåø÷ | úéáä äæ íâ ¬øùò íéðùä êôä àåäù øåáòá ®íéùðä 4§ ìò çáù åì ùéù ñåñ ìò åúëéìäá øùé àåä æà 29 27 áëåøì ÷öåîä ìâìâá äìåòä áëåëä 28 26 åîã ®áëåëä (1) 1 ïè÷ä åìâìâ úàôá åúåìòáå ¬õøàäî å÷çø øåáòá íéìâøä çë äàøé àìù øåáòáå (3) ®íéáúëðä íä íéøçàä éîòèå (2) ®õîåà íåé ìë óéñåéå ®30ùîùä íò äæäì çë ïéàù åîù ïë ìò ¬õøàä ìò ùîùä øùàë áëåë é »ðàèîìô [úåîä ®®® äøåé íâ3 ®úååîä ìò é »ðàèîìô [íééçä ÷éñôé2 ®úéáä é »ðàèîìô [ãúéä1 [÷áãä7 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [ïåùàøä6 ®ìò ð »éèôàîì [íò5 ®øù÷ é »ðàèîìô [øåù÷4 ®øñç ®ìò é »àèîìô [ìà10 ®íéúîä è »éðàîìô [íéúî9 ®øñç è »éèôðîì [åîò8 ®÷áãî ð »éèôàîì [úåçô ®®® íéîùä éöçá ùîùä úåéäáå13 ®éùéìùä úéáäå é »àèîìô [éùéìùäå12 ®íà è »éàîìô [æà11 è »éðàîìô [øåáòáå15 ®íéçàá é »ðàèîìô [íéçàä14 ®åîå÷îì õåçî àöîð äæä òè÷ä ð »éèôàîì è »éùéìùä úéáä äéäå ô »àîì [éùéìùä äéäå17 ®úòãå øåèìå é »àðèîìô [úòãá øåúìå16 ®úåéäáå ®åìéàë øåáòá úåîåìçá é »àîðèôì [åìéàë íåìçá18 ®§èä úéáä äéäå é »§âäå ð »éùéìùä úéáä äðäå ®íøîàá é »ðàèîìô [åøîà21 ®ïòîì à »éðèîìô [äìòîì20 ®éøéùòä ô »éðàèîì [éøéùòä úéáä19 à »éèîô [íä24 ®íé÷ìçä àèîìô »éð [íéàìçä23 ®ùîùä ô »ïåùàøä > à »éðèîì [íéáéåàä22 ®áëåëì àô »éðèî [áëåøì27 ®åîë àåä ð »äîåã é »àèîô [åîã26 ®úåéä è »éðàîìô [àåäù25 ®àåä íò äæäì çë ïéàù30 ®ïåè÷ä ìâìâ é »ïåè÷ä åìâìâ ð »àèîô [ïè÷ä åìâìâ29 ®úàôî è »éðàîô [úàôá28 ®ùîùä íò äðäì ïéàù ðô »çë äì ïéàù è »[ùîùä íò äðäì çë ïéàù é »àî [ùîùä .

and because science resembles searching and traveling by the soul and pursuing knowledge. therefore it [i.chapter four 207 interrupts life. the lord of the seventh house also indicates death. so they made this ninth house the house of the long journeys. (2) The third house was assigned to short journeys because its power is less. §4 1 (1) Planets. and of human crafts. they said that it is the house of kingship. it was made the house of brothers. and also because this house is close to the seventh house. man’s] kingdom. which [i. which resemble hidden enemies. because it is the opposite of the twelfth house .[2] (6) Because the sixth house is not attached to the first house and is a malefic house.[1] (4) Because the tenth house is at the top of the circle. and when it ascends in its epicycle its motion is direct and gets brighter[2] each day.[3] (7) It also indicates male and female slaves. to the seventh house] and has the same power but has no link to the first house.e. as if the soul were roaming to distant places. which indicates wealth. (5) Because the twelfth house falls from the cardines and is not attached to the first. since it is above the Earth. (3) The third house is the house of religions and of dreams. (2) The reasons for the other topics are the ones that are written in Reshit Hokhmah . it indicates diseases.e.[3] (3) . And because it is similar to the second house. for it falls from the cardines and is below the Earth. They compared a planet when it rises in its eccentric circle to a horseman[1] whose horse has excellent legs because it is getting farther from the Earth. which is the house of women. honor] is like his [i. and because it is close to the ascendant it was made the house of the riding animals for man. because it is in an aspect of half love. it indicates an inheritance from the deceased. of honor.[7] 3 (1) When the Sun is at midheaven and starts descending to the west. it was made the house of enemies and of shame. the eighth house] indicates death.e. the planet] has no power with the Sun.e. it moves from one side to the other. the one that is attached to it [i. which is demonstrated by the Sun and all the stars when they are in this place. the ninth house was made the house of the major sciences. . but because it has a link with the first house it does not absolutely indicate death. Because the power of the planet is invisible when the Sun is above the Earth they stated that it [i.e. (6) Death is indicated only by the eighth house.

208 second version of the book of reasons (1) 2 (2) (3) äàøé àì éë ¬åéøçàìå åéðôì úåìòî äøùò ùîç ùîùä 1øåà åîù ®íéøåàä ®3úåìòî äøùò ùîç åðîî ÷çøéù ãò åìàîùîå 2åðéîéî åéìà áåø÷ àåäù áëåë éàúáù 5øåàå ¬úåçô 4åøåà úåéä øåáòá úåìòî äøùò íéúù äéäé äðáìä øåàå áëåë øåàå äâð øåàå ¬åøåà ïë íâ úåçô åôåâ úåéä øåáòá 6äðîù íéãàî øåàå 9 ®íôåâ úãîá íéáåø÷ íäå äðáìä øåàî úåçô íøåà úåéä øåáòá úåìòî òùú ÷ãöå äàøéù ô§§ò§§à (4) ®íôåâá ãàî íéðè÷ 8íä íâ ¬íéìôù íúåéä øåáòá 7òáù äîç 11 ìà áåø÷ åúåéä øåáòá ïë äàøðå ¬ãàî ïè÷ àåä ãàî ìåãâ ïéòä 10 äàøîá äâð ®12õøàä äãå÷ðäî äðäå ¬íé÷ìç íéùåìùå ãçàî áåø÷ ùîùä ïåñëìà ®úøáçîä áùçé 18 15 äëë áëåëä úåéäá åøîà 17 14 ïë ìò 16 (1) 3 (2) ®íé÷ìç 13øùò äùùî áåø÷ úéòöîàä (3) ®äàøé àìù øåáòá ¬óøùð àåäù åøîà ïë ìò »ùîùä óåâ úçú åððéà íäì ùé åìàë ùîùä óåâ 19 ìàîùå ïéîé äæî øúåé ¬äãå÷ðä íò àåä åìàë íò àåä øùàëå ìòå ¬ìâìâá ùé äîç 21 áëåë éðù ùîùä íò äîç áëåë éë åøîà ïë ìò ¬ãçà çë éàúáùì úåìòî íòèå »20åéúøëæä úåìòî 姧è íòèå (4) ®íéúøùîä ìë êøãä äæ éðùäå ¬íøåà ìãåâ øåáòá ãçàä ºíéøáã éðù øåáòá ¬íéãàîì ïë àìå ¬÷ãöì íâ øùòî íéãàî äéäéå àéäùë ¬äðáìä íéðåéìòä íòèå ãò 32 28 (5) ®ùîùä íáæòú 23 äøäî 22 éë ¬íúëéìäá íúðúîä øåáòá 24 ïéáå ùîùä ïéá äéäéå ¬åúëéìäá øéäî àåäå íøåàî øñç åøåàù øåáòá úåìòî (6) ®äàøéù áåø÷ äéäé (7) ®çë 25äì ùé ïë ìò (8) æà éë ¬éìàîù åáçøå úåìòî 26 øùò äâåð ¬óéñåäì äøåà ìçé æà ¬ùîùäî úéáøòî éë íééçøæî íúåéäá 29 27 êìäîî øúåé íëìäî éë íéìôùä äæ êôäå ¬íáæòú ùîùä íéðåéìòä çëå ®äøäî ùîùä åáæòé íééáøòî éöç íòèå øùàë íä äðäå ¬ùîùä íéùìù áëåëì (9) ®çë èòî åì øàùð ïåùàøä ãîòîáå ¬äöåøîá íëìäî éë äéä íà íòèå (10) ®ïë 31äøåé 35 ïåéñðä íâ »30àøáñ êøã ìò ¬çëä úéùéìù åà ¬çëä 33 ®34íéúøùîä ìëì ïë àìå ¬áçøî ùîùì ïéàù øåáòá ùîùä íò èòî áçøî 36 äðäå ¬áçåøáå êøåàá àéä äîéìùä úøáçîä éë øåáòá úøáçîä éöç íòèå (11) ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [úåìòî ®®® åéøçàìå åéðôì3 ®øñç ôéàðèîô »ì [åðéîéî2 ®øåàì é »ðàèîìô [øåà1 [òáù7 ®øñç àî »§æ è »éðôì [äðîù6 ®íàå ô »øåàä î »éðàèì [øåàå5 ®äìà ô »éðàèîì [åøåà4 [äàøîá10 ®ìò < è »ðàéîìô [äàøéù9 ®ïë íâ íðéäù ð »ë§§â à »éèîìô [íä íâ8 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì ®õøàäî éô »ðàèîì [õøàä ìà12 ®äàøðëå é »ðàèîìô [äàøðå11 ®úéàøîá é »úåàøîá ð »àèîìô áëåë è »éðàîô [äëë áëåëä15 ®ïàë ãò é »àèîô [ïë ìò14 ®äùùî à »æ§§î è »éîô [øùò äùùî13 [íò17 ®ìàîùì ïéîéä ïî øúåéå é »ìàîùå ïéîé äæî øúåéå ðè »àîô [ìàîùå ïéîé äæî øúåé16 ®íù äîç ®íéúøëæä é »ðàèîô [åéúøëæä20 ®íéáëë à »éðèîô [áëåë19 ®äì ð »éèàîô [íäì18 ®ìò ð »éèàîô »ðàèîô [øùò24 ®øñç ô »éðàèî [äøäî23 ®øñç î »éðàèô [éë22 ®éàúáù ð »éèàîô [éàúáùì21 [íéðåéìòä çëå28 ®íä < à »éðèîô [øùàë27 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [éë26 ®åì ô »éàèî [äì25 ®ùù é »éèàîô [äøåé31 ®àøáñä ô »éðàèî [àøáñ30 ®øñç è »éðàîô [íéùìù29 ®íéðåéìò äëëå ô »ðàèîô ®íéúøùî àîô »éðè [íéúøùîä34 ®áëåëä ô »éðàèî [áëåëì33 ®øñç è »éðàîô [äéä32 ®øñç ð ®àåäå ô »éðàèî [äðäå36 ®äîéìù ð »éèàîô [äîéìùä35 .

[1] 3 (1) Conjunctions. They assigned the light of the Sun 15° forward or backward because any planet that is near it. (3) When it is with the body of the Sun it is as if they have one power. so when they are western they move away from the Sun quickly. for this reason they said that if Mercury is together with the Sun there are two Mercuries in the orb. and when they are in the first station they are left with little power. because its light is less.chapter four 209 2 (1) Light. because then it is almost visible. because their motion is faster than the Sun’s motion. it is not under the body of the Sun. and the light of Venus and Mercury is 7° because they are lowermost and their bodies are also very small. (3) The light of Mars is 8°. (7) The explanation for the upper planets when they are eastern is that the Sun is moving away from them. (11) The explanation for the . (2) The light of the Moon is 12°.[2] There are two explanation for the degrees of Saturn and also of Jupiter (but not of Mars):[3] the first is the size of their bodies and the second is the slowness of their motion. (5) Mars emerges from the domain of burning at 10° because its light is less than theirs [Saturn and Jupiter] and its motion is faster. but experience shows this as well. (6) When the Moon is west of the Sun its light begins waxing and therefore it has power. for the Sun moves away from them quickly. but when a planet is more than that [i.[1] and so too for all the planets. because it is invisible. it looks like that because it is close to the Earth. The diameter of the Sun is almost 31 minutes. (2) For this reason they said that when a planet is like that it should be considered as if were at the point of the center . but this does not apply to all the planets. cannot be seen until it is 15° away from it. (4) I have already explained why 15°.e. whether to the left or the right. and the contrary occurs with the lower planets . because their light is less than the Moon’s light and their bodies are of similar size. more than 16 minutes] to the right or to the left. (9) The explanation for half of the power or a third of the power is based on a logical assumption. the light of Saturn and Jupiter is 9°. for this reason they said that it is burned. because of its smaller body and lesser light. so that from the center it is almost 16 minutes. and Venus emerges from the domain of burning when there are 10 degrees between the Sun and Venus and its [Venus’] latitude is northern. (10) The reason why planets should have a small latitude with respect to the Sun is that the Sun has no latitude.. (4) Even though Venus may look very big to the naked eye it is very small. (8) The power of the upper planets extends to 30 degrees because they move quickly.

210 second version of the book of reasons ®äîéìù úøáçî àéäù ÷ôñ ïéà äåù 2áçåøäå úçà äàôá íäéðù íàå ¬áçåøä øåáòá 1éöçä øñçé 6 äååääå ¬éîåøãä 5úà äëëå ¬4úåìæîä ìâìâ å÷á äååää úà 3çöðé éìàîùäå 12 (1) 4 ¬áøä éîåøãä áçøîä ®çåöðä êøã ìòá çöðé 11 èòîä 10 éîåøãä 9áçøîä 8ìòáå ¬7éîåøãä çöðé ¬ìàîù úàôá àåä áåùéä éë ¬áø çë åì ùé ìàîù úàôá äååää áëåëäù øåáòá (2) ®øéåàä íîçì ìåãâ çë åì ùé æà 13íéìàîùä úåìæîá ùîùä úåéäáå 15 åúåéäáå ¬äîùð úåîãë àåä äðäå úåìæîä ìâìâî áåø÷ àåä åúåäáâ íå÷îá äååää ¬éìë àåä óåâä éë äîùðì éìë äùòîäå ¬óåâ åîë íù ãåîòéù øåáòá áø çë 17 åðäå 14 äîãàä ìà áåø÷ àåä ìôù éðùá 16 ÷öåîä ìâìâ çåöðì äéäéå (3) ®íéçåöðä äæ äðäå ®úåìôùì úåäáâî äðúùé äøäîá ïè÷ä ìâìâá éë ¬äáøä áëåëä ìâìâä íà å÷ä óåñ äéäé úåìòî ô§§÷ øçà íäéðéá äéäé àì åðîî õåç åà ìâìâäî 26 21 19 äðä ¬ìâìâä å÷ 18 úéùò íà ®çëåðä íéðôì ïîéñä íéùú íàå 24 äðä ¬äæ 25 áçøë äæ áçø ¬úåðåùî úåàôá 29 íéáëåëä éðù åéä 28 (1) 5 (2) ®20ñ§§ù ìò ÷ìçð íà 23÷ø (3) ®22ô§§÷ 27 ô§§÷ íäéðéá äéäé íìåòìå (4) ®ìâìâä úãåôà úãå÷ð äéäú àì íìâìâ úãå÷ð 30 ®ñ§§ù ìò ìâìâä ÷ìçú íà úåìòî êøãá ïåñëìàä äéäé ñ§§ù åúåà ááåñä å÷ä äéäéù ìåâò äùòð íà ®íéèáîä íàå 37 (1) 6 (2) ®ïåñëìàä 34 íò ÷ìçúé 36 33 äðä éöç ìò ìâìâä 39 32 ÷ìçì äöøðå ¬ë§§÷ 35 38 31 äáåø÷ äéäéå ìåâòä êåúá 42 äéùéìù äøåö úåùòì íòèäå ¬äùìù ìò àåäù ¬åúéùéìù íàå 41 å÷ìçì åðéöø ïåñëìàäî äéäé æà ¬íéøùòå äàî ¬ïåñëìàä 47 å÷äî ç÷ð ¬äåù òìö ìë éöç éöçá 46 øúé äùòð 40 43 (3) ®úéùéìù èáî àåä äæå ¬íéòùú ìò 45 ®úéùù èáî äéäé æà ¬úåìòî íéùù øúé úåúù÷áå úù÷ äéäé ááåñä å÷äå ¬úåìòî íéùìù àåäù åîë àåäù ¬44øúéäå íéøúéá àöîú ¬ïë ìò »å÷ä íò äåù ¬òìö (4) ô »éðàèî [úåìæîä4 ®çîé é »ðàèîô [çöðé3 ®áçåøáå ô »éðàèî [áçåøäå2 ®éöç é »ðàèîô [éöçä1 [ìòáå8 ®øñç à »éèîô [éîåøãä çöðé7 ®øñç à »äðäå ð »éèîô [äååääå6 ®íà é »ðàèîô [úà5 ®øñç »éèàîô [èòîä11 ®øñç àô »éðèî [éîåøãä10 ®øñç à »éðèîô [áçøîä9 ®øñç à »øåáòáå è »éðôî [äîãàä ®®® úåîãë àåä äðäå14 ®íééðåôöä è »éðàîô [íéìàîùä13 ®ìëá éî »ðàèô [ìòá12 ®øñç ð è »éðàîìô [÷öåîä17 ®àåä é »ðàèîìô [äæ16 ®àåä äðäå éèô »àîì [åðäå15 ®øñç ô »éðàèîì ìâìâä óåñ è »ðàîô [ñ§§ù ®®® å÷ä óåñ20 ®äæä à »éðèîô [äðä19 ®éúéùò ô »éðàèî [úéùò18 ®úåìæîä »ðàèîô [íéðôì ïîéñä íéùú íàå21 ®ñ§§ù ìò ÷ìçð åå÷ä íà åå÷ä óåñ é »ã§§ù ìò ÷ìçð ìâìâä éë ðà »éèîô [íéáëåëä24 ®øñç é »ðàèîô [÷ø23 ®ò÷ ð »éèàîô [ô§§÷22 ®íéðôì ìâìâä áéùú íàå é à »íéìâìâä ô »éðèî [íìâìâ27 ®çëä ô »äðäå î »éðà [äðä26 ®áçøá è »éðàîô [áçøë25 ®íéáëë [äáåø÷31 õøñç è »éðàîô [úåìòî30 ®øñç è »éðàîô [äéäé29 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [úãå÷ð28 ®ìâìâ ®ìò éð »àèîô [íò34 ®äéäé èð »éàîô [äðä33 ®÷åìçì ð »éèàîô [÷ìçì32 ®øñç éà »áåøé÷ è »ðîô [å÷äî38 ®äéäúå è »éðàîô [äéäéå37 ®úéùéìù éð »àèîô [äéùéìù36 ®åð÷ìçì ðî »éàèô [å÷ìçì35 [íàå40 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [àåäù39 ®åå÷äî ç÷ð äååù òìö ìë äéäéå ìåâòä êåúá úéùéìù < é »ðàèô ð »éèàîô [úù÷ äéäé43 ®éöçá èð »éàîô [éöç éöçá42 ®øñç ð »øúåé éè »àîô [øúé41 ®æàå è »éðàîô ®íéãúéá é »ðàèîô [íéøúéá46 ®øñç è »éðàîô [åîë45 ®ãúéäå é »øúåéäå è »ðàîô [øúéäå44 ®úù÷á ®ãúé é »øúåé è »ðàîô [øúé47 .

when it is low it is close to the Earth and is like a body. if we want to halve the circumference of the circle. A planet at apogee is close to the zodiac. but if both are in the same side [with respect to the ecliptic] and they have the same latitude there is no doubt that the conjunction is full. (2) And if you put the sign inside or outside the circle there will not be 180 degrees between them [two stars/planets].[1] If we draw a circle whose circumference has 360 degrees and measure the length of the diameter it will cover approximately 120 degrees [2]. is equal . because the planet stays there a long time.[3] (2) If we want to divide it [the circumference] into three parts. one that is in the line of zodiac is victorious over a southern planet . and this applies to the two paths of victory. so half of the conjunction is missing on account of the latitude. it is bisected by the diameter. this produces an aspect of sextile. If you draw a circumference. and the latitude of the one is [of the same magnitude] as the latitude of the other.chapter four 211 half conjunction is that a full conjunction is in longitude and latitude. because a planet that is in the north has greater power. then this will take 90 degrees from the diameter. we take a third of the circumference. inasmuch as in the epicycle it passes quickly from apogee to perigee. inasmuch as the ecumene is in the north [with respect to the equator].[2] 6 (1) Aspects. and when the Sun is in the northern signs it has a great power to warm the air. (3) Being victorious in the eccentric circle has great power. then a point of their circles will not coincide with a point of the ecliptic. (2) The path of victory. namely. and likewise over one that is southern to it . which is like a side [of the triangle]. and the corresponding segment of the circumference is an arc of 60 degrees. and one in a lower southern latitude is victorious over one that has a higher southern latitude. which is 30 degrees of the diameter .[5] (4) The chord. (3) If we draw a chord at a quarter of the diameter. so it resembles the soul.[1] 5 (1) Opposition.[1] (4) And there will always be 180° between them when you divide the circle into 360 degrees . which is 120 degrees . the extreme of the circumference will come after 180°.[4] 4 (1) A northern planet is victorious over one that is in the line of the zodiac.[4] and this is the aspect of trine. to inscribe an equilateral triangle in the circle. (3) But if the two planets are on opposite sides [with respect to the ecliptic]. Action is a tool for the soul because the body is a tool. if the circle is divided into 360 degrees .

212 3 second version of the book of reasons (6) ®ìâìâä 2éöçá àåä úéòéáø èáîå (5) ®§ì àåä íâ 1§ì úù÷ ®äìàë 4úåúù÷å íéøúé ìåâòá ïéà äðäå íéùúù ïåùàøì 12 5 éùéîç àåäù ïåáùçä äéäé íìåòì ïåáùç ìë éë ¬ãåòå (1) 7 å÷ìçì úáùç íàå äéäé 11 (2) ®7ãçàä úåîãë 6åîöò øîåù äùîçä øôñî ïë ìò ¬åúåîãë ïë íâ 10 éùéìùä 13 (3) ®ãøôðìå âåæì ïåùàøä ÷åìçë 9éùéîçä 8÷åìç äéäé äøåîâ äáäà éùéîçä ïòè íàå ïéáå åðéá ïë ìò (4) ®äåù äéäé àì å÷åìçá ÷ø ¬ãøôð åà âåæî ¬åäåîë 14 àåä ïë ìò ¬ïåùàøäî äðåùî íìåòì éòéáøä øôñîäå 16 18 (5) 17 ®äáäà éöç éùéìùäå (7) 19 ®úçà úãìåú ìò úéùéìù 22 èáîî úåìæîä ¬15äëëå äæ éë äáéà (6) ®äáéà èáî ùé ùøôä äîå ¬çì äæå ùáé úéùù èáî äðä ºïòåè àåäù ¬úìòåôä úãìåúá êôä àåä úéòéáø èáî éë ºäáåùúä (8) ¿21úéòéáø 20èáî ®ø÷éòä äùìù ìò ÷ìçúéå ¬øùò íéðù úåìæîä úåéä äéä íà º úîà 27 26 24 øåáòá º23éãðëìà á÷òé øîàéå 25 28 31 (1) 8 éîìú éøáãå 29 (2) ®íéèáîä åéä äëë ¬äùù ìòå 32 äòáøà ìò åà íéùîçî áåø÷ åáçø á31 äéäéù íå÷îá ¬úù÷ ùàøá ãçàå äéøà ùàøá ãçà áëåë 30 èáî 33 äëëå ¬íéðîùå äàîî áåø÷ 38 | õøàä çåì 36 úìòîá íäéðéá äéäé æà ¬úåìòî 34 äìèå íéâã åîë íéøö÷ä 37 úåìæîáå ¬ úéòéáøá úéùùäå 35 úéùéìùá áåùé úéòéáø úéòéáø èáîå ¬èáî áùçð 39 äæ ïéà äðäå ¬úåìòî íéøùòå òáùî áåø÷á íäéðù åìòé àåä úéòéáø èáîá ìàòîùé éîëç øîàîå (3) ®úéòéáøá 40 úéùéìùäå úéùùá äéäé ®íéååù 42 åéäé äðäå ¬íéðåñëìà éðù ìò äöøúù íå÷î äæéàî ìâìâä ÷ìçúé íìåòì éë ¬41úîà íéãúé äòáøà áëåëä äéä íà éë ¬íòè úúì êéøö ïéàå ¬àøáñ êøã ®43çëä úðéúðå ìåá÷ä åéìà èéáé 46 (1) 9 áëåë 45 íà åçë ÷æçé 44 æà ¬åãåáë úéá åà ¬åúéá àø÷ðù íå÷îá ÷æç 47 ®48ïåéìòäî ãøôúéå ì÷ä õåø øåáòá ãáëì çëä ïúé ì÷äå ¬íéèáîä ãçàá 駧ôò éúð÷éú [úåúù÷å4 ®íéãúé é »ðàèîô [íéøúé3 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [éöçá2 ®øñç à »éðèîô [§ì1 ®åîöòá é »ðàèîô [åîöò6 ®íéùîç 𠻧ä é »àèîô [éùéîç5 ®íéøù÷ ôéàðèîì »íéøáãä øù÷ä §ää ð »éèàîô [éùéîçä9 ®÷åìçä è »÷åìéç ð »éàîô [÷åìç8 ®úåîãá é »ðàèîô [ãçàä úåîãë7 [äéäé12 ®øñç éð »àèîô [ïë11 ®éùéìù è »§âä é »ðàîô [éùéìùä10 ®äáäà éöç §âäå äøåîâ äáäà »éðàîô [äëëå15 ®§ãäå ð »éèàîô [éòéáøä øôñîäå14 ®øîà < è »éðàîô [ïë13 ®øñç ô »éðàèî [ùé19 ®úéòéáø < à »éðèîô [äæ18 ®éùù é »ðàèîô [úéùù17 ®ìæîî à »éðèîô [èáîî16 ®ïëå è àéää é »ðàèîô [êôä àåä22 ®§ã é »ðàèîô [úéòéáø21 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [èáî20 ®øñç à »éðèîô »éðàîô [øåáòá24 ®éãðëìà øîà è »éøãðëìà á÷òé øîàéå é »ðàîô [éãðëìà á÷òé øîàéå23 ®êôäù »éë < îà »ðèô [úîà27 ®ñåéîìèá è »éðàîô [éîìú26 ®äðåîù è »éàîô [äòáøà25 ®øåáòá éë è ®äéäå è »éðàîô [äéäé æà30 ®äéäù à »íà < ô »éðèî [äéäéù29 ®ïåéìò ô »éðàèî [äéøà28 ®úçà é »éðàîô [áåùé34 ®çëå é »ðàèîô [äëëå33 ®êìäîë è »éðàîô [úìòîá32 ®øñç ô »éðàèî [íäéðéá31 »éðàîô [úåìæîáå37 ®úåéòéáøá è »éðàîô [úéòéáøá36 ®úåùéìùá ô »éðàèî [úéùéìùá35 ®äéäå è ®äéäé < éô »ðèîà [úéùéìùäå40 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [äæ39 ®íéáö÷ä à »éðèîô [íéøö÷ä38 ®úåìæîå è »çë úðéúðå éôî »ðàì [çëä úðéúðå43 ®íéøúé àèîô »éð [íéãúé42 ®øîà éë ô »éðàèî [úîà àåä41 [áëåë ®®® íå÷îá ÷æç46 ®øñç ô »íàå é »ðàèîì [íà45 ®øñç ô »åà èì »éðàî [æà44 ®çëä úú è äéä íéîëçä ïéá ú÷ìçîäå < à »éðèîìô [ïåéìòäî48 ®øñç ì »ôéàðèî [ïúé47 ®øñç ô »éðàèîì ®ïåéìòäî ãøôúéå ì÷ä õåø øåáòá .

quicker] planet gives its power to the heavier [i. (5) The fourth number is always incompatible with the first. you will find in the table of chords and arcs that a chord of 30 corresponds to an arc of 30.[2] (3) The third number is also like it [i. if a planet is strong in the place that is called its house. namely.[3] but it is not the same in its division. so there is no need to explain it. which is the essence. always the number that is the fifth to any other number you conceive is in its likeness. 7 (1) In addition.[7] (6) So.[2] (3) The statement made by the Arab scientists is true. they will be approximately 180° apart on the latitude plate of the astrolabe . hence the number five preserves itself. as does the number one. slower] planet . In the case of the short signs such as Pisces and Aries.. 9 (1) “Receiving” and “giving power”. (6) Likewise. regarding any number. the aspects work out this way.e.[4] (4) Therefore. for this reason. the signs that are in trine have one nature. and the aspect of quartile will be sextile and trine will be quartile. and in this manner the aspect of quartile is converted into trine and sextile into quartile.e. four. and six. so how does it differ from quartile? (8) The answer is that quartile is the opposite with respect to the nature of the active agent. into even and odd. and the lighter [i.. so it is an aspect of antagonism. or its house of exaltation.. the fifth number is absolute love and the third is half love.[1] (2) Ptolemy’s statements are true: if one planet is in the head of Leo and another in the head of Sagittarius. which is not considered to be an aspect.[1] (2) If you divide it. This is known through logical assumption. in a place whose latitude is close to 50°. like the fifth].[6] (5) The aspect of quartile is in the middle of the circle. the division of the fifth is like the division of the first. because the lighter planet runs away and is separated from . then its power is increased if it is aspected by another planet. and because twelve is divisible by three. made up of even and odd. producing four equal cardines.[6] 8 (1) Ya#qub al-Kindî said: Because there are twelve signs.chapter four 213 to the line of the arc . they will rise approximately 27°. in the circle there are no chords and arcs like these. because at any place you choose the circle is always divided by two perpendicular diameters.[5] (7) And if someone argues: sextile is the aspect of antagonism because one is dry and the other is moist.e.

214 second version of the book of reasons (2) (3) ®3úåáø úåàîî 2åç÷ìéùå 1¬ïéðéãä ìåáìá øåáòá äúéä íéîëçç ïéá ú÷åìçîäå ïéà èáîäî øúåé øáåçîä çëå ¬íéøåàä øôñîá úîàä 4úåéäì àøáñ êøãå íãàë íîåùä êøãå ¬5øåàä úòéðî äëëå ¬òåãé àåä íâ øåàä úáùäå éðùä åøáçúé úåîå÷î éðùá éë ¬äòåãé äáñä ® úåìòîä çë 6 (4) ®÷ôñ åá (5) ®åãáì áùåé àåäù ìëåú äæå ¬ïèøñî øùò 10 úåìòá äìòú úù÷î 9íéøùò 8éë úøçàä êøãäå ¬7íéìâìâä ®õøàä çåìá åúòãì íéãàî ìùå ¬11úù÷ ÷ãö ìùå ¬éãâ àåä éàúáù ìù ïåùàøä úéáä ®áàë áëåëä ÷ãö 17 12 (1) 10 úéá úìçú åîù äðäå ùé ¬ïë ìò 21 (2) ®íéîåàú äîç áëåë ìùå ¬øåù äâåð ìùå ¬äìè éàúáùì 15 úéáì àåäå (3) ®úéáä 14ìòáì ùàøä áàë úåéäì ¬äìè 13ìæî åîë ïåùàøä (4) ®éãâ åúéá àåäù ¬éàúáùì 16éòéáø åúåéä øåáòá äæçä äìèá 20 ®ïåùàøä åúéá àåä éë 19 ùàøä íéãàîå ¬áìä àåä 22 18 åá ÷ãö áàë ïë ìò ¬éùéîç íéëøéä ùîùì ùé äðäå ¬ äìèì 23 úù÷ë ¬éòéùú ùîù úéáì äìè àåä äðäå 24 (5) àåä éë íé÷åù äîç áëåëìå ¬25ïåùàøä åúéáì øùò íéðù àåä éë íéìâøä øàåöäå ùàøä äâåðì éë ¬øåù ìæî 27 äâðìå êøãä äæ ìòå (6) ®26ïåùàøä åúéáì øùò éúùò øåáòá äâðì øàåöä äéäé íéîåàúá äðäå (7) ®28ïåùàøä åúéáî éðù àåä éë íéãàîì ®úåìæîä ìë êøãä äæ ìòå ¬úéáä ìòá àåä éë ùàøä äéøàá ùîùìå ¬ïåùàøä úéáì éðù àåäù çåøæ úåîãë 31 ïáì ïåùàøä äðäå (2) 33 ®30äàøîä ìò íòèä ®íéúáä äéäéå ¬ïåùàøì äîåã 32 29 ïéò (1) 11 åúåîãëå ¬åçë øåáòá íåãà éøéùòä éðéîùäå éòéáùä úéáäå ¬ùîùä éðù ïéá íúåéä øåáòá íéáøåòî éùéîçäå äøùò éúùòäå (3) ®34éòéáøä àåä íìåòì (4) ®áåè úåîã íäì ùé ¬ïë ìò »úçîåöä äìòîä ìà 35íéèéáî íäå ¬úåãúéä ®å÷ìçùå èà »åç÷ìéù ô »ìðéî [åç÷ìéùå2 ® ôà »éðèîì [ïéðéãä ®®® íéîëçç ïéá ú÷åìçîäå1 [øåàä úòéðî äëëå òåãé àåä íâ5 ®íúåéäì ð »éèôàîì [úåéäì4 ®øñç ì »ôéàðèî [úåáø úåàîî3 è »ìâìâä ðî »éôì [íéìâìâä7 ®úåìòî çëå é »ðàèîìô [úåìòîä çë6 ®òåãé åúòéðîå è »éðàîìô »ðàèîìô [úåìòá äìòú10 ®íéøùòä è »éðàîìô [íéøùò9 ®àéä é »ðàèîìô [éë8 ®ìâìâ à »íéìâìâ ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [ìæî13 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [úéá12 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [úù÷11 ®úåìòîä ìòú é »àîì [éòéáø ®®® äìèá éàúáùì16 ®øñç ô »éðàèîì [ùé15 ®ìòáå àô »ìòáìå ðîì »éè [ìòáì14 [éë20 ®àåä < é »ðàèîìô [ùàøä19 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [åá18 ®úéá à »éðèîìô [úéáì17 ®øñç éðèô ®äìè é »ðàèîìô [äìèì23 ®úù÷á éô »ðàèîì [úù÷ë22 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [àåä21 ®øñç è »éðàîìô éðèô »àîì [ïåùàøä ®®® äîç áëåëìå26 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [ïåùàøä25 ®äâð ìà ô »éðàèîì [äâðìå24 éè »ðàîìô [ïéò29 ®øñç ì »ôéàðèî [ïåùàøä ®®® êøãä äæ ìòå28 ®øîàîä ô »éðàèî [êøãä27 ®øñç [éòéáùä32 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [ïáì31 ®ìòå úéáä ìòá àåä î »éðàèôì [äàøîä ìò íòèä30 ®êøò »éðàîìô [íéèéáî35 ®òéáøä ô »éðàèîì [éòéáøä34 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [äéäéå33 ®éòéùúä è »éðàîìô ®íìåòì < è .

(2) The disagreement among the scholars was due to the confusion about the astrological judgments.e. just as Sagittarius is to Aries. the other method is that the 20th degree of Sagittarius rises when the 10th degree of Cancer rises. Gemini] is the second counting from its first house [i. Sagittarius].chapter four 215 the superior planet . (5) Now Aries is the ninth counting from the house of the Sun [i. Aries] is the twelfth counting from its first house [i. (3) The eleventh and the fifth are mixed.e. Taurus] is second counting from its [i.[1] (3) It is logical that the truth depends on the number of lights. Venus in Aries has the feet because it [i. (7) Similarly. Aries] is the fifth counting from the first house of Jupiter [i.e.e. (4) And it [i. and the condition of “desolation” is like a man sitting alone. as you may know from the latitude plate of the astrolabe .e. (4) “Reflecting the light” is also known. because it [i.e.e. Taurus. and the seventh house is similar to the first. because of its power. the tenth is red. of Jupiter. Gemini]. Gemini. Taurus].e. (2) They made the beginning of the first house of the planet equivalent to Aries.e.e. (2) The first mundane house is white like the sunrise. (3) For this reason. they have a good . and the fourth always resembles it.[4] 10 (1) Pain. as well as “occlusion of light”. therefore. in Gemini the neck belongs to Venus because it [i. because it is its first house. because it [i. and of Mercury. Sagittarius.[1] 11 (1) The color of the mundane houses. and the pain of Mars in Aries is the head. Saturn in Aries has the chest. The same method applies to all the signs. Aries. (6) The same method is applied to Taurus: Venus has the head in Taurus and Mars the neck. because it [i. in Aries] is the heart. Taurus]. Aries] is the eleventh counting from its first house [i. The explanation is based on the appearance. because the two circles intersect in two places. and they aspect the degree of the ascendant. Aries] is the fourth counting from Saturn’s first house. because they are between the two cardines. and the Sun in Leo has the head because it is the lord of the house. Leo]. of Venus.[2] and there is no doubt that the power of the planet in “conjunction” is greater than the power of the planet in “aspect”. so the Sun in Aries has the thighs. The reason is known. so pain in the head was assigned to the lord of the house.e. Capricorn. Aries].e. Mercury in Aries has the shanks. The first house of Saturn is Capricorn.e. hence the pain of Jupiter in it [i. of Mars.[3] (5) The power of the degrees. Mars’] first house [i.e.

216 íéðùäå éùùäå 3 second version of the book of reasons (5) ®2úçîåöä äìòîä ìà åìëúñé àìù øåáòá íäî 1íéúåçô éðùäå ® úçîåöä äìòîä ìà åèéáé àìå ¬íéòøå íéìôåð íéúá íäù øåáòá íéøåçù øùò ìò äøåé àåäù øåáòá 5ïåùàøä úéáá åúåéäá äîç áëåë 4úçîù ®úåçîùä 7 (1) 12 äîùðä ìò àåäå óåâä ìò äøåú äðáìä éë ¬äîç áëåë ïë íâ 6äîëçä ìòå »äîùðä øåáòá éùéìùä úéáá äðáìä úçîùå à32 (2) ®åðéìà áåø÷å äðáìä ìò ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòá úçîùå (3) ®úåáåø÷ä | 8 úåîëçäå úåçéùäå íéáåø÷ä íéëøãä ìò åúãìåúá äøåéù éë éùùä úéáá íéãàî úçîù 9äéäéå ¬âåðòúäå äçîùä äâð úãìåú éë éùéîçá äâð ùîùä úçîù úéá äéäéå (4) ®íéãàî úãìåú äëëå ¬íéòöôäå íéàåìçúä úéá àåä 10 ®éòéùúä úéáä äëëå ¬äîëçäå úåøåúäå úåðîåàä ìò éë 12 äøåú àéä éë éòéùúä úéáá øùåòäå ãñçäå çåéøä ìò äøåé àåä éë øùò éúùò úéáá ÷ãö úçîù äéäéå øùò íéðùá éàúáù úçîù äéäéå (5) (6) ® øùò éúùòä úéáä äëëå ¬áåèä ìæîäå 11 ®øùò íéðùä úéáä äëëå ¬øäåñä úéáå úåáéøîä ìòå ïåì÷ä ìò äøåé àåä 5§ úåëúîäå úåéååâä ìë 13 øåà àåäå ¬ìåãâä øåàîä àåä éë íééçä ìò äøåú ùîùä 15 (1) 1 áåèä ìò ¬ùîùä çëî íãàä úîùð éë ïåé íëç øîàéå (2) ®14íééç éìòáä ìëå íéçîöäå 16 ìæîä ìò äøåéù øåáòá áåèäå ¬êìî úåîãë àåäù ãåáëä ìòå äîëçä ìò äøåú ïë ®ìåãâä øåàîä àåä éë ìåãâä ìâìâä éöç åì ùéå åì ùéå àåäù (3) ®18äëë 17ïçäå ¬íéèáîá 19 (5) ® 21 20 íåéä úãìåú äëëå ¬íåç ãéìåéù íòèäå ¬äîç åúãìåú éë øëæ àåäå (4) úùøä øåáòá áìä íò øù÷ð àåä éë çåîá ÷ìçå ¬óåâä ø÷éò àåä éë ¬áìä ìëì áàä úåîãë ùîùä éë ¬áàä ìò úåàì àåäå (6) ®áìä éãéâî àåäå ¬22çåîä ìò ®®® íéðùäå éùùäå3 ®øñç ì »ôéàðèî [úçîåöä ®®® íäì ùé ïë ìò2 ®úåçô è »éðàîô [íéúåçô1 [äîëçä6 ®ïåùàø ôì »éðàèî [ïåùàøä5 ®äçîù ô »éðàèîì [úçîù4 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [úçîåöä ô »éðàèîì [úåîëçäå8 ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [äîùðä ®®® äîëçä ìòå7 ®øñç é »äîåçä ô »ðàèîì [øùò ®®® äøåé àåä éë11 ®äøåé àåä é »ðàîìô [äøåú àéä10 ®øñç è »åéäå ð »éàîìô [äéäéå9 ®úåîåäå éìòáä14 ®øñç à »éðèîô [øåà àåäå13 ®á§§é úéáá ð »éèôàîì [øùò íéðùá12 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì »éðàîô [áåèä ìæîä ìò äøåéù16 ®éîëç åøîàéå ðô »éàèî [íëç øîàéå15 ®éç è »ç§§á ð »éàîô [íééç [éë øëæ àåäå19 ®çëá é »ðàèîô [äëë18 ®äéèáîá ïçäå ð »éèàîô [ïçäå íéèáîá17 ®áåèä ìò è [çåîä ìò22 ®ùàøä é »ðàèîô [úùøä21 ®øñç è »éðàîô [íåéä úãìåú äëëå20 ®øëæ è »éðàîô ®çåîá è »éðàîô .

e. because it indicates crafts and religions and wisdom. because it indicates shame and disputes and prison. and . which is like the image of a king. because by its nature it indicates short journeys and idle chatter and the near sciences. meaning that it generates heat. (4) The eighth and the second houses are inferior to them because they do not aspect the degree of the ascendant. The joy of Mars is in the sixth house . and that is the nature of the twelfth house. (5) The joy of Jupiter is in the eleventh house. and part of the brain. (3) The joy of Venus is in the fifth house . because it is the house of diseases and wounds. because the nature of Venus is joy and pleasure. Mercury rejoices when it is in the first mundane house because it indicates the soul. because it is connected to the heart by means of the net that is on the brain. because it is the essence of the body. Mercury also indicates wisdom. and good fortune because it indicates fortunate aspects.[2] (4) It is masculine because its nature is hot. and that is the nature of the twelfth house. and it is light to all bodies and metals and plants and all animals. (3) It has the “greater half ” of the circle because it is the great luminary. for the Moon indicates the body and it [i. Mercury] indicates the soul. (4) The house of joy of the Sun is the ninth house.[1] 12 (1) Joys. (6) The joy of Saturn is in the twelfth house .chapter five 217 image. because it [i. and this is also the nature of the day. and beauty because it is like that [i. and that is the nature of Mars. and it is one of the blood vessels of the heart. it indicates fortunate aspects]. (5) The heart belongs to it. because it indicates profit and kindness and wealth and good fortune.e.e. (5) The sixth and the twelfth houses are black because they are houses that are falling from the cardines and malefic and do not aspect the degree of the ascendant.[1] so it [the Sun] indicates wisdom and honor. and that is the nature of the ninth house. (6) It gives an indication about the father. because the Sun is like a father for all plants and animals.[1] §5 1 (1) The Sun indicates life because it is the great luminary. (2) A Greek scholar said that the human soul derives from the power of the Sun. (2) The joy of the Moon is in the third house. Mercury] is above the Moon and close to us.

218 1 second version of the book of reasons (7) ®ùîùäî äøåà éë ¬íàë äðáìä ïë ìò ¬íééçäå íéçîöä íåéá úéðîéä ïéòäå ¬÷æçä àåäù ¬éðîéä ÷ìçäå ¬íéìùåî íäù úåøåàîä éðùì ÷ìçð óåâä éë ¬ùîùì øåáòá íéøëæì ïë íâ äéäéå ¬ùîùì äîåã 2åá ùéù øåàä øåáòá ïéòäå ¬ùîùì äìéìá äìùîîä úåéä øåáòáå (8) ®äø÷ (9) äúåéä øåáòá äðáìä ïë àìå ¬3íéîç íäù ®äèîì åúåéä øåáòá 5éìàîùä ìò úåàì ùîùä äéäå ¬õøàä ìò äøåà àéäù øåáòá 4íéøëæì éðîéä ïéòä äì äéä ¬äðáìì äæä øôñîá éë 觧é úåðè÷ä íéðùäå äàî úåìåãâäå (10) ®úåãìåîä øåæçî åäæå ¬éòöîàä íëìäîá úåøåàîä éðù 6åøáçúé (11) ®úåðè÷ä éöç íò 9úøáåçî 11 úåìåãâä úéòéáø úåéòöîàäå ¬8úãìåúä éôë íãà ìë ééç úåðù 7äìà éë íéøùòå øôñîá éë ¬åãåä éîëç úòã ìò úåîåöòä íòèå 10 åãåä úåçåìá ùîùì éòöîàä êìäîå ¬éòöîàä íëìäîá úåøåàîä åøáçúé äæä 12 éë úåìæîä éîëç 13 åñðå (12) ®íéðåëð íäéðùå ¬êì éúøáçù úåçåìá 14 áåúëë åððéà úéðùäå ¬ùîùì úúååòîä äðåùàøä äòùä äúéä äðäå »ùîùì çë ùé ïåùàøä íåéá äðîî ìôù àåäù ¬äâðì 15 øáãäù øçàå ¬íåéä ìòáì çëä éë ùîùä íò óúúùî àåäå íåéä ìò íéøçàå ¬íòè åðúð àìå ñøô éîëç ®úåøåàîä á32 20 17 ãé÷ôä àåä ùîùì ìéçúîäå ¬ùîùì éùéîç ìéì úìçú úåéäì äìò êë åøéëæä 16 øàãøôìà úåðùå (13) ®äìéìä ìò åà 18 úøáçî 19 øåáòá 觧é éîìú úòãå ¬úåìåãâä ùîùä úåðù úéøéùò 21 22 åøîà úãìåú éë úëñåîî éøáãå ùéå | àéä ÷ø ¬ ùáåéå íåç ãéìåî àåä éë ùáéå íç åúãìåúå 23 (14) (15) ®ïáì øåàä éë ¬åøåàî ìãåâ øåáòá ïáì åðéòå ¬äçéì 25 ìò íåç íééçä 24 ìë ìåá÷ éôëå ¬íéìùåîä íä úåøåàîä éë ¬ïåëð øáã ¬äùòî ìë åéùòîù ¬éîìú äðéãî (16) 28 ®26íãàä éðá úåøåö äðééäú äëë ¬õøàä áçøî øåáòá »íçë 27 ¬ìåãâä øåàîä åúåéä øåáòá ïéòä éåðùå ¬äéøàä ïë éë ¬ äîå÷ øö÷ àåäù íéøîåà íéìåâò åéðôå ¬úøçàä ìò äøåú äðáìäå ¬úçàä ïéòá åçë äàøé ìùåî àåäù øçàå ®äéøàä ïë éë ¬áçø åéôå »ðàèîô [íéøëæì éðîéä4 ®íéîåã é »ðàèîô [íéîç3 ®øñç à »éðèîô [åá2 ®íåéë é »ðàèîô [íåéá1 »éàî [äìà7 ®åøáçúð é »ðàèîô [åøáçúé6 ®øñç éè »ðàîô [éìàîùä ®®® àéäù øåáòá5 ®øñç é úåçåìá10 ®úøáçî éô »úøáçî íò è »àî [úøáåçî9 ®úãìåú é »ðàèîô [úãìåúä8 ®øñç ô »ðàèîô [åñðå12 ®§åúë ô »éðàèî [áåúëë11 ®æ§§ë úåçåìá è »úåçåìá é »åãåä úåçåìáå ô »ðàî [åãåä éôî »ðàè [ãé÷ôä15 ®åðîî é »ðàèîô [äðîî14 ®íéðùäå é »éðùäå ðèô »àî [úéðùäå13 ®íåñðå é è »éðàîô [åøîà18 ®åîéëñä ð »éèàîô [åøéëæä17 ®øàãøôìàä ôð »éàèî [øàãøôìà16 ãé÷ô ð »éèàîô [ùáåéå ®®® àåä éë21 ®úåøáçî éè »ðàîô [úøáçî20 ®ïë éë è »éðàîô [øåáòá19 ®íéøîåà ®äðéãîä ìë é »äðéãîä è »ðàîô [äðéãî ìë24 ®íìë ô »éðàèî [ìë23 ®íò ð »éèàîô [ìò22 ®øñç »éðàîô [åéðôå28 ®øö÷ ô »éðàèî [äîå÷ øö÷27 íãà éèô »ðàî [íãàä26 ®úøåö é »ðàèîô [úåøåö25 ®åéðéòå è .

chapter five 219 consequently the Moon is like a mother. which is cold. accordingly the beginning of the night of the fifth day is assigned to the Sun. which is below it and participates with the Sun.[3] but both are correct.[7] is correct. so the first seasonal hour belongs to the Sun. that all actions are its action. because it is a ruler its power is visible in one eye. and the planet that begins to serve is the lord of the day or of the night. the forms of the inhabitants correspond to its latitude. his face is round and his mouth is wide. but this is not the case with the Moon. because the essential natural quality of life is heat with moisture. because its light comes from the Sun. . because the lion’s face and mouth are wide and round . (9) Its least years are 19. and the second to Venus. namely. because the lion is. 1:16). and the Moon indicates the other eye . and this is the cycle of the mean conjunctions of Sun and Moon. and the eye because the light within it is like the Sun.e. and the Sun by night signifies the left eye . belongs to the Sun. (15) Ptolemy’s statement. (11) The explanation for the greatest years . (10) Its great years are 120. because the luminaries are the rulers (Gen. (7) The right eye belongs by day to the Sun. because the power belongs to the lord of the day.[6] because of the conjunction of the luminaries. because this is the natural human lifespan. (16) Some say that he [i. and the right side of the body . according to the Indian scientists. but it is mixed. Ptolemy’s opinion is that it lasts 19 years . because it is underneath the Earth .[5] others said that a fardâr lasts one tenth of the great years of the Sun. and it belongs to the males because they are hot. inasmuch as it generates heat and dryness.. (8) Because rulership over the night belongs to the Moon. Its middle years are a quarter of the great years plus half of the least years . inasmuch as light is white. one born under the sign of the Sun] is short of stature. and their power is in accordance with the capacity of any country to receive astrological influence . (14) Its nature is hot and dry. which is the stronger one. because the body is divided between the two luminaries that are rulers. is that in this number of years the luminaries will conjoin in their mean motion. because in this number of years the two luminaries conjoin in their mean motion.[8] the change in the eye is because it is the great luminary. by night it has the right eye of males. and the mean motion of the Sun in the tables of India is not the same as what is written in the tables that I have compiled for you.[4] (13) The Persian scientists mentioned the years of the fardâr but did not provide any explanation. because its light is above the Earth. Its color is white because of the intensity of its luminosity. (12) The astrologers have found by experience that the Sun has power on the first day of the week .

220 second version of the book of reasons (1) 2 (2) (4) ®äëë ùîùä ïéàå ¬øåçùå áò óåâ äì úåéä ®äø÷ äúåéä øåáòá 2äá÷ð àéäå ¬íìåòä øåáòá äîëç äì ïéàå ¬åðîî äøåà éë¬ ùîùä åîë íééçä ìò äøåú äðáìä ¬äîëç äðéàù øåáòá úåçéùä íòèå øéàú éë äìéìá 1úìùåî äðáìäå 3 (3) ®ùîùäî äðáìä øåàù øåáòá òîùù äî ÷ø øåà ìë úåéäì ïëúé àì éë åðòãéå 7 íîçì ìëåú àì ¬ïè÷ äôåâù éðôî ¬áø çë äì ïéàù øåáòá 5÷ø ¬íåç 4ãéìåéù ÷ø óéñåé ïë ìò ¬øéåàá øùå÷î ìë 6çúôì ìçé èòîä íåçäå ¬íãàä úãìåú ééç éãë øçà éë ¬òåãé úåéòéáøä éôë úãìåú éåðùå íå÷îá äúåéäáå (5) ®ùáééú äîåç áåøá ùîùä éë ¬äçéì (6) ®ùáééå íåçä ÷æçúé ¬äçéìå íåç ãéìåú àéä íéîé 8äòáù äãîòä 10 ìëåé àìå èòî äîåçå ¬õøàäî ä÷çøúä øåáòá äçìå äø÷ àéä ÷öåîä úåäáâ ùáéúå íîçú õøàä àéä äðáìäå ìà äáåø÷ äéäú øùàëå ¬9øåùé÷ä øéúé ÷ø ùáééì äîåç 11 àéä éë ¬äðáìä ÷ìçì äàéøä åîùå 13 (7) (9) ®ùîùä øåà äøåà éë ¬çåîá óúúùúå 12 (8) ®àéöåéå çåøä ñéðëé àåäå ¬ùîùä ÷ìçá àåäù ¬áìä 16 ìò úôçøî ìàîùäù øåáòá úéìàîùä ïéòä äìùå ï÷æáå ¬óåâä çúô àåä 17 ®ïåéìòäå ìôùä íìåòä ïéá úéòöîàä ìëá 15 åøåàá íãàä øåàì äîåã àåäù øåáòá óåâä éë ¬äôá ÷ìç åì ùéå çë 14 åì ùéå ¬ïéîéäî úåçô (10) ®øñçé øçàå õåö÷ ïîæ ãò ìãâéù øåàîä àåä éë ïè÷ä àåä úåìæîá å÷ìçå (11) ®ùãçúéù äø÷î åîë àåäù øåáòá íäì ïéàå åñð êë »ä§§ë 19úåðè÷ä åéúåðùå (13) ®ùîùä êøãë åîåéå 18åìéìå (12) ®ïè÷ä úåéòöîàäù íéøîåà ùéå ¬úåðè÷ä éöçå úåìåãâä úéòéáø úåéòöîàäå (14) ®íòè ᧧é 21ïåøñçá ¬ç§§÷ úåìåãâäå (15) ®éöçå 觧î 20íäå úåðè÷ä éöç íò úåìåãâä éöç 22 øåà úçúî àöéù øçà ÷ø åçë äàøé àìù øåáòá ¬úåìåãâä ùîùä úåðùî úåìòî úåðùî ãçà ÷ìç ïåøñçá ¬íéðù òùú øàãøôìà úåðùå íéðù äòáøà ãò ùîùéå (16) ®úåìòî ᧧é ùîùä (17) ®úåìåãâä åéúåðù 23 úéùù éöç íéøîåàù ùéå ¬ùîùä éðàîô »è [ãéìåéù4 ®øñç é »ðàèîô [úåéäì3 ®øñç è »éðàîô [äá÷ð àéäå2 ®øñç é »ðàèîô [úìùåî1 [äòáù8 ®ãéìåé é »ðàèîô [óéñåé7 ®çåúôì éè »ðàîô [çúôì6 ®øñç é »áø ô »ðàî [÷ø5 ®ãéìåúù ðàîô »éè [äàéøä11 ®ìò ô »éðàèî [ìà äáåø÷10 ®øåù÷ä éô »ðàèî [øåùé÷ä9 ®úòáù ô »éðàèî [çë15 ®äì éî »ðàèô [åì14 ®øñç è »éðàîô [àåäå ùîùä ÷ìçá13 ®ìò ô »éàèî [ìò12 ®äéàøä [úåðè÷ä19 ®åìéì é »ðàèîô [åìéìå18 ®ïë ô »éðàèî [éë17 ®øñç é »ðàèîô [ìëá16 ®øñç à »éðèîô 秧ë ð »éèàîô [ïåøñçá 秧÷21 ®úåéòöîàäù íéøîåà ùéå > ð »éèàîô [íäå20 ®øñç é »ðàèîô ®øñç ð »éèàîô [úéùù23 ®øåàî é »ðàèîô [øåà úçúî22 ®ïåáùçá .

because it [i. because it is like a contingency that is renewed. (14) Its middle years are a quarter of the great years plus half of the least years . because its [the Moon’s] light comes from it [the Sun]. because it is far from the Earth. it cannot warm enough to sustain life in accord with human nature. the reason is that it takes .[8] some say because it is one twelfth of its [the Moon’s] great years. but some say that the middle years are half of the great years plus half of the least years . (13) Its least years are 25. and its heat is small and its heat cannot dry [things] up. but because it [i. and of the beard. and the little heat it generates begins to “loosen the ties”[1] (Job 38:31) in the air and thus to increase moisture. and it is feminine because it is cold. inasmuch as its body is small. because its light is the Sun’s light. the Moon] is not wise. the Moon] has a share of the mouth. the Moon] does not have great power. the lung] floats above the heart. 491/2. one less than the years of the fardâr of the Sun. which is the gate of the body. (17) It [the Moon] serves for four years because the Moon is close to us. because it is the small luminary. which is in the Sun’s portion. (4) We know that no light is possible unless it generates heat.[5] It has power in the entire body.[7] (16) Its fardâr is nine years long . but only “loosen the ties”. he tells only what he had heard because the light of the Moon comes from the Sun.chapter five 221 2 (1) The Moon indicates life. which grows until a certain time and then wanes. and when it is close to the Earth it warms and dries up and participates in affecting the brain. whereas the Sun’s great heat dries things up.e.[4] (9) The left eye belongs to it.e.[6] (12) Its night and its day in the week are as in the case of the Sun. because the left is inferior to the right. because it illuminates the world. (7) They assigned the lung to the Moon’s portion. 12 degrees less than the Sun’s great years. (8) The Moon is intermediate between the inferior and the superior world. (10) It [i. (2) The reason why someone under the charge of the Moon engages in idle chatter is that it [i. and it inhales and exhales the air. because seven days after its first visibility[3] it generates heat and moisture. (15) Its great years are 108.e. (3) The Moon rules by night.e. It has no wisdom because it has a dark and black body. this was found by experience and there is no explanation for it. because in its light it resembles the light of a man. unlike the Sun. namely. (6) When it is at the apogee of the eccentric circle it is cold and moist. as the Sun does. (11) It has the smaller portion of the signs. because its power is not perceptible until after it moves 12 degrees away from the rays of the Sun. namely.[2] (5) The change in nature in relation to the quadrants is known. and then the heat increases and dries [things] up.

222 second version of the book of reasons (18) ®2äéçé äîë ù÷áð æà ¬úåãìåúä äòáøàä ãìåðä øåáòéù ãò íéðù äòáøàä íòèå ¬1åðéìà äáåø÷ äðáìäù øåáòá àåä éë ¬ùîùá éúùøéô øùàë ¬úåîã åì ïéàå 5 4 (19) ®ïè÷ä øåàîä à33 àéøá àåäå ¬øåçù åúåéä øåáòá äôé åôåâ ïéàå ¬åá ìëúñäì ïéòä | ìëåú àì éë 3ïë íéðùäå ¬úåîöòä ìò äøåé àåä éë úåëåøà 7åéðùå (20) ® 6äçìå øå÷ ãéìåéù øåáòá äðáìä òöîàá 10úåøã÷ úåîãë ùéù øåáòá 9úåøåçù åéðéòå (21) ®8äçìå øå÷î åãìååé ùîùä ïéàå ¬äðáìä éôåé øåáòá úåôé åéðô íéðåîã÷ä úòã ìòå äîå÷ øö÷å ¬11úåøçù åá ùé èòî åäàøî éë åøîà ïë ìò ¬äøåà äàìî äúåéäá çåìî åîòèå (22) ®åéúøëæä øáë íéøáã äáøîå ¬äøö÷ àéäù ¬ïèøñ úøåö øåáòá ®íäåîë åúãìåú éë íéùðä áäåàå ¬12ïåéñðä êøãá øåáòá ¬úéðîéä 13 ïæåàä åðúðå ¬íéúøùî äòáùä ìò ùàøä éá÷ð å÷ìç ®éàúáù (1) 3 å÷ìçì åðúð ÷ãö ìò íâ ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòáå ¬ïåéìòä éàúáùì ¬úåðåéìò íéðæåàäù àåäù åéìò åøîàå 16 (2) ®15äø÷ àéäù äøåçù äøîä ãéìåé éàúáù éë ìåçèäå ¬14úéðîéä 17 àìå ¬ íééçä úãìåúë åððéà åìù íåçä äðäå ¬õøàäî ÷åçø åúåéä øåáòá øå÷ ãéìåî ùéå 24 (3) ®ìåãâ åøåà ïë ìò ¬éàúáù óåâî 19 23 ìåãâ åôåâå áåø÷ øúåé àåä éë ÷ãö ïë 18 íåãà íéãàî äðäå »ìåãâ øåà åì ùéå ® ïè÷ äôåâ úåéä øåáòá èòî äâð 25 øåàä ãéìåé ïë 21 éë çìå íç ÷ãö éë íéøîåà 20 22 íåçå ¬ éàúáùá úåøçù èòî ùéå ¬íç àåä éë áåø÷ åúåéäá éë ¬ùáé àåä ÷öåîä ìâìâä úåäáâá åúåéäá éë éàúáù ìò åøîàå íãàì êøåö ùéù 29 (4) äî íîçé àìù ô§§ò§§à ¬äçéì ãéìåéå øúåé íîçé õøàä ìà ®äðáìä êøãë ¬ïè÷ä 32 27 íéàåìçú ìò äøåéå (6) ìâìâ úàôî åúãìåú éåðùå äøåçùä 30 (5) 28 ®26åì úçã÷äå ¬åäåîë èòî êìéù úøùî êì ïéàù íéëåøà íòèå ¬øå÷äî úåèùäå ¬äø÷ àéäù 34 36 31 íéëåøà øåáòá àåáéù åðîî ùéù äøåéå äøîî àéäù úéòéáøä àåä éë ïéòä êùçå ¬35äçìä øåáòá íéðôä úåçéôðå ¬ïë íâ úòøöäå ¬33äçìäå øå÷ä 37 (7) ®äøåçùä äøîä øåáòá ùôðä úåîîùå ¬äëåùç åúåîãå úåøåàîä êôä åúåéä øåáòá áàä ìò øá÷ä íòèå ¬ïùéå ïåîã÷ øáã ìë ìò äøåéå ¬åðîî ÷åçø åúåéä øåáòá4 ®øñç ô »éðàèî [ïë3 ®äéäé è »äéçð ô »éðàî [äéçé2 ®åéìà éðàèô »î [åðéìà1 ®úåçì ô »äçéì éè »ðàî [äçìå6 ®øñç è »ïîù î »éðàô [àéøá5 ®øñç è »éðàîô [àåäå øåçù ®øñç è »éðàîô [úåøåçù ®®® äøåé àåä éë9 ®úåçì ô »äçéì é »ðàî [äçìå8 ®åéðéùå ð »éèàîô [åéðùå7 [ïåéñðä êøãá12 ®úåøçù èòî åá ùé é »ðàèîô [úåøçù åá ùé èòî11 ®úåðø÷ é »àèîô [úåøã÷10 ®úéðîéä å÷ìç ìèð é »ðàèîô [úéðîéä å÷ìçì åðúð14 ®ïæåàì à »éðèîô [ïæåàä13 ®øñç ð »éèàîô ð »éèàîô [éë18 ®øúåé > é »ðàèîô [ìåãâ17 ®øñç à »éðèîô [íééçä16 ®äùáé < ô »éðàèî [äø÷15 [íåçå22 ®éàúáùë éî »ðàèô [éàúáùá21 ®ùáéå é »ðàèîô [ùéå20 ®øéåàä éðè »àîô [øåàä19 ®ìò [åì26 ®äá é »ðàèîô [äî25 ®ïåè÷ é »ðàèîô [ïè÷24 ®äâåð < é »ðàèîô [úåéä23 ®àåäå à »éðèîô »íéëåøà íéàåìçúä ô »ðàèî [íéëåøà íéàåìçú28 ®åìâìâ é »ìâìâä è »ðàîô [ìâìâ27 ®åá è »éðàîô ®äøåçù éðô »àî [äøåçùä31 ®øñç è »éðàîô [äøîî30 ®øñç è »éðàîô [úçã÷äå29 ®íéàìçä é [äçìä35 ®úåçéôð é »àðèîô [úåçéôðå34 ®úåçìäå ô »éðèàî [äçìäå33 ®úåîùäå é »ðàèîô [úåèùäå32 ®øúåéä ô »éðàèî [åúåéä37 ®ãéìåéå é »ðàèîô [øåáòá36 ®úåçìä ô »éðèàî .

and madness. they assigned the right ear. and blindness.[14] as is known from experience. because no planet is as sluggish as it is. and there is a bit of blackness in Saturn. because the eye cannot look at it. and Venus’ heat is slight because its body is small. hence its heat is not in accord with the nature of life. because when it is close to the Earth it warms more and generates moisture. because of the black bile. as I have already explained. chronic. It also indicates quartan fever.[3] even though it does not warm as much as man needs. He is short of stature on account of the image of Cancer. (21) His eyes are dark because there is a dark patch in the middle of the full Moon. To Saturn.[10] (18) It has no image. (5) The change in its nature is because of the epicycle.[5] and it indicates anything that is ancient and old. which comes from the black bile. but the same does not apply to the Sun.[11] because it is the small luminary. The reason . inasmuch as the ears are uppermost. and the teeth are created by cold and moistness.[4] (7) It indicates the father because it is far from it [the Earth]. which is short. which is cold.[15][16] 3 (1) Saturn. so its light is stronger.chapter five 223 four years until the native passes through the four natures. and he is healthy because it generates cold and moistness. They divided the orifices of the head among the seven planets. so they said that his appearance is somewhat dark. (6) It indicates chronic diseases. the uppermost. as in the case of the Moon. (19) According to the Ancients he [i. because it indicates the bones. which is cold.e. (2) They said that it produces cold because it is far from the Earth. (20) His teeth are long. on account of the moisture. because it is the opposite of the luminaries and its image is dark. as I have explained regarding the Sun. which sometimes comes because of cold and moisture. and emotional depression. and because it is higher than Jupiter they assigned the right ear to it. Now Mars is red because it is hot.[12] and talkative.[1] They assigned it the spleen. and also leprosy.. and he is a lover of women because its nature is like theirs.[9] and only then can we try to find how many years he will live. (3) Some say that Jupiter is hot and moist because it indeed generates light and it has a great light. one born under the sign of the Moon] has a handsome face because of the Moon’s beauty. because Saturn produces the black bile. but Jupiter is not like that because it is closer to the Earth and its body is larger than Saturn’s body.[13] (22) Its flavor is salty taste. His body is not attractive because it [the Moon] is black. on account of the cold. and facial edema.[2] (4) They said of Saturn that when it is at the apogee of the eccentric circle it is dry.

224 second version of the book of reasons ¬óåâä çë 1øåöòé àåäå ìåçèä åì ùéù øåáòá ¬úåò÷ø÷ä ìò äøåé àåä éë øåáòá êàìîå ¬åúòåðúá ãáë àåä éë åúãìåú äëëå ¬åðîî íãà æåæé àìù 2íå÷î øá÷äå äîç áëåëå äâðå íéãàî úåðîåàä éìòá úåéäì íòèå (8) ®íééçä êôä àåä éë 3úååîä (9) ®äîç áëåë 4äëëå ¬äðéáì äâð úãìåúå ¬ïå÷úì íéãàî úãìåú äðäå ¬úåøéäîì äëéøö úåðîåà ìë éë ¬äáø äçéì ãéìåî àåäù øåáòá çìî åà 6ìáåç 5áø íòèå 9 8 éøáå÷å ¬íéôì÷ä äëëå ¬íéîá íúãåáò éë úåøåò éãáòîå ¬ íéîéäå íéîä àéä 7äðäå úîàä úîëç ìò äøåéå (10) ®úåîöòä åìù ïë ìò ¬øôòä ìò äøåé àåä éë íéúî 10 ìò äøåéå ¬åúëéìäá õø åððéàù øåáòá úçà ¬íãàä íù ãåîòéù íå÷î øäåñä úéáå øåáòá ¬ íéðáàáå 14 13 êøã ìò ãîåòå ¬ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòá 11 (11) (12) ®äðåùî åúãìåú úåéä øåáòá úåðáæë íéöòá 12 úåëîå ìáëä íòè äæå ¬äøäîá àöé àìå ¬øá÷ä íòèë ®øéäî åððéà éë ìöò àåäå ¬íéø÷ íäù åéúåðùå á33 (13) 16 ®ùîùä êøãë åîåéå åìéìå úåìåãâä éöç úåéòöîàäå ¬ïåùàøä ïéà å÷ìç 19 | åîå÷îî áåø÷ áåùé æà éë ¬íéùìù úåðè÷ä úåðùå ¬úåìæîä ìëá åéìåáâ úåìòî øôñîë úåìåãâäå ¬15úåðè÷ä éöç íò óåñ àåäù øåáòá äð÷æä ìò äøåé éîìú úòã ìò ìò ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòá úåøåçù åéðôå 21 (14) ®17ïåéñðä ÷ø ¬íòè íäì 18 ® úîà êøã äæå ¬äîç áëåë êë øçàå ¬ãìåðì çë ïúú äðáìä äîå÷ êåøà 24 äðäå »íéúøùîä (16) ®20ø÷ õåîçäù øåáòá õåîç åîòèå 22 23 (15) (17) ®ï÷æä ìò äøåúù äðáìä êôä àåä éë íâ ¬ùáåéä øåáòá 28 26 ï÷ãìæå ¬íéúøùîä ìë ãáåë éðôî õøàä ìà èéáéå ¬úåøåçùå úåðè÷ åéðéò ïë ¬27åëìäî úåëéøà çöðé ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòáå ùîùäå úå÷ãå ¬äøåçùä äøîä øåáòá 25 øåáòá ñòëé àìå èòî øáãéå ¬åúëéìä (18) ®29÷éæî àåäù øåáòá åùôð úéçùé ñòëé øùàëå ¬íéîç íä éë íéñåñä ìò ùîùäå ¬äø÷ íúãìåúù íéøåîçä ìò äøåéå (19) ®ìëä (20) ®øåù ìæîá ãåáëä úìùîî íäì ùéå íéø÷ íä éë íéøååùä ìò äðáìäå ïéàù åîë åäåîë úåëúîä ìëá ïéàå ¬úëñåîî äîç åúãìåúù øåáòá áäæä ìò äøåé [úååîä êàìîå åúòåðúá ãáë àåä éë3 ®øñç é »ðàèîô [íå÷î2 ®øñç à »øåñàé ô »èéî [øåöòé1 [äðäå7 ®ìáåçä éè »ðàîô [ìáåç6 ®áøî è »éðàîô [áø5 ®äðäå > à »éðèîô [äëëå4 ®øñç ô »éðàèî [êøã10 ®÷ñòä »ãåáòä è »íãåáò àî »éô [íúãåáò9 íéîéå àîô »éðè [íéîéäå8 ®àéäå ð »éèàîô é »ðàèîô [íéöòá13 ®úåãîå ô »éðàèî [úåëîå12 ®úåðëñ é »ðàèîô [úåðáæë11 ®úîàä < ð »éèàîô ®úåðè÷ä éöç é »ðèôàî [úåðè÷ä éöç íò úåìåãâä éöç15 ®íéðáàäå é »ðàèîô [íéðáàáå14 ®íéðéòä [úîà19 ®àåäå ô »éðàèî [äðäå18 ®ïåéñðá è »éðàîô [ïåéñðä17 ®úðùå ð »åéúåðùå è »éàîô [úåðùå16 »éðàî [ï÷ãìæå22 ®äîå÷ä ô »éðàèî [äîå÷21 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [ø÷ õåîçäù øåáòá20 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [øåáòá26 ®øñç à »éðèîô [ãáåë25 ®éë é »ðàèîô [íâ24 ®úå÷éøå ô »éðàèî [úå÷ãå23 ®ï÷æ ìãå èô é »ðàîô [àåäù28 ®øñç è »éàîô [åëìäî ®®® èòî øáãéå27 ®øñç è »äøåçùä äøîä < ð »éôàî ®øñç è »éðàîô [÷éæî29 ®åúåéä .

chapter five 225 it indicates the grave is that it indicates the ground. and just as no metal is like gold so no planet is bigger than the Sun. and it indicates deceitfulness because its nature is ill-assorted. It is idle because it is not quick.. because its motion is sluggish. It indicates the angel of death because it [Saturn] is the opposite of life.[13] and he is taciturn and does not get angry because of the length of its course. the Moon gives power to the native. and Venus’ nature to understanding.[9] because they are cold. too. and which he does not leave quickly.[10] (13) Its least years are 30. and it indicates curriers because they work with water. and he looks at the ground because of the heaviness of its motion. this is the reason for the fetters (Ps.[12] (15) It has a sour taste.[8] and it is stable in one way because it does not run in its course [i. and similarly tanners. followed by Mercury. (17) His face is black because of the black bile. (19) It indicates donkeys because their nature is cold. and has a sparse beard because it is the opposite of the Moon. and there is no known reason for the years of its part [i. because then it returns close to its original location. just as the Sun indicates horses because they are hot and the Moon indicates bulls[14] because they are cold and they have their dignity in Taurus.[15] (20) The Sun indicates gold because its nature is mixed heat. and thin because of the dryness. and the grave is a place from which a man does not move.[11] (14) In Ptolemy’s opinion it indicates old age because it is the last of the planets. the middle years are half of the great years and half of the least years . only experience. because sourness is cold.[6] (8) The reason why Mars. (10) It indicates the science of truth because it is uppermost. Venus. because it [Saturn] is uppermost over all the planets. are small and black. and his eyes. because it indicates the dust. and the great years are like the number of the degrees of its terms in all the signs. just like the grave. (18) Because it is uppermost he prevails over all. similarly. (11) Also prison. which indicates the beard. and gravediggers. Similarly with its nature. the fardâr]. and Mercury are lords of the crafts[7] is that all crafts need rapidity. and this method is true. 105:18) and blows on trees and stones (Ex. 7:19). (16) He [the native] is tall. since it has the spleen assigned to it . and this is why the bones belong to it. it moves slowly]. (12) Its day and its night are as in the case of the Sun.e. a place where a man stays. which checks the power of the body. (9) The reason it indicates a ship’s captain or sailor is because it generates abundant moisture. and similarly with Mercury. and Mars’ nature tends to correction. which is the water and the seas.e. The Moon indicates silver because it . and when he gets angry he commits suicide because it is malefic.

p. 1996. VI:26.5:2 §á íéîòè 駧ôò éúð÷éú . ô »éðàèî [àåä éë16 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [åîë15 ®øñç é »àèîô [àåäù14 ®øñç ð »íééçä éèôàî ® 261 ®äìçúää é »ðàèîô [äìçúä19 ®éðùä é »ðàèîô [éðéîùä18 ®øñç à »úåîãë è »éðôî [åîë17 ®àåäù »éðèîô [çåø23 ®íãä øå÷î àåäù < ô »éðàèî [íãä22 ®øñç ô »éðàèî [éë21 ®øñç è »éàîô [äéä20 »éðàîô [çëä27 ®úåøàî ô »éàèî [úåëî26 ®ïåîîä î »éðàèô [ïåîî25 ®íâå ô »éàèî [íòå24 ®øñç à íéèôùî úîëç ììë é »úåøåúäå íéèôùîä ìë úîëç è »ðôàî [úåøåúå íéèôùîä úîëç ìë28 ®çë è éôëå32 ®øñç à »éðèîô [êìî éë31 ®øñç é »àèîô [ùîùä30 ®èôùì î »éàèô [èåôùì29 ®úåøåúå ®øñç ô »éðàèî [÷çøî .226 second version of the book of reasons øùàëå ¬ø÷ àåäå 1áäæäî úåçô àåä éë óñëä ìò äðáìäå ¬ùîùäî ìåãâ íéúøùîá áäæìå óñëì äëë ¬íéìåãâä úåøåàîä íä éë ¬íéúøùîä ìò úåøåàîì ïåøúé 2ùé øëæ àåäå (21) ®øôòá àåäùå 3ãáåëä øåáòá úøôåòä ìò éàúáùå ¬úåëúîä ìë ìò ®åúãìåú øùéé åîåçå íåéä øåàù øåáòá íåéä éáëåëîå ¬4åúåùáé øåáòá íééçá åúãìåúù áåè áëåë àåäå »éàúáù íò åúãìåú éúøëæä øáë ®÷ãö éë íéðáä ìò äøåéå éúòã éôìå (1) 4 (2) ®çìå íç àåäù ¬íãà ìë úãìåú ïë éë áéãðå ¬áåè ìë óéñåäì (3) ®áåè áëåë åúåéä øåáòá 6øùåòäå ¬äéáøå äéøô ø÷éò 5äçéìäå íåçä 11 úøéöòì çë àåáé 8åðîîù ¬ìåçèä 7åìù éë óåâä ìò ïåùàøä úéáá éàúáù åîùù ìò ¬éðùä úéáä úåîãë úéáä åîë 16 ÷ãö äðäå 13 (4) ®10óåâä éãñåî íäù úåîöòä åìùå ¬9óåâä 15 ¬éùéìùä úéáä åîë àåäù øåáòá íéçàä ìò íéãàî äøåéå ¬12øùåòä ìò äøåé ïë åîë 14 àåä éë íéâåðòúä ìò äâåðå ¬éòéáøä úéáä 17 18 àåäù áàä ìò ùîùäå éë íéùðä ìò äðáìäå ¬éùùä úéáä éîìú øîàéå åîë àåä éë íéãáòä ìò äîç áëåëå ¬éùéîçä éðéîùä úéáä áåùéå ¬éòéáùä úéáä åîë àåä 19 åîë úååîä ìò äøåé àåäå ¬éàúáùì (5) ®íãàä óåñ ìò äøåé ïë äìçúä ìò äøåä øùàë ¬éðéîùä úéáä 20 ìîòä ìåáñì ìëåéùå ¬åôåâ ÷æåç äéäé ïë íãàä ãìåîá ÷æç éàúáù íéãàîå ¬éòéùúä úéáä åîë úåðîåàäå úåîëçä ìò äøåé ÷ãö äðäå íùä úãåáòå äîëçä ìò ÷ãö äøåéå ¬íéâåðòúä ìë óåñ íä ãáëä åìùå ¬úéìàîùä ïæåàä øáã éúøëæä øáëå à34 21 äéä íà éë ®çøåèäå (6) ìò äâðå ¬øùò éúùòä úéáä åîë ïçä ìò ùîùå ¬éøéùòä úéáä åîë äøøùä ìò éë ïåì÷å úåáéøî (7) ®øùé åëñîî úåéä øåáòá ïëåñå (8) ®úçîåöä ùôðä åì ùé | ïë ìò ¬çìå íç àåäù ¬22íãä øå÷î àåä éë 24 ìò äøåé àåä éë ¬òáèî ìòá ìò íéãàî úåéäáå 29 32 íòå ¬23çåø ïîàð åúåéä øåáòá êìîä 25 (9) ®íùä úãåáò ìò ÷ãöå ¬íéøéùä 28 31 ìò äâð íòå ¬26úåëî ìò íéãàîå 27 30 ïåîî èåôùì úåøåúå íéèôùîä úîëç ìë äéäú æà ¬åéìà çëä ïúåð äîç áëåë ùîùä íò íàå ¬÷ãö ÷çøî éôëå ùîùä àåä íéáëåëä êìî éë ¬úåìæîä ìòá »íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúð÷éú »÷èùô [ãáåëä3 ®øñç é »ðàèîô [ùé2 ®øñç è »éðàîô [áäæäî1 é »ðàèîô [øùåòäå6 ®úåçìäå è »éðàîô [äçéìäå5 ®ùáé åúåéä é »ðèîô [åúåùáé4 ®áëåëä éàðèîìô åìùå10 ®óåâä çëä ô »éðàè [óåâä9 ®åðîî éë è »éðàîô [åðîîù8 ®åì ùé ðà »éèîô [åìù7 ®øùåòå [íéçàä13 ®íéçàä ð »éèàîô [øùåòä12 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [÷ãö11 ®øñç é »ðàèîô [óåâä ®®® úåîöòä Kitâb al-Madhal. ¬ §4.1:5 §à íéîòè íâ äàø »§5.

is assigned to Saturn. hence it has the vegetative soul. which is hot and moist. and Jupiter indicates divine worship. whence comes the power to retain the body. because the spleen. Saturn indicates lead because of the heaviness and because it [Saturn] is in the dust. because it is like the third house. because its complexion is temperate. (4) Now Jupiter is like the second mundane house. because it is the source of blood. because they are the end of all pleasures. hence it indicates wealth. (8) It indicates the king’s steward because he has a loyal spirit. and the bones. Mars indicates authority. namely. like the ninth house. and mixed with Mars it indicates the minter because it [Jupiter] indicates wealth and Mars indicates blows. and Jupiter indicates wisdom and divine worship. because it is like the sixth house. 1:16). because heat and moisture are the essence of procreation. they assigned Saturn to the first mundane house. like the tenth house.[16] (21) It is masculine because of its dryness.[1] It is a benefic star whose nature in life is to increase any good fortune. hot and moist. because it is like the fifth house. Mercury indicates slaves. it indicates all the science of laws and ordinances to pronounce a just judgment. Venus indicates pleasures.[3] (7) I have already referred to the left ear[4]. The Moon indicates women. too.chapter five 227 is inferior to gold and it is cold.[5] and if it is mixed with the Sun it indicates the expert in the zodiacal signs. like the eighth house. and mixed with Venus it indicates poems. as it indicates the beginning so it indicates the end of a man. (6) Now Jupiter indicates the sciences and arts. 4 (1) Jupiter. because it is a benefic star. it is generous because that is the nature of every man. (3) In my opinion. so gold and silver are superior to the other metals. and wealth. (2) It indicates sons. the liver belongs to it. And the eighth house. because it is like the seventh house. because it is like the fourth house. Mars indicates brothers. The Sun indicates the father. the Sun indicates beauty. which indicates death. Venus indicates quarrels and shame. (5) Ptolemy said that if Saturn is strong in a man’s nativity his body. because the Sun is the king of the planets. I have already mentioned its nature together with Saturn’s. and it is one of the diurnal stars because the light and heat of the day temper its nature. again. which are the foundation of the body. (9) When Mercury gives it the power. will be strong[2] and he will be able to endure hard work and effort. like the eleventh house. and the astrological judgments change . Just as the luminaries are superior to the other planets because they are the great luminaries (Gen. which is in charge of the body. belong to it.

228 åîë åìéìå åîåéå second version of the book of reasons (10) ®íéèôùîä åðúùé åðîî úøùîä íúåéä øåáòá ìåãâ íëç ìò äøåé éàúáù íòå (11) ®äøùéä úãìåúä 1 ïë éë úîà áëåë àåäå ¬íéðåéìò íäéðù ¬íéðùä äìà óåñá ïåùàøä 2åîå÷îî áåø÷ áåùé éë ᧧é úåðè÷ä åéúåðùå (12) ®ùîùä 觧ò íä úåìåãâäå ¬úåðè÷ä éöç íò úåìåãâä éöç íä éë éöçå 䧧î úåéòöîàäå àìå åîå÷î ìà áåùé äìàä íéðùá éë 3㧧ëú úåîåöòäå ¬úåìæîá åéìåáâ øôñîë ¬úåîåöòä éàúáù úåðù äëëå ¬4íéèòî íé÷ìç íà éë éðùäå ïåùàøä åîå÷î ïéá äéäé ¬ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòá äð÷æä ìò äøåéå 6 (13) ®5úåðè÷ä åéúåðù øôñîë øàãøôìà úåðùå ìâìâä úåéòéáø éåðùå (14) ®åúãìåú ïë éë øëæ àåäå ¬íééçä óåñå äáéùä ìò éàúáùå øëæ àåäå ¬õøàäî äìòîì àåäå ¬äìåòä 7ìâìâ éöçá éøéùòä úéáäî åúåéä øåáòá ãâðë äúåéä øåáòá äá÷ð ¬õøàä úçú àéäù ¬úøçàä 9úéòéáøäå ¬8éîåøã àåä íâ øåçàì áùä éë ¬ïè÷ä ìâìâä ãâðë ïë éë äôé åúøåöå áåäà 10 íäù úåéòéáøäî åùò äëëå ¬úéðùä úéòéáøä (16) ® çìå íç ìë ïë éë ÷åúî ÷ãö íòèå 11 13 (15) ®øùéä êôä 12 ¬äçìäå íåçä øåáòá úåìåãâ åéðéòå éòöîà àåäå 14 (17) ®øùåéá êñåîîä úãìåú (18) ®åúãìåú øùåé øåáòá ïñòë åððéàå ¬ íåçä øåáòá äôå÷æ äîå÷á êìéå íç àåä éë ìéãáä åìùå (19) ®åðîéä äçåð úåéøáä çåøå úîà ùéà àåä éë íéîùì ®íéø÷é íä íâ éë íéìéôäå ¬çìå øôñ øáçîä éøáã ìà òîùú ìàå ¬íç »åúåîã ìò äøåéå áøä íåçä ñòëä æà éë 21 15 äëëå ¬ùáéå íç ®íéãàî (1) 5 (2) 16 ®ùîùäî äìòîì àåäù øåáòá íç àåäù øîàù íéùàø äòáøàä øåáòá úåîçìîäå úåáéøîä ìò äøåéå ¬÷ãö íò éúøëæä øùàë ¬íéçàä øéçðä åìùå 19 (3) ®äîåãàä äøîäå íãä øáâúäå 17íéãçä íéàåìçúä äëëå ¬ùáåéä íò áëåë àåäå (4) ®ìàîùäî ãáëð ïéîéä éë ¬äâåð ìò ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòá éðîéä øåáòá äìéìá øëæå ¬åúãìåú øåáòá çëäå äøåáâäå ¬áøä 18 íåçä øåáòá ®øùé äéäé ¬úåðîåàá úåôúåù åì ùéå ¬úåøåáçäå íéòöôäå úåàåôøä úîëç åìùå íéðø÷ùäå ¬íééçä åúéçùéù íéèñéìä ìò äøåé àåäå ¬éàúáù íò 20 (5) åéúøëæä øáëå [íéèòî4 㧧ë à »éèîô [㧧ëú3 ®åîå÷î ìà é »ðàèîô [åîå÷îî áåø÷2 ®ïë íâ éèô »àî [ïë éë1 [ìâìâ7 ®øñç à »éðèîô [ìâìâä ®®® åúåéä øåáòá6 ®øñç à »éðèîô [úåðè÷ä5 ®íéèòåî é »ðàèîô [íäù ®®® øåáòá äá÷ð10 ®òéáøäå ð »éèàîô [úéòéáøäå9 ®øñç à »éðèîô [éîåøã8 ®ìâìâä éô »ðàèî è »éðàîô [éòöîà àåäå13 ®úøåö è »éðàîô [úãìåú12 ®øñç ô »éðàèî [çìå11 ®øñç ð »éèàîô éðèô »àî [øåáòá16 ®øñç è »éðàîô [äëëå15 ®øñç é »ðàèîô [íåçä ®®® êìéå äçìäå14 ®éòöîàäå [øåáòá äìéìá øëæå åúãìåú19 ®åúåéä > ð »éèàîô [íåçä18 ®íéîçä é »ðàèîô [íéãçä17 ®øñç ®øñç ð »úéðø÷ùäå é »àèîô [íéðø÷ùäå21 ®éúøëæä é »ðàèîô [åéúøëæä20 ®øñç è »éðàîô .

[2] It indicates quarrels and wars because of the great heat mixed with dryness. because they are heavy. like the number of its terms in the signs. which is above the Earth. It is masculine because that is its nature. .chapter five 229 in accordance with the planet’s distance from it. (3) The right nostril belongs to it. because it is opposite the second quadrant. because both are upper planets . as I have already mentioned in the section on Saturn. and the difference between the first and the second place is only a few minutes. and similarly with the greatest years of Saturn.[8] (12) Its least years are 12.[1] (2) It indicates brothers. It is masculine in the night because then it is temperate. hot. because that is the nature of what is temperately mixed. as I have mentioned above in the section on Jupiter. and it is masculine and southern. and so is its image. and liars. is feminine. They did the same with respect to the quadrants that correspond to the epicycle.[3] and it is a partner in the arts. which is half the great and half the least years . (19) Tin belongs to it. Saturn indicates extreme old age and the end of life. who said that it is hot because it is above the Sun.[9] (13) It indicates old age because it is an upper planet . because it is hot and moist. and he is not irascible because of its tempered nature. (4) It is the planet of anger because of its great heat. Its great years are 79. 5 (1) Mars. because it returns close to its original location at the end of these years. (18) He is loved by the Heavens. and so too acute illnesses and a surfeit of blood and red bile. It is a star of truth because such is the temperate nature.[6] (10) Mixed with Saturn it indicates a great scholar. because of the heat and the moisture. and elephants. (15) The flavor of Jupiter is sweet because that is the nature of everything hot and moist. (16) His form is attractive. because he is a man of truth and people like him. (17) He is of middle stature and his eyes are large. because the one that is retrograde is opposite the one that is direct. because it is superior to Venus. The years of the fardâr are like its least years. and its middle years are 451/2. the other quadrant. (14) The change in the quadrants of the circle is because from the tenth house it is in the ascending half-circle. and he walks erect because of the heat. because in these years it returns to its place. (5) The science of medicine and surgery belong to it. Do not heed the statements of the author of the Tetrabiblos. which is below the Earth.[4] It indicates thieves who destroy life. and of courage and might on account of its nature. Its greatest years are 424. inasmuch as the right is more influential than the left. Hot and dry.[7] (11) Its day and night are as in the case of the Sun.

230 second version of the book of reasons (6) ®íéîã êôåù àåä éë ¬ïåøñç 4êøãá 3íãä úàöåäå 2äöéö÷ úåðîåà ìò äøåé åðåì÷ úéáá äéä íàå ¬äøùé åúãìåú ïéà éë 1øåáòá ïåáùçá ùîùä éë 5êìîä éîìú øîà á34 ¬6ùéìùå ১ë ïåáùçá íéãàîå | ¬å§§é ïåáùçá äâðå äîç áëåëå ¬á§§é äðáìäå ¬ç§§é éìâìâ êøòî ç÷ìð ïåáùçä äæ éë øîàå ¬á§§ì ïåáùçá éàúáùå ¬ã§§ë ïåáùçá ÷ãöå ìà 7áåè êøò íäì ïéà éë ¬íéãàîå éàúáù å÷éæé ïë ìò åéðôá úåãå÷ð ùéå åîë åìéìå åîåéå (7) ®õøàä ìà íéúøùîä äîç áëåëå äâð äëëå ¬áåè êøò íäéðéá ùéù øåáòá éàúáù ÷æð øåñéå ¬úåøåàîä (9) (11) ®åúåùáéå åîåç øåáòá óéøçå øî íéãàî íòèå (8) ®íéãàî íò ®ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòá êåøà àåäå ¬íç íìåòì úåãå÷ðä ìòáå ¬åúãìåú éåðù øåáòá ®íé÷æç 8íä éë íéãøôäå ¬úéçùî àåäù ¬ìæøáä åìùå (10) åîå÷îî áåø÷ úåéäì áåùé äìàä íéðùä óåñá éë 姧è úåðè÷ä åéúåðùå (12) ®ùîùä øôñî ïë éë ¬úåðè÷ä éöç íò úåìåãâä éöç íä éë éöçå 9§î úåéòöîàäå ¬ïåùàøä ®åñð ïë éë ¬§æ å÷ìç úåðù éë åøîà ñøô éîëçå ¬úåìæîá åéìåáâ ïë àìå ¬ìâùîä ìò äøåé ïë ìò ¬èòî êñåîî àåäù øåáòá áåè áëåë ®äâåð (1) 6 éøáãá äâðå àáä íìåòä éøáãá ÷ñòúî àåäå ¬ïåéìò áëåë åúåéä øåáòá ÷ãö äéä äæ éë éìàîùä øéçðäå ¬äá÷ð àåäù øåáòá ìâùîä ìò äøåé àåäå ¬10äæä íìåòä ®íéáëåëä øàùë åúãìåú éåðùå ïîùå ïùã ìò 16 14 (2) ®ìâùîì 11 áø çë åá ùéù éìëäå ¬åì øàùð á÷ðä 15 äøåéå (4) ®äôéå áåè áëåë åúåéä øåáòá äøäèäå 13úåé÷ðä 12åìùå (3) ïîùä ø÷éò éë ¬øå÷ä úãìåú øåáòá úåøö÷ åéúåòáöàå ¬áåè êñîîá äçìå øå÷ åìùå (5) ®úåøåöä éìòá åñð ïë éë å÷ìçá úùåçðäå ¬ïîåùä øåáòá íéìåâò åéðôå áåùéù äðåîù úåðè÷ä åéúåðùå (7) ®ùîùä åîë åìéìå åîåéå (6) ®íé÷éæî íðéàù 17íéìîâä ®úåðè÷ä åîë øàãøôìà úåðùå ¬úåìæîá åéìåáâ øôñîë úåìåãâäå ¬úåðè÷ä éöç íò úåìåãâä éöç úåéòöîàäå ¬18åîå÷îì áåø÷ é »ðàèîô [êøãá4 ®íã é »ðàèîô [íãä3 ®äöåö÷ ð »éèàîô [äöéö÷2 ®øñç é »ðàèîô [øåáòá1 §4.1:2 §à íéîòè äàø ®íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúð÷éú [ùéìùå ১ë6 ®øñç è »éðàîô [êìîä5 ®êøã éë8 ®äîç áëëå äâð äëëå < ð »éèàîô [áåè7 ®øñç ðàô »§å éèî ®øúà ìò úåøòäå §5.5:7 §á íéîòèå [áø çë åá11 ®øñç éè »äæä à »ðîô [äæä ®®® äâðå àáä10 ®å§§î èô »éàî [§î9 ®íäù éà »ðèîô [íä ®úåàé÷ðä ô »éàèî [úåé÷ðä13 ®àìùå ô »åì ùéå ðè »éàî [åìùå12 ®áøçë åì é »áø çë åì è »àîô à »éðèîô [íéìîâä17 ®àìùå é »ðàèîô [åìùå16 ®ïùãä è »éðàîô [ïîùä15 ®äâåðå é »ðàèîô [äøåéå14 ®åîå÷î áåø÷ ìà è »éðàîô [åîå÷îì áåø÷18 ®øñç .

Copper is in its portion. it indicates the left nostril. The Persian scientists said that the years of its part [i. and the number of Mercury and of Venus is 16. because of its heat and dryness. and the instrument that has a strong power for sexual intercourse.[2] (5) Docile camels belong to it. his face is round. and the number of Jupiter is 24. for such are its terms in the signs. on account of the nature of cold. because the essence of fat is cold and moisture in a good complexion. He is tall because it is an upper planet . (12) Its least years are 15 because at their end it returns nearly to its original place.[5] said that the number of the Sun is 18. because it is an upper planet.[10] 6 (1) Venus. and it is engaged in the affairs of the afterworld. because of the fat. When it is in its house of dejection it indicates the art of butchering and bloodletting by way of extraction. because it is a benefic and a handsome planet. belongs to it. because it sheds blood. and the years of its fardâr are the same as its least years . A benefic planet because it is slightly mixed. (11) Its day and night as in the case of the Sun. and the number of Mars is 211/3. the King.. which is destructive. He said that this number was obtained from the ratio of the planets’ orbs to the Earth ’s orb . the fardâr] are seven. (10) Iron.[8] and the same applies to Venus and Mercury with Mars.[6] (7) For this reason Saturn and Mars are malefic. his fingers are short.[1] (2) The change in its nature is the same as for the other planets. as well as mules. when it returns close to its original place. because they do not have a good ratio to the luminaries. Venus is engaged in the affairs of this world. and its middle years are half the great years and half the least years .[3] . (9) He has freckles on his face because of the change in its nature and one who has freckles is always hot. as they found by experience. which is half of the great years plus half of the least years . because this is the orifice that remains for it.e.[7] but the maleficence of Saturn is removed because they [Saturn and Mars] have a good ratio. (6) Its day and night in the week are as for the Sun. It indicates sexual intercourse because it is feminine.chapter five 231 because its nature is not temperate. and of the Moon 12. and its great years are as the number of its terms in the signs. For this reason it indicates sexual intercourse. (7) Its least years are eight. but Jupiter does not. and the number of Saturn is 32. (4) It indicates the fertile and fat. (3) Cleanness and purity belong to it.[9] (8) The flavor of Mars is bitter and pungent. as was found through experience by the experts in the images. (6) Ptolemy. because they are strong. and its middle years are 401/2.

232 ìò 6 second version of the book of reasons ìëùä 2áëåë ®1äîç áëåë (2) ®åúãìåúá êñåîî àåä éë 3úòãäå äîëçäå åìùå (3) ®òø åà áåè äéäéå ¬øùé 5åúåéä øåáòá (1) 7 úãìåú ìëì äøäî 4äðúùî ïë éúòã éôìå ¬íéðåîã÷ä úòã ìò éúøëæä øùàë ¬äðåéìòä äîùðä 7åìù éë ïåùìä çë ¬äðîî äìòîì àåäù ¬äîç áëåëìå ¬óåâä çë äðáìì ùé ÷ø (4) ®ùîùì àéäù øçàå ¬íãàä èôùî ïë éë äâåðì ìâùîä äéä ïë ìò »øáãì øòðä ìçéù 8ïåùìä ù÷áì õåøéù íéãàîì ïë øçàå ¬9ùîùä çë ìá÷ì áåùé øùàë äìåãâ ù÷áì ïë éøáã çéðäì ìçéå ÷ãöì ïë íéðåîã÷ä åøîà ¬ïë ìò 15 11 øçàå ¬äéäéù êøã äæéàá ïåîî 12 10 õá÷éå àöîéù äî (5) ®åéøáã ìëá ãáë äéäé æà éë éàúáùì óåñäå ¬íìåòä àéìåëäå ïåùìäå ùàøä å÷ìçá åì ùéù 14 íò åì ùé ãçà êøò éë øåáòá úéìàîùä äîëçä øåáòá 16 àéäù úéìàîùä äîç áëåë ç÷ì ¬÷ôñ åá ïéàå åðîî ïåéìò äâð 13 úåéä øåáòáå ¬äâð (6) ®äúåçô à35 ¬íéìôùä íéáëåëäî àåä éë äîå÷ øö÷ àåäå (7) ®íé÷éæîä íò òø êñîîá | äéä íà íäù íéàåìçúä ìò äøåéå ¬êôäúé äîì éúøëæä øáëå 17 úåëåøà åééçìå ¬úå÷ã åéðô ïë ìò ¬åðîî ïè÷ áëåë 19 íùä àøá àìù øåáòá ÷ã àåäå áëåë åúåéä øåáòá ÷é÷ãå ¬ ïåùìä åì ùéù øåáòá äôé åéôå ¬18áåøá ùáåé äøåé éë åúåéä øåáòá ÷ãä äð÷îä åìùå åîë åîåéå åìéìå (8) ®íéøôåñä ïë éë úåëåøà åéãé úåòáöàå ¬ïè÷ 22 (9) ®úåøåöä éîëç åñð øùàë éçä óñëä å÷ìçá äìòå ¬20ïè÷ §ë 21 úåéòöîàäå ¬åîå÷îì áåø÷ úåéäì áåùé æà éë ®úåìæîá åéìåáâ øôñî éôë 25 úåðè÷ä åéúåðùå 24 (10) ®ùîùì 23 úåìåãâäå ¬úåìåãâä éöç íò úåðè÷ä éöç åì äéäé æà ¬íù äðáìä äéäú øùàë ìàîù úàôá åúåéä øåáòá ®éìúä ùàø 26 (1) 8 ìë ìò óéñåé ùàøäù åøîà ïë ìò ¬ìàîù úàôá åìåë áåùéäù éðôî ¬ìåãâ çë íéðù àøá íùäù íéðåîã÷ä åøîàéå ÷ãö íäå ¬ íéáéèî 30 29 28 (2) ®íéáåèä íéáëåëäî 27 úìá÷î äðáìäù áåè íéðù äëëå ¬ åøáçî ìåãâ ãçàäå íéãàîå éàúáù íäå ¬íé÷éæî »ðèô [äðúùî4 ®äòãäå ð »éèàîô [úòãäå3 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [áëåë2 ®áúåë è »éðàîô [äîç áëåë1 çë8 ®åì ùé é »ðàèîô [åìù7 ®àìùå ô »éðàèî [åìùå6 ®úåéä ô »éðàèî [åúåéä5 ®äøåé > é »äðúùé àî [øçàå11 ®ù÷áéå è »éðàîô [õá÷éå10 ®øñç é »ðàèîô [ùîùä ®®® ïë øçàå9 ®ïåùìä è »éàîô [ïåùìä ð »ïåéìòä ô »éàèî [ïåéìò14 ®éë è »éðôî [úåéä13 ®àéìëäå ð »éèàîô [àéìåëäå12 ®éøçàå éà »ðèîô [áåøá18 ®ä§§á÷ä è »éðàîô [íùä17 ®àåäù é »ðàèîô [íäù16 ®àéä éë é »àèîô [àéäù15 ®áëë > åéúåðùå21 ®øñç é »ðàèîô [ïè÷ ®®® åéãé úåòáöàå20 ®ïåèìùä é »ðàèîô [ïåùìä19 ®åôåâá è »éðàî à »éðèîô [éöç24 ®íä è »éðàîô [éöç23 ®øñç ð »á§§é é »àèîô [§ë22 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [úåðè÷ä »íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúôñåä [úìá÷î27 ®øñç î »éðàèô [ìë26 ®øñç à »éèîô [úåìåãâäå25 ®øñç ðàèîô »é [íéáéèî30 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [íéðù äëëå29 õøçàä ïî è »éðàîô [åøáçî28 ®øñç ôéàðèî ®øñç .

[6] It indicates diseases that derive from wisdom if it is in a bad complexion with the malefic planets . its middle years are half its least years plus half its great years . has the power of the tongue. (2) For this reason it quickly changes to any nature because it is temperate. because it is mixed in its nature. when it returns close to its original place. and then to seek greatness. because the superior soul belongs to it. and quicksilver is in its portion. and the end belongs to Saturn. Jupiter and Venus (the former is bigger than the latter).[5] and because Venus is certainly above it. inasmuch as the entire ecumene is in the north [with respect to the equator]. which is above it. to enable the child to begin to speak. (8) Small cattle belongs to it. This is the planet of wit and wisdom and understanding. when he is heavy in all his actions. and .chapter five 233 7 (1) Mercury. (4) Indeed. as well as two benefic planets . (6) I have already mentioned why it is mutable. His face is thin and his cheeks are long. (2) The Ancients said that God created two malefic planets . and Mercury. because it is one of the inferior stars. inasmuch as that is the rule with respect to man. and can be either benefic or malefic.[4] (5) Hence the Ancients said that the head and the tongue and the left kidney are in its portion. (10) Its least years are 20. Mercury took the left kidney . as has been verified by experience by the scholars of the images. (7) He is short of stature. as writers’ are. and then the power passes to Jupiter. two luminaries. because it indicates dryness in most people . Saturn and Mars (the former is bigger than the latter). Because it is in the north. the superior soul] belongs to the Sun. (3) The tongue belongs to it.[2] but in my opinion it [i.[8] 8 (1) The Head of the Dragon. because it is small. when he receives again the power of the Sun. which is inferior. when the Moon is also there[1] it [the Dragon’s Head] has great power. the Moon has the power of the body. Consequently they said that the Head increases any good fortune that the Moon receives from the benefic stars. His mouth is attractive because the tongue belongs to it.[3] hence sexual intercourse belongs to Venus. and he is slender because it is a small star. and then the power passes to Mars. when he begins to set aside the affairs of this world. and he is thin because it is the smallest star that God created.[7] (9) Its night and its day in the week are as for the Sun. His fingers are long. because its ratio to Venus is 1:1.[1] as I have mentioned referring to the opinion of the Ancients. which causes him to run and seek whatever he may find and to collect wealth in any possible way.e. and its great years are equal to the number of its terms in the signs.

234 second version of the book of reasons (3) ®3äîç áëåë ®åñð äëë àåäå ¬òø íòôå áåè íòô ¬êñåîî 2áëåëå ¬1úåøåàî éðùå ¬åøáçî ìåãâ ãçàäå ¬äâðå ¬5ùåìù 4íä øàãøôìà ÷ìçá ùàøä úåðù éë åøîà ñøô éîëçå ïåøñç 9ìò æà äøåé ïë ìò ¬8äçë øñçé ïéîé 7ãöá äðáìä úåéäá ®6áðæä ®11§á å÷ìç úåðù éë åñð íéðåîã÷äå áåè ùàøä éë åøîàé ïë ìò åøîàé íäå (1) 9 (3) (2) ®ïåì÷äå äôøçä àåä 13 10 ãåáë ïåøñçå ¬áåè 12 éë åøîàéå ¬øñçé òø íàå áåè óéñåé ùàøä íò áåè áëåë äéä íà éë åøîàéå (4) ®òøä úòøî øñçéå áåèä áëåëä áåèî øñçé áðæä (5) ®14íéòøä íò áåèå íéáåèä íò òø áðæäå ¬íéòøä íò òøå íéáåèä íò 15 íò úøùî ìë ÷ø ¬úîà íäéøáã éë éðéòá ïåëðäå ¬åáðæå äðáìä ìâìâ ïéðú ùàø ìò ®17åáðæå 16 ïéðú ùàø 6§ 20 äòùá øëæä ãìåé íìåòì 23 24 19 éë äììàùî 22 18 àø÷ðä íëçä øîà ®ãìåîä úåìòî 21 (1) 1 àì ÷ø íãå÷ úåãìåðäå íéãìåðä éáåøá úîà äæå ¬úåâåæá äá÷ðäå 27 øôñîá úãøåôî åúìçúá äéäù çëåðä åà úøáçîä íåéî ÷çøîä éôë éë øîàå (2) ®íìëá äãéìä 28 øîà éîìúå 30 (3) ®àì íéîòôå ïë äéäé íéîòôìå ¬äòù 29 26 é÷ìç øôñî äéäé 25 ãçà øôñî äéäé äëë çëåðä åà úøáçîä íå÷î úåçåìå åãåä úåçåìá 31 ìò äðåîîä úåìòî øôñîë éë úòùá ùîùä úåäáâ úåìòî éúç÷ìù ¬úåáø íéîòô éúéñð éëðà äðäå 32 (4) ®úåãúéä íéáëåëä íå÷î éúð÷ú íéðùä éáåøå ¬íé÷ìçä íò äãéìä ïäù úåçåìäå ñøô úåçåìå éîìú 33 úåãúéä ãçà éúàöî àìå ¬ïéòä úéàøîì úîà àåäå ¬äñåðîå úîà àåä êåðç øéëæäù äî ÷ø ºììë (5) ®íéáëåëä ãçà øôñîî ®34úãìåúä êøã àåäå è »ðàîô [äîç áëåë àåäå3 ®äîç áëåëå é »ðàèîô [áëåëå2 ®úåøåàîä é »ðàèîô [úåøåàî1 »íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúð÷éú [ùåìù5 ®óìà äìçú ô »éðàèî [íä øàãøôìà ÷ìçá4 ®øñç é »áúåë ®íù é »ðàèîô [ãöá7 ®áðæäå ô »éìúä áðæ è »éðàî [áðæä6 ®íéðù éðàèîô »éìâðàä íåâøúì äøòä äàø [éë12 ®á§§ë è »éðàîô [§á11 ®øñç ô »éðàèî [ãåáë10 ®øñç ðèéô »àî [ìò9 ®äëë î »éðàèô [äçë8 áðæäå14 ®ùàøä áåèî è »áåèä áåèî éðô »áëåëä áåèî à »î [áåèä áëåëä áåèî13 ®øñç é »ðàèîô »àî [åáðæå17 ®ïéðúä ð »éèàîô [ïéðú16 ®ïëúéå ð »éèàîô [ïåëðäå15 ®øñç ð »éèàîô [íéòøä ®®® òø »éàèîì [äòùá20 ®øñç ôéàðèô »îì [éë19 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [àø÷ðä íëçä18 ®åìù áðæäå »áðæå éèô »íéãìåðäå à »éèîì [úåãìåðäå23 ®áåøá éðèô »àîì [éáåøá22 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [øôñîá21 ®úòùá ô [äãéìä25 ®äìçúá äéäù à »äìçúá äéäéù î »úìéçúá äéäù ì »éðèô [åúìçúá äéäù24 ®øñç ô [éë28 ®íéîòôå è »éðàîìô [íéîòôìå27 ®óåìç è »÷åìç à »éðîìô [é÷ìç26 ®äìéìä ô »éðàèîì »éðèîìô [íéáëåëä íå÷î31 ®äòùá î »éðàèôì [úòùá30 ®ìà ô »éðàèîì [ìò29 ®øñç à »éðèîìô ®úåãìåúä éî »ðôèàì [úãìåúä34 ®øñç éà »ðèîìô [÷ø33 ®íäù ðàè »éîìô [ïäù32 ®øñç à .

Mercury. In my opinion their statements are true. only what Enoch said is true and corroborated by experience. which is disgrace and shame.[4] (5) As a general rule.chapter six 235 a mixed planet. (2) He said that the number of minutes in the hour of birth depends on the distance from the day of the last conjunction or opposition of the luminaries that began before the birth.[3] (4) Now I have tested this many times. and the Tail is a malefic with the benefics and a benefic with the malefics.[2] and this is true for most natives. whereas females are born in even hours . namely.[2] §6 1 (1) Degrees of the nativity. (3) The Persian scientists said that the fardâr years of the Head are three. and for most years I corrected the places of the planets in the Indian scientists’ tables and Ptolemy’s tables and the Persian scientists’ tables and the tables that seem to be correct. When the Moon is in the south side it loses power.[3] 9 (1) The Tail. (3) Ptolemy said that the number of degrees of one of the cardines is equal to the number of degrees of the planet that rules the place of the conjunction or the opposition of the luminaries .[1] (3) They said that if a benefic planet is in the Head it increases good fortune. and they said that the Tail diminishes the good fortune of a benefic planet and diminishes the misfortune of a malefic planet . sometimes it happens like that and sometimes it does not. it diminishes good fortune .[2] as they verified by experience. but every planet has its own Head of the Dragon and its Tail. if a malefic. but I did not find any of the cardines to be equal to the number of degrees of any of the planets. and is compatible with nature. but not for all of them. male and female. (2) The Ancients found by experience that its fardâr years are two. hence it [the Dragon’s Tail] indicates then a lack of good fortune and a lack of honor. (4) Hence they said that the Head is a benefic with the benefics and a malefic with the malefics. (5) They said all that about the Head of the Dragon of the Moon’s orb and its Tail.[1] The scholar named Mâshâ"allâh said that males are always born in an hour whose number is odd. taking the degrees and minutes of the Sun’s apogee at the time of birth.[5] . sometimes benefic and sometimes malefic.

236 second version of the book of reasons (1) 2 øôñá ìò åøåé úåøåàîä éðù éë øåáòá ¬äùîç íééçä 1úåîå÷îî åéä ®íéìùåîä á35 áåúëë ¬íìåòá ùãçúéù øáã ìë ìò äøåé çëåðä åà úøáçîä íå÷îå ¬íééçä øåáòá áåèä ìøåâ íâ ¬3ãìåðì àéäù øåáòá úçîåöä äìòîä 2íâ ¬íìåòä 5 4 | êøò äëë úçîåöä äìòîä ìà ùîùä êøòë íìåòì éë íòèäå ¬ äðáìä ìæî àåäù äìòîì äåää éë 7éîìú øîàéå ãúéá ùîùä úåéä øåáòáå íà ù÷áì 11 (2) ®6åéìò øáãà ãåòå ¬áåèä ìøåâä ìà äðáìä 10 (3) ®áø çë åì ùéù éðôî íééçä ìò äøåé õøàäî éòéáøá ¬øùò 9éúùò 8úéáá åà ¬éøéùòä 13 ¬äá÷ð ìæîä äéä íà åùùç àì ¬øëæ íâ éðéîùä úéáäå åëøöåä äá÷ð àéäù úéòéáøäî éòéáùäå éòéùúä úéáä úåéä øåáòáå (4) ®ùîùì çë 14 ïéà äðä äá÷ð äéä íàù ¬12äá÷ð àåä ìæîä 15 íà íééçä úç÷ì ïëúé àì ïë ìò ¬úçîåöä äìòîä ìà èéáé àì ìò èéìùäå ¬íàä úåîãë øåàîä éë åøîà íéðåîã÷äå éøéùòä úéáá 19 øùò éúùò (5) ®íäî ãçàá ùîùä äéä èéìùäå ¬äùà åùåøéôå ¬17§âàìéä øåàîä íå÷î åàø÷é ïë ìò ¬16áàä àåä åîå÷î äúéä íàå ¬äá÷ð äðáìä úåéä øåáòáå 21 (6) ®ìòá åùåøéôå ¬18äàãëãë 20 úéáá ÷ø ¬äðáìì çë äéäé àì äðä ¬úåøëæì ïåùàøä úéáìå 26 úéòéáøäå øëæ 23 àåäå ¬øùò éúùò åà 22 úéáäå ¬äá÷ð íà øëæ íà ìæîä ïî åùåçé àì ïë ìò ¬äá÷ð àéä úéòéáøä éòéáùä (7) ®äúçîù úéáî éòéáùä àåä éë ¬äðáìä 25 ìáà úéá àåä éòéùúä 24 úçîù íùù øåáòá ¬ìôåð úéá àåä íàå ¬éùéìùä úéááå ¬äá÷ð àéä ¬ äðáæòð ¬øëæ ìæîä äéä íà éùéîçáå íðéà éë ¬31éùéùäå éòéùúä ïë àìå 30 úéòéáøä íâ éòéáøáå (8) ®äðîî íééçä ç÷ð ¬äðáìä øëæ ìæîá çë åì ùé øëæä íìåòì éë äì çë ïéà äðäå »27äá÷ð äðáìäå úåøëæ ÷ìçá úéòéáøä úåéä øåáòá éðùä áåæòðå (9) ®øëæ 29 úéòéáøáå 28 õøàäî äìòîì äúéä íà úøáçîä ç÷ð ïë øçàå ¬úçîåöç úìòîä íò íéøåù÷ (10) ®áø çë åì ùé éë ¬øùò éúùò åà éòéáùä åà éøéùòä ãúéá çëåðä òâøá äðáìä úåéä øåáòáå ¬øùò íéðùå éðéîùä éë óà ¬ìôåð úéá àåä éë ®ãìåðä ð »éèôàîì [ãìåðì àéäù3 ®éë éðèô »àîì [íâ2 ®úåîå÷î ðì »éèàîô [úåîå÷îî1 »éèôàîì [éîìú7 ®åéìà ô »éðàèîì [åéìò6 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [úçîåöä5 ®äá÷ðä è »äðáìì é »ðîìô é »èàîìô [éòéáøá10 ®éúùòá ð »éèôàîì [éúùò9 ®øñç ð »úéá àîì »éèô [úéáá8 ®øñç ð »úéáä úåéä øåáòáå < é »àèîìô [äá÷ð12 ®éúëøöåä è »åðëøöåä ì »éðàîô [åëøöåä11 ®úéòéáøá ®áéä ð »éèôàîì [øùò éúùò15 ®ïéà ô »éðàèîì [ïéà äðä14 ®äá÷ðä î »éðàèôì [äá÷ð13 ®øñç ð »éðàèîì [äàãëãë18 ®øñç ô »âàìä è »§âàìä é »ðàîì [§âàìéä17 ®úåîãë > ð »éèôàîì [áàä16 駧ôò éúð÷éú [úéòéáøäå21 ®àåä é »ðàèîìô [àåäå20 ®äéä ôî »éðàèì [äúéä19 ®äæä øáãá ô ®ìáàä î »éðàèôì [ìáà23 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [éòéáùä22 ®úåéòéáøäå éðàèîìô »íéøáãä øù÷ä ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [äðáæòð26 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [éòéáøáå25 ®ãä ð »éòéáøä ô »éàèîì [úéòéáøä24 [éðùä áåæòðå30 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [úéòéáøáå29 ®øñç éèôàî »ðì [øëæ28 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [äá÷ð27 ®á§§éäå < ð »éèôàîì [éùéùäå31 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [äðáìä4 .

and next we should take the conjunction if it had occurred above the Earth in the tenth house[6] or in the seventh or eleventh houses . the place of life] that is above the Earth indicates life. and because the Moon is stronger at the moment of opposition than at the . because the ratio of the Sun to the degree of the ascendant is always equal to the ratio of the Moon to the lot of Fortune. the Moon has no power. (8) We ignore the Moon in the fourth and fifth houses if the sign happens to be masculine. (10) But not in the ninth house .[1] [4] the degree of the ascendant because it belongs to the native. they paid no attention to whether the sign is masculine or feminine. because the joy of the Moon is there. because it has great power. which is masculine and whose quadrant is assigned to masculinity. The ninth house is the house of mourning of the Moon. because it is the seventh after its house of joy. and [5] the lot of Fortune because it is the mazzal of the Moon. they paid no attention to whether the sign was feminine. in that case they had to clarify whether the sign is feminine. even though this house is falling from the cardines . nor in the eighth and the twelfth. (4) The eighth and the eleventh houses do not look at the degree of the ascendant. because they are disconnected from the degree of the ascendant. [3] the place of the conjunction or the opposition of the luminaries indicates anything that is renewed in the world. meaning woman. when it is in the tenth or eleventh house. because the quadrant is masculine and the Moon is feminine. meaning husband. as is written in the Book of the World. I shall say more on this subject. because if it is feminine then the Sun has no power. (7) We should take the place of life from the first house.[5] (6) Because the Moon is feminine. which is a house falling from the cardines . (9) We ignore the second and sixth houses . and the lord of its place is the father. and therefore called the place of the luminary hyl"ej.[3] (3) Because the Sun is in a masculine quadrant when it is in the tenth house[4] or in the eleventh mundane house. But in the seventh house.. but inasmuch as the ninth and seventh houses are in a feminine quadrant. so it is not possible to locate the place of life there if the Sun is in one of them. because it [the tenth house] has great power. which is in a feminine quadrant. and from the third house. The places of life are five: [1–2] the two luminaries indicate life. so the Moon has no power there because the masculine always has power in a masculine sign and in a masculine quadrant.[2] (2) Ptolemy said that the one [i. and the lord kadkad"ah. (5) The Ancients said that the luminary is like the mother. which also belongs to a feminine quadrant.e.chapter six 237 2 (1) The rulers.

238 second version of the book of reasons (11) ®áåèä ìøåâä àø÷é ïë ìò ¬åðãâðë äøåà 1äàìî äúåéä øåáòá ¬úøáçîä òâøá äúåéä úòî ä÷æç øúåé íéìùåîä äòáøàäî ãçàî íééçä 3úç÷ì 2ìëåð àì íàå òø íå÷î ìà äòéâäáå ¬ø÷éòä àéä éë ¬úçîåöä äìòîä 5íìåòì 4âäðð íéøëæðä ®9 8ìàä úøæòá ¬7úåãìåîä øôñá 6ùøôà øùàë ¬ãìåðä úåîé ìà 11 äáåù ãò íòèäå ¬äîéîú äðù ùîùä 13 10 êìäî úåéä øåáòá ®äôå÷úä 12 (1) 3 äùîçå íéùùå úåàî ùìù ìò ïúåàá äðäå 17 úôñåúä äðäå »ãìåîä òâøá íù äúéäù äìòîä ìâìâä ìë áåñé ãçà íåéá äðäå äøùò ùîç äòù 18 (2) 16 ®íé÷ìç 15 äòùúå íéòáøà úåòù 14 ùîç íéîéä äîçä úðù óåñá äðäå ¬ åúô÷ä íéìùéå íéùùå úåàî ùìù àåäù óé÷îä ìë ùéøôîä ïôåàä ááñ ¬íé÷ìç äòùúå íéòáøàå úåòù ùîç (3) ®íé÷ìç øùò äùîç ÷ìç 20ìëå ¬úçà äìòî íé÷ìç äòáøà 19ìëå ¬úåìòî à36 äðäå äòùúå íéòáøàî úéòéáø | åðç÷ìå ¬ä§§ò åìòå 姧è ìò úåòù ùîç åðëøò é÷ìçî íé÷ìç úåìòî 24 23 øùò äùîç àåäå ¬úåòùá ãçà ÷ìç 22 øàùðå 21 úåìòî äøùò íéúù áåúëä àåäå ¬å§§è 槧ô øôñîä äìòå äùîçå íéòáù ìò äæ åðôñåäå íéòáøà úåìòî éúù åéäé øùò ãçà 26 (4) ®äìòîä §ö ïä úåòù ùùå ¬íé÷ìç øùò ãçà úåòù ùù úîìùäì øñçé ãåòå ®úåçåìá úéòéáø ç÷ð øùàëå ¬25íåé úéòéáø íä éë ®øëæðä øôñîä äìòé æà íéòùúî íøñçð (5) ®íé÷ìç äùîçå 27 28 éúù ùãåç ìëì äìòé äðäå 29 32 (2) ®äðùä óåñ íù òéâäù ¬óåñä úéá íòèå (1) 4 ùãçúé æà ¬åéìà èéáé åà 33 òø åà áåè áëåë íù äéäéù íå÷îäå ¬éöçå úåìòî éôë ç÷ìðä óåñä úéáì äðúùé íâ (3) ®áëåëä 31 úãìåú éôë 30 øáã ãìåðä ìò ® ÷åìçä óåñ ãò ÷åìçä úìçúî äðùä äéäúå ¬34íéúáä 35 áçøî éôë íéèáîä äùòúù øçà ¬ãìåðì äø÷éù òø åà áåè úòãì úéöø íàå äöøúù úéáä úìçú ä÷åçø 37 (1) 5 õøàä àéä úåòù äîë òã ¬êì éúùøéô øùàë 36 »ðàîìô [âäðð4 ®úåð÷ì é »ðàèîìô [úç÷ì3 ®ìëåé ôéðè »àîì [ìëåð2 ®øñç ì »ôéàðèî [äàìî1 éèô »ðàî [úåãìåîä7 ®øñç ì »éúùøéô ð »éèàîô [ùøôà6 ®íìåòä ô »éðàèîì [íìåòì5 ®âäåð éè ®øñç ì »ôéàðèî [ìàä ®®® ùøôà øùàë9 ®øñç éì »ä§§òá è »àîô [ìàä úøæòá8 ®øñç ì »úåøåàîä øôñî éàèîì »ð [äìòîä12 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [äáåù ãò íòèäå11 ®úìòî ðè »éàîìô [êìäî10 íéòáøà15 ®íîåç ð »éèôàîì [ùîç14 ®úôñåúá èì »éðàîô [úôñåúä13 ®íéðù øôñî ô »íéðùä [ìë18 ®äðù è »éðàîìô [äîçä úðù17 ®åúùôåú è »éðàîìô [åúô÷ä16 ®è§§îî è »éðàîìô [äòùúå ®øñç é »ðàèîìô [úåìòî21 ®ìò ô »éðàèîì [ìëå20 ®ìò ô »éðàèîì [ìëå19 ®äìòå > ì »ôéàðèî [íåé25 ®§öù à »éðèîìô [§ö ïä24 ®è§§î ô »éðàèî [øùò äùîç23 ®øàùð é »ðàèîìô [øàùðå22 áåè29 ®§ëá é »àèîô [éúù28 ®§á î »éðàèôì [úéá27 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [úéòéáø26 ®íåéä éì »ðàèîô [äðúùé32 ®åúãìåú é »ðàèîìô [úãìåú31 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [øáã30 ®òáøà áåù î »éðàèì [òø åà ®íéðùä è »íéúáäî ð »éàîìô [íéúáä34 ®øñç ð »éôì é »éàèôì [éôë33 ®(ùèùåèî ô) »äðùé àèîì »éð ®øñç é »äéä à »ðèîìô [àéä37 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [õøàä36 ®øñç ô »éðàèîì [÷åìçä óåñ ãò35 .

Thus at the end of the solar year.e. during which the horizon advances 15 arc minutes.[7] as I shall explain in the Book of Nativities. (3) Now we multiply the 5 hours by 15 degrees and obtain 75 degrees .[1] 5 (1) If you want to know the good fortune or misfortune that will befall the native. When we divide 11 minutes of an hour by four we obtain 2°45 . 4 (1) The “terminal house” is the place that the revolution reaches at the end of the year. per degree].[8] with God’s help. and completes its circuit. 87°15 ]. which is 360 degrees . we divide the 49 minutes by 4 degrees per minute and obtain 12 degrees. and the year is calculated from the beginning of the division until the end of the division. We are short 11 minutes of six hours. and 6 hours are equivalent to an advance of 90 degrees. which is the value that is written in the tables. meaning until it [the revolution] returns to the degree it was at the moment of nativity. during those 5 hours and 49 minutes.[2] (2) Now in one day it [the sun] circles the entire circumferential orb. the horizon advances 15 degrees every hour [360°/24hr. and in one minute of an hour 15 arc minutes [60°/4 = 15 ]. (5) If we subtract them from 90 degrees we also obtain the aforementioned number [i. (11) But if we can not take the place of life from any of the four aforementioned rulers we should always direct the degree of the ascendant. because they are one quarter of a day.[1] find out how many hours the cusp of the mundane house you want to arrange is distant from . plus a remainder of one minute of time.[1] This is because the course of the Sun is a complete year. (4) If we add this result to 75 degrees we obtain 87°15 . (2) Now each month is assigned two degrees and a half.chapter six 239 moment of conjunction. and in the place where there is some benefic or malefic planet or one that looks at it. and the excess beyond 365 days is 5 hours and 49 minutes. when it arrives in a malefic place the native will die. 3 (1) The revolution. because it is the essence. inasmuch as it is full and its light is facing us. as I have explained you. and it advances one degree every 4 minutes of an hour [60 min. after you arrange the aspects in accordance with the latitude of the country. it was called the lot of Fortune. a new event will happen to the native in accordance with the nature of the planet. = 15° per hour]. (3) This terminal house is different from the terminal house calculated in accordance with the mundane houses./15° = 4 min.

240 second version of the book of reasons (2) ®äòù é÷ìç íù äéäé àìù íòèäå ¬úåîéìù úåòù ÷åçø äéäé íìåòì éë ¬øáòù ãúéäî ãò éøéùòä 2úéáä úìçúî äéä íàå ºèáîä åà áëåëä 1íùù íå÷îä òãå úéáä úìçú úåìòî 5ïéá èáîä íå÷î úåòù åà 4áëåëä 3úåòù ç÷ ¬úçîåöä äìòîä ¬íäé÷ìçå úåòùä øåîù äåääå ¬8øùåéä ìâìâ çåìá 7úçîåöä äìòîä ãò 6éøéùòä øàùé øùàå ¬äöøúù úéáä úìçú øùåéä úìçúî ÷åçø äéäéù 9úåòùä íìåòì øñçå áëåëä äéä íàå (3) ®íéîé äùìùî áåø÷ ¬10äòù ÷ìç ìëìå ùãåç äòù ìëì ç÷ 11 åà áëåëä íå÷î çëð úåòù ç÷ ¬éòéáøä úéáä ìà úçîåöä éòéáøä úéáä ïéá áëåëä äéä íàå 14 äìòîäî èáîä åà ÷ìçå ¬èáîä åà áëåëä úåìòîî õøàä çåìá úçîåöä äìòîä úåìòî øñçå èáîä (4) ®13èôùîë úåòùä øñçå çëðä 12úåòù øôñîä (5) ® èôùîë øùåéä ìâìâá äùòå èáîä íå÷î åà áëåëä çëåð úåòù ç÷ ¬éòéáùäå áëåëä íå÷î úåòù ç÷ ¬éøéùòä úéáä ïéáå éòéáùä úéáä ïéá áëåëä äéä íàå ¬ èáîä íå÷î 18 17 äëëå ¬åúìòî 19 16 çëåðá àåä áëåëä åìàë áåùçå ¬ èáîä íå÷î åà 15 áåùçúù äìòîä ãâðë õøàä çåìá íäù úåìòîäî úçîåöä äìòîä úåìòî øñçå ®èôùîë äùòå úåøëæðä úåòùä ìò ÷ìçå ¬20èáîä íå÷î åà íù áëåëäù éîëç åñð äëë 22 ÷ø ¬íòè íäì 21 òãà àì øàãøôìà íéàø÷ðä íé÷ìçä äìàå ® íäéìò 25 24 (1) 6 (1) 7 äðùä øáãà úåãìåîä 23 øôñáå ¬ñøô 27 åðúé øùàëå äòùì 32 (2) ®óúåùì ùé øùàî 26 çë øúåé ãé÷ôì éë ÷ôñ ïéà ®úåòùä 29 ¬ãåìéä äá ãìåðù úåìòî úúååòîä äòùä ìòáì åðúð 33 ïë ¬28äðù ìëì ìæî 30 úéùéìùä äðùäå ¬úéðùä äòùì úéðùäå ¬31äðåùàøä äòùì äðåùàøä 35 íìåòì ìëúñäì êì ùé ¬ ïëì ¬ãìåðì áåè 36 (3) ®äòùä ìòáì úéðéîùä 34 äðùä áåù ãò ¬úéùéìùä äéäé æà áåè íå÷îá äéä íàù ¬äðåùàøä äòùä ìòá ìà äðù ìëá ®37êôäì äéä íà øáãä êôäå áëåëä4 ®®øñç à »úòù è »éðîìô [úåòù3 ®øñç àô »éðèîì [úéáä2 ®íù äéäéù é »ðàèîìô [íùù1 øñç ô »ïéáå éðàèîì »íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúð÷éú [ïéá5 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [áëåëä ®®® èáîä åà »éèôàîì [øùåéä8 ®øñç ôéàðîì »è [úçîåöä äìòîä ãò7 ®øñç ô »éðàîèì [éøéùòä úéáä6 ®øñç ô »äòù è »éðàîì [äòù ÷ìç10 ®øñç ô »íäé÷ìçå < è »éðàîì [úåòùä9 ®øåùéîä ð ®øñç ðô »úåòùä øôñî ìò ÷ìçå è »éàîì [úåòù øôñîä ÷ìçå12 ®äìòîä ôéàðèî »ì [äìòîäî11 úåìòî ïéáå15 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [èôùîë ®®® èáîä íå÷î åà14 ®øñç ô »øôñîë é »ðàèîì [èôùîë13 è »éðàîì [äëëå17 ®çëåðì è »éðàîìô [çëåðá16 ®øñç ô »éðàèîì [èáîä ®®® éøéùòä úéáä úìçú àì21 ®èéáîä è »éàîìô [èáîä20 ®øñç è »éàîìô [õøàä19 ®èéáîä è »éðàîìô [èáîä18 ®ç÷å éð »àèîô [øáãà24 ®ùåøéôáå ô »éàèî [øôñáå23 ®éë < ô »éðàèî [÷ø22 ®øñç èì »éðàîô [òãà [åðúé27 ®åì ùé < ô »éðèàîì [çë øúåé26 ®øñç ì »ôéàðèî [íäéìò ®®® íé÷ìçä äìàå25 ®éúøáã ®äòùä ð »éèôàîì [äðùä30 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [ïë29 ®äòù à »éèîìô [äðù28 ®åðúð éôî »ðàèì ®úéùéìùä äòùäå é »úéùéìùäå ðèô »àîì [úéùéìùä äðùäå32 ®øñç àîì »éðèô [äðåùàøä äòùì31 [äéäé36 ®ïë ìò ô »éðèàîì [ïëì35 ®äòùä ð »éèôàîì [äðùä34 ®äðùì à »éðèîìô [äòùì33 ®êôäá äéäé ôì »êôäì äéäé éî »ðàè [êôäì äéä37 ®äøåé ì »ôéàðèî .

and proceed in sphaera recta according to the rule. as if the planet is opposite its degree and similarly with the place of the aspect. the second to the second hour. the third year to the third hour. and from the result take each hour as a month and each minute as an hour. and divide this number into the aforementioned hours and proceed according to the rule.[2] 7 (1) Hours. look up in the sphaera recta table the hours of the planet or the hours of the place of the aspect between the degrees of the cusp of the tenth house and the degree of the ascendant.[3] . (5) If the planet is between the seventh house and the tenth house take the hours of the place of the planet or the place of the aspect. because it is always distant an integral number of hours.[2] they also assigned to the lord of the seasonal hour the degrees at which the native was born. then divide the number into the hours opposite the place of the planet or the aspect and subtract the hours according to the rule. (3) Hence. until the eighth year is assigned again to the lord of the first hour. take the hours opposite the planet or the place of the aspect.[1] (2) Just as they assigned a sign to each year. in every year you should always observe the lord of the first hour. I cannot explain them. but the Persian scientists derived them from observation. for if it is in a fortunate place the native will enjoy good fortune. and subtract the degrees of the degree of the ascendant from the degrees in the latitude plate of the astrolabe opposite the degree that you have calculated and corresponding to the place where the planet is or to the place of the aspect. 6 (1) As for the parts that are called the fardâr. Keep the hours and the minutes of the result.[1] I will refer to them in the Book of Nativities. (4) If the planet is between the fourth house and the seventh.chapter six 241 the previous cardo. and vice versa. the first year to the first hour. approximately three days. There is no doubt that the lord has more power than the partner. take the hours directly opposite the place of the planet or the aspect and subtract the degrees of the ascendant on the latitude plate of the astrolabe from the degrees of the planet or the aspect. which means that there will not be any minutes. (2) Find out the place where the planet or the aspect is: if it is between the cusp of the tenth house and the degree of the ascendant. (3) If the planet or the aspect is between the degree of the ascendant and the fourth house. and always subtract the hours that the house you want to calculate is distant from the beginning of sphaera recta.

242 second version of the book of reasons (2) ®íéøöî éîëç úåìåáâ 1íä ®íéìåáâä (1) 8 ®íéìåáâä éìòá úãìåú éôë ¬äòø ìà äòøî ®3íéìåáâä éìòáî íéîìù ¬íéìåáâä éôë íãàä ééç å÷ìçúé äðäå øúåé íéèáîä éìòá éë éúéñð éðàå åà ¬áåè ìà òøî åà ¬òø ìà áåèî åà ¬áåè ìà áåèî íãàä àöéù 2íéîòô äðäå (3) øåáòá íéúáä 5éìòá çëî øúåé úåùéìùä 4éìòá çë éë éîìú øîà ®úåùéìùä 7 (1) 9 äøåú äðáìä éë øîàå (2) ®íéúáä ìò äëë àìå úåùéìùä 6ìò úåéàø úåîãë ùéù ãò íéðù òáøàî éë äàøð äðä ºøîàå »åðéìà äáåø÷ äúåéä øåáòá ìåîâä úåðù ìò äâð äøåé ¬ïë ìò »íéùðä éøáã ᧧ë ãò íùîå ¬äîëçäå úåðîåàä øòðä ù÷áé 㧧é áåùçé íéðù 13 16 10 úåòåáù äòáù áåø÷ ãò íùîå ¬äøøù éøáã 9১î ãò íùîå »8íäéìò 12 àåäù ¬íùîå ¬åéîé úéøçàá àöîéù øùåò àåä éë íùä 15 úåð÷ìå ñåðëì ù÷áéå ¬11óåñá äéäéù äî úãåáò ù÷áé ¬ãåò øåáòé àì º14áåúëä øîàù ¬äðù íéùîç ìà áåø÷ á36 óåñä ìò éàúáùå ¬íìåë äëëå ¬17åúãåáò äéäú éë ¬ãåòå 18 ¬ãàî íéìåãâ íäî ùéù ô§§ò§§à ¬úåìæîä ìâìâ éëëåë éë òãå | äëë ãìåîá åçë éôëå ¬÷ãö çëá (3) ®ïåøçàä àåä éë (4) ®íé÷åçø íúåéä øåáòá èòî íà éë òø åà áåè úåøåäì çë íäì ïéà ® 19 åøåé ãáì íéúøùîä ïë ìò »íéðåéìòì ïë àìå úåðåùî úåòåðú íäì äø÷é íéúøùîä ìôùä àåä ¬åðìù äæä íìåòä éøáã ìë ìò 7§ äãåî åðéàå ¬21úåìøåâä éøáã ìò íéðåîã÷ä ïî ìúäé ïéáå ùîùä ïéá ùéù ÷çøîäî 25 24 20 êìîä éîìú ®úåìøåâä 22 (1) 1 äìéìáå íåéá 23 ç÷ìéù ¬åãáì äðáìä ìøåâá ÷ø äðáìì àéöåäì ¬øáãä äæ íòèå (2) ®úçîåöä äìòîä ìò øôñîä óéñåéå ¬äðáìä úéøëú ïë ìò »åúãìåúáå ùîùì úçîåöä äìòîä éë ¬úçîåö àéä åìàë äìòî ®úåùéìùä ð »éèôàîì [íéìåáâä3 ®øñç ô »éðàèîì [íéîòô äðäå2 ®äðä à »éðèîô [íä1 ®øñç ô »éðàèîì [äøåú7 ®ìà ô »éðàèîì [ìò6 ®ìòá ôð »éàèîì [éìòá5 ®ìòá éðèô »àîì [úåòåáù äòáù10 ®øñç ð »ä§§î ãò éôî »èì [১î ãò9 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [íäéìò ®®® ãò íùîå8 »éðàîìô [àåäù13 ®óåñàìå ð »éèôàîì [úåð÷ìå12 ®åôåñá é »ðàèîìô [óåñá11 ®è§§î ô »éðàèîì ô »éðàèîì [àåä éë16 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [úãåáò15 ®øîàù é »ðèîìô [áåúëä øîàù14 ®ãò > è éðèô »àîì [ìôùä àåä åðìù äæä19 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [åøåé18 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [åúãåáò17 ®àåäù ìò úåìøåâä ïî è »éðàîìô [úåìøåâä éøáã ìò íéðåîã÷ä ïî21 ®øñç è »éðàîìô [êìîä20 ®øñç íâ é »ðàèîìô [äìéìáå24 ®ç÷éù ð »éèôàîì [ç÷ìéù23 ®ìâìâá à »éðèîìô [ìøåâá22 ®íéðåîã÷ä ®úåøëú é »ðèôàîì [úéøëú25 ®äìéìá [éìòá4 .

hence the planets alone indicate the affairs of our world. because they are distant. (2) Now a man’s life is divided in accordance with the terms. King Ptolemy mocks the Ancients regarding lots.[2] 9 (1) Triplicities. and the number of the distance is added to the degree of the ascendant. inasmuch as the degree of the ascendant belongs to the Sun and has its nature. and from then.[1] (2) He said that the Moon indicates the years of infancy because it is close to us. because he is under the power of Jupiter. (2) This is done so as to cast a degree for the Moon as if it were the degree of the ascendant. the ascendant] will nullify the Moon when it approaches this place. or from misfortune to good fortune. in accordance with the nature of the lords of the terms.[2] (3) Know that even though some of the stars of the orb of the zodiacal signs are very large. also when the Moon is at this place. and Saturn rules his end because it is the last. when he is about fifty years old. because there are proofs of sort about the triplicity but not about the houses.[1] (3) I have found out by empirical experience that the lords of the aspects are more complete than the lords of the terms. therefore it [i. the lower one. and his worship will be in accordance with its [Jupiter’s] power in the nativity. but will seek to worship God. and from then until about seven times seven years he ponders about what will happen at the end and tries to accumulate and acquire wealth for the end of his life.[3] §7 1 (1) Lots. (4) What is more. or from misfortune to misfortune.e. which is taken by night and by day from the distance between the Sun and the Moon. or from good fortune to misfortune. and similarly with respect to all the planets . . the planets have erratic motions. Ptolemy said that the lords of the triplicities are more powerful than the lords of the houses. These are the terms of the Egyptian scientists. and he said: Now it seems that from four years until the fourteen a child seeks a craft and wisdom. so Venus gives an indication about them. but the upper stars do not. and from then until 41 he seeks power.chapter seven 243 8 (1) Terms. as it is written in Scripture. and acknowledges only the lot of the Moon. they have only slight power to indicate either good fortune or misfortune. from then until 22 he seeks women. and consequently sometimes a man goes from good fortune to good fortune. “he shall serve no more” (Numbers 8:25).

244 òãå åîùå 8 second version of the book of reasons (3) ®2äìåòä ìæîá äðáìä úåéäì éåàø ïéà éë åøîà ¬ïë ìò »úçîåöä äìòîä úãìåú êôä ¬äø÷ äðáìä úåéä øåáòá ¬1äéìò äðáìä íâ äîù äòéâäá äðáìä íéúáä ãçàá ìøåâä äéä 3íà 4 (4) ®íéðåëð íä íéðåîã÷ä åøîàù úåìøåâä äìà ìë éë (5) ® ììë òø ìòå áåè ìò äøåé àì ¬åîå÷î ìò èéìùä åéìà èéáé àìå ¬íéáåèä ìøåâå ¬åá ùéù 7úåîöòä ìòå íãàä óåâ ìò äøåú àéä éë äðáìì 6áåèä 5ìøåâä øáã ìòå úåáùçîä ìò ìøåâä äæ äøåé ¬ïë ìò »äéìò äøåé àåä éë 9äîùðì ùîùä éàúáùù øåáòá ïë ç÷ìðå ¬óåâä çë ìò äøåé éàúáù ìøåâå ÷ãö ìøåâå (6) ®íãà éðáî øúñð (8) ®óåâä úåãåà ìò äøåé ïë íâ áåèä ìøåâäå (7) ®óåâä 10éãñåî ìò äøåé 12 ®úçîåöä ùôðä ìò ÷ãöå ¬äðåéìòä äîùðä ìò äøåé ùîùäù øåáòá äëë ç÷ìð ìò äøåéù ¬íéãàî ¬úåøåàîä éðù ìøåâî ç÷ìð 14 15 ìà ¬äðáìä ÷ìç àåäù ¬áåèä ìæîî ç÷ìð 13 é÷ìç ïéá ç÷ìð äâð ìøåâå íéãàî ìøåâå (9) (10) ®óåâä ìò äøåé áåèä ÷ìçäå ¬ñòëä 11 äîç áëåë ìøåâå (11) ®íéáåè íéøáã ìò äøåéå áåè áëåë àåä éë ®éúøëæä øùàë ¬äîùðá çë åì ùé éë äðáìä ìøåâ ìà ùîùä äøåéù ¬éàúáù ïéá óåâä ìøåâ äéäé 21 19 17 ãò ¬16úçîåöä ùôðä ìòá ¬÷ãöî íééçä ìøåâ ®íéúáä úåìøåâ (1) 2 éðùä úòãä ìøåâ (2) ®óåâä ìá÷éù äðåùàøä (3) ®ïåùìä ìòá àåäù áëåë ùôðä àéä úçîåöä ùôðä éë ¬óåâä ìò íå÷î ìò åôéñåéå ¬18íéðåéìòä íéáëåë íà äøåé ìøåâä äæå ¬óåâä ìò éðùäå äîùðä ìò äøåé ãçàä éë ¬úåøåàîä éðù äøåé àåä éë ¬òåãé éðùä úéáä ìøåâ íòèå (4) ®íéîìù 20 íéøáàä ìëå äôé óåâä íéðåîã÷äå à37 (6) ®íéëøãá úåàéöî 23íãà àöîéù 22íòèä ¬è÷ìä ìøåâå (5) ®ïåîîä ìò (7) ®íùäî ïåöø ä÷éôä åì äéäé íìåòìå ¬äøåçñì úðååëî åùôðù íãà ùéå ¬äîùðä ìò äøåé ùîùä éë åøîà àåä ¬ùîùì éðù äâåð úåéä øåáòáå 24 | åùôð åìéàë çååéø íéçàä ìøåâå (8) ®ìøåâä äæ ïë ìò ¬úçîåöä äìòîä ìà éðùä úéáä úåîãë 25 íéìåãâ íéçà ãìåðì úåéä ïëúéå ¬ïåîã÷ øáã ìë ìò åøåé íäù øåáòá íéðåéìòäî ¬ùãçúéù øáã ìë ìò ÷ãöå íéðåîã÷ä ìò äøåé éàúáù éë åøîà íéøçàå (9) ®åðîî ìò äøåé4 ®ìáà > ô »éðàèîì [íà3 ®äìèä é »ðàèîìô [äìåòä2 ®úéøëú > ð »éèôàîì [äéìò1 ®áåè ìò äøåé é »ììë òø ìòå áåè ìò äøåé àì åéìà èéáé íà ìáà è »ðôàîì [ììë òø ìòå áåè »éðèîô [ìøåâå8 ®úåîùðä ì »ôéàðèî [úåîöòä7 ®áåè ð »éèôàîì [áåèä6 ®ìøåâ ðôàî »éèì [ìøåâä5 »éôàîì [íéãàî11 ®ãñåî ô »ðàèîì [éãñåî10 ®äîùðä ìò ô »ðèàî [äîùðì9 ®ìâìâå à »ìøåâ ì ®øñç è »ðàôì [äâð ®®® ùîùäù øåáòá äëë ç÷ìð13 ®øñç è »å ô »ðàîì [ìà12 ®øñç è »áåèä ð [ãò17 ®øñç è »ðàîìô [úçîåöä16 ®áúåë è »ðàîìô [äîç áëåë15 ®ïî ô »ðèàîì [é÷ìç ïéá14 è »íéðåéìòä íéáëåëä ô »ðàîì [íéðåéìòä íéáëåë18 ®øñç ôàðèîì »íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúôñåä [äøåé21 ®íìåë íéøáàäå è »ðàîìô [íéøáàä ìëå20 ®éë ì »ôéàðèî [íà19 ®íéðåéìò íéáëåë èî »ðàôì [íéçàä24 ®øñç ðè »íãàä àô »îì [íãà23 ®øñç ðèô »àîì [íòèä22 ®øñç ô »ðèàîì ®øñç à »íéøîåà è »ðîì [åøîà25 ®íééçä .

8:35. (11) The lot of Mercury is taken from the lot of the Sun to the lot of the Moon because it has a power over the soul. The lot of life is taken from Jupiter. which indicates anger. (10) The lot of Venus is taken between the lots of both luminaries. (4) If the lot is in one of the planetary houses. this lot indicates thoughts and things hidden from man. which is the opposite of the nature of the degree of the ascendant. and this lot indicates whether the body will be handsome and all the members intact. to Mars. and the native may have older brothers. (9) Others said that . the lot of the Sun was assigned to the soul because it gives an indication about it.[1] (2) The lot of knowledge is from the two upper planets.[2] (3) The lot of the body is between the two luminaries. which indicates the body. the lord of the vegetative soul. and Jupiter indicates the vegetative soul. (9) The lot of Mars is taken from the lot of Fortune. which is in the portion of the Moon.chapter seven 245 because the Moon is cold. because it [the second house] indicates wealth. therefore they said that it is not appropriate for the Moon to be in the sign of the ascendant. (6) The Ancients said that the Sun indicates the soul. it is like the second house to the degree of the ascendant.[4] as I have mentioned. (7) Since Venus is second to the Sun. 12:2. (7) The lot of Fortune also gives an indication about the body. to Saturn. and there are people whose soul is oriented to commerce. to which they added the place of the planet that is the lord of the tongue [i. this is the explanation for this lot. and they always make a profit as if their soul obtains favor of God (Prov. 18:22).[2] and the lord of its place does not aspect it.[5] 2 (1) The lots of the mundane houses. inasmuch as one indicates the soul and the other the body.. because the vegetative soul is the first soul received by the body.[1] (3) Know that all the lots set forth by the Ancients are right. because they indicate anything preexisting.e. Mercury].[3] (4) The reason for the lot of the second house is known. therefore. and it is taken in this manner because Saturn indicates the foundations of the body. (6) The lot of Saturn indicates the power of the body. it will not indicate good fortune or misfortune at all. because it is a benefic planet and indicates good things.[6] (8) The lot of brothers is taken from the upper planets .[4] (5) The lot of gathering[5] means that a man will find lost objects on the roads. and the lot of Fortune indicates the body. (5) They assigned the lot of Fortune[3] to the Moon because it gives an indication about the body of man and the bones in it. (8) The lot of Jupiter is taken in this manner because the Sun indicates the superior soul.

246 second version of the book of reasons (10) ®1ïåéñðä êøãá åàöî ïë éë øîåì ïåëðäå ùîùäù éúøëæä øáë ®áàä ìøåâ 3 éàúáùîå ¬áø çë åì ùéù øåáòá ùîùäî íåéá åìçäå ¬áàä ìò 2åøåé éàúáùå ®ùîùä çëî 4çë åì ùé äðäå ¬õøàä ïî äìòîì åúåéäì ïëúéù øåáòá äìéìá åîå÷î ç÷é ¬åì çë ïéà äðäå ¬ùîùä øåà úçú éàúáù äéä íà éë åøîàå ïéà éúáù íò ùîùä øáçúäá éë íàå 6 (11) åøîà íéøçàå ¬5ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòá ÷ãö (12) ®÷ãö éúáù øåáòáå íéãàî ùîùä øåáòá ç÷ð ïë ìò »íäéðùì çë íéøåî íéðåéìòä úåéä øåáòá äáåùúä ¬ùîùäî ïåéìòä åç÷ì äîì ïòåè ïòè åîå÷îá úç÷ì 8åðëøöåä ïë ìò ¬éúáùî ïåéìò 7åðàöî àìå ¬ïåîã÷ øáã ìë ìò ïåîã÷ øáã ìë ìò äøåé éàúáùå 9óåâ äðáìäù øåáòá ®ò÷ø÷ä ìøåâ äéøô ìò äøåé ÷ãöù øåáòá ®íéðáä 12 (13) ®÷ãö ìøåâ (14) ®11ìøåâä äæ ïë ìò ¬10øôòäå 14 äæ ïë ìò ¬íãàä øëæ ãîòé ïëáå ¬ãîåò øáã ìë ìò äøåé éàúáùå äéáøå äøåî ÷ãö úåéä øåáòá ÷ãö ìà íéãàîî ®15íéøëæä íéðáä 16 ìøåâ (15) ®13ìøåâä ®ìøåâä äæ ïë ìò ¬íéðáä ìò äøåéù ¬ ïåùàøä åúéáì éùéîç íéãàî úéáå ¬íéðáä ìò ìò ¬18íéàåìçúä ìò ¬ 20 17 åøåé íéãàîå éàúáù íìåòì ®íéàåìçúä ìøåâ (16) éë äìéìá íéãàîå ¬íåéä éáëåëî àåä éë éàúáùî åìçäå äîç áëåë íå÷î ìò ÷çøîä óéñåäì ºêåðç éøáãå (17) ®19ìøåâä äæ ïë (18) ®äìéìä éáëåëî àåä ¬íéãáòä ìò äøåé äîç áëåë ®íéãáòä ìøåâ óåðéèä ìò äøåé éàúáù ®íéùðä ìøåâ 21 (19) ®êôäúî áëåë åúåéä øåáòá ìøåâ (20) ®íéìôù íúåéä øåáòá ¬äðáìä ïë íâ (21) 22 ®íéùðä ìò äâðå ¬àåä àîè éë áëùîä äëëå ¬äøåçùä äøîä åì ùé éë äæ ïë ìò ¬çëá äùòéù øáã ìë ìòå äøøùä ìò äøåé ùîùä ®úåðæä »ìøåâä ìòáä åîë ùîùä äá÷ðä ãìåîá ®23íéøëæä ìøåâ åîë íäéðù úåéä øåáòá ùîùä ìà íéãàîî êåðç äø÷éù øáã ìë ìò äøåú äðáìä ®éðéîùä úéáä á37 (22) 25 ®íéùðä ìò äøåé äâåð 24 øîàå ¬äùàä ® 27 26 åîë äâðå (23) äøøù éìòá íéìòá ®åúãìåú äëë éë ¬úéîäìå òøäì äðåîî éàúáùå ¬úåîä ìò éðéîùä úéáäå ¬óåâì ìøåâ (25) ®íéëøãä ìò äøåé éòéùúä úéáäù | øåáòá äëë ®êøãä ìøåâ (24) 28 ¬úéáä çë íù éë ¬ïèøñ éöçå ¬íéîäå íéä ìò äøåé éàúáù ®íéîä êøã ìò [éàúáùîå3 ®äøåé ì »ôéàðèî [åøåé2 ®øñç à »ïåéñðä êøã ìò ð »ïåéñð êøãá èô »îì [ïåéñðä êøãá1 [åøîà6 ®øñç è »ðàîìô [ïåéìò ®®® äéä íà éë åøîàå5 ®áø < ð »éèôàîì [çë4 ®øñç è »ðàîìô ®øñç è »ðàîìô [óåâ9 ®åëøöåä è »ðàîìô [åðëøöåä8 ®åàöîé è »ðàîìô [åðàöî7 ®íéøîåà è »àîìô ìøåâë < è »ðàîìô [ìøåâä äæ ïë ìò11 ®íãàä øëæ ãåîòé ïëáå ãîåò è »ðàîìô [øôòäå ïåîã÷10 [ ìøåâ14 ®øñç è »ðàîìô [ìøåâä ®®® íéðáä ìøåâ13 ®ìøåâå ì »ôéàðèî [ ìøåâ12 ®íéøëæä íéðáä »àîô [åøåé17 ®åì ì »ôéàðèî [ïåùàøä åúéáì16 ®íéøëæðä ì »ôéàðèî [íéøëæä15 ®ìøåâå ì »ôéàðèî äæ ïë ìò åøåé íéãàîå éàúáù íìåòì íéàåìçúä ìøåâ19 ®øñç ôéàðèî »ì [íéàåìçúä ìò18 ®íåé è [äæ22 ®§æä úéáä > ð »éèôàîì [ìøåâ21 ®áúåë è »àîìô [äîç áëåë20 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [ìøåâä ì »ôéàðèî [øîàå25 ®ãìåîá ð »éèôàîì [åîë24 ®íéùðä è »ðàîìô [íéøëæä23 ®øñç è »àîìô íéìòá úåéä ô »äøøù éìòá íéìòá ìë úåéä è »àîì [äøøù éìòá íéìòá åîë íäéðù úåéä26 ®øîàéå ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [ìò28 ®øñç ô »àèîì [äëë27 ®äøøù éìòá íéìòá åîë úåéä ð »äøøù ìòá .

It is taken from Mars to Jupiter because Jupiter indicates sons.[11] (14) Lot of children. this is the explanation for this lot. Saturn and Mars always indicate diseases. so that it [Saturn] has more power than the power of the Sun. as was found through experience. (11) Some said that if Saturn is under the rays of the Sun. this is the explanation for this lot. others said that when the Sun conjoins Saturn both lose their power.chapter seven 247 Saturn indicates pre-existing things and Jupiter anything that emerges later.[15] (18) Enoch says to add the distance to the place of Mercury because it is a mutable planet. which indicates sons.[16] (19) The lot of slaves..[13] this is the explanation for this lot.. Sagittarius]. Venus indicates women. as does the Moon. I have already mentioned that the Sun and Saturn indicate the father. Aries] is the fifth to its [Jupiter’s] first house [i. the answer is that the upper planets indicate everything that is pre-existing. (22) The lot of males. and this is correct.[19] (24) The lot of the journey. we were bound to take Jupiter in its place.[17] (20) The lot of women.[14] (16) The lot of diseases. Saturn indicates filth because the black bile belongs to it. This is so because the ninth house indicates journeys. and Saturn is the lord that harms and kills. (25) The lot of the journey by water. The Sun indicates dominance and anything done by force. Saturn indicates the sea . for that is its nature. and because we have found no planet higher than Saturn. and similarly with sexual intercourse because it is impure.[8] and the Sun was made first by day because it has a great power. (21) The lot of prostitution. this is the explanation for this lot. The Moon indicates the body and Saturn indicates everything pre-existing and dust.[10] (13) The lot of the estate. In the nativity of a woman the Sun is like the husband and Venus like the wife. and sons perpetuate a man’s memory.[18] (23) The eighth house. Jupiter indicates procreation and Saturn indicates anything that persists. and the eighth house indicates death.[12] (15) The lot of the male children. and Saturn was made first by night because it may be above the Earth. because they are inferior planets . The Moon indicates anything that happens to the body. and because the house of Mars [i.e. and Venus indicates women.[7] (10) The lot of the father. so we should take Mars instead of the Sun and Jupiter instead of Saturn. Mercury indicates slaves. and from Mars by night because it is a nocturnal star. Jupiter takes its place because it [Jupiter] is an upper planet .[9] so that it [Saturn] has no power. this is the explanation for this lot. (17) They began from Saturn because it is a diurnal star. Enoch said from Mars to the Sun because the two assert dominance. (12) If someone asks why they took one that is above the Sun.e.

248 second version of the book of reasons (26) ®íéä ìò äøåé àåä íâ åîë äðáìäå ¬íéùðä ìò 1äøåé äðáìäå äâåð ®íàä ìøåâ äøåé ùîùä éë øåáòá ®ïçä ìøåâ äîç áëåëå ÷ãö ®äøåçñä ®íéáéåàä ìøåâ éîëç úòã ìò ùîùä ãåáë íù ¬3äìè ìæîî úåìòî è§§é ®ãåáëä ìøåâ (27) ®2íàä (28) ®äðáìä ãåáë øåù ìæîî úåìòî ùìùáå ¬åãåä ìøåâ (29) ®ïçä ïë äðäå ¬áåè áëåë ÷ãöå ãåëëä 4ìò (30) ®úåðîåà àéä äøåçñäå ¬úåðîåàä ìò äîç áëåëå ïåîîä ìò äøåé ÷ãö éë ¬äæ ìò åøåé (31) ®óåâä íò ùôðä úáäàì äîåã íúáäà ®íéáäåàä ìøåâ êåðç éøáãå ®åðîî åìçé ïë ìò ¬íåéá çë éàúáùìå äáéøîä ìò åøåé íéãàîå éàúáù ®íéðåøçàä úåìøåâä éðùå úåáéøîä ìò äøåé øùò íéðùä úéáä éë íéòåãé 8§ 6 úéá ìë éöçáå ¬äæ øçà äæå ¬íéúáä 5ú÷åìçî úìçú íä äéøàå ïèøñ éë òã úéá ùé øùàëå íä íäéðù éë ¬ïèøñ ìæîî 11 10 12 (1) 1 (2) ®9åôåñ ìà 8øçàä åîë ¬äæ úéá úìçúî äæ ÷çøî úåéäì 7äåúùé øåçàì éðùä ìæîá äëë ¬ùîùì éðùä ìæîá äîç áëåë êøòëå ¬ïèøñ ìà øåù êøò äëë äéøà ìà íéðæàî êøòëå 13 (3) ®äîç áëåë éúá íéâã êøò äëë äéøà ìà úù÷ êøòëå ¬ ïèøñ ìà äìè êøò äëë äéøà ìà áø÷ò úåøåàî å÷ìç äðäå (4) ®14ïèøñ ìà éìã êøò äëë äéøà ìà éãâ êøòëå ¬ïèøñ ìà 15 ®ïè÷ì ïè÷ä ÷ìçäå ìåãâì ìåãâä ÷ìçä ¬íé÷ìç éðùì ìâìâä 16 ¬17íåé úéòéáøå íéîé äùîçå íéùùå úåàî ùìù ÷ìçú øùàë ®íéùãçä 18 úôå÷ú (1) 2 ¬óåñáå äìçúá ùîùé ïåùàøä ìæîä éë ¬ úåìæî ìà ¬äðù øôñîî áåø÷ àåäù [ìò4 ®äìòî è »ðàîìô [äìè ìæîî3 ®ùàä ì »ôéàðèî [íàä2 ®äøåú ð »åøåé à »éèîìô [äøåé1 [äåúùé7 ®úéáä ì »ôéàðèî [úéá6 ®ú÷ìçîä è »ú÷ìçî àî »ðôì [ú÷åìçî5 ®øñç è »ðàîìô ®ïéá ì »ôéàðèî [úéá10 ®íëåñ ì »ôéàðèî [åôåñ9 ®ãçàä ðè »îì [øçàä8 ®äðúùé à »éðèîìô ìà äìè êøò äëë äéøà ìà áø÷ò êøòëå13 ®íâ > è »ðàîìô [íä12 ®éøåçàì è »ðàîìô [øåçàì11 [ìåãâì15 ®øñç è »àîìô [ïèøñ ìà éìã êøò äëë äéøà ìà éãâ êøòëå14 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [ïèøñ [úåìæî18 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [íåé úéòéáøå17 ®úåôå÷ú è »ðàîìô [úôå÷ú16 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì ®á§§é > ð »éèôàîì .

and the number of signs separating Scorpio from Leo is as the number of signs separating Aries from Cancer. (4) Consequently. Enoch’s statements. to the end of the first house].[1] 2 (1) The revolution of the months.[24] (31) The lot of enemies. (2) Also. and beauty is like that. and both are houses of Mercury. and the number of signs separating Sagittarius from Leo is as the number of signs separating Pisces from Cancer. that the twelfth house indicates quarrels and the last two lots. The exaltation of the Sun is at 19 degrees of Aries.[20] (26) The lot of the mother. the larger domain to the great luminary and the smaller domain to the small luminary . and the Moon is like the mother. Jupiter and Mercury indicate this because Jupiter indicates wealth and Mercury indicates crafts. (29) The lot of commerce. with the first sign serving at both the beginning and the end. the exaltation of the Moon is at 3 degrees of Taurus. each month . and the middle of Cancer. and at the middle of any house. where the power of the house is. the luminaries divide the circle into two domains. by the signs.e. so there is another house in the second sign after Cancer. from the middle of the second house] to its end [i. Their love is like the soul’s love for the body. and trade is a craft. Venus and the Moon indicate women. (3) The number of signs separating Libra from Leo is as the number of signs separating Taurus from Cancer.[25] §8 1 (1) Know that Cancer and Leo are the beginning of the division of the planetary houses.e. and the number of signs separating Capricorn from Leo is as the number of signs separating Aquarius from Cancer. and Saturn has power by day. and one is next to the other. which is approximately the length of the year. the distance from this one from the middle of one of the two houses of a planet to the beginning of the other house is equal to the distance from the other [i.[23] (30) The lot of the lovers. Inasmuch as the Sun indicates honor and Jupiter is a benefic planet. When you divide 365 and a quarter days. hence they began from it [i.[22] (28) The lot of beauty. from Saturn]. in the opinion of the Indian scientists.chapter eight 249 and the water.[21] (27) The lot of dignity. Jupiter and Mars indicate quarrels. are well known. also indicates the sea.e. just as one house of Mercury is in the second sign after the the house of the Sun.

250 second version of the book of reasons (2) ®úåòù éúùå íéîé äðîùå íéøùò ùãåç ìëì äìòé áåùî ¬éúøëæäù äî íòèå äëëå ¬3àøáñ êøã ìò úîàä àåä »ìæî ìëá 2úåìòîä øôñîá ùãåç 1ìëì ùîùä äëë ¬úåøùéä úåòùäî éúøëæäù äîå 5 (3) ®íäéøçà íéðåøçàäå íéðåîã÷ä åúåà åñéð íäå òåáùä éîé íä éë ¬äòáù äòáù äðùä éîé 4øñçú øùàë éë òã (4) ºïäéîòè ®äðù 9ìëì 8ãçà íåé óéñåäì 7éúøîà ïë ìò »ãçà íåé 6øàùé ¬äìéìç íéøæåç òãúù êéøö ïë ìò »ãçà êøã ìò úåãîåò íðéà úåúååòîä éë úåøùéä íòèå ìëåú äæå (5) (6) ®íåéä úìçúî 12 14 åøáò úåøùé úåòù äîë ¬íåéá 13 10 àåä ãìåðä íà ¬íìåòì ¬äðù ìëì úåøùé úåòù ìëåú æà ¬òéâéù øôñîä à38 ùîç óéñåú ïë øçàå ¬11úåøùéì úåúååòîä áéùúù úòãì øçàå (7) ®äòù é÷ìçî íé÷ìç äòùúå íéòáøà íâ 16 íâ éë ¬15úåúååòîì | úåøùéä áéùäì ùãåç ìù íéîéä øôñîë äðùä úìçú ìù äôå÷úä äéäú íìåòìå (8) ®äðùä 17úôå÷ú òãúù úåòùä ìòá àåä éî úòãì íäì ùé êøåö 19 ïåøñçá äôå÷úä äéäú íäì úøáåòî 22 18 äðùä äúéä íà ÷ø ¬äìçúá äéäù íéìøòä úôå÷ú äéäú úøáåòî 21 äðùá äéä íàå 24 (9) ®äèåùô äðùá äéä ãìåðä íà ¬20íåé (10) ®ïåùàøä øôñîë äéäú úøáåòî äðù ìëáå ¬íåé úôñåúá äèåùô äðù ìëë äðùä íéùìùå äàî éøçà ÷ø äðúùé àì ®ãçà íåéá 28 26 éë ¬23ùãç ìëá íéùãçä úôå÷ú êøãä äæ ìòå äìòî úåéòéáø ùìùå úåìòî éúù ìò øôñîä äæ êåøòú øùàëå 25 (11) ®äðù úçàå åìòéù úåìòî íéùùå úåàî ùìù äìòé æà ¬ úåòù ùùî åøñçéù ìëì úåîìù 27 úåòù ùù ìò äòù úéùéîç óéñåéù åøîà åãåä éîëç éë òãå 29 (1) 3 (3) éîì ÷ø ¬30íäìù ùîùì êøåö ïéàå úåøåöä ãâðë ÷ø íà ÷ø ¬éôåã íåù 32 úîà äæå 31 (2) ®äîéîú äðù ®äøæ äãåáò úåîãë àéä éë íùä úøåúá äøåñà àéäå ¬úåøåöä úîëçá ÷ñòúéù äá äéäé àìå úîà äéäú éúáúëù úåçåìá àéäù ùîùäå ®íé÷ìç èòî úåòè äá äéäé íéðù óìà åøáò ®äøáñ ð »éèôàîì [àøáñ3 ®úåìòî ì »ôéàðèî [úåìòîä2 ®ìëá ì »ôéàðèî [ìëì1 »éèôàîì [éúøîà7 ®åøàùé è »ðôàîì [øàùé6 ®øñç è »ðàîìô [íäå5 ®øáçú ô »øñçé è »ðàîì [úåøùéì11 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [àåä10 ®ìëá à »éðèîìô [ìëì9 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [ãçà8 ®øñç ð à »éðèîìô [òãúù14 ®ïë øçàå èô »ðàîì [øçàå13 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [ùîç12 ®úåøùéä è »ðàîô è »ðàîìô [úôå÷ú úåòùä17 ®éë íâ èô »ðàîì [íâ éë16 ®úåúååòî è »ðàîìô [úåúååòîì15 ®òãú ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [íåé20 ®ïåøñçì ô »ðèîì [ïåøñçá19 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [äðùä18 úåôå÷úä úåòù è »ðàîìô [ùãç23 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [úøáåòî ®®® äôå÷úä äéäú íäì22 ®øñç è »ðîìô [äðùá äéä21 »åøáçéù î »ðàô [åìòéù26 ®úåìòî ùìùî è »ðàîìô [úåòù ùùî25 ®øñç è »ðàîìô [éë24 ®íéùãç ®úîàä ô »ðèàîì [úîà29 ®øñç ô »ðèì [ìëì28 ®úåìòî ì »ôéàðèî [úåòù27 ®øñç ì »äìòéù è ®íá ð »éèôàîì [äá32 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [àéäù31 ®íäéìà à »ðèîìô [íäìù30 [øñçú4 .

131] by the two and three-quarters degrees that the year is short of 365 days and six hours. if the nativity was in a regular year.[5] (10) The same method applies to the revolution of the months in any month. hence I said that one day should be added each year.e. except for those who deal in the science of the images of the stars .[3] (7) When you know the result. the explanation is as follows: (4) Know that when you keep subtracting seven from the number of days in the year.e. and it was tested empirically by the Ancients and after them by the moderns.. the native day falls out one day more [i.. a day later] in a regular year.e.[2] (3) The motion of the Sun as recorded in the tables I have written[3] is true and flawless.e. one day is left over.e. the revolution of the year [i.[6] 3 (1) Know that the Indian scientists said that one should add one-fifth of an hour to six whole hours for each full year.. how many equal hours have elapsed since the beginning of the day. the day each year that corresponds to the natal day] always falls out on the day of the month of the Christians [i.[4] (8) The revolution of the beginning of the year [i.[1] (2) This is true only with respect to the images of the constellations . .e. hence you always have to know. (9) But if the nativity was on leap-day in a leap year. this is true by way of logical assumption. the result is 360 degrees.. the day of the Julian calendar] on which it [the birthday] was originally.[2] (5) The explanation of the equal hours is that the seasonal hours are not constant [i. there is no need for their opinion with regard to the motion of the Sun. after the lapse of a thousand years there will be an error of only a few minutes. (11) When you multiply this number [i. and then add 5 equal hours for every year. but in a leap year on the original date. (6) You can find this out if you convert the seasonal into equal hours .. they vary in length]. (3) As for what I have said about the equal hours. plus another 49 minutes. because they too are necessary for determining the lord of the hours in the revolution of the year [i. the natal day] falls out one day less on the calendar [i. when the same day of the year comes round again]. which ascend in one day.[1] (2) The explanation for what I have just mentioned is that the Sun moves each month the same number of the degrees in each sign. for a daytime nativity. you can convert the equal hours into seasonal hours .. which is forbidden by the law of God.chapter eight 251 turns out to have 28 days and 2 hours. because it resembles idolatry. a day earlier].e. but if the previous year was a Julian leap year. representing the regular cycle of the week. because it changes only after 131 years.e.

252 äùìù íòèå 7 second version of the book of reasons (1) 4 (3) 10 ïë ìò ¬ìåãâ çë åì ùé ãìåîä úåòù ìòá éë éúøëæä øáë ®1íéòåáùä 3 ®úåìæîä ïë éë øùòä íéðù íòèå 6 (2) ®2äðù äðù åúåà åôé÷é íäî àöåä ¬íéðùå íéùéîç íä 9 12 äðùä 8 5 ìë 4 úåòåáù ïåáùç éë øåáòá íéòåáù 11 13 ®íåé úéòéáøå 14 íåé øàùðå ¬äùìù åøàùé äòáù ìò äòáù íäù íéòáøàå äòùú ìëì íéòåáù äòáøà úåìæîä úôå÷úì úç÷ì íòèå 15 íéòåáùä ïåáùç éë äðù úåòåáù ìò äðù ìëá 17 (4) ¬ øùò íéðù øùò íéðù íàéöåúù äðîùå íéòáøà íäî àöåä ¬íéúùå íéùéîç íä åøàùðå ®äðùä óñåð àåäù ¬16íåéä úéòéáøå íåéä íâ úåòåáù òáøà úéùéìùå úåòù éúù ãåòå íåé øùò íéðù äìòî ìëì úúì íòè ®íéîéä 18 úôå÷ú (1) 5 ®óåñä úéá íäù ¬úåøùé úåìòî íéùìù ìò äðùä úåîé ìë å÷ìçúé ïëù äòù äæù øåáòá ¬19÷ìç úåçô úçà äìòî íåé ìëì úúì éãðë ìà á÷òé íòèå úçîåöä äìòîä ïî ïúúù 21 øîåà éîìúå (2 ) (3) ®ãçà íåéá 20éòöîàä ùîùä êìäî àåä (4) ®óñåð àåäù ¬22úéòéáøä øåáòá íòèä äæå ¬ãçà íåéî áåø÷ äìòî úéòéáøå äìòî ìëì äðùä úôå÷úá ¬õøàä çåì úìòîá íðúé úåìòîä äìàù íéøîåà ùéå úçà äìòî 24 (5) ®íéëøãä íéðùá úåùòì åøîà íéøçàå íééçä úåîå÷î äùéîçä úåéä øåáòáå (6) ®äìòîä äøùò íéúù ïúé 25äìéìå íåéá éë úåòù éúùá 23 úúì íòèå äùòî øôñá éúøëæä øùàë ¬íîå÷î éôë úåìòîá ãéîú íâäðì éåàø ïë ìò ¬íé÷åçø ®ãçà ìëì óåñä úéá á38 26 íå÷î úòãì íâ ¬úåçåìä ïéá ¬úîà äéäé åéìò äøåéù 29 27 äî ìë ¬ãìåîá ÷æç | äùîçäî äåää éë òãå 28 (1) 6 àåáé àì ¬úçîåöä äìòîä ìà èéáé àì åà ¬ìôåð íå÷îá äéä íàå ¬òø ïéáå áåè ïéàå (2) ®úåîåìçå úåáùçîå íéøáãá ¬åðîî èòî ÷ø äøåéù äî ìë äùòî éãéì ìæî øçà ìæîå äìòî øçà äìòî ¬úåìòîá âåäðì ø÷éòä àåäù äùéîçä ìëá ìë ìëúñäì êì ùéå (3) ®íééçä åðîî 32 ç÷ìéù 31 ùøùä ÷ø ¬íéðùä 30 úåôå÷úá ®úùìù ðè »àîìô [äùìù3 ®äîéîú ì »ôéàðèî [äðù2 ®íééòåáùä ô »ðèàîì [íéòåáùä1 ®àéöåä ô »ðàèîì [àöåä7 ®äðù è »ðàîìô [äðùä6 ®ìù > ð »éèôàîì [ìë5 ®úéòéáù è »ðàîìô [úôå÷úì11 ®ãåò > ì »ôéàðèî [íåé10 ®øàùð ãåòå ô »ðèàîì [øàùðå9 ®êãéá < ô »ðèàîì [åøàùé8 íéðù øùò íéðù íàéöåúù14 ®àéöåä ô »ðèàîì [àöåä13 ®ìëá è »ðàîìô [ìëì12 ®úôå÷ú è »ðàîìô åøàùé ô »ðàîì [åøàùðå15 ®øåáò íéðù øùò íéðù î »øùò íéðù ìò øùò íéðù íäù ô »ðàèì [øùò [óñåð17 ®íåéä úéòéáøä è »íåé úéòéáøå ô »íåéä òéáøå ì »ðàî [íåéä úéòéáøå16 ®øàùðå è »êãéá [éòöîàä ùîùä20 ®ãçà < ð »éèôàîì [÷ìç19 ®úåôå÷ú à »ðèîìô [úôå÷ú18 ® óñåé ôì »ðèàî [úúì23 ®úåéòéáø ì »ôéàðèî [úéòéáøä22 ®øîà ð »éèôàîì [øîåà21 ®íéòöîàä íéðùä à »ðàèôì ðè »ôàîì [íå÷î26 ®äìéìáå àèì »ðîô [äìéìå25 ®úåìòî è »ðàîìô [úåòù24 ®øñç ô »ðèàîì [úåôå÷úá30 ®àöé ì »ôéàðèî [àåáé29 ®íâå ð »éèôàîì [íàå28 ®øñç ô »ðèîì [äî ìë27 ®øñç ®ç÷ìé ì »ôéàðèî [ç÷ìéù32 ®íùä èî »øùä ðàô »ì [ùøùä31 ®úôå÷úá è »ôàîì [úåòåáù4 .

e. (2) The reason for “12” is that this is the number of the signs. which is seven times seven.chapter eight 253 4 (1) The weeks. (6) Because the five places of life are distant one from the other . one degree after another and one sign after another in the revolutions of the years.[1] (2) Ya#qub al-Kindî’s reason for assigning “one degree less one arc minute to each day” is that this is the mean motion of the Sun in one day.[6] and also to know the place of the terminal house for each one of the five places of life . or if it is not aspecting the degree of the ascendant. The reason for assigning “12 days plus two and a third hours to each degree” is that in this manner all the days of the year are divided into 30 equal degrees.[2] and the reason for the quarter of a degree is that it [i.[2] (3) You should calculate all the aspects in both straight and .[1] (2) It is essential to direct only the root among the five places of life . which is the terminal house. whether for good fortune or for misfortune. (3) The reason for “3 weeks” is that the number of weeks in a complete year is 52. thoughts. which is the excess each year to the full weeks of the year. and the remainder is three weeks .[3] 5 (1) Revolution of the days.[7] 6 (1) Know that everything indicated by the one of the five places of life that is predominant in the nativity comes true. and dreams. as I have mentioned in the Book on the use of the tables. and there is still a remainder of one and a quarter days.[4] it is appropriate always to direct them in degrees[5] in accordance to their place. subtract 49.[3] (5) The reason for assigning “one degree to every two hours” is that day and night together are equal to 12 degrees. in deeds. and others said that this should be done by both methods. only some of what it indicates will be fulfilled.. (4) The reason for “subtracting 4 weeks for the revolution of the signs for every year” is that the number of weeks in one year is 52. (3) Ptolemy says that from the degree of the ascendant at the revolution of the year you should assign approximately one day to each degree and a quarter. namely. (4) Some say that these degrees should be given in degrees of the latitude plate of the astrolabe . one day] is added. but if it is in a house falling from the cardines . I have already mentioned that the lord of the hour of the nativity has great power. subtract 48 by casting out twelves[2] and the remainder is four weeks plus a day and a quarter.[1] hence its revolution is calculated each year. the one from which the length of life is taken.

254 second version of the book of reasons ®2äðùä ìë úåôå÷úáå ãìåîá ¬úåçåìä äùòî øôñá áåúëù åîë ¬úåúååòîä íâ úåøùé úåìòîá 1íéèáîä ìâìâá äãå÷ðî åãåä 5úðù úìçú éë 4òã 7 (2) 6 ®ãåñ êì äìâà äðä ®3øôñä óåñ (1) 7 ùéå úåäâåð úåìòî ùéùå úåëåùç úåìòî ùéù íéðåîã÷ä åøîà ïë ìò ¬úåìæîä ùîùä úåéäá äðäå »íéãàî íâ éàúáù 9êñîîá íéáëåë ùéù ¬íòèäå 12 (3) ®8úåøåá úéöø íà ¬11äúàå (4) ®10øåáì ìôðù íãàë äéäé æà ¬íãâðë íéúøùîä ïî ãçà åà 13 íâ úåøåàîä íå÷îî øñç ¬äðù ìëá ìàòîùé éîëç íâ ¬éîìú úðùå 16 äðéðúùú éë ¬úåìòîä äìà íå÷î úòãì (5) ®íé÷ìç äùéîçå úåìòî äðîù íåéä íéúøùîä åîë ¬15íéäåáâä íéìâìâä åà íéðåéìòä íéáëåëä éðùä úøáçî úãå÷ðî àéä ¬14ïåéå ÷ø íéîëçä äìà úåçåìá íä íéìåáâäå ãåáëä éúáå íéúáäå 17 18 (6) ®øîåì äöøúù äòáùì úåçåìäî øñçì êéøö íãà ïá úøåöá àåä ìæîä íà »úåøåöä úòãì àîùå 20 22 éáëåë éë ìëä úòã äîéëñä àìä ºïòåè ïåòèé (7) ®úåìòî äðîù íéúøùîä 19 åëñîî ïåéìòä áëåëä äéäé êéàå ¬íéúøùîä ìë éìâìâî äìòîì úåìæîä 21 23 ìâìâ íéãàî êñîîá íä äîéë éáëåë éë åøîà äðä éë » íäéðùë åà »íéðéòä éìåç ìò äøåé äîéë íå÷îá äðáìä äéäúù ãìåî ìë àìå 24 íéãàî åà éàúáùë ïë ìò ¬äðáìä íò úåëéùç ìò äøåé ïðòä áò àø÷ðä ïèøñá àåäù áëåëä íò äðáìä äúéä íà ¬äëëå äçì àìå øå÷ àìå íåç úãìåú íéúøùîì ïéà éë òã ºäáåùúä (8) ®íéðéòä åãéìåé íéðåéìòä äëëå ¬25ìôùä íìåòá úåãìåú äòáøàä äìà åãéìåé ÷ø ¬ùáåé äëëå 30 (9) ®26äðáìä íò åúåéäá íéãàî äùòî íò úëñåîî àéä åìàë úãìåú íìåòá 28 äùòîë åéùòî úãìåúù ¬27çîåøä áìá àåäù áëåëä åîë ¬íéìåãâä íéáëåëä êøã éúòã éôìå (10) ®íéãàî íò ÷ãö úãìåúë àåäù äéøàä áìå ¬29äîç áëåë íò äâð 32 íäù íéáëåëä éë óà ¬íé÷åçø íäù øåáòá áø çë úåìæîä íå÷î ìëá çë èòî åì ùé ìâìâ å÷ äéäé 37 36 35 ìâìâ 31 éáëåëì ïéàù íâ »ìåãâä 34 øùðä åîë ¬33úåìæîä ìâìâ å÷î íé÷åçø íò àåäù øåáòá çë åì ùé äéøàä áìå ¬åùàø ìò àåäå áø åáçøù íà ÷ø ¬íäî ãçàì çë ïéàù åøîà åãåä éîëçî íéðåîã÷ä íâ (11) ®úåìæîä »ôéàðèî [øôñä3 ®øñç ð »éèôàîì [äðùä ìë úåôå÷úáå ãìåîá2 ®íéèéáîä àîìô »ðè [íéèáîä1 »íéøáãä øù÷ä 駧ôò éúð÷éú [ùéù6 ®úåðù è »ðàîìô [úðù5 ®øñç à »ðèîìô [òã4 ®íéðéðòä ì ®øñç ô »úåøåá ùùå è »ðàîì [úåøåá ùéå8 ®úåäåâð ð »úåâäåð èî »àôì [úåäâåð7 ®ùù ôàðèîì »ðèàîì [úéöø12 ®øñç ô »ðèàîì [äúà11 ®øåáá àèî »ðôì [øåáì10 ®êñîîë è »ðôàîì [êñîîá9 ®øñç à »éðèîìô [íéäåáâä15 ®øñç à »éèîìô [ïåéå14 ®åðúùú ô »ðèàîì [äðéðúùú13 ®äöøú ô »ðèàîì [ìâìâ19 ®äðäå ô »ðèàîì [àîùå18 ®úåøåöá à »éèîìô [úøåöá17 ®ïéá èô »ðàîì [÷ø16 åà ô »àîì [íäéðùë åà22 ®íéãàîå ì »ôéàðèî [íéãàî åà21 ®ìâìâî è »ôàîì [éìâìâî20 ®øñç ô »éèôàîì [ìôùä íìåòá25 ®úåçì ô »ðèàîì [äçì24 ®øñç è »ðôàîì [ïë ìò23 ®íäéðù è »íäéðùá »ðôàîì [åéùòî28 ®øñç èì »ðôàî [çîåøä27 ®øñç ô »ðèàîì [äðáìä ®®® íéðåéìòä äëëå26 ®øñç ð »áëåëì è »îìô [éáëåëì31 ®øñç è »ôàîì [éúòã30 ®áúåë è »ðôàîì [äîç áëåë29 ®äùòî è î »ðèàôì [øùðä34 ®øñç ôéàðèî »ì [úåìæîä ®®® áø çë33 ®øñç ô »ðèàîì [ìâìâ32 ®íéáëëì à ®øñç à »ðéèîìô [íà37 ®øñç è »ðôàîì [íò36 ®øñç è »ôàîì [íâ35 ®øåáâä .

(8) Answer: know that the planets themselves do not have a nature that is hot or cold or moist or dry.[13] which has the nature of Jupiter with Mars.[5] (5) The year of Ptolemy.[11] (9) And similarly for the way of action of the large stars. the Indian scientists] only with respect to the images. for they said that the stars of Khima have the complexion of Mars together with the Moon. as you prefer.[4] (4) If you want to know the location of these degrees. the one that is called Thick cloud.[7] if the sign has the shape of a human being it is necessary to subtract 8 degrees from the tables of the seven planets.[4] 7 (1) End of the book. so that any nativity in which the Moon is in the place of Khima indicates an eye disease. how can there be an upper star with the complexion of Saturn or Mars. it is like a person who falls into a pit. but Cor leonis has power because it is in the line of the zodiac. as is written in the Book on the use of the tables.chapter eight 255 crooked degrees. or of both. (10) In my opinion.[1] (2) Know that the beginning of the year of India is with respect to a point in the zodiac.[8] (7) Perhaps someone will argue: inasmuch as all agree that the stars of the orb of the zodiacal signs are above the orbs of all the planets.[10] it indicates blindness.[3] (3) The reason for the pits is that there are stars with the complexion of Saturn and Mars.[14] besides.e.[9] Likewise.[6] (6) The houses and the houses of exaltation and the terms are in the tables of these scholars [i. as well as of the Arab and Greek scientists. the stars of the orb of the zodiacal constellations do not have much power because they are distant. similarly.e. it [i. if the Moon is with the star that is in Cancer. a star] has little power where it is in a high latitude and when it stands on its head.[2] hence the Ancients said that there are dark degrees. but they generate these four natures [i.. like the star that is in the Heart of the spear. and that holds good especially in the case of the stars that are distant from the line of the zodiac. the upper stars generate a nature in the world that appears to be of the nature of Mars when it is together with the Moon.. and Cor leonis.[3] for the nativity and for the revolutions of each year. I shall now reveal a secret to you. qualities] in the lower world. today you must subtract 8 degrees and 5 minutes from the place of the luminaries as well as of the planets. bright degrees.e. since they change their position every year. and pits.[12] whose nature works as Venus with Mercury. so when the Sun or one of the planets faces them. begins with the conjunction of the two upper stars or the intersection of the two uppermost circles. like the Great eagle. (11) The Ancients among the Indian scientists also said that none of .

256 second version of the book of reasons (12) ®äìéìá äðáìäå íåéá ùîùä åà úåãúéä ãçà úìçúá ®1íéîåøî ïëåùì äìäú ¬íéîòèä øôñ íìùð ®úåìæîä éèôùîì íéîòè íäù äàøðå à »øñç î »ô [íéîåøî ïëåùì äìäú1 .

or in the place of the Sun by day or of the Moon by night.[15] (12) This book has been completed.chapter eight 257 them has any power. praised be the One that dwells in the Heavens. . except when they are at the beginning of one of the cardines.

part four
NOTES TO THE SECOND VERSION OF THE BOOK OF REASONS

chapter one §1.1

261

1: I wish, Hebrew éúìàåä. For this translation, see Ibn Ezra’s commentary on Genesis 18:27.
[1]

2: Learn the secret of the Glorious and Awe-Inspiring Name (Deut. 28:58): One of Ibn Ezra’s avowed aims in his biblical commentaries, exegetical digressions, and theological monographs, is to reveal the secret meanings behind the names of God. He does this by applying knowledge related to Hebrew grammar, astrology, astronomy, mathematics, cosmology, and logic; his main tool, however, involves combinations of the numeric values of the Tetragrammaton. See, inter alia, the introduction to his second commentary on the Pentateuch, long commentary on Exodus 3:2, 3:13, 6:3, 14:19, 33:21. Ibn Ezra also devoted a complete monograph to this objective: Sefer ha-Shem (Book of the Name); see haShem, 1985, p. 419. For an example, see Sela, 2003a, pp. 313–323.
[2]

2: The holy, who are the angels. In Ibn Ezra’s nomenclature the “holy angels” (Hebrew íéùåã÷ íéëàìî) are the supernal and incorporeal “intellects” or “separate intelligences”. This concept is part and parcel of a theory combining Aristotelian and neo-PIatonic teachings that was elaborated by the Arabic medieval commentators of Aristotle: out of the First Being emanate entities consisting of pure thought corresponding to the number of spheres; each of these intelligences acts as the object of the mind of a sphere and is the cause of its movement; the last intelligence in the sequence of emanations, an emanation of all intelligences called the “active intellect”, has in its care the sublunary world: it is held to emanate forms unto sublunar matter and the human intellect; the highest level of cognition an individual can attain is that of “conjunction” with the “active intellect”. See Davidson, 1992. Ibn Ezra describes the world of the “holy angels”, which is distinct from the sub- and superlunary domains, in his long commentary on Exodus 3:13: ¬íéùåã÷ä íéëàìîä íìåò àåä ïåéìòä íìåòä姧
[3]

®íãâðë úåì÷ðä úåòãî åáâùð íúåìòîå »íãàä úåîùðë úåôåâá àìå ¬úåôåâ íðéàù ¬åîöòá åððéà åãîòî ÷ø »êøòá éåðùá äòåðú ïéàå ¬ãîåò åìë ¬ãåáë íìåòä äæ ìëå §§®íøåàî íãàä úîùðå ®åãáì ãáëðä íùá ÷ø

(“The uppermost world is the world of the holy angels who are incorporeal and, unlike the souls of men, do no inhabit bodies. Their importance is far and above the understanding of their insignificant counterparts [i.e. human beings].

262

notes to the second version of the book of reasons

This entire world is glorious and unchanging. There is no change in its arrangement. This world is not self-sufficient but its existence is dependent upon God the glorious. Man’s soul stems from their light.”). 3: Workings of the heaven, Hebrew íéîùä úëàìî. Ibn Ezra took this term from the book of Jeremiah (7:18, 44:17–19, 25), as he admits in his long commentary on Exodus 20:2, where he makes a direct reference to Jeremiah 44:18. Notice, however, that the Masoretic text of the Bible has íéîùä úëì"î, which has always been translated “queen of heaven.” In his biblical commentaries, Ibn Ezra employed this term repeatedly to denote a combination of astrology and astronomy (see long commentary on Exodus 20:2, 28:6, 31:3, 33:21; short commentary on Exodus 25:7, 32:1; commentary on Ecclesiastes 1:3, 1:5, 1:15, 7:13; commentary on Psalms 19:1, 19:5–6; commentary on Isaiah 22:1), but this is the sole instance in his scientific writings.
[4]

4: They also tested it often by experience and achieved their purpose. This is a common expression employed by Ibn Ezra to denote the astrologers’ working method. For the meaning of “experience”, see Ta § 1.4:1 and note. See also Tb §2.9:5; Ta § 2.2:20, § 2.4:2, § 2.18:1, § 4.2:6, 12.
[5]

§1.2 1: Planets, Hebrew íéúøùî, lit. servants. This neologism is frequently employed by Ibn Ezra throughout his scientific and non-scientific work. See Glossary s.v. “planet”. He found the word in Psalms 103:21, where he glossed it as referring to the seven planets. Commentary on Psalms, 103:21, 1525: ¬íéðåéìòä íéîùä àáö íä Ð åéàáö ¬åëø᧧ §§®úåðåòî §òáùá íäù §òáùä íä åéúøùîå (“Bless, his hosts—these are the host of the higher heavens, and his servants are the seven which are in seven orbs”). Endowed with this meaning, this biblical word conveyed the message that the seven planets are not self-sufficient astrological agents but work as servants of God to do his pleasure (Ps. 103:21). See Sela, 2003a, pp. 129–130. In Ta § 1.3:2 Ibn Ezra says that their function as servants is embodied in the fact that the planets, as compared to the fixed stars, are close to the Earth.
[1]

chapter one
[2]

263

1: Behold … each of them in its orb: Rather than introducing a mere description of the heavens, this passage is followed by a comprehensive, concise, and remarkable three-stage demonstration or deduction of a nine-orb universe: (a) first, the existence of seven orbs for seven planets is predicated on the integration of the various cycles of the planets into a geometrical rule (Tb § 1.2:2) as well as on the occultations of the planets (Tb § 1.2:3); (b) second, the existence of the eighth orb of the fixed stars is deduced from the occultation of the zodiacal fixed stars by the planets (Tb § 1.2:3); (c) third, the existence of the ninth and uppermost orb, qua the orb that possesses the daily motion as its inherent motion and confers the daily motion to all the other orbs (Tb § 1.2:5), is regarded as logically compelling, because of the slow steady motion of the orb of the fixed stars (Tb § 1.2:4) and because the daily motions of the orbs of the fixed stars and of the seven planets are in an opposite direction to their inherent motions (Tb § 1.2:4–5). For a detailed analysis of this passage, see Sela, 2003a, pp. 214–237.
[3]

2: Completes its motion … the larger. Corresponds to Ta § 1.3:7.

3: Whenever one … hides the upper: Corresponds closely to Ta § 1.3:6. Ibn Ezra also offers an almost identical argument in his second commentary on Genesis 1:14, to uproot the possibility that the planets and stars are embedded in a single orb. Second Commentary on Genesis, 1976, p. 151: äòáùì íä úåðåòî äòáù éë ¬ùçëì ìëåð àì äðä姧 àì ãçà ïåòîá íúòáù åéä íà éë ®ìëì øåøáä øáãä øéëæà äðäå … íéúøùîä
[4]

§§®äåù íúöåøî äúéäå áçåøáå êøåàá åîò åøáçúäá åøáç øéúñî íäî ãçà äéä

(“No one can refute that there are seven orbs for seven planets. … Now I shall mention the clearest proof of all: if we assume that all the seven planets were in a single orb, then it would be impossible for one planet to be hidden behind another planet when one planet is in conjunction with another planet in longitude or in latitude, since in this case all the planets would have be the same course”). For an analysis of this commentary and for the role of this argument in Ibn Ezra’s conception of the creation of the superlunary world, see Sela, 2003b. 3: The planets hide the stars of the zodiacal constellations: This second type of occultation is advanced here to demonstrate that the fixed stars occupy a separate eighth orb, above the seven planetary orbs.
[5]

264
[6]

notes to the second version of the book of reasons

4: Host of heaven, Hebrew íéîùä àáö. Ibn Ezra construed this biblical expression (Gen. 2:1; Deut. 4:19 et passim) as encompassing all of the fixed stars of the eighth orb. He employed it extensively in his biblical commentaries (commentary on Psalms 8:4; 19:2; 82:1; 89:8; 103:21; 136:4; 146:6; 148:2; long commentary on Exodus 3:15; 20:13; 33:21; second commentary on Genesis 1:14; 1:16; 2:1; commentary on Deuteronomy 4:19; commentary on Ecclesiastes 1:13; 1:19; commentary on Hosea 2:1; commentary on Daniel 7:14), in an astrological treatise (Me"orot, München 202, f. 102b), as well as in one of his theological monographs (Sefer haShem, 1985, p. 428).
[7]

4: Astrologers, Hebrew úåìæîä éîëç, lit. scholars of the zodiacal signs. See Ta § 1.3:10 and note. See Glossary, s.v. “astrologers”.

4: 48 constellations, Hebrew íéòáøàå äðîù ìò úåøåöä, lit. 48 images. For the relationship between images, zodiacal signs, and constellations, see Ta § 1.2:1–3 and notes. See also Glossary s.v. “constellation”, “image”. This is a reference to Ptolemy’s star catalogue in the Almagest. See Almagest, 1984, VII, pp. 341–399. Besides Te#amim II and . Rh, I, vi:11, from which this reference to the forty-eight constellations is quoted, Ibn Ezra employed this motif extensively in his biblical commentaries as well as in his scientific work. See, inter alia, long commentary on Exodus 33,21; commentary on Ecclesiastes 1:13; commentary on Deuteronomy 4:19; Ibn al-Muthannâ’s Commentary, 1967, p. 301; Mishpetei haMazzalot, bnf 1058, f. 14a. .
[8]

4: One degree in 70 years: This is the value proposed by al-Sûfî, . as Ibn Ezra reveals in Liber de Rationibus Tabularum, 1947, p. 78. The same value is endorsed by Ibn Ezra in Te #amim I and in other parts of . his work. See Ta § 2.12:10 and notes.
[9]

5: A sort of uppermost orb above all the other orbs . An inconsistent approach towards the position of the uppermost orb is noticeable in Te#amim I and Te#amim II in particular, and throughout . . Ibn Ezra’s oeuvre in general. Whereas in Ta § 1.3:1, Rh, I, vi:10, the third version of Keli haNehoshet (NeHoshet C, pinsker 26, f. 63a), and . . elsewhere Ibn Ezra makes the uppermost orb identical with the orb of the fixed stars, in Tb § 1.2:5, Rh, IX, lxxv:3, the long commentary on Exodus 20:13, the commentary on Amos 5:8, and elsewhere he places this orb above the orb of the zodiacal signs and the fixed stars.
[10]

chapter one

265

This inconsistency mirrors the problematic cosmological status of the ninth and uppermost orb: because it is starless, it lacks the basic raison d’être that justifies the existence of the other orbs; because the daily motion, the quickest motion of all the orbs, is ascribed to it, it contradicts the rule postulated by Ibn Ezra above in Tb § 1.2:3: “the orb that completes its motion in a few days is beneath the orb that completes its motion in more days than the former.” For Ibn Ezra’s position in this issue, see Sela, 2003a, pp. 224–233. 6: It intersects the orb of the zodiacal signs. Here Ibn Ezra has in mind the intersection, in an armillary sphere, of two great circles: the great circle of the equator, which represents the daily motion of the ninth uppermost orb, and the great circle of the ecliptic, which represents the motions of the planets’ orbs and of the eighth orb. For a similar image, see Ta § 2.12:3; § 8.1:6, Tb § 2.7:10; § 8.7:5; see also Almagest, 1984, I:8, pp. 46–47.
[11]

7: Sphaera recta, namely, the uppermost orb , Hebrew ìâìâ The term sphaera recta, lit. “right sphere,” refers to the phenomena that occur when the celestial equator is perpendicular to the local horizon. The celestial sphere is then said to be right, in the sense of upright or perpendicular, because the paths of the stars are perpendicular to the horizon. See Evans, 1998, p. 32; Almagest, 1984 (“introduction”), p. 18. To denote sphaera recta—particularly when referring to the use of rising times at sphaera recta in the calculation of the aspects, mundane houses and directions—Ibn Ezra employs the term øùåéä ìâìâ, lit. circle of uprightness, in Te#amim I (§ 10.1:3; § 10.3:2; . § 10.5:12 et passim), Te#amim II (§ 6.5:2; 6.5:4), Reshit Hokhmah I (Rh, X, . . lxxv:15, 18) and elsewhere in his scientific treatises (Moladot, bnf 1056, f. 52b; Nehoshet B, Mant. 10, f. 41b; Nehoshet C, Pinsker 26, f. 63a). . . A notable exception is Mishpe.ei ha-Mazzalot (Mishpetei haMazzalot, t . bnf 1058, ff. 13b, 24b, 25a, 25b, 26c), where use is made of the sui generis Hebrew expression øåùéîä ìâìâ “the plane circle”. This Hebrew rendering highlights an additional meaning of the term, namely, that the plane of sphaera recta coincides with the plane of the celestial equator, which is the plane of the daily motion. The latter meaning is what is meant in the current passage, where Ibn Ezra speaks of the inclination of the Sun’s path with respect to the celestial equator. It is significant that in this particular context Ibn Ezra was not content with sphaera recta alone and added a reference to the uppermost orb. This is because
[12]

ïåéìòä àåä ¬øùéä.

but it is crystal clear that there sphaera recta is the eighth orb. was divided by the astronomers into 48 parts ”]). here he identifies the sphaera recta with the uppermost orb. 19:10]”). Ibn . Astrology’s [2] . “experts in judgments”. Hebrew íéèôùî. Ibn Ezra’s Hebrew neologism. pp. the former does not rely on logical (and therefore irrefutable) proofs about judgments but only on analogy and experience. because some astrological judgments are mutually contradictory. Ezra regards the sphaera recta as being the same as the uppermost orb (Nehoshet C. 1525: úëøòî éôë úåìæîä úîëç éèôùî éë òåãé Ð §éèôù§ øåáòáå äìàì äìà íéùéçëî íéëøòá íéèôùî ùéå ¬ùîùä ìà íëøòá íéúøùîä §§®åãçé å÷ãö íùä éèôùî ìò øîà ïë ìò ¬ïéãä éìòá åòèé äæ (“Judgments of [the Lord]—It is known that the judgments of astrology are according to the configuration of the planets in relation to the Sun. 63a: §§ïåéìòä àåäù øùåéä ìâì⧧ [“the sphaera . Pinsker 26. when associated with the daily motion.266 notes to the second version of the book of reasons the sphaera recta. may be taken as coinciding with the eighth orb or with the ninth orb. mishpatim is derived from the Arabic ahkâm al nujûm (lit. f. §§úåøåö 秧î ìò úåìæîä éîëç åäå÷ìç úåìæîä [“The uppermost orb. Appendix 5: Authorities and Sources s. Like the Latin iudicia (employed by Ibn Ezra in his Latin writings). judgments of the stars). 116–123.v. .3 [1] 1: Astrological judgments. §1. denotes the rules by which the astrologer can determine astrological influences. therefore it is written that the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether [Ps. mathematics. 2003 (i). widely used in medieval Hebrew literature. Pinsker 26. Since in Te #amim II Ibn Ezra . 1–2: We know … analogies and experiences: Here astrology is compared unfavorably with astronomy: whereas the latter is supported by conclusive proofs grounded on logic. the experts in astrological judgments make mistakes. and geometry. See Commentary on Psalms. For the usage of this term. 63a: íùù ïåéìòä ìâìâ䧧 . recta is the uppermost orb ”]). depending on the underlying cosmological model.v. where the zodiacal constellations are. clearly endorses a nine-orb cosmos. See also Sela. too. since in this text he identifies the eighth orb with the uppermost orb (Nehoshet C. s. “judgments”. f. 19:10. But Ibn Ezra identified a source in Psalms 19:10. see Glossary. In the third version of Keli haNehoshet.

pp.3:10 and note. Corresponds to Ta § 1. and occupies a lower level than science.. science of the zodiacal signs. astrology and medicine. Metaphysics. Thus astrology is depicted as a “less self-sufficient method” in the first chapter of Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos. and its relation to the introduction of Reshit Hokhmah I. . that methods of healing that penetrate the human body to treat the internal organs are the exclusive province of God. [5] . 1980. See Aristotle. knowledge acquired by experience. 199–208. 980a25– 981b1. conveyed by Ibn Ezra in his biblical commentaries. khâssa. 2: Just as … opposed to nature: This puzzling statement probably refers to the “specific properties” or “occult qualities” (Arabic. who works through miracles. pp. 2–5). segullah) of certain substances believed to have medicinal effects that cannot be deduced from their natural or physical composition according to Aristotle’s theory of matter. 2003a. 2003a. [4] 3: They divided the zodiac … many fractions. 2001a. Another possibility is that this statement alludes to the idea. esp. too. Hebrew. the bedside book of astrologers. see Ibn Ezra’s long and short commentaries on Exodus 28:9 and short commentary on Exodus 11:7. I:1. úåìæîä úîëç. See Ta § 1. For Ibn Ezra’s conception of medicine. 330. VII. 16:9. lit. Similar statements can be found in medieval Arabic and Hebrew astrological sources. [3] 3: Astrology. pp. For the “specific properties” of stones. see Sela. see Sela.chapter one 267 inferiority to astronomy was a commonplace even among astrologers. 1985. where astronomy is described as an “unvarying science” (Tetrabiblos. commentary on Psalms 6:10. . 94–100. In the Aristotelian tradition. pp.1:1–6. 179–180. p. the knowledge of practical rules resting on general principles. the pure knowledge of universal causes devoid of any ulterior practical end. Heb. See long commentary on Exodus 21:19 and 15:26. I (A). See Sela. Yesod Mora". See notes there. with no basis in theory. For an analysis of this comparison between astronomy. is demoted to the inferior degree of an art.

5:12 and to Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. For a similar example. 97. which is the active agent. 97.5:12. but as a lesser degree of heat. see Ta § 1. Hebrew äìåòä ìæîä.1 [1] 1: Fifth and distinct element. it illustrates how these signs are astrologically instrumental in the generation of heat in the human body. Ibn Ezra attributes the theory that the flesh of bulls is cold to the “physicians”.4:2–3 he is represented as stating that “heat and cold are agents”. in Tb § 2.5:12 and “Introduction. ascending sign. as in the case of the flesh of bulls or the human complexion. On this neologism. see Ibn Ezra’s long commentary on Exodus 23:25: äøáâù íãà ìë éë ¬úãìåúä úîëç éôë åðòã駧 [5] äîåãàä äøîä éë ¬ùàä úãìåú ïë éë »óà ìòá äéäé ¬äîåãàä äøîä åúãìåú ìò . “is more influential than cold. to the “magistri philosophice. 5: Doronius said … same way everything else . Ibn Ezra ostensibly subscribes to the Aristotelian view of the physical makeup of the bodies of the supra. “ascendant”. 3: Like the flesh of the ox and the goat. even though all flesh is hot. cum tamen omnis caro calida et humida sit.” [3] [4] 5: Ascendant. 000. he subsequently deviates from it by viewing cold not as the contrary or privation of heat. The passage corresponds to Ta § 1. p. 97: “Qua ratione magistri philosophice carnem bovinam frigidam dicunt. whereas heat is the “stronger agent. p. here Ibn Ezra employs the coinage toledet “nature”. Corresponds closely to Ta § 1. This example shows how the fiery signs (Aries.5:7–12. Although here. 1947. but. To denote the Aristotelian aether or fifth element. [2] 1–4: The philosophers proved … the rule about the moist and dry. p.” cold is the “weaker agent”.7:3 and note. 1947.5:7–12 (see notes there) and to Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. lit.v.and the sublunary domains. in Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. See Glossary s.” p.268 notes to the second version of the book of reasons §2.1:7 that heat. Sagittarius) engender an excess of red bile in the native.” See note at Ta § 1. as in Ta § 1. Hebrew äîöò éðôá úéùéîç úãìåú.5:7.2:5 and note. Leo. In Ta § 1.” But the originator of the theory that gives heat primacy over cold seems to be Ya#qub al-Kindî: in Ta § 1. See also Ta § 2. See notes there. 1947. Corresponds closely to Ta § 1. because such an excess generates heat.

without mentioning al-Kindî. f. 66. four tequfot. Corresponds closely to Ta § 1. let us consider a person whose body does not possess heat. which is called “the stronger agent. A similar account. and red bile is like it [i. water. II:5. Hebrew úåôå÷ú òáøà. pp. he produces heat in his body.chapter two äðäå §§åñòë éðôì íù äéä àìù ¬åôåâá íåç ãéìåä 269 . 2Chron.. which is the second agent.ñòëù ãò åìì÷å åôøçå øçà àáå ¬åôåâá íåç ïéà íãà á&ùçð íâ … åì äîåã (“We know from the natural sciences that any person whose natural constitution is dominated by red bile will be choleric. 19a). 1996. for this is the nature of fire.4:2–3. 6b. f. p. which was not there before he became angry”). . in some cases it also indicates the beginning of the interval. 1874. and Capricorn. in contrast to heat. 8: Water. long commentary on Exodus 12:2. f.4:2–3. v. namely.” [7] 6–9: Ya#qub … fourth season to earth. week (commentary on Psalms 19:7 and commentary on Job 1:5). [8] . 24:23. 76–79. Explanation: At these signs the weather switches. Ibn Ezra employs the biblical term äôå÷ú (Ex. 91). namely. [6] ¬úòä êôäúî úåìæîä äìàá éë ºùåøéô »éãâå íéðæàî ¬ïèøñå äìè ºíéëôäúî䧧 §§äðùä úåôå÷ú òáøà íä éë (“The tropical signs : Aries. is presented in Abû Ma#shar’s Kitâb al-Madhal. is said to be like the nature of the “weaker agent. if another person comes along and reviles and curses him to the point that he becomes angry. . 34:22. 1894/5. and. month (Mishpetei haMazzalot.” namely cold. Capricorn. for dividing . 72). 73). Ps. the solar year into four seasons (short commentary on Genesis 8:22.e. Cancer. 64. This is the precise meaning of the term in our passage. because they are the beginning of the four seasons”). 1894/5. 6: Four beginnings of the seasons. where Cancer’s nature. such as the day ("Iggeret haShabbat. which mark the beginning of the four seasons. pp. 1894/5. Corresponds to Ta § 1. A telling example is found in Mishpetei haMazzalot. A frequent usage is the expression úåôå÷ú òáøà. … Likewise. Although the expression usually denotes the interval. which speaks of the natural properties of Aries. Libra. Libra. the four phases of the lunar month (Mishpetei haMazzalot. bnf 1058. bnf 1058. Cancer. like fire]. 19a: . bnf 1058. for dividing some period into four parts. #Ibbur. and year (short commentary on Genesis 40:12). particularly. pp. 19a). rather than of the four seasons themselves. "Iggeret haShabbat. which corresponds to cold. 19:7) to denote various intervals of cyclical time. 64. such as the four parts of the day ("Iggeret haShabbat.

25– . In Tb § 2. like Taurus and Cancer. [11] [12] 10: The opposite holds for the quartile aspect. 211: “When therefore you know the active virtues of a sign whether hear or cold.8:1 and Ta § 3.1:10 Ibn Ezra states that “the signs that are in an aspect of complete love have one . to earth and black bile. belong to the same triplicity and are consequently associated with the same element. whereas dryness and moisture are passive virtues. moist or dry. it will not be concealed from you what particular element of the world and what particular humor of the body each sign resembles.4:4– [13] 5. 230. 27. 1934. are both hot. I:16.” like Aries and Leo. Heat and cold are considered to be active virtues. as in the case of its companions. which is considered to be one of complete love. par. . 19a. 379. share neither active nor passive virtues: the former is hot and dry. [9] 10: Signs that are aspecting in complete love have one nature in common . Here Ibn Ezra refers to al-Kindî’s position on the aspects. although the former is dry and the latter is moist. p. [10] 10: They have the same active nature but not the same passive nature . [14] 12: Because of the division of the aspect. f. like Aries and Cancer. whether dryness or moisture. 10: According to the aspects. although the former is dry and the latter is moist. bnf 1058. 347. The aspect referred to here is trine. 2004.270 notes to the second version of the book of reasons For the triplicities. as presented in Tb § 4. Hence both of them are either hot or cold.1:2.” like Aries and Gemini. See Art of Astrology. A pair of signs in an aspect of quartile. whereas the latter is cold and moist. p. and the passive virtues. Corresponds closely to Ta § 1. each that is cold and dry. 1934. or both are cold. see also Mishpetei haMazzalot. Each sign that is hot and dry is related to fire and yellow bile. al-Qabîsî. 11: In my opinion … like that. Art of Astrology. A pair of signs in an aspect of sextile or “half love. each that is hot and moist to air and blood and each that is cold and moist to water and phlegm”. p. par. A pair of signs that are in an aspect of trine or “complete love.

4:4–7 (see note there).1:2–6. that it is a consequence of the nature of the images of the corresponding zodiacal signs. See Ta § 1.chapter two 271 nature”. notice that this is [3] . Libra in the west and Cancer is in the north (Tb § 2. like the element earth. f. pp. in Tb § 4. This passage offers a comprehensive three-stage explanation of the signs’ cardinal points and of their positions relative to the cardinal points: (a) Following an explanation of why Aries is the beginning of the zodiac. 347.v. [16] §2. Libra in the descendant. the image associated with the constellation of Aquarius was that of a man pouring water from an urn. v. par. Capricorn in midheaven. Hebrew ÷ãöä å÷. 1–6: Eastern signs … Scorpio is more southern than Pisces. 14: Aquarius’ image is that of a man holding an urn. Aries is in the east. the three are members of the earthy triplicity whose nature is cold and dry. see Tb §2. Capricorn and Taurus.” namely. Astrology.2:1). As far back as the Babylonians.3:9 and note. For signs with images of humans and of animals. Art of . 74–76. and Cancer in lower midheaven. 1996. For the nature of the signs.2 1: The head … is renewed. [15] 11–14: In my opinion … meaning: fish.” In the current passage this aspect links Virgo to its “companions. “equator”. See notes there.7:6. namely. Capricorn in the south. Hence. thus in Greek astrology it was called Hydroxous “water-pourer”. Corresponds closely to Ta § 1.2:3 and note. pp. that “the signs that are in an aspect of trine have one nature. 13b: äðä姧 §§íìåòä ùãçúé æà úîàä úôå÷ú àéä äìè úìéçúá ùîùä ñðëäá (“When the Sun enters the beginning of Aries the true beginning of the year occurs and the world is renewed”). and Glossary s. A similar idea is conveyed in Moladot. see Kitâb al-Madhal. line of justice. lit. bnf 1056. II:4. 210–211. Corresponds to Ta § 2. this sign is placed in the ascendant of a horoscopic chart. where Ibn Ezra offers his own opinion about the nature of the triplicities. 1934. [1] [2] 5: Equator.

Libra. v. Ma#shar. (b) The remaining signs are assigned to a main cardinal point. 357. the earthy to the south. they essentially provide bare lists. VI:24. where each sign . offer comprehensive accounts of this subject. second. Notice. but he also assigns “winds” to these signs. too. Leo “has the left of the east and the eastern wind” (Rh xix:28–29). 215. The fiery signs are assigned to the east.” For example. Notice that Abû Ma#shar (Kitâb al-Madhal. comments on Reshit Hokhmah I. It turns out that Reshit Hokhmah I and consequently Te #amim I follow Abû . 1934. or middle. Te #amim I. Capricorn. Ptolemy’s and al-Kindî’s opinions are presented (see Ta § 2. Consequently. which is different from that employed in Te#amim II. par. lacking the explanatory details of Te #amim II . north. Aries “has the heart of the east and the eastern wind” (Rh.13:8–9 and note). . and Capricorn the “heart” of the cardinal points. for its part. Abû Ma#shar and Al-Bîrûnî. p. for example. and the watery to the north (Tb § 2.4:9. in the section devoted to Aries. VI:24. . . signs (see Ta § 2. right) relative to the main cardinal point. a “wind. Tb § 2. ogy. Although the division of the signs into triplicities underpins their statements. See Ta § 2. according to the principle that this cardinal point is part of their common nature (toledet) as members of the four triplicities. (c) Finally. 1996. p. . and Capricorn the “middle” of the cardinal point. v. II. Al-Bîrûnî and Ibn Ezra in Te #amim II do not. the airy to the west. where Cancer is in the ascendant and Aries is in midheaven with the Sun. xxviii:19). and Sagittarius “has the right of the east and the eastern wind” (Rh. that whereas Abû Ma#shar makes Aries. as follows: the sign that is closest to one of the equinoctial signs (Aries and Libra) is at the “middle” of the cardinal point. a position relative to a cardinal point. in some cases they differ from Te #amim II . . Art of Astrol. 1996. each of the three signs in each triplicity is assigned a position (middle. or from each other regarding the relative positions of the signs of the triplicities. II. in the section on Taurus. p. is assigned two attributes in each of the separate sections devoted to each sign: first. not only with respect to the relative positions of the signs but also regarding the terminology. See Kitâb al-Madhal. Libra. .2:8–9 and note). left. south.272 notes to the second version of the book of reasons not the horoscope of the creation of the world. 257) not only makes Aries.2:3– 6).2:2). 257. while the other two signs are placed “south” or “north” of the cardinal point of the triplicity according to various criteria (Tb § 2. Te #amim I provides a brief explanation related to Aries and the fiery . Capricorn. ix:4). .4:4.

xxviii:19) and Libra is placed in . t and íéðîàð “faithful” in Mishpe. For example. (íéîòèî) is also employed in Reshit Hokhmah I. [1] . xi:24. The incipit of the current section in Te#amim II —“eastern signs”—as well as the comprehensiveness with . Tb § 2. 14b. Ibn Ezra explains them in similar terms in all his introductions to astrology. II. This approach is also adopted in Mishpetei haMazzalot. Libra. xiv:14. 231. western and northern signs. par. tive references to the eastern. for Taurus see Rh. Leo. al-Qabîsî. ix:5. p. 2004. 64–69. Aquarius). However. . This passage refers to a well known tripartite classification of the twelve zodiacal signs— tropical (Aries. . Thus. 1996. 79. p. but not .chapter two 273 The same approach is followed by Ibn Ezra in Reshit Hokhmah I.ei ha-Mazzalot to designate the fixed and t . 27. The tastes of the signs are . . Virgo. II. 1994. 1980. the dissimilar terminology employed in Te #amim II. 7: The reason … applies to all. 1934.2:5. not mentioned at all in Mishpe. for Gemini. Art of Astrology. see Rh. II. the fixed signs are called íéãîåò “standing” in Te #amim II . as does Reshit Hokhmah I. . Reshit Hokhmah I.13:1. pp.ei ha-Mazzalot.ei ha-Mazzalot. The tastes of the signs are listed separately and without any explanation in Reshit Hokhmah I. etc. indicates that Reshit Hokhmah II did not . I:7. I:11. see also Abbreviation. See Tetrabiblos. Ta § 2. and in Mishpe. ãçà êøã “standing in one way” in Reshit Hokhmah I and Te #amim I . the “heart” of the west (Rh. II. Libra is in the “middle” of the west in Tb § 2. Sagittarius. in Reshit Hokhmah I Sagittarius is assigned . and bicorporal (Gemini. Capricorn). . For Aries. southern. Cancer. which the subject is developed. By contrast. p. t [4] §2. v. Cf. separate designations are given to separate signs. the ruah qadim or east wind (Rh. pp. sections devoted to each sign. see Rh. In many cases the same Hebrew word employed in Te #amim II to denote the tastes .3:3. bnf 1058. II:6. 380. 15–25. in Te #amim II. bicorporal signs indicates that these three groups of texts embody three separate terminological trends in Ibn Ezra’s astrological work. II. include separate references. in the . . f. fixed (Taurus. where . Pisces)—in accordance with the prevailing weather when the Sun travels through them in its annual path.3 1–4: Tropical signs … to the next nature. ìò íéãîåò . xxiv:15). Kitâb al-Madhal. Scorpio. but rather collec. in Te #amim I and .

v. 14b. whereas one pair (long/short) refers to . 14b. 378. that there is a confusion with respect to [2] .3:4. see Evans. and from Cancer to Sagittarius—which divide the zodiac according to their rising times. Mishpetei haMazzalot. p. 85. íéôåâ éðù åì ùé . bnf 1058. Rh. ing” in its rising times and “crooked” (Ta § 2. These two are commonplace in introductions to astrology: see Art of Astrology. 229. Kitâb al-Madhal. The same double set of terms appears in Mishpe. Ta § 2.3:5. 18a.ei ha-Mazzalot. First. p. Notice. II. There are two reasons for this seeming redundancy of terms. fixa and bicorpora. pp. Te #amim I. bnf 1058. in Te #amim II Ibn Ezra employs a . 14b. II. Tb §2. whether the corresponding signs rise in more or less than 30 equinoctial degrees (Tb § 2. Rh. Cf. § 2. 243. refers to Aries as “decreas. Abbreviation.” and then offers a global characterization of the crooked and straight signs (Ta § 2. xiv:7–8. . 1934. II. p.3:1–4.14:1. and éúù éìòá . f. following Reshit Hokhmah I. . On rising times or ascensions. 5: Long signs … just the opposite. .” Also. bnf 1058. gives separate accounts related to separate signs. . In . ff. 1967.15:1–2). Tb § 2. VI:4. xxx:24–25). Reference is here made to two sets of six signs each—from Capricorn to Gemini. bnf 1058. and to Cancer as “straight. and Mishpe. as explained in Te #amim II. § 2. which follows Reshit Hokhmah I. xix:24–25).3:5). Sanctification of the New Moon.3:21). The term “rising times” refers to how many degrees of the equator cross the horizon of a given locality simultaneously with the consecutive zodiacal signs. t . Interestingly enough. . xi:16–17. 1994. II. See Mishpetei haMazzalot. Ta § 2.14:1.3:21. whereas Te #amim II . ral signs are called íéôåâ éðù “two bodies” in Te #amim II. par. 25. “crooked” and “straight” in Tb § 2. 1947. Capricorn is characterized as “crooked in its rising times and its rising times are short” (Rh.2:1–2).ei ha-Mazzalot. pp. double set of terms to designate them generically: “long” and “short” in Tb § 2. Virtually the same occurs in the separate descriptions of the signs in Reshit Hokhmah I : . however.ei ha-Mazzalot offer a comprehensive explanation of this trit partite division in a single locus. Mishpetei haMazzalot. viii:27–28. f. xi:16–17. 27. the other pair (crooked/straight) refers to whether the corresponding signs rise in more or less than two equinoctial hours (Tb § 2. Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. p. f. . “it has two bodies” in Reshit Hokhmah I and Te #amim I.13:1. and Leo is described as “straight in its rising times and its rising times are long” (Rh. these three groups are called “signa mobilia.2:1.274 notes to the second version of the book of reasons Rh. The bicorpo. Cf. Te #amim I. xiv:7–8 et passim. Mishpetei haMazzalot. II. 109–125. 1998. 142–143. 14b. t úåôåâ “owners of two bodies” in Mishpe. 1996.

I asserts that they rise in more or less than 30 equinoctial degrees (Ta § 1. and this is the half of the Sun. wording in Mishpe. pp. 5: As is written in the Book of the Tables. and from the head of Aquarius to the end of Cancer. the half from the beginning of Aquarius to the end of Cancer is called the smaller half. a statement which is borne out by a passage in Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. § 8.1:1– 4. belong to the Sun in the whole of this half.5:1–4. correspond closely to al-Qabîsî. [5] §§äðáìì ïåè÷ä éöçä ¬ïèøñ óåñ ãò éìã ùàøîå ¬ùîùì ìåãâä ìâìâä ÷ìç éöç (“From the head of Leo to the end of Capricorn. rise in more or less than two equinoctial hours (Tb § 2. . 2004. See below Tb § 5. because the same kind of lordship that planets have in their terms. 1947.chapter two 275 the crooked/straight signs: whereas Te#amim II states that these signs . que est a capite leonis ad finem capricorni. Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. minorem vero partem lune que est a fine capricorni usque ad caput leonis. which is mentioned in Ta § 2.1:3. and corresponds closely to Ta § 2.1:11 and note. as well as the claim that the Sun and the Moon have power in their halves as the planets have in their terms. The division of the zodiac into a “larger domain” or a “greater half ” of the circle ascribed to the Sun.3:21). I:10. the Book of the Tables is also . [3] [4] 6: I shall say more about that in due course : See below. p. This division of the zodiac is not mentioned in Reshit Hokhmah I but appears with a very similar .5:4. and this is the half of the Moon.”). See t Mishpetei haMazzalot. 98: “Magistri iuditiorum partiti sunt circulum in duo.2:11. the Moon has the “smaller half ”. § 5. Second. Tb § 8.” The reference to the “greater” and “smaller” halves of the circle. 21–22: “The half of the circle from the beginning of Leo to the end of Capricorn is also called the greater half. involved in this usage. pp. 84–85: “He tabule quas composuimus utiles sunt … ad cognoscendum … recta signa et obliqua et longa et curta” (italics added). is later expanded in Tb § 5.ei ha-Mazzalot and Liber de rationibus tabularum.1:1–4. f. 6–8: The larger domain … their terms. the Sun has the “greater half ” of the circle.15:2). München 202. 1947. 151b: ¬éãâ óåñ ãò äéøà ùàø . as conveyed in Te#amim II. because in the whole of this half also . maiorem partem attribuentes soli. and a “smaller domain” or a “smaller half ” of the circle ascribed to the Moon. Te#amim .

§§®åúééùò åöøéù äîì íäá íéáëåëä ìæîá úåàîñéìèä éìòá íúåà . 14–18.6:4. which is forbidden by the law of God.7:8 and § 5.3:2 they are those who are “dealing in the science of the images. bnf 1056. because it resembles idolatry. lxxvi:24). where they are said to have established the association between the planets and the metals under their charge by empirical means. Ibn Ezra introduced this treatise into medieval Jewish educated circles employing Hebrew names such as Sefer ha-"Ilan (Book of the Tree) or Sefer haPeri (Book of the Fruit) in Sefer ha-Moladot (Moladot.”).” and in #Ibbur.6:8 and § 5.276 notes to the second version of the book of reasons the Moon has the same kind of lordship as the Sun has in the greater half. Art of Astrology. in Liber de rationibus tabularum as “doctores ymaginum” or “magistri ymaginum. X. bnf 1055. The link between their involvement in astronomy and idolatry is found in Abû Ma#shar’s Kitâb al-Qirânât and in Al-Bitrûjî’s On the Principles of Astronomy.” See also Tetrabiblos. 440. the same circle are cited as involved in clearly astronomical affairs. 2005. 54b: øî১ [6] å÷÷åçé äæìå úåéìâìâä úåøåöä ìà úåòîùð äáëøää íìåòá øùà úåøåöä ºñåéîìèá (“Ptolemy said: the forms which are in the composite world obey the forms of the orb. In such a context. bnf 1056. par. p. Hebrew by Kalonymus ben Kalonymus at the beginning of the 13th century. ff. 10: Scholars of the images. consequently the experts in talismans engrave the form of the zodiacal sign whose influence they wish to attract. In other parts of Ibn Ezra’s work.” Their involvement in the making of idols or talismans is implied in Tb § 5. 85b as úåøåöä éîëç “scholars of the images”. Centiloquium.” See #Olam A. 85b–86a. 79. verbum 9 in Sefer haPeri. 1934. Hebrew úåøåöä éîëç. such as the controversy about trepidation and the motion of the fixed stars. 1980. pp. I:17. bnf 1056. they are alluded in #Olam A. They are also mentioned in Tb § 5. f. where they take part in the controversy about trepidation under the designation “masters of talismans. Sefer ha-Peri was translated into . 49a) and Reshit Hokhmah (Rh. ff.7:8. 1874. where they are designated “experts in the images” (úåøåöä éìòá). Schwartz. What Ibn Ezra says about the activities of the “scholars of the images” is reminiscent of what is said about the “experts in talismans” in Pseudo-Ptolemy. In Tb § 8. p. where they are associated with idolatry and are said to bring down supreme powers. See Centiloquium. See long commentary on Exodus 20:3 and 20:5. f. 10a as úåøåöäå íéèôùîä éìòá úåìæîä éîëç “astrologers who are experts on judgments and images”. Both the “scholars of the images” and the “experts in the images” appear in Ibn Ezra’s biblical exegesis.

Art of Astrology. 33.3:1. 29. pp. 212–213. see Rh. 1934. and to those with the shape of an animal. 352. ix:4. [10] 15: Tail of the Lion. 14b.2:7). Libra. 23. 1934.16:15 are identical with the watery signs because they are “born in water. xiv:12–13. the hinder half of Sagittarius and front half of Capricorn). p. viii:27. [7] 11: Masculine and hot … hotter than the female. Virgo. II. bnf 1058. VI:18. [8] [9] 12: Beauty … Aries and the others. haMazzalot. pp. xi:22 et passim. Tb § 2. Ta § 2. § 2. On the Great Conjunctions. See Rh. Mishpetei haMazzalot. This is a reference to the signs with a human shape (Gemini. f. #Ibbur. See Mishpetei haMazzalot. Leo. p. Kitâb al-Madhal. p. which here are deemed to be identical with the human-image signs. bnf 1058. v.7. p. par. p. 1058.” See Mishpetei . Mishpe. 213–214. § 2. 14b. al-Qabîsî. xi:21. Tetrabiblos 1980. 33. 1058. 211. 25. 1874. 2004. The handsome signs are mentioned in Mishpe.2:1. Rh. 1947. Ta § 1. I. I:16. which here are considered to be identical with animal-image signs (corresponds to Ta § 2. t . Gemini.ei ha-Mazzalot. xiv:7 et passim. 254. (b) half-voiced signs (Aries. and half of Sagittarius and Aquarius). 9–10: Signs with shapes … of an animal. “the star at the end of the tail. § 2. pp.” No.chapter two 277 Liber de Rationibus Tabularum.3:9 and note 13–14: Voice … brevity of speech. 14b. 1996. and (c) dumb signs (Cancer. II. 155. bnf t . al-Qabîsî. Sagittarius and Aquarius. § 8. β Leonis (Denebola). Art of Astrology. p. 1971. par. Taurus. such as the four-footed signs (Aries. I. Scorpio. Leo). 353. see also Mishpetei haMazzalot. pp. 580. On the Principles of Astronomy. . This is a reference to Aries. They are mentioned in Reshit Hokhmah I. bnf . Art of Astrology. I:24. par.ei ha-Mazzalot.2:4. This refers to three categories of signs that are characterized with respect to their voices: (a) voiced signs (Gemini. For masculine signs. . xxii:8.16:15. which are considered hot and masculine signs. . which in Ta § 2. f. I:24. Virgo.23. For other references to these signs.1:11–14. 77. Taurus. and introductions to astrology. p. 1934. 14b.7:6. 2000. 69–71. See also above. pp. see Tb § 2. ix:2. II. 27 in the constellation of Leo in Ptolemy’s star catalogue. Pisces). 2004.4:7. and Ta § 2. [11] . .2:7. f. 10a. f. . 348. Leo. al-Qabîsî. Libra and half of Sagittarius and Aquarius). 2004. I:12. § 2.3:24. Libra.

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See Almagest, 1984, VII:5, p. 349. In Reshit Hokhmah I and in the . three versions of Keli haNehoshet (Rh, II, xxiv:2–3; Nehhshet A, bnf . . 1061, f. 159a; Nehoshet B, Mant. 10, f. 39b; Nehoshet C, Pinsker 26, . . f. 67a) Ibn Ezra acknowledges that in his own time this star is in the constellation of Virgo (lat. 9;38, long. 11;50). 15: Power … in its tail. See Mishpetei haMazzalot, bnf 1058, . f. 14b, where Leo and Virgo are called strong signs (íé÷æçä).
[12]

17: Deformities … in my opinion. The deformed signs (Aries, Taurus, Cancer, Scorpio, Capricorn, Pisces) are enumerated in Mishpe.ei ha-Mazzalot, Ta § 2.2:4–5, § 2.3:1 and other introductions to astrolt ogy. See Mishpetei haMazzalot, bnf 1058, f. 14b; Rh, II, xxv:15–17; . al-Qabîsî, 2004, I:24, p. 33; Art of Astrology, 1934, par. 350, p. 212. . Here they are defined as those that do not correspond to the signs with human images (see above, Tb § 2.3:9 and note).
[13] [14]

18: Metals … can withstand fire: This is a reference to the fiery signs, which, according to Reshit Hokhmah I, are the only ones of the . twelve signs that are in charge of metals. Thus, Aries is in charge of gold, silver, iron, and copper (Rh, II, ix:6–7); Leo, of gold and silver (Rh, II, xix:31); and Sagittarius, of lead (Rh, II, xxviii:21). See also Art of Astrology, 1934, par. 367–369, p. 222. As for the metals ascribed to Aries, see Ta § 2.2:12. 19: Trees … known through experience. Trees that are under the charge of signs are usually mentioned in introductions to astrology. See Kitâb al-Madhal, 1996, VI:23, v, p. 256; Art of Astrology, 1934, . par. 367–369, p. 222; al-Qabîsî, 2004, I:26–32, pp. 35–37. See also Rh, . II, xi:26–27.

[15]

[16]

21: Crooked … the straight signs . See above, Tb § 2.3:5 and note

22: Kings … nobles … commoners … slaves. This classification, which divides the twelve signs of the triplicities into four social classes according to the relative natural position of the basic element of each triplicity (fiery = kings, airy = nobles, watery = commoners, earthy = slaves), corresponds closely to a passage in Mishpe.ei hat Mazzalot, which, however, employs a different terminology for each of
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the four types of signs. See Mishpetei haMazzalot, bnf 1058, f. 14b: .
ºíééòöîàä ®éãâ ¬äìåúá ¬øåù ºíéìôùä ®úù÷ ¬äéøà ¬äìè ºíéìùåîä íéàâúî䧧 §§®íéâã ¬áø÷ò ¬ïèøñ ºõøàä éîò ®éìã ¬íéðæàî ¬íéîåàú

(“Pride and ruling: Aries, Leo, Sagittarius. Despised: Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn. Middle: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius. Plebeians: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces”). Cf. Kitâb al-Madhal, 1996, VI:11, v, p. 250. . §2.4

1: Physicians. This is a reference to Taurus and Scorpio, as clarified in Mishpetei haMazzalot, bnf 1058, f. 14a, where the same designation . of “Physicians” (íéàôåøä) is used to characterize these signs.
[1]

1: Mars and Venus … science of medicine. Mars and Venus, as well as their “partnership in the science of medicine,” are mentioned here because Taurus and Scorpio are their planetary houses. For Mars as the planet in charge of the science of medicine, see below, Tb § 5.5:5. In both his astrological and exegetical work Ibn Ezra viewed medicine as a dual art: (a) a “hard” version, which is under the sign of Mars and pierces the human body in order to treat the internal organs surgically; (b) a “soft” version, which is under Venus and touches only the external surface of human body, employs natural materials such as perfumes and ointments, and heals particularly by regulating the use of food. See Sela, 2003a, p. 179. Cf. Kitâb al-Madhal, 1996, VII:9, v, pp. 314–315; . Art of Astrology, 1934, par. 435, p. 254.
[2]

1: It is the sixth, as I shall explain: See below, Tb § 2.4:2 and § 3.3:6.
[3]

2: Ptolemy said … deformities and foolishness. See Tetrabiblos, 1980, III:12, p. 317: “Of Bodily Injuries and Diseases … it is necessary to look to the two angles of the horizon, that is, the orient and the occident, and especially to the occident itself and the sign preceding it, which is disjunct from the oriental angle.” cf. Tetrabiblos, 1980, I:17, p. 81–83.
[4] [5]

2: Ascendant, Hebrew s.v. “ascendant”.

çîåö ìæî,

lit. growing sign. See Glossary,

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[6]

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3: Winged … Pisces as well. See al-Qabîsî, 2004, I:24, p. 33: . “Some have wings, i.e. Virgo, Gemini and Pisces.” 4: Heavens … heavens are air. Gemini is characterized in Rh, II, xiv:16–17 as indicating §§úåçåøäå øéåàäå íéîùä åîë äåáâ øáã ì맧 (“anything that is high, like the heavens and the air and the winds”). Here Ibn Ezra elaborates the idea that the relative height of a sign derives from its position in the zodiac as well as from the natural place to which the element (fire, air, water, earth) that identifies the triplicity of that sign tends to move. Gemini pertains to the airy triplicity and its last degree (Gemini 30°) coincides with the highest place in the zodiac. More often than not, in his biblical commentaries Ibn Ezra makes the heavens equivalent to the superlunary domain, but in a few places the heavens are identified with the air. See commentary on Deuteronomy 32:37; Isaiah 47:13, 49:13; long commentary on Exodus 9:22. See Sela, 2003b, pp. 147–182.
[7]

5: Demons … Saturn is perceptible in it. In Rh, II, xxxiii:3 the demons are described as being under the charge of Aquarius; and in Mishpetei haMazzalot, bnf 1058, f. 21b, as under the charge of Saturn. . Notice that Aquarius is the planetary house of Saturn.
[8]

9: If we place … ascendant is Cancer. This is a succinct description of the thema mundi, the horoscope of the creation of the world, and corresponds to Ta §2.4:4; see note there.
[9] [10]

10: For this reason … 30 years. Corresponds to Ta § 2.4:5; see note there.

10: House of detriment, Hebrew äòø úéá, lit. house of evil (Arabic wabâl, Latin alienation). This is a reference to the opposite of the planetary house or the seventh sign from the planetary house of each planet. Corresponds to Ta § 2.6:3, where the same term is called úéá äàðù “house of hate”.
[11]

10: House of dejection, Hebrew ïåì÷ úéá, lit. house of dishonor (Arabic hubû.hâ, Latin servitus). This is a reference to the oppot site of the exaltation or the seventh sign from the house of exaltation of each planet. Corresponds to Ta § 2.16:5 et passim.
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10: Planetary house, Hebrew áåè úéá, lit. house of good. This is an unusual rendering of the planetary house. It stands here in contrast to house of detriment, Hebrew äòø úéá, lit. house of evil. See below, Tb § 7.1:4, and Glossary s.v. “house” (planetary). 6–11: Sign of the world … for all the world. Corresponds closely to Ta § 2.4:4–6; see notes there.
[14] [15]

12: The circle … other signs. See al-Qabîsî, 2004, I:11, p. 23: . “The quadrant from the beginning of Aries to the beginning of Cancer is the hot and moist quadrant, belonging to spring, childhood and blood; the quadrant from the beginning of Cancer to the beginning of Libra is the hot and dry quadrant, belonging to midsummer, youth and choler; the quadrant from the beginning of Libra to the beginning of Capricorn is the cold and dry quadrant, belonging to autumn and melancholy, and signifying the beginning of decay and middle age; the quadrant from the beginning of Capricorn to the beginning of Aries is the cold and moist quadrant, belonging to old age and senility, winter and phlegm.” See also Kitâb al-Madhal, 1996, II:5, v, p. 77. .

13: The houses of divine worship begin at the equator, Hebrew íùä úãåáò éúá ÷ãöäîå, lit. the houses of divine worship stem from justice. This puns on the word ÷ãö, whose primary signification is “justice” but here means “equator,” and on the expression íùä úãåáò éúá, literally “houses of divine worship” but here denoting Aries and Libra, two signs that begin at the intersection of the ecliptic and the equator. See Ta § 2.2:14: å÷ åúìçúá éë øåáòá úåìéôúä éúá姧 §§÷ãöä (“The houses of prayer are in Aries’ portion because the equator [lit. “line of justice”] is at its beginning”). For the meaning of ÷ãö, see Ta § 1.2:3, the note there, and Glossary s.v. “equator”.
[16] [17]

13: Houses of divine worship … Aries and Libra … Libra is at the back. The reference to Aries corresponds to Ta § 1.2:14. See note there; for Libra, see Art of Astrology, 1934, par. 366, p. 221. The horoscope presented at the end of the passage is the same as that presented above in Tb § 2.2:1. 14: Sexual intercourse … are like that. This is a reference to the so-called libidinous signs: Aries, Taurus, Leo, and Capricorn. They are mentioned in Mishpe.ei ha-Mazzalot (ìâùîä éìòá) and other t

[18]

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notes to the second version of the book of reasons

introductions to astrology. See Mishpetei haMazzalot, bnf 1058, f. 14b; . al-Qabîsî, 2004, I:24, p. 33; Kitâb al-Madhal, 1996, VI:14, v, p. 253; . . Abbreviation, 1994, pp. 15–23. For the relationship between the images of the signs and their natural properties see Tb § 2.1:11–14 and Ta § 1.4:4–7. 15: Sterile … produce few children. For the signs that have a human shape see above, Tb § 2.3:9 and note. The definition given here of the sterile signs, i.e., signs that have a human shape—Gemini, Virgo, Libra, and half of Sagittarius and Aquarius—matches none of the lists of sterile signs found in various introductions to astrology. For example, Abû Ma#shar lists Gemini, Leo, and Virgo, and sometimes Aquarius and the beginning of Capricorn: Kitâb al-Madhal, 1996, VI:16, v, . p. 254; Abbreviation, 1994, p. 15–23. See also al-Qabîsî, 2004, I:24, . p. 33; Art of Astrology, 1934, par. 354, p. 214; Tetrabiblos 1980, IV:6, pp. 409–411. In Reshit Hokhmah I, the sterile signs are Gemini, Leo, . Virgo, and Aquarius: Rh, II, xiv:13, xx:25, xxiii:6, xxxiii:21.
[19]

16–19: Intermediate … dry up before rivers. This is a reference to the “signs with many children,” which, according to various introductions to astrology, include Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, and in some cases also the last half of Capricorn. See Kitâb al-Madhal, 1996, VI:16, . v, p. 254; Abbreviation, 1994, pp. 17–25; Art of Astrology, 1934, par. 354, p. 214; al-Qabîsî, 2004, I:24, p. 33. See also the references to Scor. pio, Capricorn and Aquarius in Reshit Hokhmah I. Because Ibn Ezra . defines them as having “the shape of animals that live in water” and because they are virtually identical with the watery signs, the designation “intermediate” seems to mean that they are intermediate between the earthy and the airy signs. Indeed, Ibn Ezra goes on to study Cancer, Pisces and Scorpio separately and dwells on their astrological associations with water.
[20]

20–21: The sign of Aries … the feet. Corresponds to Ta §2.3:2, where the twelve signs and the limbs of the human body under their charge are given. Similar information, either in ad hoc lists or as part of the separate descriptions of the properties of each sign, is commonplace in introductions to astrology. See Mishpetei haMazzalot, bnf 1058, . f. 17a (where this doctrine is attributed to Ptolemy, the King, although it is not found in Tetrabiblos); Rh, II, x:11–12 et passim; Astronomica, 1977, II, 453, pp. 119; al-Qabîsî, 2004, I:25–36, p. 35–37; Abbreviation, .
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1994, pp. 15–25; Kitâb al-Madhal, 1996, IV:12, v, pp. 251–252; Art of . Astrology, 1934, par. 359, p. 216; Carmen Astrologicum, 1976, IV:1, p. 251. Cf. Bouché-Leclercq, 1899, pp. 319–320. §2.5 1: Eccentric circle, Hebrew ÷öåîä ìâìâ, lit. circle of the center. For this meaning see Rh, I, viii:6–7, where the eccentric circle is designated õøàä ÷öåîá åðéàù ÷öåîä ìâìâ, lit. “the circle of the center which does not coincide with the center of the Earth”; see also Mishpetei haMazzalot, bnf 1058, f. 19b, where it is designated ìâìâ . õøàä ÷öåîî ÷åçø å÷öåîù ÷öåîä, lit. “the circle of the center whose center is far from the center of the Earth.” See Glossary s.v. “eccentric circle”.
[1]

2: But in my opinion … sometimes they are above the Sun . Corresponds to Ta § 1.3:9. See also below Tb § 2.5:5, where Ibn Ezra maintains that “for the most part it [Mercury] is above it [the Sun]”. Ibn Ezra endorses here, as a middle-ground solution, a partially heliocentric theory according to which Mercury and Venus circle the Sun. This system was advocated in antiquity by Theon of Smyrna and had a vigorous Latin tradition. It is mentioned by three late (fourth and fifth centuries A.D.) Latin writers—Chalcidius, Macrobius and Martianus Capella—and also by twelfth-century philosophers—William of Conches and Hermann of Carinthia. See Evans, 1998, pp. 349, 413– 414; Dreyer, 1953, p. 128. Since it is not found in Arabic sources, it is possible that Ibn Ezra was acquainted with this theory via Latin sources. I am grateful to Prof. Charles Burnett for this information. Notice, however, that an embryonic heliocentric system is presented in Ibn Ezra’s translation of Ibn al-Muthannâ’s Commentary, 1967, pp. 172, 284: “The scholars of the constellations, who had no knowledge of the science of the spheres, thought that the planets are bound to the sun by bonds, just as horses and beasts are bound to wagons. When the planets are far from the sun, they are pulled by their bonds toward it”.
[2]

1–2: A great dispute … a long explanation. Corresponds to Ta § 1.3:8–11; see note there. Although here Ibn Ezra is ostensibly discussing the relative location of Venus and Mercury with respect
[3]

284

notes to the second version of the book of reasons

to the Sun, this is in fact the beginning of the discussion about the planetary houses. For an explanation of this peculiar modus operandi, see below Tb § 2.6:6 and note. 3–4: They made Cancer … hot and dry then. Corresponds to Ta § 2.4:6–7.
[4] [5]

5: Next after … the Sun. Corresponds to Ta § 2.5:11. 7: As I shall explain. See below, Tb § 4.7:5–8. 6–9: Libra is … the Moon. Corresponds to Ta § 2.5:9–10. §2.6

[6]

[7]

[1]

1: As I shall explain. See below, Tb § 5.3:2.

[2]

2: According to Ptolemy. See Tetrabiblos, 1980, I;14, p. 75: “quartile and opposition are disharmonious because they are composed of signs of opposite kinds.”

1–2: Because Capricorn … darkness and death. Corresponds to Ta § 2.5:9.
[3] [4]

2: House of enemies. See below, Tb § 3.3:5.

4: The seventh mundane house which has the likeness of the twelfth mundane house . See above, Tb § 2.6:3.
[5]

3–4: The houses … the twelfth mundane house . Corresponds to Ta § 2.4:10–11.
[6] [7]

5–6: The house of Venus … to Virgo. Corresponds to Ta § 2.5:6.

6: If they are above the Sun the result will be almost the same, as I have mentioned. In his discussion of the planetary houses, Ibn Ezra seems to hesitate about the positions of Venus and Mercury with respect to the Sun. Thus, in Tb § 2.5:5 he claims that Mercury’s planetary house is next to the Sun’s planetary house
[8]

chapter two

285

“because for the most part it [Mercury] is above it [the Sun].” But in Tb § 2.6:5–6 he writes that “the planetary house of Venus is the fifth to the house of Saturn, and … Mercury is in the sixth orb with respect to Saturn,” which is tantamount to placing the Sun’s orb above those of Venus and Mercury. In the current passage Ibn Ezra states that his explanation of the relative order of the houses of the planets by means of the relative position of their orbs is valid whether one places Mercury and Venus above or below the Sun. The last words of this passage, “as I have mentioned,” refer to Tb §2.5:1–2, where Ibn Ezra begins the discussion about the planetary houses by touching upon the “great dispute among scholars about whether Venus and Mercury are above or below the Sun” and where he subsequently offers his own position, namely, that “they are all right, for sometimes they [i.e. Venus and Mercury] are below and sometimes they are above.” Ibn Ezra decided to insert the account of this disagreement and his own opinion on the matter at the beginning of the discussion in order to prepare readers and resolve the upcoming difficulty in advance.

§2.7
[1]

1: Houses of exaltation, Hebrew ãåáëä éúá, lit. houses of the honor. This entire section (Tb § 2.7:1–14) corresponds closely to the parallel discussion of the houses of exaltation in Ta § 2.6:1–2, § 2.16:1– 14, as will be shown in the following notes.

1: Ptolemy said … renewed then. Corresponds to Ta § 2.6:1 and refers to Ptolemy’s explanation of the Sun’s exaltation in Tetrabiblos I:19. See Tetrabiblos, 1980, I:19, p. 89: “Since the sun, when he is in Aries, is making his transition to the northern and higher semicircle, and in Libra is passing into the southern and lower one, they have fittingly assigned Aries to him as his exaltation, since there the length of the day and the heating power of his nature begin to increase.”
[2]

2: The opposite … dejection in Aries. Corresponds to Ta § 2.16:6 and refers to Tetrabiblos I:19. See Tetrabiblos, 1980, I:19, p. 89: “Saturn again, in order to have a position opposite to the sun, as also in the matter of their houses, took, contrariwise, Libra as his exaltation and Aries as his depression. For where heat increases there cold diminishes, and where the former diminishes cold on the contrary increases.”
[3]

see note there. p. astrolabe and defines it as the angular distance between the sun and the moon plus/minus two-thirds of the northern/southern latitude of the place from which the observation is made. p. 316. 4: The Indian scientists … this degree only. V:6. 1967.16:3. where the account is ascribed to the scientists of India. reads “iste locus dicitur combustus et tenebrosus” (italics added). 157b.” See Tetrabiblos. 1985. 1934. bnf 1061. and Ta § 2. Notice. however. par. 10. Hebrew êùåçä êøã. that the reference to the “southern winds. "Iggeret haShabbat. 71. 2004. 1980. see note there. Corresponds to Ta § 2. For the same term. [8] 6: The exaltation of Jupiter … Cancer 15°. otherwise not. [9] . where Jupiter is presented as being associated with the north. This value is used to determine whether the moon will be visible on the night of the new crescent: if the arc is at least 12° the moon will be seen. Nehoshet A.” found in all the manuscripts consulted. 389.16:5. [5] 4: Arc of vision.6:2. pp. they therefore made this sign his exaltation and Capricorn his depression. p. Corresponds to the “place of burning” (Hebrew äôéøùä íå÷î) in Ta § 2. I am grateful to Prof. p. 105b. reaches farthest north in Cancer and brings his own power to fullness.” See also Art of Astrology. Corresponds closely to Ta § 2. 1894/5. 69. 1874. p. III:29. München 202. v. 189.286 [4] notes to the second version of the book of reasons 3: The power … house of exaltation. 82 et passim. Mant. 1996. 236. A Latin gloss to the relevant passage in al-Qabîsî. 44b–45a. 11a. 105 . See also Sanctification of the New Moon. p. . I. long commentary on Exodus 12:2. 71.16:4–5. Maimonides uses the expression úù÷ äééàøä. refer to “northern winds. f. which produces the fecund north winds. Yesod Mora". . Kitâb al-Madhal. is at variance with Tetrabiblos I:19. Charles Burnett for this information. I:19. Corresponds to Ta § 2. 89: “Then Jupiter. See Nehoshet B. which . Corresponds to Ta § 2. f. f. p. 5: Path of darkness.16:10. Hebrew äàøîä úù÷: In the second version of Keli haNehoshet Ibn Ezra explains how to measure this arc with an .16:10. Me"orot. [6] [7] 4: The exaltation of the Moon … at Libra 19°. #Ibbur.

Gemini. has a fiery nature. [11] [12] 7–8: The exaltation of Venus … exaltation of the other. The “two circles” whose intersection marks the nodes or Head and Tail of the Dragon. See Mâshâ"llâh’s Kitâb al-Mawâlîd. The first triplicity. In both versions [1] .” [14] § 2. see note there. is earthy. Virgo. Scorpio.16:12. Latin trigonalitas). 149: “Et scias quod Caput Draconis cum fuerit in uno signo cum planeta qui fuerit almutez infra 12 gradus vel plus ante vel retro addit quartam partem ipsorum annorum … Quod si Cauda Draconis ibi fuerit minuit quartam partem annorum. The fourth triplicity. is watery. Leo. neither in Te#amim .16:9 (see note there) and to Mishpetei . Corresponds closely to Ta § 2.16:13–14. Libra. are the ecliptic. [13] 14: Many say … this astrological judgment. where this opinion is attributed to the scientists of India. f. I nor in Te#amim II. 14b: ùàø ãåáë úéá íéîåàú éë åøîà íéðåîã÷䧧 §§®åîò ïéãäå íäá ìúäî éîìúå ¬úù÷ ìæîá áðæä ãåáëå ¬éìúä (“The Ancients said that Gemini is the house of exaltation of the Head of the Dragon.6:7 and note. and Capricorn. 1971. is airy in nature. 7: The exaltation of Mars … its own nature. The third triplicity. and Pisces. Ta § 2. but Ptolemy laughs at them and he is right”). and the exaltation of the Tail is Sagittarius. Hebrew úåùéìùä (Arabic al-muthallathât. formed by Aries. Corresponds closely to Ta § 2. the path of Sun. The term is never comprehensively defined.8 1: The triplicity. and the path of the Moon. The second triplicity. namely. see Ta § 1. with the same element of the four basic elements and thus regarded as having an identical nature. and Sagittarius. bnf 1058. For the Dragon. It denotes four groups of three zodiacal signs linked . Cancer. Corresponds closely to Ta § 2. haMazzalot. see note there. their name stems from the fact that they form four equilateral triangles across the zodiac. and Aquarius. composed of Taurus.16:8. p. 9–10: The Indian scientists … intersection of two circles. Cf.chapter two [10] 287 7: Enoch said … be damaged.

and the special types of Saturn-Jupiter conjunctions (Ta § 10. [2] 5–7: They assigned … are southern. 2004. 9. 259. which merely list the lords of the triplicities. . earthy). p. sons for the inclusion and exclusion of certain planets as the lords of the triplicities. the decans (Ta §2. I:16. 1996. pp. al-Qabîsî. 6. Corresponds to Ta § 2. [6] .17:2. I:1. the triplicities are a main component of other astro. The accounts in both versions of Sefer ha-Te#amim correspond closely to each other. airy. 1–4: They said that Aries … night is cold. Te #amim I and Te#amim II include the rea. See Tetrabiblos.10:1–4.8:1. Tb § 2. which is “lord of the first triplicity” by day. Kitâb al-Madhal.8:1–12) deals exclusively and comprehensively with the lords of the four triplicities. 25–27. Here “second triplicity” does not denote any of four groups of three zodiacal signs (see above Tb § 2. Corresponds closely to Ta § 2. Abbreviation. such as the nature of the zodiacal signs (Ta § 1. the ninth-parts (Ta § 2. as shown in the following . I:18. 1934.1:1–14).2:8–9. Tb § 2.2:1– 6). 25. 200–214. p. p. For the same use of this expression.17:2–4. the cardinal points of the signs (Ta § 2. 1976. 1994. 445. 1980. pp. [4] [5] 8–10: They assigned … nature of the air. p.17:5–7. Tb § 2.17:8–9. The present section (Tb § 2.288 notes to the second version of the book of reasons of Sefer ha-Te#amim. logicum. 11–12: They assigned … partner with them [Venus and Mars]. Carmen Astro. v. notes. 83–87. Corresponds closely to Ta § 2.9:9).9:4–6). par.9:3).8:11 and Ta § 2. Thus. watery. 5. Mercury is “lord of the second triplicity” by day because it is second to Saturn. Hebrew äéðùä úåùéìùä ìòá. 161–162. Tb § 2. logical doctrines. see Tb § 2.4:1–7. In contrast with the accounts in contemporary introductions to astrology. V:14. in the airy triplicity. Corresponds to Ta § 2.7:1–4. . Art of Astrology.8:1 and note). A planet that is “lord of the second triplicity” is the second in the sequence of lords by day or by night of one of the four triplicities (fairy. [3] 9: Lord of the second triplicity.

Corresponds to Ta § 2.9:1. The “terms” are unequal divisions of the signs. They . Whereas Reshit Hokhmah I gives the terms . 2004. of the Egyptians or Babylonians and the terms of Ptolemy separately for each sign.3:13. pp.4:12.5:12. ff.8:1 (see notes there) and refers tacitly to the lords of the decans according to the method of the Egyptian scientists. Te #amim II also mentions the terms of the scientists of Persia. of the Egyptians. is associated as “lord of the term” (see Tb § 6. for each of them a planet.3). § 5. 453. § 5. Hebrew íéìåáâä (Arabic hudûd. which perhaps correspond to the terms of Astaratus or Arsthoathol. This rule is later corroborated for the cases of all the relevant planets. § 5. 1934. 15b. t See Rh. Mishpe. . mentioned by Al-Bîrûnî and Abû Ma#shar. while the lords of the . [3] 4: The decans … below its [Mars’] orb. Introductions to astrology usually provide lists of the terms in each sign. § 5.9:2. . Mishpetei haMazzalot. bnf 1058. Abbreviation. of the Hindus.chapter two §2. Kitâb al-Madhal. 196–200. I:21–22. 91–107. Corresponds to Ta § 2. 15a– . The header of the current fragment—the nature—indicates that. except the Sun and the Moon. pp. par. 1994.6:7. See Art of Astrology. are widely employed but never comprehensively defined in Ibn Ezra’s writings. See below. I:19. [1] 2: Ptolemy also said … by experience. [2] 3: When you count … great years. see note there. pp. 1996. The most common are the terms of the Chaldeans or Babylonians.ei ha-Mazzalot lists the terms of the Egyptians only. al-Qabîsî.8:2. in some cases they also refer to various methods. 265–266. see note there. p. and of Ptolemy. Latin fines). pp.8:2 and refers tacitly to the lords of the decans according to the scientists of India.9 289 1: The terms. 27–29. v. V:8. Tetrabib. II. los 1980.7:10. [4] [5] 6: The nature … same method. . just as the three signs of one triplicity are considered to have “one nature.” so too the lords of the three decans of the sign should be assigned to the three lords of the three signs of a single triplicity: the lord of the first decan is the lord of the sign. x:23–27 et passim. 89. Tb § 5. Corresponds closely to Ta § 2. Corresponds closely to Ta § 2.

lit.11:1. of Indian origin. 263. According to this doctrine. Gemini. as reported in Ta § 2. Arabic nawbahra. Hebrew øùò íéðù çë. bnf 1056.10:1–5. 9: The four seasons are “heads”. This doctrine divides the signs into twelfths by two methods. 83a.11:3. see above Tb § 2. [9] íéùàø. See also #Olam A. Cancer. 1934. Ibn Ezra took the expression “four heads” (Hebrew íéùàø äòáøà) from Gen. as I explained in Reshit Hokhmah. Hebrew íðä úåôå÷ú òáøàä For the four seasons. [6] 7: It has power in the astrological judgments of the world. and Capricorn —the four first signs of each of the four seasons—are respectively associated with fire. bnf 1058.#Olam. f. See Kitâb al-Madhal. V:16. 1996. Latin novenarii) and each ninth-part is associated with a sign. Art of . par. the four basic elements.e. 2:1. to know any good or evil that will befall any country”). See #Olam B. 451. pp. see note there.1:6 and note. 9: The power of the ninth-part … nine digits. Corresponds to Ta § 2.2. 7: The power of the dodecatemoria. Astrology. Corresponds closely to Ta § 2. water. [8] 7–8: They said … by twelve.11:2.290 notes to the second version of the book of reasons second and third decans are the lords of the remaining two signs of the triplicity. in his long commentary on Genesis 3:21 he regarded them as a metaphor for the four basic elements (§§íéùøùä íä íéùàø äòáøà姧). and earth. and from this you will be able . Latin duodecatemorion). Corresponds to Ta § 2. 90a: ìà ìëúñäì êì ùé姧 [7] çë àåä ìæî äæ éàá òãå ¬úøáçîä úðù úìçúá íéòøäå íéáåèä íéáëåëä íå÷î ìëå áåè ìë úòãì ìëåú äæîå ®äîëç úéùàø øôñá éúùøéôù åîë ¬øùò íéðùä §§®äðéãîå äðéãî ìëì äø÷éù òø (“Observe the location of the benefic or malefic planets at the beginning of any year of a conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter and find out in which sign the power of the dodecatemoria is found. See notes there. The lords of these signs are the lords of the corresponding [10] .1:6–9 and states pithily that Aries. f. The role of the dodecatemoria in general astrology is amply documented in both versions of Ibn Ezra’s Sefer ha. p. v. air. each sign is divided into nine equal-sized ninth-parts (Hebrew úåéòéùú. power of twelve (Arabic ithna ashriyât. see note there. 202–203. i. Thus here Ibn Ezra is echoing the idea already conveyed above at Tb § 2.

Tb § 2.chapter three 291 ninth-parts. because in every case the assignment of the lords of the ninth-parts starts from the changeable sign of the triplicity.9:9. this doctrine rests on the triplicities: first.5:4. See note in Ta [7] 12: They said that the four … do not have power. bnf 1058. [5] [6] 12: Falling from the cardines . Ta § 2. Ta § 2.10:1– 5. See Kitâb al-Madhal.6:7–8. 1934. see note there. 11: These four … twelve houses. see note there. [1] 2–4: In my opinion … thinking imaginatively. state that . Like contemporary introductions to astrology. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3. . p. [2] 7–8: They signify fathers … Ptolemy said the opposite. f. al-Qabîsî. pp. and Mishpetei haMazzalot. Art of Astrology.9:9 advance beyond this point when they claim that the signs were divided into nine parts because “nine is the last of the digits” or “there are a total of nine digits. IV:16–17.6:5–12.5:1. But . pp. Hebrew § 3. V:17.10:1 and Tb § 2. second. because nine is the number of signs that separate the first and the last sign in any triplicity. 1994. 455.1 1: The houses … explained the houses.” §3. “falling”. 139. 15b. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3. Abbreviation. v. 203–204. . 129–131. Corresponds to Ta § 3. 1996. 266–267. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3. íéìôåð. 2004. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3.6:3–4. Refers to the first mundane house and corresponds to Ta § 3. p. par. [3] [4] 9–10: The seventh house … aspect of opposition.5:11 s.6:1–2.v.

and renown.6:12–13. Refers to the third and ninth mundane houses and corresponds to Ta § 3.5:7. § 4. relatives. but here means “mundane house.6:1.6:15. sciences. short dreams.” [1] . § 4. which as a rule denotes a zodiacal sign or constellation. Hebrew éòéáù ãúé. brothers-in-laws. 15b–16b: ¬áåø÷ä êøãäå ¬åéñéâå ¬åéðúçå ¬íéáåø÷äå íéçàä úéá ºéùéìùä úéá䧧 íéëøãä úéá ºéòéùúä úéáä … íéèôùîäå úåøåúä úîëçå ¬ïåè÷ä íåìçäå §§íùä úãåáòå ¬äðåîàäå ¬úåîåìçäå ¬úåðåáúäå ¬úåîëçäå ¬íéëåøàä (“The third house: the house of brothers. See below.8:1–3. and the science of ordinances and laws … The ninth house: the house of long journeys. Hebrew ìæî.6:12. 1–2: Since the fifth house … feast and pleasure. dreams. [4] [5] 4: But this … causes of life. Corresponds to Ta § 3.2:3. bnf 1058.” For a similar case. 4: As I shall explain in the aspects.6:10.2 [1] 2: Mazzal. Tb § 4. See below Tb §6. Corresponds also very closely to Mishpetei haMazzalot. This is an unusual usage of this Hebrew word. [6] 5–6: Because the seventh house … inheritance from the deceased.292 notes to the second version of the book of reasons §3. sons-in-law. and divine worship.6:9. f. short journeys. see also Ta § 3. lit. [2] [3] 3: Because the eleventh house … profit. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3. belief. 5: Seventh house.7:1–8. [7] §3.6:11.6:1–6. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3. § 3.3 1–3: When the Sun … roaming to distant places. . Corresponds to Ta §3. 9. understanding. seventh cardo: Ibn Ezra is in the habit of applying the term cardo to the mundane houses whose cusps correspond to the cardines. see Ta § 3.

Abbreviation. [1] . Art of Astrology. Hebrew õîåà óéñåé. 1994. This section deals with the “lights” of the planets—Hebrew íéøåà. Corresponds to Ta § 3. which is employed in both Te #amim I and . IV. p.chapter four [2] 293 5: Because the twelfth … animals for man. 1058. Instead of lights. . See Kitâb al-Madhal.ei ha-Mazzalot employs õåöéð “ray” and offers a list t . ing on an underlying text: the lost Reshit Hokhmah II. . see Ibn Ezra’s gloss on the word íéöåîà in Zech. 6:3: ïååâ àåäå »§õéîৠúøæâ §§íéðååâä ìëî øúåé ÷åçøîì äàøðå ¬óé÷úä (“it is derived from õéîà and is a strong color. 255 (“orbs”). For this translation. v. par. Latin radii—namely. xliv:17 et passim (“power of the body”).2:3 and Rh. [3] §4.6:17. 281 (“power of the body”). This statement shows that Te #amim II is comment. 17b et passim. Corresponds closely to Ta § 4. Contemporary introductions to astrology usually provide similar lists of the lights without any explanation and employ a divergent terminology to denote the same term. 1996. which can be seen from a distance more than any other color”).1 [1] 1: They compared … to a horseman. of these rays without any explanation. [2] 2: The reasons for the other are the ones that are written in Reshit Hokhmah . II:5. . the backward or forward rays of the planets. 35 (“power of the body”). lxvi:9. [3] §4. p. p.2:12.2 1–4: Light … close to the Earth. See Mishpetei haMazzalot. Mishpe. 65 et passim (“size of the body”). 1934. 6: Because the sixth … hidden enemies. Rh. . Corresponds to Ta § 3. Te #amim II. 2004. f. p. Arabic shu #â.6:16. 436. VII:3. VIII. alQabîsî. Corresponds to Ta § 5. 1: Gets brighter. bnf .

See Ta § 3. VI. 19b–20a.1:4–10. Corresponds closely to Ta § 7.4 1–3: A northern planet … apogee to perigee.ei . Tb § 4. liv:28–lv:23. Hebrew ìâìâä úãåôà. 307–308.3:1 of Jupiter (but not of emerge from the domain of their bodies. Corresponds to Ta § 7. [2] §4. See Ta § 6. s.2:5: “Saturn and Jupiter of burning at six degrees because of the size body is not as big as theirs. bnf 1058.2:1–4.1:1 and note . [1] [2] 4: I have already explained why 15°. See Mishpetei haMazzalot. Notice that whereas Te #amim I . but Mars’ they assigned to Mars 10 4: The degrees of Saturn and also Mars).294 notes to the second version of the book of reasons §4. see note there. “ecliptic”.2:1–5. Astrology. pp. . which comments on Rh.2:4.2:1 and Glossary. 1934. [1] § 4. for this reason degrees.v. See Mishpetei haMazzalot.5 [1] 3: Ecliptic. vest of the circle.6 [1] 1: Aspects. Corresponds closely to Ta § 6.” [3] [4] 1–11: Conjunctions … is full. f. See note at Ta § 1. Corresponds closely to Ta § 6. 1996. ff. See above. ha-Mazzalot also employs the Hebrew word äãåø. §4. 1–4: Opposition … into 360 degrees . 276–278. VII:2. pp. lit. 19b and Kitâb al-Madhal. 495. . v. par. bnf 1058. t and Te#amim II render the concept of being victorious as çöðî Mishpe. Art of . where this statement is attributed to Doronius.3 3: If Mercury … two Mercuries in the orb.

20a.chapter four [2] 295 1: If we draw a circle … approximately 120 degrees . 126: “Dixit Ptholomeus: Si posuerimus diametrum circuli 120 graduum. namely at 90 degrees. Ibn Ezra is here paraphrasing Ptolemy’s Almagest I. 1967. f. 176. 48).1:5 and Mishpetei haMazzalot. erit circumferencia fere 377 graduum. The intersections of this chord with the circumference give one side of the equilateral triangle. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3. One side of the equilateral triangle is obtained by drawing a chord that is perpendicular to the diameter and crosses it at two-thirds of its length. . qui numerus ad numerum diametric nullam proportionem habet notam. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3. p. . Here Ibn Ezra gives very succinct instructions for dividing the circumference into three parts by inscribing an equilateral triangle in the corresponding circle. f. and explains the convenience of this approximation in Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. quibus nos post remedium conferemus. p. [4] [5] 3: If we draw a chord … an aspect of sextile.1:6 and Mishpetei haMazzalot. 1947.6:2. . 20a. 10 (Almagest. . licet practicis geometrie non nichil efficiat. namely at 30 degrees of its length. f. [3] 1: Halve the circle … by the diameter.” Similar ideas are conveyed in Ibn Ezra’s translation of Ibn al-Muthannâ’s Commentary. pp.1:3 and Mishpetei haMazzalot. I:10. He acknowledges this. In addition to the triangle described at Tb § 4. 20a. thereby producing an aspect of sextile. These two triangles divide the circumference into six equal parts. Ad cuius rei alleviacionem posuit numerum circumferentie 360 graduum. bnf 1058. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3. instructions are given here to draw another equilateral triangle which is inscribed in the circle and whose base is obtained by drawing a chord that is perpendicular to the diameter and crosses it at a third of its length. Que res magistris astronomie minime nocet. 281: “One who wishes to construct the sine and the declination according to the opinion of Ptolemy should consider the diameter of the circle equal to 120”. bnf 1058. bnf 1058. The other two sides of the equilateral triangle are given by drawing two chords connecting each of the two extremes of the previous chord with the farthest extreme of the diameter. 2: If we want to divide it … 90 degrees from the diameter. 1984. ut post docebimus.

f. then the two extremes of the diameter and the two points of intersection of the chord with the circumference are the corners of an inscribed square that divides the circumference into four equal parts. 20a. 4 and 6. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3. p. 3 and 5. [2] 3: The third number … made up of even and odd. 57). 2006. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3. 1984. [7] §4. 11 (Almagest. render the Hebrew øúé as sine (Middot. Indeed. pp. although not identical. p. at the center of the circle. this produces the aspect of quartile. values are given in the table of arcs and chords found in Ptolemy’s Almagest I. 3 and 7. In my opinion. [3] . 5 and 7) or both even (2 and 4. that if a chord that is perpendicular to the diameter is drawn at the “middle. Similar. 5. bnf 1058. . 4 and 8. at least in the current passage. 2006. pairs of integers separated by the constant 2 are also either both odd (1 and 3.2:4. however. Ibn Ezra says. 6 and 10). in their translation of Sefer ha-Middot. which has recently been ascribed to Abraham Ibn Ezra and considered to be a preliminary version of Sefer ha-Mispar. See note there. 156).25 (Middot. Notice that Lévy and Burnett. 156. 199). 6 and 8). I:11. we find these precise values: ¬íéùìù úù÷ øúé姧 §§íé÷ìç àìá íéùìù àåä íâ (“The chord of an arc of 30 is also 30. in a table of arcs and chords in an anonymous treatise on arithmetic and geometry called Sefer ha-Middot. with no subdivisions”). 5: The aspect of quartile is in the middle of the circle. See Sefer ha-Middot.1:4 and Mishpetei haMazzalot.” namely. Here Ibn Ezra conveys the idea that pairs of integers separated by the constant 4 are either both odd (1 and 5. Just like pairs of integers separated by the constant 4. [1] 2: If you divide it … into even and odd. very briefly as is his wont. it is clear that the Hebrew expression §§§ì úù÷ øú駧 means “a chord of 30” because it refers to one of the sides (Hebrew: òìö) of the hexagon that represents the aspect of sextile. 5 and 9) or both even (2 and 6.7 1: Always the number … as does the the number one.296 [6] notes to the second version of the book of reasons 4: The chord … corresponds to an arc of 30: Here Ibn Ezra refers the reader to a table of arcs and their corresponding chords.

chapter four [4] 297 3: But it is not the same in its division. because trine. A similar explanation of the aspects is offered in Sefer ha-"Ehad (Book of the Unit).1:10 and explores the nature of the signs involved in the aspects of sextile and quartile. So any sign that is fourth is opposite the first sign with respect to the active virtues . Here Ibn Ezra echoes ideas already conveyed at Tb § 2. with common active virtues but contrary passive virtues . but the fiery signs only are opposite the first with respect to the active and passive virtues . where Ibn Ezra attributes this explanation of the aspects to himself. see note there. [5] ùáéå çì ¬íéøçàä íéðùäå íéìòåôä íä ø÷äå íçä éë ¬ïåùàøä êôä éòéáøä êôä äãáì ùàä úåìæîå ¬ìòôá ïåùàøä êôä úåìæîá éòéáø ìë äðäå ®íéìeò"ô èáîå ¬äàðù ìâìâä úéòéáø èáî éë úåìæîä éîëç åøîà ïë ìò ®ìåòôáå ìòôá êôäå ìòôá ãçà ¬úãìåúá ïåùàøä ìò úåìæîäî éùéìùä éë ¬äáäà éöç úéùù èáî éë ¬äøåîâ äáäà úéùéìù èáîå ®äáäà éöç àåä éë åøîà ïë ìò ¬ìåòôá ìòôá äøåîâ äáäà èáî ïë ìò ¬ïåùàøä úãìåúá éùéîçä àåäù ìâìâä úéùéìù âåæ íäéðù éë »§å íò §á äëëå »íîöò íéøîåù íäéðù éë ¬§ä íò §à äëëå ®ìåòôáå (“The fourth sign is the opposite of the first. He localizes a source of confusion: a pair of signs in sextile have half a nature in [6] . includes the fifth sign. their splitting up is not the same: they are either separated by the constant “four” or by the constant “two”. Trine is of complete love. graph written by Ibn Ezra prior to 1148 ("EHad. which extends over a third of the circle. 1985. This applies to one and five. and likewise two and six. because both are even numbers and are divisible into odd numbers. Therefore the astrologers said that the aspect that extends over a quarter of the circle is of hate. which has the same nature as the first. and likewise three and seven because both are odd numbers and divisible by odd numbers”).2:1–9. moistness and dryness. are passive. Corresponds closely to Ta § 3. because heat and cold are active virtues and the other two virtues . Because the third sign is related in nature to the first. they said that it is of half love. and sextile is half love. p. a theoretical mathematical mono. 1–6: Regarding any number … one nature. §§äåù ïäé÷ìçîå úåâåæ íðéà íäéðù éë ¬§æ íò §â äëëå »ãøôðä 7–8: If someone argues … the essence. 400): ìæî䧧 . therefore the aspect of complete love is with respect to the active and passive virtues . because both preserve themselves. Here Ibn Ezra briefly conveys the idea that despite the aforementioned property that pairs of numbers separated by the constant 4 or by the constant 2 are both even or they are both odd.

For Ya#qub al-Kindî’s position on the aspects. 310–313. opposition.1:10: in contrast to a pair of signs in sextile. 2004. 3: Number of lights.8 1: Ya#qub al-Kindî … work out this way. Cf. only “desolation” and “reflecting the light” are mentioned in Ta § 7. Tetrabiblos. v. “conjunction”: Rh. VII. III:1–31. Art of Astrology. Ibn Ezra clears up the confusion up by echoing the explanation he gave at Tb § 2. [2] 1–4: “Receiving” and “giving power” … a man sitting alone. see also above. 1980. although . al-Qabîsî. so too in the case of a pair of signs in an aspect of antagonism. so that although both are either hot or cold. “giving power”: Rh. 1994. Tb § 4. Abbreviation.2:1–4 and note. .1:10. in a completely different order. VII. §4. [1] [2] 2: Ptolemy’s statements … be quartile. Tb § 2. one of them is dry while the other is moist (see Tb § 2. pp. lix:12–14. 91–107. pp. “aspect”: Rh. lviii:10–14. 41–51. . par. See above.1:2. Confusion about the astrological judgments. “receiving”: Rh. VII. namely. Corresponds to Ta § 3.3:1. This passage resists any reasonable elucidation and is in all likelihood a scribal error. lix:6–11.1:10 and note). “occlusion of light”: Rh. pp. 1934. All are studied in the seventh chapter of Reshit Hokhmah I. 292–304. lix:27–lx:1–5: “desolation”: Rh. one of them is dry while the other is moist. which have opposite natures. lvii:6–23. lviii:31–32. 1996. III:10. a pair of signs in quartile do not share active virtues. Here the manuscripts add: “and they were taken from many hundreds”. lxi:4–18. VII:5.298 notes to the second version of the book of reasons common. §4. pp. which share active virtues (heat and cold) but do not share passive virtues (dryness and moisture). VII. Of the eight planetary conditions referred to in this passage. [3] . 287–307. VII. VII. p. VII.9 [1] 2. “reflecting the light”: Rh. 505–507. See also Kitâb al-Madhal.

couching the same mechanism in similar terms. Gemini and Capricorn.7:1–6 and Ta § 2. Taurus and Aquarius.10 1–7: Pain. etc. refers to a characteristic of the rising times of pairs of signs such as Aries and Pisces. we may surmise that the “reason” was related to the fact that the doctrine of the bright and dark degrees and of the pits. II. Tb § 8. See. 37–41. This is probably a reference to the bright and dark degrees and to the pits.12:1–15. Ibn Ezra refers here to a “reason” that is “known” to him. The “other method.chapter four [4] 299 5: The power … latitude plate of the astrolabe . bnf 1058. the Ancients concealed it and did not reveal it in their books”). See below. [1] . … I offer you a comprehensive method to understand them. 154b: úòéãéá ºøùò äðåîùä øòù䧧 . than lists of the pains of the planets in the signs. as can be known by using an astrolabe. in addition to . but is unknown to us because the underlying text of Te #amim II. such as Rh. 2004. Nehoshet A. f. ff. is lost. . §4. … I have now disclosed to you a secret. By contrast with introductions to astrology.3:3–7 and Tb § 4.” which is in all likelihood a reference to the equinoxes. for example. was based on the Hindu theory that the fixed stars are motionless. Moreover. Reshit Hokhmah II. in Mishpetei haMazzalot. §§êìù õøàá ìæî ìë äìòé úåìòî äîë (“Chapter 18: how many degrees each sign rises at the latitude of your country”). Ibn Ezra attributes its elucidation to himself: … ìæîá áëåë ìë áåàëî åøéëæä íéðåîã÷ä姧 ­ã÷ä åäåîéìòä ¬ãåñ êì éúéìéâ øáë … äæ úòãì úììåë êøã êì ïúà ÷ø §§íäéøôñá åäåøéëæä àìå íéðåî (“The Ancients mentioned the pains of each planet in each sign. whereas according to another theory the position of the zodiacal degrees changes with respect to the equinoxes. bnf 1061. Cancer and Sagittarius. I:37–48.10:1–7 Ibn Ezra undertakes to elucidate the mechanism behind the distribution of the pains of the planets among the signs. Judging on the basis of the reference to the “two circles that intersect in two places. pp. .” whose relationship to the “reason” is very difficult to ascertain. and notes there. in Ta § 2. 17a–17b. The first house … applies to all the signs. which include no more . Notice. x:11–16 et passim and al-Qabîsî. In all these cases a special case of symmetry occurs: the rising time of the first … the 10th … the 20th … and the last degree of the first sign of the pair is equal to the rising time of the last … the 20th … the 10th … and the first degree of the second sign of the pair.

300 notes to the second version of the book of reasons however. (b) one of the two houses of each planet.ei ha-Mazzalot uses . and so on. Leo. The importance of these two principles is reflected by the fact that they introduce the discussion of the pains in Ta § 2. the part of the body assigned to Aries. 265 and Art of Astrology. 55. 277. Tb § 4. the following sign is assigned to the neck. Madhal. to localize a disease. The procedure to find the pain of a planet in some zodiacal sign consists basically of two steps: (a) The zodiacal sign in which the pains of the planets are being sought is considered as equivalent to Aries. Mishpe. 468. 1058. f.4:20–21. counterclockwise. áåàëî. except for the luminaries.11 1–4: The color of the mundane houses … degree of the ascendant. the “first” house is considered as equivalent to the fifth sign after Aries.3:2 and note). Ta § 2. [1] . f. the number of signs that separate the “first” house of this planet from this zodiacal sign. v. and in Moladot. f. Two astrological tenets underlie Ibn Ezra’s clarification of this doctrine: (a) each zodiacal sign. bnf . namely. drawing on Mâshâ"llâh. bnf 1056. I:69. In She"elot B. if the “first” house of the planet coincides with this sign. from head to toe (see Tb § 2. and the pain of this planet in this sign is the heart. in other words. p. is considered to be the “first” house. for example. 55b. Corresponds to al-Qabîsî. the “first” house is separated by five signs from the relevant zodiacal sign. that there is a terminological divide: whereas the two vert sions of Sefer ha-Te#amim render “pain” as áàë. 4b. 1996. reference is made to this doctrine in the framework of medical prognostications. this sign is assigned to the head. 2004.10:1 and in Mishpetei haMazzalot. namely. which is the part of the body normally assigned to Leo. p. bnf 1058. If. the “first” house is considered as equivalent to Aries and the pain of this planet in this sign is the head. cf. 17a. Kitâb al. . where a different method for the allocation of colors to the mundane houses is given. beginning with Aries. 1934. VI:28. p. par. § 4.3:2. (b) the pain of some planet in this sign is then established by counting. is assigned to a part of the human body.

Sela. Aries. This reference indicates that the same patron who commissioned Te #amim II also com. see note there. [2] 11: The tables that I have compiled for you. This is a reference to the solar planetary houses: Leo. Cancer. 2003a.1:4). probably an original Latin treatise by Ibn Ezra. Libra. Corresponds to Ta § 2. Corresponds closely to Ta § 4.12 301 1–6: Joys.chapter five §4. Scorpio. [1] 3: It has the “greater half ” … it is the great luminary. Sela. (b) Liber Abraham Iude de nativitatibus.4:3–6. Ibn Ezra presumably composed four versions of the Book of the Tables (úåçåì øôñ). see note there. Tb § 5. the lunar planetary houses. two in Hebrew and two in Latin. See below. By contrast. Taurus. where both the year 1154 as well as a past-tense reference to the Liber de rationibus tabularum may be found (see Liber de nativitatibus. 1996. 78: “anno 1154 ab incarnacione Domini.9:1.7:4 and note). written in some unspecified location in France (See Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. Taking into consideration the likelihood that Te#amim II was composed on 1154 (see below.2:11. the current reference also suggests a connection between Te #amim II and two works written by Ibn Ezra in 1154: (a) the . Capricorn. Gemini.5:3.1 2: A Greek scholar … power of the Sun: Corresponds to Ta § 4. missioned Ibn Ezra to compile a set of astronomical tables.1:4. Virgo. 3 (c)v). Sagittarius. . Tb § 8. [3] 12: The astrologers have found … the day or of the night. See especially Tb § 2. Mercury rejoices … nature of the twelfth house. See Sela. are called the “smaller portion” (Tb § 5.2:11) or the “smaller domain” (Tb § 8. 22–27. p.2:10.3:6–8 and note. § 8. see note there. 3 (a)r. 1484. [1] § 5. 1997. Pisces. [4] . Corresponds to Ta § 4. pp. which were accompanied by their canons or a Book of the Reasons behind Astronomical Tables (úåçåìä éîòè øôñ).5:2. quo hanc edicionem fecimus”). Tb § 5. where a different method for the allocation of the planets to the mundane houses is offered. ff. second version of Liber de rationibus tabularum. 1947. Aquarius.

For Ibn Ezra’s distinctive approach to Kesil and Khima. See Tetrabiblos. and a change from playful. Hebrew øùå÷î ìë çúôì. p. decorum. II. Notice also that in Rh. IV:10.1:3. Tb §6. B Berakhot 58b). According to talmudic traditions (Genesis Rabbah 10:7. ingenuous error to seriousness. See previous note. desire for substance. which Ibn Ezra echoes in his commentary on Job 38:31. Ibn Ezra. pp. [7] 16: Because the lion is. xxxvii:6–7 Ibn Ezra states that Khima is a star with the complexion of Mars and the Moon. 445: “The lord of the middle sphere. See below. for the period of nineteen years. this verse speaks of the influence of these two constellations on the ripening of fruits. by the reference to Job 38:31. [3] . glory. takes over the fourth age. 1980. Leo. and on agriculture. See also Ta § 10.2 4: “Loosen the ties”. Corresponds to Ta § 1.” [6] 15: Ptolemy’s statements … all actions are its action. p. wherein he implants in the soul at length the mastery and direction of its actions. in particular. and position. see note there. the sun. and above.6:1 and note. 9:6 and Ibn Ezra’s long commentary on this verse. [1] [2] 4: We know that no light … heat dries things up. which is the middle one in order.9:2 and note. These words derive from Job 38:31 (çzô"z ìé!ñ"k úÇë"Öî Çà äîé!k úÇpA#òî øgK"úä). IV:10. is the planetary house of the Sun. see Sela.5:12. Hebrew äòáù äãîòä øçà For this translation. young manhood. 1980. Tb § 2. a verse which mentions two constellations—Kesil and Khima—that are usually taken to be the Pleiades and Orion. [8] §5. 2003a. and ambition.302 [5] notes to the second version of the book of reasons 13: The Persian scientists mentioned … did not provide any explanation. íéîé: 5: Seven days after its first visibility. see Ex. 257–273. in general. 445. 13: Ptolemy’s opinion is that it lasts 19 years : See Tetrabiblos. the lion. seems to want to convey the idea that the Moon too exerts its influence on fruits.

the fardâr of the . above.2:11 and note.1:7. suitably to her own active qualities. [7] 16: One less than the years of the fardâr of the Sun. 443: “For up to about the fourth year. A similar approach. p. These are called the years of rearing by the astrologers. See Art of Astrology.” see Tb §7. See. Aries. Taurus.9:2 and note. Notice that at Tb § 5.1:3) or the “larger domain” (Tb § 8. xlviii:6 and al-Qabîsî. of its food. [8] 17: It serves … four natures. following the number which belongs to the quadrennium. 2004. Pisces. By contrast.8:8 (see note there). IV. See Tetrabiblos. IV.” See Tb § 6. IV:10. For the expression “rays of the Sun. [5] 9: Inferior to the right.5:6. its quick growth and the moist nature.” [10] . Gemini. 1980. p.chapter five [4] 303 8: The Moon … superior world. II:22. 522. par. § 4. the changeability of its condition.1:4). This is a reference to the lunar planetary houses: Cancer.3:6–8 and note. 103a: ãâðë äìôùä äâøãîá äãáì äðáìä姧 úçà úðåëúî ìò ãçà òâø åãîòé àìå åðúùé äðáìä úçú øùàå … äðåëéúä §§íîöòá (“the Moon alone is in the lower rank vis-à-vis the middle rank … and those beneath the Moon alter and never stay in the same condition for a moment”). 324: “It is impossible to have confidence in its [the infant’s] survival until it has attained the age of four years. See especially Tb § 2. München 202. f. Corresponds to Ta § 2.5:3. Aquarius.1:13 Ibn Ezra discusses other values for the Sun’s fardâr.2:8. the moon takes over the age of infancy and produces the suppleness and lack of fixity in its body. although without mentioning Abû Ma#shar as the source. 11: Smaller portion … small luminary. [6] 15: Its great … rays of the Sun. l:26. and the imperfection and inarticulate state of its soul.8:6 and Rh. Corresponds to Ta § 4. 1934. Corresponds closely to Ta § 4. [9] 17: Only then … he will live. the solar planetary houses are called the “greater half ” of the circle (Tb § 5. Sun is 10 years long. as a rule. can be found in Me"orot. 73. § 4. According to Rh. placing the Moon in an intermediate position between the sublunary domain and the other components of the supralunary domain. Tb § 5.

1–22: The Moon indicates life … its nature is like theirs. p. Mishpetei haMazzalot. [2] 4: They said … generates moisture. (Latin Alcabitius. l:14–li:8 Mishpetei haMazzalot. Corresponds to Ta § 1. which are predicated upon the “nature” of the planets (cold/hot. See above.7:5 where the taste of Mercury is said to be sour “because it is cold and dry more often than not”. Kitâb al-Madhal. f. dry/moist) and known from experience. haMazzalot.3:15 where Saturn is said to have a sour taste. 2004. IV. The tastes of the planets are commonplace in introductions to astrology: Rh.5:13– 15. 1996. pp. 63–83.5:8 where the taste of Mars is said to be bitter and pungent. see also below § 5.304 [11] notes to the second version of the book of reasons 18: As I have explained regarding the Sun. bnf 1058. notes below the text). II:2–36. As for the tastes of the planets.2:1. Tb § 5. 1994. Cancer is the planetary house of the Moon. IV. 21: As I have already explained. Corresponds to Mishpetei . See above. 21b: ¬÷öåîä ìâìâ úåìôùá äéä íà çìå ø÷ àåä姧 [3] . [14] [15] 22: Its nature is like theirs. VII:9. see . al-Qabîsî. Ta § 4.3 [16] 1: They divided … the right ear to it. ff. Abbreviation. § 5. p. v.2:6. § 5. § 5. l:27: The Moon … gives an indication about … women and any pregnant woman.8:1–8. 313 (for Mars). See also Ta § 4. xlix:20– 21 (for Mercury). [1] 2–3: They said … its body is small.2:2. . Tb § 5. Corresponds to Ta § 4. bnf 1058. [13] 22: Its flavor is salty taste. [12] 21: Short of stature … is short. bnf 1058. Cf. 63 (for Mars). 21b. 21a (for Saturn . See Rh. Rh. IV. and Ta § 4.4:15 where the taste of Jupiter is said to be sweet. 21a– . and Jupiter).1:6. f.

and Mercury are lords of the crafts. Notice. They were clearly part of the lost Reshit Hokhmah II. bnf 1056. Moladot. 10: Science of truth because it is uppermost. bnf 1058. See also Ta §4. that Ibn Ezra employs here biblical terms that are somewhat related to Saturn’s properties: (a) ìáë “fetters” derives from Ps. xliii:25. however.2:1. 11: Fetters and blows on trees and stones. . 6: It indicates … black bile. Corresponds to Mishpetei haMazzalot. 24:16] and the principles”). xlii:26. f. § 4. §§íéø÷òäå (“ Saturn’s portion among the sciences is the knowledge of the most High [Num. §§úéòéáøä úçã÷ä å÷ìçáå … íéëåøàä íéàåìçúä (“In its portion … are chronic diseases … and quartan fever”).2:5 and Rh. cold and dry when it is at its apogee”). [6] [7] 8: Mars. IV.2:7. [4] 7: The father … from it [the Earth]. 20b. úìåôî úçú úéîäì úåîä êàìî åîë àåä ììëäå … íéð÷æä å÷ìçáå … éàúáù§§ §§íéîá òéáèäì åà äåáâ íå÷îî êéìùäì åà (“Saturn … the elderly are in its portion … and this is the rule: it is like the angel of death. Venus. See Ta § 4. II as a quote from an underlying text to be explained—appear in Reshit Hokhmah I. 21a: . xlvii:27. Also corresponds closely to Mishpetei haMazzalot. Notice that fathers are usually assigned to the Sun. Corresponds to Ta § 4.chapter five §§åúåäáâá äéä íà ùáéå ø÷å 305 (“It is cold and moist when it is at the perigee of the eccentric circle.5:5. Venus. bnf 1058. As for “chronic diseases” (íéëåøà íéàåìçú) and “quartan fever” (úçã÷ä úéòéáøä). f. bnf 1058. bnf 1056. [5] 7: Ancient and old … opposite of life. Hebrew úåëîå ìáëä None of these words—which are included in Te #amim . see Mishpetei haMazzalot. Corresponds to Ta § 4. IV. 58a: äàøå äîç áëëå äâðå íéãàî íå÷î ìà ìëúñú§§ §§úåðîåàä èéìù àø÷é àåäå äìàä úåîå÷îä ìò èéìùä àåä éî (“Look at the place of Mars. Rh. killing in an avalanche or by being thrown from a high place or by drowning in water”).1:5. a verse that rehashes the story of Joseph. . who was in prison [9] . f. 21b: … å÷ìçá姧 . and this planet is called the lord of the crafts”). and Mercury and find out which is the lord in these places. f. 105:18. Corresponds to Rh. f. IV. [8] íéðáàáå íéöòá. 21a: ïåéìò úòã úåîëçäî å÷ìçá姧 . See Moladot.

see below. [13] 19: It indicates donkeys … the Sun horses … the Moon indicates bulls. If it is the Sun. which is cold. § 5. IV:10.5:10 where Mars indicates mules.”). 20b–22a) but not in Reshit Hokhma I. pack horses. See Tetrabiblos. If the indicator is Jupiter. cattle. donkeys.3:9. p. where Saturn is described as indicating “prison.6:1 and note. and § 5. Corresponds to Ta § 4. it indicates … mules. [10] [11] 13: Its least … only experience. elephants. when he walks he lowers his eyes. closely to Abû Ma#shar in The Book of Religions and Dynasties (On the Great Conjunctions. 12: Its day … the Sun.6:5 where Venus indicates camels. p. If it is Mars. If it is Venus. Corresponds . or in the lavers made of stone. As for the riding animals. camels.306 notes to the second version of the book of reasons when his father thought he was in the grave. a place where a man stays. it indicates a brown-skinned person. pp.3:9. If it is the Moon.2:8.2:10. see note there. probably derive from Ex. 65: “Mâshâ"allâh said: . 2004. this may be connected to Tb § 5. a verse that tells how “water” in vessels of wood and stone was transformed into blood. 2000.2:11. in the vessels made of wood. horses. Tb § 6. this is connected to Tb § 5. See above Tb § 5. bnf 1058. Corresponds to Ta § 4. ff. IV:10. 1980. § 5. 442–447. and Ta § 10. (b) íéðáàáå íéöòá “on trees and stones”.9:2 and note. where Saturn is closely related to “water”. 14: In Ptolemy’s opinion … this method is true. just like the grave”.7:8 where Mercury indicates small cattle. of the appearances of people. [12] 16–17: He … has a sparse beard … his face is black … and he looks at the ground because of the heaviness of its motion. Corresponds closely to al-Qabîsî. For the years of the fardâr. 49): “If the indicator of this is Saturn.ei ha-Mazzalot (Mishpetei haMazt .” [14] . 7:19: åéäù íéîä .íéðáàáå íéöòáå íòè姧 §§®ïáàî íéùòðä íéøåéëá åà ¬õò éìëá ¬íéúáá (“On trees and stones means the water in the houses. II:6. 7:19.4:19 where Jupiter indicates elephants. zalot. If it is Mercury. see also below §5. he walks heavily … having a sparse beard”. Corresponds to Ta § 4. Similar information is offered in the section devoted to the planets’ properties in Mishpe. See long commentary on Ex.1:12.

like Jupiter”).3:1. see note there. which means honor but also exaltation. p. Hebrew ÷ãö èåôùì úåøåúå íéèôùîä úîëç ìë: There is here a pun on the word ÷ãö. 3–6: In my opinion … its complexion is temperate. Tb § 5. úåøåúå íéèôùîä úîëç. Notice that a different method for the allocation of planets to mundane houses is offered in the doctrine of the planets’ joys (Tb § 4. Notice that Taurus is the exaltation of the Moon. because its motion is sluggish. Mishpetei haMazzalot.3:2–3. above. which means bull but is also the name of the sign of Taurus. 1980. [3] [4] 7: I have… left ear.” Hebrew. Tb § 5. Ibn Ezra conveys a similar idea in Liber de rationibus tabularum and in [6] .4 1: I have already mentioned … with Saturn’s.ei ha-Mazzalot. See Tetrabiblos. t [5] 9: The astrological judgments change … distance from it. 9: All the science of laws and ordinances to pronounce a just judgment. which denotes Jupiter but here means just judgment. III:11. See. and of the Hebrew word ãåáë. 20: Saturn indicates lead because of the heaviness and because it is in the dust. The method for the allocation of planets to mundane houses on which Ibn Ezra comments here is ascribed to Ibn Abi Damina in a parallel and very similar passage in Ta § 4.2:3 and above. see above.chapter five [15] 307 19: Bulls … have their dignity in Taurus.1:5–7.3:1–3 and the corresponding quotation from Mishpe.5:5 (“It indicates ordinances and laws. xliii:1. There is here a play on the double meaning of the Hebrew word øåù.12:1–6). For the expression “science of laws and ordinances. See. [1] [2] 5: Ptolemy said … will be strong. Similarly with its nature. 339–341. [16] §5.”) See also Rh. 21a. above. . 309. f. note on Tb §3. Corresponds to Ta § 4. pp. bnf 1058. IV.3:7 (“it indicates the ground … and the grave is a place from which a man does not move. Corresponds to Ta § 4. Tb § 5. III:13.

2: Mentioned above in the section on Jupiter. . IV. Macedonem Grecie reges Egypto cclxxv annis imperrase narrantur. See above. Ibn Ezra received the (“Arab”) mythical King Ptolemy from his Arabic sources. Rh.4:1 and notes. 9–10: When Mercury gives … the temperate nature. 73: “Item omnia iudicia astronomica secundum proportionem aliarum planetarum ad solem fiunt”. [2] 5: The science of medicine and surgery belong to it. Ex quibus unus ex Philadelphia ortus in Egypto regnans [5] . See above. for the sun’s sphere lies just below it. p. 6: Ptolemy.” See Ta § 1. Refers to Tetrabiblos. Tb § 5. Cf. See above. See Abû Ma#shar’s Kitâb al-Madhal. Tb § 5.18:2. where Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos is also taken to task on similar grounds. See notes there. 56: “Post Alexandrus . I:4. [3] [4] 5: Mentioned in the section on Saturn. II:9. viii.308 notes to the second version of the book of reasons his Commentary on Psalms 19:10.5:5 and § 2. Commentary on Psalms 19:10: ìà íëøòá íéúøùîä úëøòî éôë úåìæîä úîëç éèôùî éë òåãé Ð §éèôù§ §§ùîùä (“Judgments—It is known that the judgments of the science of the zodiacal signs are pronounced according to the configuration of the planets and the ratio of their distances to the Sun”). See above. in conformity with his fiery color and by reason of his nearness to the sun. IV:I. p. p.3:5. the King. 2004. quorum x continuo succedentes omnes uno Ptholomei nomine vocati sunt. [7] [8] 11: Its day and night … the Sun. xlv:27–29 and Ta § 4.5 [1] 1: Do not heed … above the Sun. p.3:8.1:12. Corresponds to al-Qabîsî. [9] §5. 1980. Tb § 2. See Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. 1996. 12: Its least years … its least years. 1947. Tb § 5. 67. 37: “The nature of Mars is chiefly to dry and to burn.4:4. Hebrew êìîä éîìú.

Notice that Te#amim II . which is the reading . on the other. [10] . which constitutes the musical concord of a fifth and is indeed a “good” or “noble” ratio (see Ta § 4. which do not represent any musical concord and are therefore not “good” or “noble” ratios. namely 4:3. see note there. and Mishpe. f. Hot and dry … found by experience. see Sela. pp. et passim). [6] 7: Saturn and Mars … the luminaries.” Ibn Ezra in turn created a new (“Jewish”) mythical King Ptolemy—not only the flesh-and-blood astronomer of antiquity but also the “King Ptolemy” who promoted the translation of the Septuagint. [7] 7: The maleficence of Saturn is removed because they [Saturn and Mars] have a good ratio. which represents the musical concord of the fourth and is also a “good” or “noble” ratio (see Ta § 4.chapter five 309 astronomie Librum Almagesti greca ionica lingua scripsit. bnf 1058. see note there.1:3 and note). 3:2. [8] 7: The same applies to Venus and Mercury with Mars. name of Claudius Ptolemy: whereas in the first pair Ptolemy is designated by the biblical name Talmai (2Sam. on the one hand. The ratio Mars-Venus or Mars-Mercury is 211/3:16.1:4. Te #amim I. For Ptolemy the King in Ibn Ezra’s work. or 20.5:6)—and not 6. Corresponds closely to Ta § 4. of all manuscripts of Te#amim I.1:3 and note). Eidem nonnulli et Astrologie Tractatus Quatuor Partium asscribunt.4:1–6 and Mishpetei haMazzalot. go in opposite directions regarding the Hebrew . 2003a.almiyûs is used. t 6: The number of the Sun … to the Earth ’s orb . The ratio of Saturn to Mars is 32:211/3. the . 3:3.ei ha-Mazzalot. That 32:21 1/3 or 3:2 is a “good” ratio demonstrates that the number that Ibn Ezra originally assigned to Mars was 211/3—as in the Canobic Inscription and in the Epistle on Music (see above. Corresponds loosely to Ta § 4. 1 Chron. For if 20 or 6 is assigned to Mars. which appears in some manuscripts of Te #amim II. ratio of Saturn to Mars is 32:20 (8:5) or 32:6 (16:3). [9] 1–12: Mars. 296–305. Corresponds closely to Ta § 4. and Reshit Hokhmah I and t . . or 3:2. note on Tb § 5. 21b. in the second pair the Arabic Ba.1:2.

In his commentary on Ecclesiastes 7:3 Ibn Ezra refers to the superior soul as the “speaking” soul: úéùéìù ùôð åãáì íãàì姧 §§äîëçä úìòá ø÷ùå úîà ïéá úøëîä úøáãîä àéä äîùð úàø÷ðä àéä (“Man alone is endowed with a third soul. The sources of this pattern can be traced back to Plato and Aristotle (Timaeus 69a. 414a. 69d. 1934. xlviii:30. In Ibn Ezra’s view. par. as stated in Rh. inter alia. Mishpetei haMazzalot. .6 1: The instrument … for sexual intercourse. 62b. Mivharim A.5:2 and Tb § 5.3:10. the “superior soul” is also the main instrument available to human beings to evade. [1] 4: Experts in the images. . This is in all likelihood a reference to semen. the long commentary on Exodus 23:25. 22a–22b. p.1:2). Ta § 4. De Anima 413a. f. xlviii:8–xlix:7. [2] 1–7: Venus.7 3: The tongue … belongs to it. She"elot A. 108b: íãàä úîùðì ù駧 . Hebrew úåøåöä éìòá. 414b). [1] ¬íéáëåëä åøåéù äî ìë ìò òåøâì åà óéñåäìå íéèøôä úö÷ ìèáì çë äðåéìòä §§ììëä ìèáì äì çë ïéà ÷ø (“The superior soul of man has the power to avert something of the particular events and to augment or reduce . Mishpetei haMazzalot. see note there. the planet that is in charge of the tongue and of faculty of speech.310 notes to the second version of the book of reasons §5. 77. . 426. 413b. Rh. bnf 1058. f. f. Cf. commentary on Ecclesiastes 7:3.” The term “speaking soul” creates a clear link with Mercury. inter alia. See. IV. bnf 1058. bnf 1056.’ which distinguishes between truth and falsehood and possesses wisdom. 79d. f. According to Mishpetei haMazzalot.6:1–4. II:27. and the wise or superior soul. A benefic planet … as its small years . [3] §5. München 202. 17b. See. in part. and Art of Astrology. which is designated ‘the speaking soul. A scrutiny of Ibn Ezra’s literary work reveals that the “superior soul”—Hebrew äðåéìòä äîùðä—is the highest component of the tripartite soul: the vegetative or appetitive soul. 21b . Corresponds to the “scholars of the images” in Tb §2. IV. p. the animal or locomotive soul. a fact of which Ibn Ezra seems to have been aware (Ta § 4. 2004. 248 the genitals are in Venus’ charge. bnf 1058. ff. the decrees of the stars. al-Qabîsî.

3:14. p. See also Kennedy. f.7:1–6. pp.8 [1] 1: When the Moon is also there. [5] [6] 6: Why it is mutable. 87. 1994. [7] 1–10. See above Tb § 2. p. 59b–60a (quoted below at the note to Tb § 6. and note. Art of Astrology. Mercury. Ta § 4. so that their ratio is 16:16. Tetrabiblos. IV:10. [2] 3: As I have … the Ancients. According to Tb § 5. 8: Scholars of the images.7:11.2:8. See notes there.8:6. [8] §5. See above. [4] 5: Because its ratio to Venus is 1:1.chapter five 311 everything indicated by the stars. This is the value provided by Ibn Ezra in Moladot. bnf 1056. Cf. IV. each under the charge of a different planet. 1980. 1964. bnf 1058. 29. Tb § 5.11:1. also Ta § 4. Tb § 4. xlix:8–l:12. 22b.1:2 and note). § 5.2:17. l:4.6:1) as well as by Abû Ma#shar and Al-Bîrûnî: Abbreviation.7:3 .7:2. 1934. bnf 1058. Corresponds to Tb §6. Tb § 5. [2] . See above. par. but it does not have power to annul universal events”).9:2.3:10. 442– 447. 437. This is the planet of wit and wisdom … its terms in the signs. 4: Mercury … to begin to speak: Corresponds to Ta §4. See above. IV. [3] 4: The Moon has the power … in all his actions. Rh. 3: The fardâr years of the Head are three. ff. haMazzalot. 22b. and note. Rh. the numbers of Venus and Mercury are 16 (see Ta § 4. Mishpetei . namely 1:1. § 5.5:7. This refers to the division of life into seven stages. Notice that all the manuscripts examined read “two” years. Ta § 4. p. Tb § 2.2:6. 255. See above. Mishpetei haMazzalot. f.

the majority of them said that the Head was a benefic with the benefics and a malefic with the malefics. [1] 3–5: They said that if a benefic planet … Head of the Dragon and its Tail. See also Kennedy. [2] . 1971. and if the benefics are with it. [2] §6. pp. 87. 525–526. ff. Corresponds closely to Ta § 5. Nallino. 2004. and if the malefics are with it. IV:3. . V. 1964.” For another very similar statement. Tb § 2. al-Qabîsî. 1987. 1934. Madhal. 2004. par. 437. .–liii:1 f. par. 1996. 89. This procedure is designated Nimubar (øàáåîéð) in Moladot. §5. See also Kitâb al-Mawâlîd. p.7:12.1 1: Degrees of the nativity. Because of this. see al-Qabîsî. Art of Astrology. . 59b–60a (quoted below at the note to Tb § 6. V. Abbreviation. p. 89.312 [3] notes to the second version of the book of reasons 1–3: The Head of the Dragon … verified by experience. Art of Astrology. p. München 202. f.9 2: Its fardâr years are two. 496. and the Tail a benefic with the malefics and a malefic with the benefics. 328–331. 1899. 57: “Some of the early writers claimed that the Head is of the nature of increasing. al-Qabîsî. above. 55–57. .8:3 and note. v. A virtually identical statement is given in Abbreviation. 47a. it increases their good fortune. II:48. 149. But the Tail is of the nature of decreasing. bnf 1056. [1] 1: Male are always born … females in even hours . Bouché-Leclercq. p. This section studies a procedure designed to find the ascendant in those cases where the precise time of birth is not known—the situation in the vast majority of cases. pp. Tb § 5. lii:28 f. it detracts from their good fortune. p. and if the malefics are with it. 87–89. it increases their harming. See Mivharim A. bnf 1056. 1994. lii:25–29– liii:1–4. Kitâb al. p. bnf 1056. See Rh. 109–111. 1994. f. 2004. See Moladot.. 11b: äòùá åúùà íò øáçúäì äöøéù é . 2004. Abbreviation. Rh. pp. 373–390. and above. II:45–46.3:1–5. al-Qabîsî. 307.6:1). p. VII:6. Cf. and if the benefics are with it. 255. p. 1934. it detracts from their harming. 1994. and animodar or numûdâr in other sources. 29. f. p. pp. II:48. 47a–47b. See Moladot.

For the correspondence between female/male and even/odd hours.an (The Little t book of the wizard) and in Sefer ha-"Ilan (Book of the Tree). that is.chapter six 313 §§äìéìá åà íåéá úåâåæä úåòùäî äòùä äéäú àìù øîùä ¬øëæ ïá åì äéäéù (“One who wishes to have sexual intercourse with his wife in a specific hour to father a son should take care that the hour not be even-numbered. p. al-Qabîsî. For the legendary figure of Enoch. Ibn . of both the luminaries if it is a new moon. 47a. where Ibn Ezra also gives details about Enoch’s approach: òâøá äðáìä íå÷î íãà ãìåîá íìåòì êåðç øîà … êåðç éðæàî íä úîàä姧 [5] . 47b. then. 231–233: “It would be necessary that an account first be given how one might … discover the degree of the zodiac which should be rising. Ptolemy developed this doctrine in the otherwise unknown Sefer ha-Qosem ha-Qa. p. which is discovered by the method of ascensions. f. only what Enoch said is true and corroborated by experience. whether it be a new moon or a full moon. and is compatible with nature. f. or Hermes. pp. 525. given the degree of the known hour nearest the event. 5: As a general rule. see note at Ta § 1. 1934. 114a. bnf 1056. bnf 1056. likewise having ascertained the degree accurately. see Art of Astrology. either by day or by night”). where he writes that. we must see what stars rule it at the time of the birth. 238. 2004. and I have sought meticulously the moment of the nativity and did not find that the degrees of the cardines are equal to the number of degrees of the lord of the nativity . 1980.2:3. 1934. and. par. ff. A similar statement is found in Moladot. bnf 1056. 109–111. 329. Ezra explains the same procedure in detail in Moladot. III:2. par. … Hence it was clear to me that this method of correction is false”). take the syzygy most recently preceding the birth. pp. We must. A similar endorsement of Enoch’s procedure is found in Moladot. 390. See also f. 3: Ptolemy said … the opposition of the luminaries .” See also Art of Astrology. in addition to Tetrabiblos. [3] 4: Now I have tested … of any of the planets. IV:3. the apocryphal Centiloquium. and if it is a full moon that of the one of them that is above the earth. 47a–47b: íéîòô íéúéñð éðà é맧 [4] øôñîë úåãúéä úåìòî éúàöî àìå ãìåîä òâø éú÷ã÷ãù íìù úùåçðä éìëá úåáø §§äîä ìáä íéðæàîä åìà éë éì øøáúä 맧ò … èéìùä úåìòî (“For I have tested them many times with the complete astrolabe. See Tetrabiblos.

the location of the Moon at the time of birth is always the degree of the ascendant at the moment of the descent of the drop of semen into the womb. Enoch’s procedure is also recorded in Mishpe.ei ha-Mazzalot (Mishpetei haMazzalot. §§äôéèä òâø äéä éúî úòãì ìëåð ãìåîä òâø åðòãé íàå ãìåîä § 6. 2006. the one which occurs before the Sun enters Aries”). 1: I shall say more on this subject. bnf 1056. 16b). 81b: [1] íçëð åà úåøåàîä úøáçî òâøá çîåöä ìæîä ìà äìåãâä úøáçîá ìëúñä äðä姧 (“ In the year of a great conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter .2 1: As is written in the Book of the World: Taken at face value. p. 1980. 1899. See also #Olam A. first those [3] . 1934. §§äìè ìæîá ùîùä ñðëä íãå÷ äìçú äéäéù íäî äæ éà [2] 5. and the degree of the ascendant at the moment of birth is the place where the Moon was at the moment of the descent of the drop into the womb .#Olam. f. pp. 39. 271–273: “Of length of life: … Among these there are to be preferred. or before the opposition of the luminaries”). observe the ascendant at the moment of the conjunction of the luminaries or of their opposition. this passage may refer to either the first or the second versions of Sefer ha. Bouché-Leclercq. n. Tb § 6. For an argument for the second version of Sefer ha. bnf 1058. p.1:1– 2: Ptolemy said … it has great power. with reference to power of domination. f. if we know the moment of the descent of the drop. which is the conjunction of the two luminaries. we can know the moment of birth. See #Olam B. § 7. 379–383.#Olam. See below. therefore. see Sela-Freudenthal.2:10. III:10. whether it occurs before the Sun enters the sign of Aries. 88a: ìëúñäì êì ùé éë ¬ììë øîå১ ñðëä íãå÷ äúéä íà ¬úåøåàîä éðù úøáçî àéäù ¬úéø÷òä úøáçîä ìà … §§úåøåàîä çëð åà ¬äìè ìæîá ùîùä (“I give a general rule: observe … the main conjunction. 526. bnf 1058. Corresponds to Tetrabiblos. See also Art of Astrology.314 notes to the second version of the book of reasons òâøá úçîåöä äìòîäå ¬íçøá äôéèä úãø òâøá úçîåöä äìòîä àéä ãìåîä òâø úòãì ìëåð äôéèä òâø åðòãé íà 맧ò »äôéèä òâøá äðáìä äúéä íù ãìåîä (“But the most trustworthy is Enoch’s method of corrections. par. 37. f. … Enoch said: In a man’s nativity. . and if we know the moment of birth we can know the moment of the descent of t the drop”). 329–330. pp.

242–245. Hebrew Tb § 3. then those in the sign succedent to the mid-heaven. 1976. diverge regarding terminology here: in Te #amim II the five places of . II:4– . al-Qabîsî. The current passage discusses the criteria for the selection of the hyl"ej (Tb § 6. 324: “They look whether there is a haylâj or not. 2004. then the most powerful planet as regarding dignities of those in an aspect to it is the kadkhuda. 3–11: Because the Sun … the native will die.” Cf. Te #amim II and Mishpe. 50a: [5] äìà ùåøéôå äàãëãë ìà èéìùäå §âàìéä íééçä úåîå÷î §äì åàø÷é íééñøôä姧 §§äá÷ðå øëæ úåìîä (“The Persians designate the five places of life hyl"ej and the ruler the kadkad"ah. tenth cardo: See above. meaning woman … kadkad"ah meaning husband. Hebrew Tb § 3. . ãúé éøéùò. p.2:1 and § 8.6:1. or prorogative places. tenth cardo: See above. life. p.2:11) “directed” to a malefic place (Hebrew: òø íå÷î)—i. lit. f. 1934. (4) the part of the fortune. 111–115.2:5). 522. See Art of Astrology. 522. then those in the occident. pp. 5: Hyl"ej. éøéùò ãúé. Kitâb al-Mawâlîd. see also below. Ta § 3.e. 1971. the degrees of the resulting zodiacal arc converted into a number of years. of one of the five places of life—Hebrew: íééçä úåîå÷î—mentioned in Tb § 6. II:5. Carmen Astrologicum.2:5 and note. p. p. which represent the prospective length of life of the native. . After it has been determined according to the proper rules. Kitâb al-Mawâlîd. par. then those in the orient. The haylâj is one of these. Art of Astrology. The hyl"ej is subsequently (see Tb § 6. bnf 1058.2:5 and note.6:2 and note. 242. [6] 9: Tenth house. ff. see Mishpetei haMazzalot. for the whole region below the earth must. p. then those in the sign rising before mid-heaven. bnf 1056. 1971.chapter six 315 which are in the midheaven. (5) the degree of conjunction or opposition of the moon preceding the birth. are designated íééç úåîå÷î “places of life”. as is reasonable.ei ha-Mazzalot t . For this nomenclature and its meaning. that is. (3) the degree of the ascendant. lit. p. (2) the moon by day and the sun by night. 115.4:6. 2004. 1934. day or night. meaning male and female”). This they search for in five places: (1) the lord of the time.. 242. [4] 3: Tenth house. For this procedure. par. 5. be disregarded when a domination of such importance is concerned. III:2. 22a–22b. Tb § 8.” See also al-Qabîsî. see Moladot. 324. [7] .

For a reference to the same subject in the first version of Sefer ha-Moladot. bnf 1058.” and ïçä úðî “lot of beauty”. See Mishpetei haMazzalot.6:2–3). Latin revolutio). Hebrew äðùä úôå÷ú. … And when the ruler reaches a ‘place of cutting’ the native will die that same year”). bnf 1056. fols. the anniversary horoscope drawn up when the Sun arrives at the same point in the zodiac where it was at the time of birth (see Tb § 8. and the lot of Fortune is designated áåèä ìøåâ “the benefic lot”. ff. .2:7–9. 49a–49b: ìëúñä íìåòì ®ãìåðä ééç ìò øáãà äúò姧 ìëåð æà … ১éä úéáá åà §éä úéáá äúéä íàù ùîùä íå÷î ìà íåéá ãìåðä íà úåîé úøë íå÷î ìà ïîæä åúåàá òéâé íà … ùîùä íå÷îî íééçä úåðù äîë úòãì §§äðù äúåàá ãìåðä (“I shall now discuss the length of life of the native. always observe the place of the Sun. This term. bnf 1056. íéìùåî 11: As I shall explain in the Book of Nativities: This is in all likelihood a reference to the lost second version of Sefer ha-Moladot. The value of the “revolution” offered here—5 hours and 49 minutes—is the one endorsed by Ibn Ezra in Sefer ha-Moladot. 22a–22b. is a crucial parameter in continuous horoscopy for the calculation of the “revolution of the year”.316 or èéìù notes to the second version of the book of reasons “rulers”. and the conversion of this value from equinoctial hours and minutes to equinoctial degrees and minutes. § 8. the preponderant planet in the hyl"ej is designated “lord”. Ibn Sînâ and . See Moladot. since if it is in the 10th or in the 11th house … we can know the years of life from the place of the Sun. If the native was born by day. namely. denoting the notion of rotation or period. Hebrew äôå÷ú (Arabic adwâr.3 [1] 1: Revolution. 59a– 59b: úåìòî 槧ô äôå÷úå äôå÷ú ïéá äéäúù ãçà ÷ìç §éôà åá ùáúùð àì姧 §§íé÷ìç 姧è íâ (“And we will not make a mistake of even one minute if between one revolution and another there are 87 degrees and 15 minutes”).” ãé÷ô “officer in charge. 1: 5 hours and 49 minutes: The reckoning of the “revolution” is taken here to be the calculation of the excess over 365 days of the length of the solar year. see Moladot. Azarchiel. § 8. This is also the value endorsed by al-Sûfî. ff.5:3. [8] § 6. in Mishpe.ei ha-Mazzalot the respective terms are äøøùä úåîå÷î t “places of governance. after a long digression about the length of the solar year. and the one that Ibn Ezra applied in his own astronomical [2] .

producto superaddentes 49 minuta hore que supererant … Iam docuimus supra quod annus solaris secundum has tabulas est 365 dierum et 5 horarum et 49 minutorum hore et 38 secundarum”. Corresponds to Moladot. bnf 1056. Carmen Astrologicum. 522. pp. See Liber de Rationibus Tabularum.4:1–8. ideo dies vertimus in horas adiungentes producto 5 horas que supersunt.chapter six 317 tables. [1] §6.7:1–7. pp.” . 117– . §6. 2004. in contrast to Ta § 10. there are no specific instructions to calculate the aspects. where Ibn Ezra explains how the difference of longitude between two planets changes in relation to the latitude of the places where the aspects are calculated. .5 1: As I have explained you.4 1–3: The “terminal house” … until the end of the division. 95–96: “Superius ergo docuimus quod secundum rationem harum tabularum annus 365 dies continet et quartam. 61a.8:2. defines the “terminal house. par. See also Art of Astrology.8:1–10.6:1–6. 325. IV:8. § 10. et hoc secundum probationem Azofi et Abencine et Acerchel … et quia in anno solari ultra 365 dies aliquot hore supersunt. pp. 1947. . 1934. f. al-Qabîsî. and the sign which is next to the sign where the counting is exhausted is the sign of the intihâ". … Its lord is called the sâlhudây. 245–246. p. et quia etiam horis predictis aliquot minuta hore supersunt ideo omnes horas illas minuta hore convertimus. in his Introduction to Astrology (al-Qabîsî. [1] . and you begin with the ascendant of the nativity in the order of the signs. as follows: “As for the years of the nativities. Notice that in Te#amim II. knowledge of this is that you consider the complete solar years which have passed for the native and take a sign for each year. Refers to Tb § 4. § 10. 1976.” which he designates intihâ". 119). centesimam sextam partem diei minus. § 10. IV:1. which means the lord of the year.

but for an explanation of the fardâr by Ibn Ezra.318 notes to the second version of the book of reasons §6. See above. The “lord” (Hebrew ãé÷ô) stands here for the planet that is lord of some day of the week. … And after it Saturn.1:13. see Moladot. … And after it the Moon secludes itself in its seventh.1:12. … And after it Jupiter which indicates alone in its seventh. Ta § 10. [1] .9:2. [1] 1: In the Book of Nativities.6 1: As for the parts that are called the fardâr … from observation. … And after Venus Mercury gives an indication alone in its seventh. 59b–60a: éòéáøä姧 [2] úåàì úåéäì ùîùä ìçú íåéá ãìåðä éë úòãì êì ùéå »øàãøô ìà àø÷ðä ÷ìçä å÷ìç ìëå å÷ìç úéòéáùá åãáì äøåîä äâð äéäé 맧çàå äéäé äéøçàå … íéðù §é ãìåðä ìò äðù ⧧é àåäù å÷ìç úéòéáùá åãáì äøåî äîç áëë äéäé äâð øçàå … íéðù §ç … íéðù §è àéäù ä÷ìç úéòéáùá äãáì äðáìä ããåáúú åéøçàå … äøåîä ÷ãö äéäé åéøçàå … äðù ১é àåäù å÷ìç úéòéáùá åãáì äøåîä éúáù úéòéáùá åãáì äøåîä äéäé åéøçàå … äðù ᧧é àåäù … å÷ìç úéòéáùá åãáì éìúä ùàø íéðù §â åãáì äøåîä äéäé åéøçàå … íéãàî úçà äðù àåäù å÷ìç … íééúðù åáðæ åéøçàå §§äìçúáë ùîùä ìçúå äìéìç §éáëëä åøæçé (“The fourth thing to be taken into consideration each year is the part that is called the fardâr. and the Sun is first as in the previous cycle”). which is 13 years. and its whole part is 8 years. which is 9 years. and if the native lives more than this number of years the planets return again. the “partner” (Hebrew óúåù) stands for any of the planets that are appointed lords of one of the crooked hours of this day of the week. which is 12 years. and note.9:2 and note. which is one year. See also Ta § 10. which is 11 years.7 1: The lord has more power than the partner. know that for the native who was born by day the Sun is first and gives an indication for 10 years. This is in all likelihood a reference to the lost second version of Sefer ha-Moladot. See Tb § 5. and Ta § 4. Tb § 5. which indicates alone in its seventh. … And after it the Head of the Dragon indicates alone 3 years and after it the Tail 2 years … So. all these years together are 75. … And after it Mars indicates alone in its seventh. … Next Venus gives an indication alone in its seventh.2:10 and note. ff. bnf 1056. øôñîä äæî íéëåøà ãìåðä úåðù íàå 䧧ò íéðùä ììë ¬äðäå §6.

§ 6. gârbuhtâr is employed in the framework of the procedure of direction. Art of Astrology. and the lord of these terms. f.6:2 and note). as well as in such an unexpected place as his commentary on Daniel [1] . IV:19. which is the house of life. Tb § 8. 327. By its condition one is informed of the health or illness of the body. or prorogation (see below. 25a.e. bnf 1056. and similarly again and again until the end of the twelve years”). p. in the opinion of Enoch.4:1–3 and note. 133: “This is that you look at the . The ..8 1–2: Terms … lords of the terms. see above. Tb § 2. . and in the second year to the house of wealth. f. bnf 1058. Ibn Ezra is writing here about an astrological technique that al-Qabîsî called gârbuhtâr in his Introduction to Astrology. Tb § 6.” See above. Corresponds to al-Qabîsî. f. is that the lord of the hour of the nativity in the first year is to be assigned to the first mundane house. 1934. and you give it to the ascendant and to the first year from his birth. p. 61a. 2004. This second reference to the terms (for the first.chapter six [2] 319 2: A sign to each year. Ibn Ezra also refers briefly to the same procedure in Mishpetei haMazzalot. … You give the lord of the third hour from it to the third place from the ascendant of the base nativity and to the third year and by its condition in this year one is informed of the condition of his brothers and sisters….9:1–3) focuses on their application to nativities. . second mundane house] from the ascendant and to the second year and by its condition in this year one is informed of the condition of his property. IV:14. 2004. .” See also Moladot. when the arc of the zodiac between a place of life and a place of death is divided by the terms of the corresponding zodiacal signs. p. . par. lord of the hour in which the native was born. 51a. Moladot. bnf 1056. 523. is considered to be in charge of the corresponding year. 129. called qâsim or divisor. This sign is the one that is adjacent to the “terminal house” and its lord is the “lord of the year. where this method of allocation is attributed to Enoch: äðùá ãìåîä úòù ìòá íéùéù êåðç úòã ìò éòéùúä姧 [3] ᧧é óåñ ãò äëë ¬øùåòä úéá äéðùä äðùáå ¬íééçä úéá àåäù ¬§àä úéáá äðåùàøä §§®äìéìç øåæçé äðù (“The ninth topic to be taken into consideration . 2–3: The lord of the seasonal hour … and vice versa. See especially al-Qabîsî. … You give the lord of the second hour from it to the second place [i.

to the lord of the term 2 powers . This is a comment on Ptolemy’s statement in Tetrabiblos. III:1. [2] §6. in accordance with their craft. 235–241.18:1. I:20. 1980. Carmen Astrologicum. Tb §8. f. pp. Mercury. to the lord of the triplicity 3 powers . 3: The lords of the aspects are more complete than the lords of the terms. see below. … Venus. 93.2:5). [2] 2: He said that the Moon … because it is the last.” (Hebrew íéìåáâä éìòá) are the planets in charge of the terms along the arc of prorogation referred to in the previous sentence (Tb § 6.4:1–8. f. 6): §§ïéìåáâä ìò úåìòîä âåäðì íãàä éãìåî íúòãá íúëàìî éôë úåãéúòä íéòãåé íäù … (“The Kasdim are the astrologers. 1525. bnf 1056. 1980. IV:10.8:2). Tb § 8. 442– 447: “For up to about the fourth year … the moon takes over the age of infancy. namely. The “lords of the aspects” (Hebrew íéèáîä éìòá) stand here for the planets that “project their rays” onto the degrees of the arc between the place of life and a place of death. See Moladot.6:3 and Ta § 10. This statement is predicated on the calculation that underlies the scale of powers for the selection of the hyl"eg (see above. See Tetrabiblos. Corresponds to Ta §2. in the framework of the procedure of direction or prorogation (see below. and to the lord of the decan 1 power . Tb § 6. to the lord of exaltation 4 powers . . The “lords of the terms. Here Ibn Ezra juxtaposes the relative power of two factors that play a major role in determining the time and quality of events in the native’s life.9 1: Ptolemy said … about the houses. … In the following period of ten years.320 notes to the second version of the book of reasons úåìæîä éîëç íä íéãùëä姧 2:2 (Commentary on Daniel. pp. p. 49a). 48b: áùçð äðä姧 [1] §á ìåáâä ìòáìå §â úåùéìùä ìòáìå §ã ãåáëä ìòáìå úåçë §ä úéáä ìòáì §§úåîå÷î §ää ìëá äìùîî åì ùéù éî ìëì äùòð äëëå §à íéðôä øùìå (“So we assign to the lord of the house 5 powers. … They know future events. since they know the nativities of a man to direct the degrees to the terms”). 1976.6:2 and note). 2:2. bnf 1056. we proceed in this manner regarding any of those that rule over any of the 5 places of life ”). when they are aspecting these degrees at a fixed distance marked by some significant aspect (see Moladot. For the aspects in the framework of prorogations. p.

both by night and by day. Hebrew íéáåè íéúá.2:17.2:1–3. f. that of youth. which lasts for the rest of life. Mishpe. par. See also Ta § 4. 21a. assumes command of manhood for the space of fifteen years.” Corresponds to Tb § 7. namely lot of beauty (Mishpetei haMazzalot. This is an unusual Hebrew rendering of “planetary house. IX. for the next eight years. … After the sun.chapter seven 321 taking in charge the third age. and which extends to an equal distance from the horoscope in the order of the following signs. … the sun … for the period of nineteen years.ei ha-Mazzalot repeatedly employs the special t name ïçä ìøåâ.7:4 and Ta § 4. See also Ta § 1.1:1–2.). See Tetrabiblos. etc.1:1. the moon also may bear to the Lot of Fortune. see note there. This idea is further expanded below. twelve years. [3] . § 5.3:14 and Moladot. and that it may be as it were a lunar horoscope. … sixth. 476. fifth in order. This indicates that Mishpe. “house” (planetary). whatever relation and aspect the sun bears to the horoscope. f. Jupiter. good houses. 23a). lxvii:9 et passim and in other parts of Ibn Ezra’s astrological work (Moladot. bnf 1056. the latest period. Hebrew áåèä ìøåâ. For a similar statement about Ptolemy. taking as his lot the elderly age. Tb § 5. Whereas the same Hebrew name—áåèä ìøåâ—is used to designate this lot in Rh.” Corresponds closely to Tb § 5.7:7–11. . 3–4: Know that … the lower one. Notice also that in Tb § 7.v. Tb § 8. … Finally to Saturn falls as his lot old age. 275–277: “Take as the Lot of Fortune always the amount of the number of degrees. f. which is the distance from the sun to the moon. 1980. in order that. lit. Tb § 2. [2] 5: Lot of Fortune. Mars. III:10. Corresponds to Ta § 9. [3] §7.1 1–2: King Ptolemy mocks the Ancients … sign of the ascendant. p.” See above. [1] 4: Planetary houses. II. 1934. bnf 1056. and Glossary s.4:10. 282. see Art of Astrology. pp. again for the space of his own period. bnf 1058.8:6.2:28 the Hebrew expression ìøåâ ïçä designates one of the lots of the eleventh mundane house.ei ha-Mazzalot is not the underlying text of Te #amim t . 48a. 52a.2:8.

al-Qabîsî.7:3 and note. 476. al-Qabîsî. p. al-Qabîsî is silent about these lots. 2004. 1996. VIII:4. v. Rh. see Ta § 9. VIII:3. 1996. 141. p. pertains to the . §7. [1] 2: The lot of knowledge … lord of the tongue. par. Mishpetei haMazzalot. 283. Tb § 5. 73. bnf 1058. 2004. and vice versa by night. . 283. lxviii:6–7. lxvii:18–lxviii:5. pp. lxviii:11–13. pertaining to the first mundane house. 476. IX. There seems to be a scribal error in the reference to this lot. par. 283. See Rh. Kitâb al-Madhal. [5] 11: As I have mentioned. second mundane house and is taken by day and night from the lord of the second mundane house to the cusp of the second mundane house. However. 1996. p. See Rh. 335–336. For the lots of the planets. Art of Astrology. f. it may be the same as the lot of firmness. p. . according to Reshit Hokhmah I.2 1: The lot of life … received by the body. 141. p. See Rh. This is a reference to the lot of property. lxviii:9–11. which is said to be taken from the lot of Fortune to the lot of the absent. 1934. IX. except the Moon. . par. [4] . 71. VIII:4. . p. Ta § 9. IX. this lot. IX. 329–333.2:5. is taken by day from Mercury to Mars. 1994. Mishpetei haMazzalot. 283. 335. Art of Astrology. f. [2] 3: The lot of the body … members intact. p. . p. bnf 1058. v. 337. . and is cast out from the ascendant. bnf 1058. Kitâb al-Madhal. which. Corresponds to Ta § 9.322 [4] notes to the second version of the book of reasons 5–11: The lot of the Sun was assigned to the soul … power over the soul. 476. Abbreviation. is taken by day from Jupiter to Saturn. p. V:4. . p. No lot with this name is mentioned elsewhere in Ibn Ezra’s work or in contemporary Arabic introductions to astrology. 2004. f.2:1–2. Kitâb al-Madhal. 141. al-Qabîsî. 24a. 1934. 476. of Astrology. IV:5. 23b.1:2–8. v. IX. and vice versa by night. Kitâb al-Madhal. 1996. and is cast out from the ascendant. and is cast out from the ascendant. lxviii:8–9. 1934. See above. Rh. v. . Art of Astrology. V:4. . 23b. pp. . VIII:4. [3] 4: The reason … indicates wealth. pertaining to the first mundane house. 1934. This lot. p. Art . Abbreviation. 1994. According to other sources. See Mishpetei haMazzalot. par.

or lot of parents—pertaining to the fourth mundane house—is taken by day from the Sun to Saturn. 337. al-Qabîsî. Kitâb al-Madhal. par. Kitâb alMadhal. Hokhmah I. and is cast out from the ascendant. 1996. haMazzalot. 283. al-Qabîsî.ei ha-Mazzalot. 476. Abbreviation. 143. lxviii:20–22. This passage is of obscure meaning. 1994. . and vice versa by night. V:7. VIII:4. above. 5: Lot of gathering. 338. For this lot see Kitâb al-Madhal. v. see above. V:6. [5] 6–7: The Ancients said that the Sun … this is the explanation for this lot. 1994. p. of Astrology. p. The explanations in Te #amim .1:6. IX. II follow closely what is said about this lot elsewhere in Ibn Ezra’s work and in contemporary Arabic introductions to astrology. VIII:4. Tb § 3. [6] 8–9: The lot of brothers … through experience. and vice versa by night. if it is in an interval of 15° ahead or behind the Sun. 2004. See Mishpetei haMazzalot. lxviii:14 with another name—äàéöîä ìøåâ “lot of finding”—as taken from Mercury to Venus. . gave instructions for casting some lot pertaining to the second mundane house: the Sun and Venus played a central role in these instructions. A planet is “under the rays”. p. 24a. Ta § 4. § 5. Hebrew è÷ìä ìøåâ. 1934. is not mentioned in Mishpe. . 1996. For the second house as indicating wealth. 476. p. VIII:4. 338.chapter seven 323 Art of Astrology. lxviii:16–17. [7] 10: I have already mentioned … indicate the father. par. See. p. pertaining to the second mundane house. p. or “under the light”. v.2:4. Tb § 5. IX. p. It is in all likelihood commenting on some part of the lost Reshit Hokhmah II that presumably . of the Sun. and as being cast out from the ascendant. § 5. and is cast out from the ascendant. 283. 1934. 73.2:15. 283. 476. . 2004. bnf 1058. f. It t appears in Rh. . Rh. Art . IX.3:7. 73.ei ha-Mazzalot nor on Reshit t . Abbreviation. 1996.2:1.2:12. v. See Mishpetei . Rh. f. p. par. This clearly indicates that Te #amim II is commenting neither on Mishpe. bnf 1058. The lot of the father. This lot. p. See above Tb § 4. [8] 11: Under the rays of the Sun. Art of Astrology. . 1934. The lot of brothers—pertaining to the third mundane house—is taken by day and night from Saturn to Jupiter. [9] [10] 10–12: The lot of the father … take Jupiter in its place. 24a. .

284. V:8. This lot pertains to the sixth mundane house and is mentioned elsewhere in Ibn Ezra’s work and in contemporary Arabic introductions to astrology. lxix:3–4. which indicates sons. VIII:4. 145. 1996. and ò÷ø÷ä úðî in Mishpe. 1994. IX. al-Qabîsî. . viation. lxviii:28–29. This lot—pertaining to the fifth mundane house—is taken by day from Jupiter to Saturn. and is cast out from the ascendant. . 24a. úåò÷ø÷ä ìøåâ in . 1994. v. 1934. p. Kitâb al-Madhal. p. f. 1996. Rh.ei ha-Mazzalot emerges from the divergent Hebrew nomenclat ture used to name this lot: ò÷ø÷ä ìøåâ in Te #amim I. bnf 1058. Rh. 1994. IX. Abbre. p.ei ha-Mazzalot. Elsewhere in Ibn Ezra’s work and in contemporary Arabic introductions to astrology this lot—pertaining to the fourth mundane house— is taken by day and night from Saturn to the Moon. Kitâb al-Madhal. Abbreviation. See Mishpetei haMazzalot. 476. 343–344. See Mishpetei haMazzalot. 75. IX. Rh. [14] 15: Lot of the male children … this is the explanation for this lot. 284. 13: Lot of the estate … this is the explanation for this lot. See Mishpetei haMazzalot. Tb § 3. 342. bnf 1058. p. v. [11] 14: Lot of children … this is the explanation for this lot. f. lxix:7–8. 346. and vice versa by night. 1996. 284. 476. Abbrevia. al-Qabîsî. lxviii:33–lxix:1. 1934. This is a reference to the fifth mundane house. 24a. 1934. Art of Astrology. See Mishpetei haMazzalot. 2004. VIII:4. 73. Abbreviation. 73. 24a. v. . . 143. par. 476. p. Mishpe. bnf 1058. p. f. . p. p. al-Qabîsî. 145. .324 notes to the second version of the book of reasons p. VIII:4. 1934. V:7. 74. 340. 24a. . Abbreviation. p. 1996. 143. [15] . VIII:4. Rh. Kitâb al-Madhal. f. 16–17: Lot of diseases … a nocturnal star. pp. . That Te #amim II follows neither Reshit Hokhmah I or . 1994. . par. VIII:4. bnf 1058. 2004. 344–345. v. V:8. al-Qabîsî. 1996. 285. 1934. 284. t Reshit Hokhmah I. Art of Astrology. IX. p. p. 73. pp. pp. Art of Astrology. p. tion. 145. p. v. . par. 476. . 2004. 476. p. V:9. and is cast out from the ascendant.2:1. Art of Astrology. p. par. p. 1994. par. Kitâb al–Madhal. 2004. Kitâb al-Madhal. [12] [13] 15: Which indicates sons. Art of Astrology. . See above. .

al-Qabîsî. 2004. [17] 20–22: Lot of women … lot of prostitution … lot of males … assert dominance. 77. VIII:4. although there are references to astrological properties of the Moon. 346. Rh. 24a. . xliii:4–7). Here Te#amim II is expounding the astrological . This lot pertains to the sixth mundane house and is taken by day and by night from Mercury to the Moon. and Saturn. Art of Astrology. 1934. 1934. . IX. 19: Lot of slaves … they are inferior planets . the eighth house. which is taken by day and by night from the Moon to the cusp of the eighth house. house. par. Rh. . lxix:11– . the name of these lots do not occur in any of the introductions to astrology I consulted. and is cast out from the degree of Saturn. with the exception of the lot of women. V:9. Nor is Enoch’s opinion mentioned in any of the . 285. 476. 1994. see Mishpetei haMazzalot. 1996. f.chapter seven [16] 325 18: Enoch says … mutable planet. 145. 1994. bnf 1058. 2004. p.ei ha-Mazzalot—an indication that it was quoted from the t lost Reshit Hokhmah II. 351–352. 1994. However. f. No name of a lot is given here. v. VIII:4. Abbreviation. p.1:9–11. p. . Arabic sources mentioned in the previous note. Abbreviation. v. [18] 23: The eighth house … for that is its nature. v. 476. pp. Rh. 1996. and is cast out from the ascendant. 286. Abbreviation. al-Qabîsî. VIII:4. 476. IX. 1934. For this lot. 2004. p. VIII:4. p. Ta § 3. 285. V:11. . 24a. I or Mishpe. The explanations given in Te#amim II and in Kitâb al-Madhal.6:7–8. these three lots probably pertain to this house. p. . lxix:29–30. see Mishpetei haMazzalot. 1996. pp. Kitâb alMadhal. p. Kitâb alMadhal. p. pp. which appears in Mishpetei haMazzalot. on which Ibn Ezra is commenting here. 351 for the roles that the Moon. . 145. Because the seventh mundane house indicates women and eroticism (Tb § 3. . p. Art of Astrology. bnf 1058. v. casting the lot of death. p. al-Qabîsî. See Mishpetei haMazzalot. par. Art of Astrology. lxix:7–8. This indicates that here Te #amim II is commenting on a text in which instructions were given for . 147. 28. 24a. 24a. f. par. Rh. f. III. For the lots of the seventh . the eighth house. IX. bnf 1058. [19] 24–25: Lot of the journey … lot of the journey by water … indicates the sea. bnf 1058. does not appear either in Reshit Hokhmah . . . and Saturn play in the casting of this lot are identical. 1996. 75. [20] . V:10. Kitâb al-Madhal. 75. 347–351. Enoch’s opinion.

26: Lot of the mother … like the mother. 2004. f. bnf 1058. were given explicitly. 77. in . and vice versa by night. [22] . 24a. and is cast out from the ascendant. 287. p. 149. namely the Moon’s exaltation. lxx:31–32. designation of the lot in the former is ãåáëä ìøåâ “lot of dignity”. For these two lots. 2004. IX. is taken by day from Venus to the Moon. Abû . See Mishpetei . see Mishpetei haMazzalot. v. äùáéá “lot of walking on the dry land”. . . pertaining to the tenth mundane house. in Reshit Hokhmah I it is ìøåâ . and in Mishpe. p. Abbreviation. 147. al-Qabîsî. VIII:4. then the degree of both of them is cast out from the ascendant. Rh. and vice versa by night. Abbreviation. 286.ei ha-Mazzalot offer very simit . [21] 27: Lot of dignity … at 3 degrees of Taurus. Rh.ei t . and by night from the Moon to the 3rd degree of Taurus. Ma#shar designates it the “lot of the nobility” and says that it is cast out when doubts arise about who is the legitimate father of the native. f. Here Te #amim II does not follow Reshit Hokhmah I : whereas the Hebrew . Kitâb al-Madhal. in Te#amim II the lot of journeys . 79. . V:13. The instructions are omitted. 354. 1996. From other sources we know that the lot of the journey is taken by day and by night from the lord of the ninth house to the cusp of the ninth house and is cast out from the ascendant. The Hebrew nomenclature makes it clear that the underlying text of Te#amim II is neither Reshit Hokhmah I nor Mishpe. 476.ei ha-Mazzalot äëéìää úðî . bnf 1058. in the latter it is äìåãâä ìøåâ “lot of greatness” (Rh. by water is designated íéîä êøã ìò ìøåâ. If the Sun by day is in its degree of exaltation or the Moon by night is in its degree of exaltation. . p. t íéîá äëéìää (it is absent from Mishpe. p. . . lxx:5–9. par. and that the lot of the journey by water is taken by day from Saturn to the 15th degree of Cancer. pertaining to the tenth mundane house. and is cast out from the ascendant. Art of Astrology. 1934. 1994. f. par. p. IX. p. lar accounts of this lot (Mishpetei haMazzalot. lxx:28–31). v. is taken by day from the Sun to the 19th degree of Aries. Te #amim II and Mishpe. Kitâb alMadhal. and the degrees are cast out from the ascendant.ei ha-Mazzalot). 476. al-Qabîsî. V:12. 360.326 notes to the second version of the book of reasons properties of the main elements involved in the casting of two lots of the ninth mundane house. . p. On the other hand. 1934. haMazzalot. This lot. Art of Astrology. ha-Mazzalot: in Te#amim II the lot of journeys is designated êøãä ìøåâ. 1996. namely the Sun’s exaltation. t Reshit Hokhmah I äëéìää ìøåâ. IX. bnf 1058. making it clear that Te #amim II is commenting on a text in which these instructions . p. 1994. This lot. 24a. 24a). VIII:4.

. 1996. the lot of enemies but interchanges the Ancients with Hermes (Rh. 24a. v. Astrology. records a lot with this name pertaining to the eleventh mundane house: it is taken by day and by night from Jupiter to Venus and is cast out from the ascendant. 149. 24a). p. VIII:4. 1994. which is attributed to Hermes. explicit reference to “the last two lots” and the brief comments about the main parameters of these two lots—makes it clear that the precise instructions for how to cast these lots were given in an underlying text.chapter seven 327 See Kitâb al-Madhal. 1934. See al-Qabîsî. v. 31: Lot of enemies … are well-known. Ta § 3. 364. Tb § 5. is taken by day and by night from Saturn to Mars and is cast out from the ascendant. par. but without mentioning their name (Mishpetei haMazzalot. p. [25] . 286. V:15.6:10). Mishpetei haMazzalot. Abbreviation. bnf . The second. . which is attributed to the Ancients. [23] [24] 30: Lot of the lovers … for the body. Mishpe. Art of . f. Abbreviation. 79. The procedure of Te#amim II —the . Arabic introductions to astrology assign the twelfth mundane house two lots bearing the designation “lord of enemies” or two versions of the same lot. The two appear neither in Ibn Ezra’s astrological work nor in contemporary Arabic introductions to astrology. 2004. 476. 1996. The first. is taken by day and by night from the lord of the twelfth mundane house to the cusp of this house and is cast out from the ascendant. lxxi:13–15). 356–357. 288. Art of Astrology. p. Kitâb al-Madhal. 1934. Mazzalot is evident from the fact that the last two present a different picture regarding this lot: Reshit Hokhmah I refers to both versions of . p. It does not appear elsewhere in Ibn Ezra’s astrological work or in other contemporary Arabic introductions to astrology.4:6. 476. . pp. VIII:4. cf. al-Qabîsî omits this lot. 79. p. 1994. 1058. These two lots—the first somehow related to the Sun and Jupiter and the second to Jupiter and Mercury—presumably pertain to the eleventh mundane house (see above. That here Te #amim II follows neither Reshit Hokhmah I nor Mishpe. p. par. .ei hat . 28–29: Lot of beauty … lot of commerce … trade is a craft. bnf 1058. f.ei ha-Mazzalot refers only to the version of the t Ancients. IX. .

328 notes to the second version of the book of reasons §8. IV:10. . that 28 days and 2 hours is only an approximation. 248–249. [2] [3] 6: Add 5 equal hours for every year. for astrological purposes. Notice. Cf. See above. p. This procedure is intended to find the planet that is the lord of the month of a certain year in the native’s life.7:2–3. IV:1. the number of months from the month of birth. bnf 1056. 1976. the year is divided into 13 months of 28 days and 2 hours each (equivalent to dividing 3651/4 days by 13) and each of these months is assigned to one of the signs. setting out. This is an expansion of Tb § 2. Carmen Astrologicum. §8. Here Ibn Ezra explains that. The lord of the month is the planet that is the lord of the sign corresponding to the month of interest. and similarly for the days. f. see note there. Mazzalot and is evidently a reference to Reshit Hokhmah II.ei hat . pp. beginning with the ascendant. 522.” See also Art of Astrology. plus another 49 minutes. Corresponds to Tb § 6.3 hours) rounded off to integral hours. p. however.3:6–8. This statement appears neither in Reshit Hokhmah I nor in Mishpe. 1980. 325.3:1.2 1: Revolution of the months … 28 days and 2 hours. To this end. with the quotient of 3651/4 divided by 13 (28 days and 2. see note there. 453: “We shall do the same thing for the months. Tb § 6.1 [1] 1–4: Know that Cancer … to the small luminary . par. starting from the places that govern the year. See Moladot. twenty-eight days to a sign. one celebrates a person’s birthday on the day of the [5] . 7: The lord of the hours in the revolution of the year. [4] 8–9: The revolution of the beginning of the year … a leap year on the original date. again. Tetrabiblos. 1934. 60b. [1] 4: Hence I said that one day should be added each year. where this specific procedure is attributed to Ptolemy: §§…úåòù §áå íåé 秧ëì óåñä úéáî úåìòî §ì ïúð ºñåéîìèá øî১ (“Ptolemy said: make the 30 degrees of the terminal house correspond to 28 days and two hours …”).

1. Moladot. p.2:11 . p. Ibn Ezra gives instructions for adapting the calculation of the “revolution of the year” to a lunar calendar. Liber de Rationibus Tabularum.3 1: Know that the Indian scientists … each full year. [1] 2: The science of the images … resembles idolatry. then in a normal year one adds one day and observes his nativity on Mar. 81a. Tb § 5. pp. includes the computation necessary to confirm the correctness of this value (360° / 2° 45 ≈ 131). 29. 29. 24). where Ibn Ezra reports that this value was also maintained by al-Sûfî and al-Zarqâl. but in a leap year on Feb. 274–275. The same value for the length of the solar year—3651/4 days minus the 131th part of a day—is endorsed in Ta § 2. bnf 1056. 35). This indicates that Te#amim II was intended for Jewish read. f. written in 1148 in Béziers (Sela-Freudenthal. (see note there) and in #Olam A. bnf 1056. ers deeply immersed in a Christian environment. n. f. By contrast. commentary on Leviticus 25:9. 75. 59a: úðù úôå÷ú äéäú äðáìä ùãçì íéîé äîë úòãì ìëåúù ïåáùç êì ïúà äðä姧 §§…ãìåðä (“I now give you a procedure so you can know the day in a lunar month on which the revolution of the year of the native falls out …”). 1874. It is noteworthy that Ibn Ezra gives instructions for making the calculation of the “revolution of the year” fit the Julian calendar. See above. if he was born on Feb. 25 in a leap year is Feb. 280–286. in Sefer ha-Moladot. 59a.chapter eight 329 Julian month that he was born on. 10–11: It changes only after 131 years … which ascend in one day. 1894/5. Tb § 2. Ibn Ezra offers identical information in the following places: #Ibbur. [2] [3] 3: Tables I have written. [6] §8. 64. 31 p. Moladot. 2006.3:10 and note. 2003a. See above. f. Tb § 8. bnf 1056.1:11 and note. See Sela. but if a leap-day has intervened since the last birthday. the astrological birthday (when 365 days have passed) is one day earlier (because 365 days after Feb. 1947. "Iggeret haShabbat. .12:5. p. 8a.

[3] §8. [5] For this proce- . The current section incorporates obvious quotations from the lost Reshit Hokhmah II : “12” . See above. See Ta § 10.7:1–3 and notes. dures were used in some calculation whose exact nature is unknown to us but was probably related to finding the lord of the week or the hour of the nativity.6:2 and note. [1] [2] 4: Subtract 48 by casting out twelves. 6: Direct them in degrees. Tb § 6.3:4). It seems that in Reshit Hokhmah II these values and proce. p. “3 weeks” (Tb § 8. 4 times 12. 453 (note 3). [4] 6: The five places of life are distant one from the other . Tb § 8. significantly shorter than the solar year.ei t . IV:10.2:1–11 and notes. Tb § 8.3:3). Tb § 6. See above. The first of these two methods is in equal degrees of the zodiac. See also below.330 notes to the second version of the book of reasons §8. “subtracting 4 weeks for the revolution of the signs for every year” (Tb § 8. ha-Mazzalot. 12 weeks for each season.5 1: Terminal house.5:6.3:1–5 and note. For a definition of the terminal house. for the four seasons. [1] 3: Ptolemy says … each degree and a quarter. see below. namely 48 weeks.4 1: I have already mentioned … has great power. [2] [3] 4: Done by both methods. according to the rising times of the country. 1980. see above Tb § 6.3:2). the second. Hebrew dure. (Tb § 8. úåìòîá íâäðì.4:1–3 and note. See Tetrabiblos. Notice that Ibn Ezra’s explanation yields only a very approximate result: 30 times 12 days plus 21/3 hours is 362 days and 22 hours. It goes without saying that these phrases appear neither in Reshit Hokhmah I nor in Mishpe. 1–4: The weeks … full weeks of the year.

“one degree to two hours” (Tb § 8. . i.6 1: Know that … thoughts and dreams.chapter eight [6] 331 6: Book on the use of the tables. bnf 1058. Latin ductus—employed to determine the length of life of the native. bnf 1058. 10.3:1– 5 amplifies this to some extent. Ta § 10. below. direction in the nativity of a man). f. 1–6: Revolution of the days. assigning “12 days plus 21/3 hours to each degree” (Tb § 8. f. 1980. The length of life is determined by converting the degrees of the arc. § 5. 1934. bnf 1056. f. and in the future tense in Nehoshet B. lxxvi:21–23 deals briefly with this topic (íãàä ãìåîá âåäð. Mant. 249. 42b. This is a reference to the procedure of “direction” or “prorogation”—Greek aphesis. 522. See Tetrabiblos. Art of Astrology. p. usually projected on the equator. Hebrew úåçåìä äùòî øôñ. see also Tetrabiblos. 326.5:5). IV:1. 1976. For this procedure. “one degree less one minute to each day” (Tb § 8. It goes without saying that these values appear neither in Reshit Hokhmah I nor in Mishpe.e. par. X.1:11.5:1). [1] 2: It is essential to direct … the revolutions of the years.5:2).ei ha-Mazzalot. Resumes the discussion about the rulers of the five places of life begun at Tb § 6. A book with this name is mentioned in the past tense in She"elot B. ha-She"elot. In this astrological procedure an arc of the zodiac is established between one of the fives places of life (called hyl"eg in Tb § 6. months. 279–307. into a corresponding number of years. Book of Reasons behind astronomical tables. 1980. Rh. III:10. [2] . [7] § 8. Book on the Use of the Tables may be an alternative name for úåçåìä éîòè øôñ. Carmen Astrologicum. 50a).2:1. Tb § 8.3:5. . creating an interesting link between Te #amim II and the second version of Sefer .6:3. Arabic tasyîr. 453. Mishpetei haMazzalot. 8b. procedures are used to compute the revolution of days. f. As in the previous section. § 8. … for each one of the five places of life . p. 25a. pp. This probably refers to the canons that accompanied the astronomical tables (see Tb § 2.2:5 and root in the present passage) and a place of “cutting” or place of death (úøë íå÷î) (See Moladot. p. These values and t . Hebrew íéâåäéð. IV:10.e. this section too explains values that are quoted in Te#amim II from the lost Reshit Hokhmah II : . and days.3:3) and explained their use. See . i. Thus.

pp. [1] 2: Know that the beginning of the year … a point in the zodiac. The pledge made in Ta § 1. found fit . . 148–152.12:6. 411–419. 84–85. see note there. [4] §8. 1976. and note. [3] 3: You should calculate … revolutions of each year. pp. 1987. namely. 3: As it is written in the Book on the use of the tables. I shall now reveal a secret to you. 121–129.2:3. Corresponds to the two methods mentioned in Tb § 8. Kitâb al-Mawâlîd. [2] 2: Dark degrees. 26a. Art of Astrology. 4: If you want … subtract today 8 degrees and 5 minutes … of the planets.5:4. Tester.332 notes to the second version of the book of reasons al-Qabîsî. Mishpetei haMazzalot. IV:11–13. III:1. Corresponds to Ta § 2. widely circulating from the second half of the 13th century onward. Carmen Astrologicum. 324–325. pp. II. offer a fairly uniform picture of the contents of both texts. ff. Notice. to refer “at the end of the book to the secret of the change in the positions of the zodiacal constellations. 2004.12:14. 522. see note there. . that the ensuing discussion at Tb § 8. 523 pp. See notes there. bnf 1058. and pits. See also BouchéLeclercq. See also Ta § 10. section of Te#amim II. to combine the two texts. however. bright degrees.12:1. see note there. This instruction is the clear counterpart of Ta [5] . 1934. [3] [4] 3: The reason … falls into a pit.4:1–7 and notes. Corresponds to Ta § 2. 1899. par. Corresponds closely to Ta § 2.” is presumably fulfilled not in Te#amim I but in the present and final . III:2. probably one of Ibn Ezra’s students. and Te #amim II a copyist. pp. 326–327. 1971.7 1: End of the book.7:2–6 corresponds to Ta § 2. See above. one is led to conclude that in the very first stage of the transmission of Te #amim I .12:6 and note. See also Ta § 2. Since the manuscripts of Te #amim I and Te #amim . . 25b– .14.12:2–15. pp. 235–245.5:6. Tb § 8.

refers to the latter passage when. III:1. Notice that in Almagest. with respect to the two alternative methods presented in our passage.chapter eight 333 § 2. in Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. is the first method. p. 1874. Ibn Ezra presents the scientists of India as supporting the method of the conjunction of the Sun and a fixed star. Thâbit b.” corresponds to Ta § 2. that is. 1947. 131–132. The second. “the conjunction of the two uppermost stars.” and its ascription either to Ptolemy or to Arab and Greek scientists. p.12:3 and refers to the equinoxes as the intersections of the ecliptic (on the 8th orb) and the equator (on the 9th orb). p. 132). 1947. regarded the conjunction of the Sun and a fixed star as one among several alternative methods for the determination of the solar year: “Dicit Azarchel in libro de anno solari quod annus solaris tripliciter consideratur. is either a later scribal error or a somewhat distorted reference to the sidereal year. The date of composition of Te#amim II may be inferred from . he depicts Ptolemy as endorsing the tropical year and mocking the Ancients. namely. Ibn Ezra. For one thing. namely. it is inconceivable that Ibn Ezra would use the phrase íéðåéìòä íéáëåëä éðùä “the two upper stars” to denote two fixed stars. 1984. 1874. the return of the Sun to “the intersection of the two uppermost circles. 8a. 80). 1947. p. Two alternative methods for the determination of the solar year are ascribed to Ptolemy and to the Arab and Greek scholars. Most problematic. Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. 1984. 80. who subscribe to the sidereal year: “Sed Ptholomeus dixit in Almagesti quod annus solis est circularis revolutio solis a capite arietis ad idem.” p. and Ibn Sînâ. in his idiosyncratic style. III:1. the difference between the correction values given in these two places. since there are no conjunctions of fixed stars. Primus [6] . just like the planets. 79. 11. although in Ta § 2. 5: The year of Ptolemy … as you prefer. as Ibn Ezra was well aware (see #Ibbur. he relates that Arab scientists. in Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. namely the return of the Sun to one of the fixed stars. Hence this statement. This method was certainly endorsed by Ptolemy (see Almagest.” Now. antiquos derridens qui dixerunt annum solis esse coniuctionem solis cum fixa reiteratam. Ptolemy endorses the tropical year only after he relates that Hipparchus came to the idea that the fixed stars have a very slow motion. p. p.12:3 and in #Ibbur. Qurra. 8a. although found in all the manuscripts examined. because of the difference in the length of the year when measured with respect to the return of the Sun to the same equinox or to the same fixed star. however. See “Introduction. p. such as Azarchiel.12:14.

334 notes to the second version of the book of reasons modus est annus circuli declinacionis. bright degrees. est necessaria ad sciendum domus planetarum et honores eorum … et terminos … et gradus … lucidos et tenebrosos … et gradus putei et ad figuram que est una de 36 sitarum extra zodiacum … et ad figuram orientis utrum hominis an alterius animalis …” [7] 6: If the sign … subtract 8 degrees … of the seven planets. 1947. annum puncti et annum fixe eundem esse affirmans. This is α Tauri (Aldebaran). Job 38:31). 1984. Since these tables do not take into account the slow motion of the fixed stars. cui assentit Abencine. secundum indos distinguentes circulum firmamenti per 12 secundum sensum oculi. VII:5. see above. the exact result of computation. tercius. p. annus adunacionis solis cum fixa. p. Arabic al-Dabarân.3:9–10 and note. the 8 degrees of the current passage are an approximation. is located “in the tail of Aries and the head of Taurus. See Almagest. according to a talmudic tradition (B Berakhot 58b). the exaltations. Thebit vero in libro de anno solari docuit duos annos tantum esse anni solaris.” Following this tradition. secundus est annus circuli puncti. 85: “Sententia secunda. The position of this [9] . The biblical constellation of Khima (Amos 5:8. and pits. as given in Indian astronomical tables. 89: “Et si vis operari in iudiciis Ymaginum secundum tabulas indorum minue a medio cuiusque planete cursu eorum gradum unum.” 6: The houses … only with respect to the images. sufficient for most astrological purposes. and the terms.” [8] 7: The stars of Khima have the complexion of Mars … indicates an eye disease. Tb § 2. vel si in eisdem iudiciis ymaginum vis operari secundum tabulas meas minue a medio cursu cuiusque planete 8 gradus et erit anni revolucio 92 gradus et 24 minutorum. are reckoned with respect to the zodiacal constellations. Here Ibn Ezra reports that not only the dark degrees. 362. but also the planetary houses. No.7:4). 1947. In contrast with the aforementioned 8 degrees and 5 minutes (Tb § 8. For the signs that have the shape of human being. an adjustment is necessary when one uses astronomical tables compiled by Greek or Arab scientists. p. Ibn Ezra identifies Khima in his commentary on Job 38:31 with #eyn ha-shor ha-semali “the left eye of the ox”. 14 in the constellation of Taurus in Ptolemy’s star catalogue. The passage corresponds to Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. The passage corresponds to Liber de Rationibus Tabularum.

xii: 28–29 and is also mentioned in Art of Astrology. 1984. [12] 9: Cor leonis. 67a). 367. 1934. xxxvii: 6–7 and Tetrabiblos. Nehoshet B. II. 5:8.” No. 2003a. 10. in Rh. I:9. f. . Ta § 1. vi: 14–15. Possibly Arcturus (α Boötis) No. [10] 8: Know that the planets … together with the Moon. lit heart of the lion. 19:9]: Possibly “the middle of the nebulous mass in the chest. See Almagest. 1 in the list of stars of the constellation of Cancer. . 10. p. p. 39a. VII:5. Hebrew ïðòä áò [Ex. p. as well as in Rh. pp. Ibn Ezra asserts that Khima was created at one of the equinoxes but subsequently moved to its location in Taurus because of the slow motion of the fixed stars. 356. Liber de Rationibus Tabularum. See above.18:3–4 and notes. 1989. par. Mant. This star is frequently mentioned in Ibn Ezra’s scientific and non-scientific work. I. . however. 272. [13] [14] 10: Great eagle. f. The reference to Khima as having the complexion of Mars together with the Moon corresponds closely to Rh. f. VII:5. 23 in the constellation of Boötes in Ptolemy’s catalogue.1:1–5. 2–5 in the constellation of Cancer in Ptolemy’s catalogue. xxi:30. Ta § 1. p. See Almagest. 347. 1984. Nehoshet C. f. 3 in the constellation of Aquila in Ptolemy’s catalogue.2:3.” Nos. as in the star lists in the three versions of Ibn Ezra’s Book of the Astrolabe (Nehoshet A. See Almagest. f. Latin Cor leonis. called Praesepe. Pinsker 26. . 7: Thick cloud. Nehoshet C.chapter eight 335 star is recorded in the star lists in all three versions of Ibn Ezra’s Book of the Astrolabe (Nehoshet A. 459. The reference to Khima’s astrological role in eye diseases corresponds to Rh. 8 in the constellation of Leo in Ptolemy’s catalogue. No. f. or “the quadrilateral containing the nebula. Arabic galb al-asad. VII:5. bnf 1061. Nehoshet B. bnf 1061. 47. 39b. VII:5. In his commentary on Amos 5:8. Pinsker 26. See Almagest. 213–214. p. Me"orot. 366. 82. Commentary on Amos. 159b. 1980. II. Hebrew äéøàä áì. 1984. München 202. Ibn Ezra repeatedly conveys his concern about ascribing the physical properties of sublunary bodies to the celestial bodies. Tb § 2. II. 257–273. Hebrew çîåøä áì. 157b. . α Leonis (Regulus). . 67a). pp. p. [11] 9: Heart of the spear. 107b. Hebrew ìåãâä øùðä: Possibly α Aquilae (Altair). No. Mant. 1984. 1947.5:7. See Sela. f. . Ta § 2. p.

9:3–4. For the limited astrological influence exerted by the fixed stars.336 [15] notes to the second version of the book of reasons 11: The Ancients … said that none of them has any power … by night. see above Tb § 6. .

part five APPENDIXES .

.

fol. and the third is the place of the conjunction or opposition of the luminaries (whichever occurs first prior . . BNF 1056. . and you should direct it by the two methods of directions.3:1–6. Notice that this topic is omitted from Te #amim II. Fragment 1: Moladot. the two places of the luminaries by day and by night. 59b: åúåà âäðå ¬ïåùàøä úéáá áåúëë ¬ãìåðä ééç ìò äøåéù íééçä íå÷î àåä äæ éà òã ®íéîòèä øôñá éúøëæä øùàë íéâåäðä éðùá Know which is the place of life that gives an indication about the life of the native. fol. also dealing with the calculation of the directions (íéâåäéðä). is to Ta § 10. where the two methods of directions are studied in detail. . We should find it in the following way: We know that there are five places of life. 50a: ®íéîòèä øôñá éúøëæä øùàë úåéäì íéåàø íéâåäéðäå The directions should be calculated as I mentioned in the Book of the Reasons. Fragment 3: Moladot. texts and translations of six fragments are presented. followed by a brief analysis of their contents. Fragment 2: Moladot. Notice that both the topic and the very term íéåâäéðä ‘directions’ are not found in Te#amim II. 48a: äëëå ãìåðä ìò èéìù àåä áëë äæ éà ù÷áð íìåòì ¬ñåéðåøåãå ñåéîìèá øîàéå §âäå ¬äìéìáå íåéá úåøåàîä éðù íå÷î §áä ¬§ä íä íééçä úåîå÷î éë åðòãé ºåðàöîð äìòîä §ãäå ¬ãìåðä úãì íãå÷ äìçúá íäî äåää ¬íçëð åà úåøåàîä úøáçî íå÷î ®äîëçä úéùàø éîòè øôñá åéúùøéô øùàë ¬áåèä ìøåâä §ääå ¬úçîöä Ptolemy and Doronius said that we should always try to ascertain which planet is the lord of the nativity. as I mentioned in the Book of the Reasons. This reference. This appendix collects all available references in Ibn Ezra’s extant Hebrew astrological treatises to Te#amim I or Te #amim II. This refers to Ta § 10. . as is written in the first chapter. BNF 1056.appendix 1 REFERENCES IN IBN EZRA’S ASTROLOGICAL WORK TO TE #AMIM I OR TE #AMIM II . namely.3:1–6. fol. The Hebrew . BNF 1056.

fol. as it is conceived by the method of Ptolemy. . which you find in the Book of the Tables.3:1–3. See also Tb § 7. and the fifth is the lot of fortune. this deals with the two methods of directions and clearly refers to Ta § 10.e. BNF 1056. 63a: ¬äìéìáå íåéá áåèä ìøåâä ìàå … íåéá ùîùä íå÷î ìà ìëúñä éãðë ìò á÷òé øîà ®íéîòèä øôñá áåúëë ¬ñåéîìèá êøãë ùôúðä àåä Ya#qub al-Kindî said: observe the place of the Sun by day … and the lot of fortune by day and by night. This refers to the discussion of the lot of the fortune in Ta §9. Fragment 5: She"elot A. The same topic is covered in Tb § 7. where Ibn Ezra refers to the Sun of the Indian scientists.” Ta § 2.1:1–5. The topic is omitted from Te#amim II. Fragment 6: ‘Olam B. and you obtain the place of the Sun of India. and the fourth is the ascending degree.1:1–2. as it is written in the Book of the Reasons.3:1–6. which is “true only with respect to the images of the constellations.340 appendix 1 to the birth of the native).1:1–2. Fragment 4: She"elot A. BNF 1056. . but he [Mâshâ"allâh] said that the Moon has more power in interrogations than in nativities. BNF 1058. the Moon] by day and by night to the place of cutting by the two methods of directions.12:11 refers to the “year of the Sun of India” but does not mention the images of the constellations. which is located with respect to the images of the constellations . 92b: ùîùä íå÷î àöîú æàå ¬úåìòî òùú ¬úåçåìä øôñá äðàöîúù ¬ùîùä íå÷îî øñçú ®íéîòèä øôñá éúùøô øùàë ¬úåøåöä ãâðë àåäù åãåä ìù Subtract 9 degrees from the place of the Sun.. as is written in the Book of the Reasons. This refers to Tb § 8. fol. fol. Like fragment 1.1:1–5. as I explained it in the Book of the Reasons behind the Beginning of Wisdom. as I explained in the Book of the Reasons. 63b: çë ùé äðáìì éë øîà ÷ø ¬úåãìåîä øôñá êéúéàøäù êøãë íéâåäéðä ìà êåîñå íéðùá úøë íå÷î ìà äìéìáå íåéá äðâäðì êéøö äúà 맧ò ¬úåãìåîäî øúåé úåìàùá ®íéîòèä øôñá áåúëë íéâåäéðä Trust in the directions according to the method I showed you in the Book of Nativities. This reference is also focused on the lot of fortune and is aimed at Ta § 9. hence you should direct it [i.

except one seventh. introduce what are often verbatim quotations. which are called degrees. The relevant . which corresponds to the opening paragraph of Te #amim I.1:1–6: ïåáùç åàöî àìù øåáòá úåìòî íéùùå úåàî ùìùì ìâìâä å÷ìç ®ïåùàøä øòùä ìò øôñîä äæ êåøòú íà ¬ïë ìò ®úéòéáùäî õåç íéøáùä ìë åì ùéù åðîî úåçô ¬ãåòå ®íéøùòå úåàî ùîçå íéôìà àåäå ¬íéøáùä ìë åì ùéù ïåáùçä àöîú æà äòáù ìâìâä úåìòî å÷ìçå ®äîçä úåðù úåîé ïåáùçî áåø÷ àåäù øåáòá ïåáùçä äæ åøçá ìëá éë ãåòå ¬åäîë íéøáù åì ùéù åðîî úåçô ïåáùç åàöî àìù øåáòá øùò íéðù ìò ùé øôñîä äæå ¬úåìòî íéùìù ìæî ìë ÷ìçá äìò äðäå ®úåðáì øùò íéúù ùé äðù å÷ìçå ¬øôñîä ìåôëì åëøöåä úéòéáø åì ïéàù øåáòáå ®øùò íéðùî øúåé íéøáù åì ®íééøéùò ãò äëëå ¬íééðù íéùùì ïåùàø ìëå ¬íéðåùàø íé÷ìç íéùùì äìòî ìë . This appendix contains two examples to illustrate how quotations from the extant text of Reshit Hokhmah I are embedded in the text of Te#amim . The circle was divided into 360 equal parts. The first relates to the opening paragraph of the first chapter of Reshit Hokhmah I. . the common passages are in bold type. and each sign into 30 equal degrees.appendix 2 QUOTATIONS FROM RESHIT HOKHMAH I IN TE #AMIM I . vi:4–8: The division of the circle into 360. Ta § 1. . 12 and 30 parts. . and each minute into 60 seconds. . with the third person plural used to . which are called signs. texts are presented in Hebrew and English translation. and each degree into 60 minutes. . An underline marks quotations from Reshit Hokhmah I in the text of Te #amim I. I. . I. It [the circle] is also divided into 12 parts. because this number has all the fractions that are from one-half to one tenth. All of the ancient and modern scholars agreed about this. and similarly down to the tenths. (I) Rh. äæ ìòå úåìòî åàø÷é íéåù íé÷ìç íéùùå úåàî ùìùì ÷ìçð ìâìâä ®ïåùàøä øòùä éöçî ùéù íéøáùä ìë àåää øôñîì ùé éë íéðåøçàäå íéðåîã÷ä ìë úòã äîéëñä ìæî ìëå ¬úåìæî åàø÷é íé÷ìç øùò íéðùì ÷ìçð àåä íâ ®úéòéáùäî õåç úéøéùò ãò ãò äëëå ¬íééðù íéùù ïåùàø ìëå ¬íéðåùàø íéùù äìòî ìëå ¬úåøùé úåìòî íéùìù ®íééøéùò First chapter. The second refers to the description of the properties of Aries in the second chapter of both Reshit Hokhma I and Te#amim I.

and its limbs are cut off because they advance crookedly along the orb. and it is crooked. The blood belongs to it. namely. So each sign was assigned 30 degrees. II. … If it is northern it generates heat with moisture. A fiery sign. of the nature of the day. and also because there are 12 lunar months in any solar year. viii:27–x:3: Astrological properties of Aries. masculine. In addition.. … It is one of the delicate benefic signs and indicates thunder and lightning. and its rising times grow less because it ascends in any place less than it ascends at the terrestrial equator. åá êôäúé ïîæä éë êôäúî ¬íåçä ïîæî ¬éçøæî ¬íåéä úãìåúî ¬øëæ ¬ùà ìæî . if you multiply this number by 7 you obtain the number that has all the fractions from one-half to one-tenth . They divided the degrees of the circle into 12 because they found no smaller number that has as many fractions as it does. and of the tastes anything sweet. They divided each degree into 60 minutes and each minute into sixty seconds. (II) Rh. this number [i. tropical because the weather is changeable in it. Its image has four legs with hoofs. of warm weather. But because it does not have a quarter it was necessary to double it. 2. Fire is its portion of the four elements. sheep and . It indicates two colors and two shapes and has half a voice. 360] was chosen because it is close to the number of days in the solar year.520. Its [Aries’] heat is tempered. of the animals. and similarly down to the tenths. and this number has more fractions than 12. and the east wind.342 appendix 2 First chapter. The heart of the east belongs to it.e.äìè äîî úåçô íå÷î ìëá äìòé àåä éë íéøñç åéòãöîå ¬úåøùéä ìò úåôñåð åéúåòùå … ¬íéðãåòîä íéáåèä úåìæîä ïî àåäå … úååòî àåäå ¬õøàá äåùä å÷ä ìò äìòéù éîåøã íàå äçéì íò íåç ãéìåî àåä éìàîù äéä íàå …¬÷øáäå íòøä ìò äøåé éë íéúåøë åéøáéàå äñøô äì ùéù íéìâø §ã äì ùéù äøåö ìò àåäå ¬øø÷î àåä ¬ìå÷ éöç åì ùéå úåøåö éúùå äàøîá íéðéò éðù ìò äøåéå ¬íéúååòî ìâìâá åãòöé ¬íãä åìùå ¬êñåîî åîåçå ¬ùàä íéùøù òáøàî å÷ìçå ¬úéçøæî çåøå çøæî áì åìùå úåéçä ïîå ¬íëøåëî ïéî ìëå úåîéîãàä íééðéòä ïîå ¬÷åúî øáã ìë íéîòèä ïîå å÷ìçáå ¬úùåçðäå ìæøáäå óñëäå áäæä úåëúîä ïîå ¬äñøô åì ùéù äî ìëå ïàöä íå÷îå úåãùä õøàä úåîå÷îîå ¬íéúùìôå ïééøãàå ñøôå ìáá õøàå éùéìùä ìåáâä ñåéîìèá úòã ìòå úåøå÷á äøå÷î úéá ìëå íéèñéìä äåðå ùàä úåîå÷îå ïàöä äòøî óìàä úåéúåàä ïî åì ùé éë åøîà íéðåîã÷äå ®íéðééãä íå÷îå úåìôúä éúá å÷ìçá ®òáøà úåòùäå éöçå íéùìùå äòáù íéîéäå øùò ùîç åéùãçå äøùò ùîç åéúåðùå ïåðäå äòôà úåîãá íéä ïî âã áðæå ¬äøéàîä àéä ¬äùà úøåö åðîî íéðåùàøä íéðôá äìòéå úòã ìòå … áìë úøåö ùàø íù éë åãåä éùðà åøîàéå ®øåù úøåöå ùìåùîä ùàøå åéðôå êñåîî åôåâ äéäé åá ãìåðäå … àñëä ìò úáùåéä äùàä áâ åá äìòé ñåéîìèá ®úåôø åéðæàå áò åøàåöå äáøä õøàä ìà èéáî àåäå íéìåãâ åéðéòå íéëåøà Aries. it generates cold. and of colors the reddish and any color that is saffron yellow. eastern. Therefore. They divided the circle into 360 degrees because they did not find a smaller number that has all the fractions from one-half to one-tenth . except for one-seventh. if southern. … Its hours grow longer than the equal hours .

and the head of the triangle and the image of a bull. The Indians said that there is the head of the figure of a dog there. and he will look towards the ground constantly. and pastureland for sheep. its months 15. his face long and his eyes large. and masculine because of the heat. and the tail of a marine fish in the shape of an adder. and the Philistines. and tropical . The image of a woman ascends in its first decan and shines. Ta § 2. and any roofed house with beams. houses of prayer and the place of the judges are in its portion. and the hours 4. Aderian. … The body of one native in it will be mixed. Persia. that its years are 15. and of places on earth fields. of the metals. In its portion is the third climate and the land of Babylonia. The Ancients said that among the letters it has aleph and nun. as I have explained. and that it is of the nature of the day because the day is hot. the days 371/2. and the abode of robbers. gold and silver and iron and copper. according to Ptolemy.appendix 2 343 whatever has hoofs. and eastern because the east is hot. … According to Ptolemy the back of a women sitting on a chair ascends in it.2:1–20: íåéä úãìåúîå ¬íåçä øåáòá øëæ àåäå ¬éúøëæä øùàë ¬ùà ìæî àåäù åéìò åøæâå óéñåäì íéîéä åìçäù øåáòá êôäúîå ¬äîç çøæî úàô éë éçøæîå ¬íç íåéä éë òåãé äæ ¬íéøñç åéãòöîå ¬íåéä úù÷ êøåà øåáòá úåôñåð åéúåòùå ¬òåøâì äìéìäå øåáòá íéáåèä úåìæîä ïî àåäå ¬åéãòöî ïåøñç øåáòá úååòî àø÷ðå ®ìâìâä úàôî øå÷ä øåñå ïîæä êôäúä øåáòá ÷øáä ìòå íòøä ìò äøåéå ¬åá ùîùä ÷æåç äàøéù éîëç éøáã íä ¬øå÷ éîåøã íàå íåç ãéìåî éìàîù äéä íà åøîàù äæå ®íçä àáå ¬íéìâø òáøà äì ùéù äøåö ìò àåä éë åøîàù äæå ®íäéìò âòåì ñåéîìèáå ¬åãåä ¬ïâåäë åéøáéà åàøé àìù øåáòá íéúåøë åéøáéà éë åøîàå ®äìèì äîåã àåäù øåáòá åøîàå ®åëôäúä øåáòá úåøåö éúùå äàøîá íéðéò éðù ìò äøåéù åøîàå ®åæ øçà åæ éë åøîàå ®íãà ïá úøåö ìò åððéàå äîäá äøåö ìò àåäù øåáòá ìå÷ éöç åì ùéù áì åì éë åøîà ïë ìò ¬äìéìäå íåéä åá úååúùä øåáòáå åîåç øåáòá çøæî áì åìù úù÷ äéä ïë ìò ¬ìàîù úàôá íù àéä ùîùä éë çøæî ìàîù äéøà äéäé äðäå ®çøæî íéîòèîä ïîå ®íãä åìù àåäù äëëå ¬ïîæä øåáòá êñåîî åîåç éë åøîàå ®çøæî áâð ïéá éòöîà ïéòä äæ úåéä øåáòá íëøåëî ïéî ìëå úåîãîãàä íééðéòä ïîå ¬÷åúîä úåëúîä ïîå ¬äìè úøåöá åéáëåëù øåáòá ïàöä úåéçä ïî å÷ìçå ®úåøçùäå ïáåìä åøîàå ®ùà íúãìåúå ùàá íéàá äìà ìëù øåáòá úùçðäå óñëäå ìæøáäå áäæä ïàöä äòøî å÷ìçá éë åøîàå ®êñåîî àåäù åîåç øåáòá éùéìùä ìåáâä å÷ìçá éë øåáòá íéèñìä äåðå ¬åúãìåú äëë éë ùàä úåîå÷îå ¬åá ùéù íéáëåëä úåøåö øåáòá úåìéôúä éúáå ¬íéèñìä øåáòá äëë åð÷úéù äøå÷î úéá ìëå ¬íéãàî úéá àåä éë ®åìù úåéúåàì íòè òãà àìå ®íéðééãä íå÷î íòè äëëå ¬÷ãöä å÷ åúìçúá éë øåáòá íòè äëëå ¬åîå÷îá ùøôà øùàë ¬úåðè÷ä íéãàî úåðù øôñîë äøùò ùîç åéúåðùå íù äìòéù åøîàù äæå ®åéúéñéðå øùòî åáà øôñá åéúéàø úåòùäå íéîéä íòèå ®åéùãç åìàì íéîåã íéáëåë íù åìòéù øåáòá ¬øåù úøåöå ùìåùîä ùàøå âã áðæå äùà úøåö éùðà åøáãéù äî ìë ÷ø ¬íù äìòéù ñåéîìèá øîàéù äî ìë íòè äëëå ®úåøåöä åéðæàå êñåîî åôåâ äéäé åá ãìåðäù åøîàù äîå ®íãåñ åðòãé àì íéðô ìëá åìòéù åãåä ®ïåéñðäî íãéá äìò íéøáãä äìà ¬úåôø They concluded that it is a fiery sign. and his neck is thick and his ears are flaccid. and the places of fire.

relative to the equator]. They said that the heart of the east belongs to it because of its heat and because day and night become equal in it. they found these things through experience. Of the tastes the sweet and of the colors the reddish and any color that is saffron yellow because this color is intermediate between whiteness and blackness. and in like manner that the blood belongs to it. which is temperate. because the equator is at its beginning. and the abode of robbers. Its portion of the animals is sheep. They said that if it is northern it generates heat and if southern it generates cold. It is one of the benefic signs because the strength of the Sun is perceptible in it. They also said that its limbs are cut off because its limbs are not seen properly. one after the other. as I shall explain in its proper place. It indicates thunder and lightning because of the alteration of the weather and the retreat of the cold and approach of the heat. They also said that its [Aries’] heat is tempered because of the weather. They said that the third climate is in its portion because of its heat. and its hours grow longer because of the length of the arc of the day. namely. and so too the reason for its months. consequently they said that the heart of the east belongs to it. because all of them can withstand fire and have a fiery nature. So Leo is in the northeast. iron. silver. that the image of a woman and the tail of a fish and the head of the triangle and the image of a bull rise there. They said that pastureland for sheep is in its portion. They said that it has half a voice because it has the form of a beast and not of a man. but as for everything the Indians said rises in any of the decans. because there the Sun is at the north [i. and the places of fire. and copper.e. because it is the house of Mars. As for what they said. The same explanation applies to everything that Ptolemy said rises there. Its years are 15. and any roofed house that was designed like that because of the robbers. and houses of prayer. and Sagittarius is in the southeast. this is because stars that are similar to these images rise there. because of the shape composed by its stars.344 appendix 2 because the days begin to grow longer and the night to grow shorter. They also said that it indicates two colors and two shapes because of its instability. This is what the Indian scientists say. we do not know their secret. As for the reason for the days and hours. namely. like the number of the least years of Mars. and its rising times grow less (as is known) on account of the circle. I do not know the reason for its letters. but Ptolemy laughs at them. It is also called crooked because of the decrease in its rising times.. I saw it in Abû Ma#shar’s book and I verified it by experience. and of the metals gold. . because its stars are in the shape of a ram. As for what they said. this is also why the place of judges belongs to it . They said that it is a four-legged image because of its likeness to a ram. that the body of one native in it will be mixed and his ears flaccid. because that is its nature.

6:1–6.7:1–7. § 10. § 1.5:1–12 § 2.6:1–19 § 4.2:1–6.3:1–6 § 10. orbs of the planets and their relative height Nature of the signs Nature of the planets Four seasons and the beginning of the solar year Pain of the planets in the signs Planetary houses Beginning and length of the solar year.4:1–12.2:10 § 4.1:1–5. § 3. motion of the stars of the eighth orb.appendix 3 DIGRESSIONS IN TE #AMIM I . § 3.1:2–6.2:1–6. § 10. § 10. and names of stars and constellations.1:1–7 § 4.5:1–19 Calculation of the directions Calculation of the mundane houses .3:1–12 § 1. § 10.12:1–15 § 2.1:2–6 § 2. § 2.8:1–10 § 10.5:1–17 §2.4:1–8.3:3–7 § 2.1:1–11 § 3.5:1–12. Subject Names and sizes of the signs.4:1–7 § 1. number. division of the zodiacal signs Exaltations Aspects Mundane houses Orbs of the planets and their links with the mundane houses Planets and days of the week Joys of the planets Calculation of the aspects Ta § 1. § 10. motion.9:1 § 10.16:1–14 § 3.

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other stylistic features revealing the presence of quotations are indicated by an underline. Astrologers discovered this through experience. The three examples presented here show that Te#amim II is comment. it will be abundant and very strong.4:1–21). These lemmata.4:1–2: ïá úøåö ìò íäù úåìæîä éë åà ¬ïåéñðä êøãá úåìæîä éîëç åäåòãé äæ øáã ®íéîåîä øåáòá úåìæîä íä ®úåëúîä ®éðéòá ïåëðä àåä äæå »íäîò úù÷ íâ ¬íåî íá ïéà íãà úàø÷ðå äøåö äéøàá ùé ®øèîä ®ïåéñðä êøãá òãåð äæ ®íéðìéàä ®ùàá åñðëé íìåëù ìéçúé øèîä øùàë éë íòèäå ®íéîä øåáòá éìã ìæîå ¬íéîä ìò äøåú ïë ìò ¬äðéôñ øåáòá ïë åàø÷ð ®íéúååòîä ®äñåðî øáãä äæå ¬ãàî óé÷úå áø äéäé äìàî úçàá øåáòá ®íéëìîä ®íéøùéä äæ êôäå ¬úåøùé úåòù éúùî úåçô áåùéä ìëá íúåìò øåáòá äìè øúåéå ¬íéðâñì øéåàäå ¬ùàä úåìæî åéä ääåáâ úåéäì ùàä úãìåú úåéä ®íéãáòì äðîä äèîì ïéàù øôòä úåìæîå ¬íééðåðéáì íéîä úåìæîå ¬åá ùîùä ãåáë ®íéøùé íéëñåîî íä íãà ïá úøåö úåìæîå çëá äøøù íéù÷áî ùàä úåìæî ®íéàéáðä äøåé íéãàîù øåáòá ïë äéäéå ¬úåàåôøä úîëçá úåôúåù äâðìå íéãàîì ®íéàôåøä íéãàî úéá àåä áø÷ò ¬äðäå ®áåè çéø íäì ùéù íéø÷ò ìë ìò äâðå íéòöôä ìò øîàéå ®øåù íò íéðæàî ®ùøôà øùàë ¬éùùä àåäù øåáòá íéàåìçúä ìò äøåé åúéáå íéîåîäå íéàåìçúä ìò äøåé éùùä úéáäù øåáòá úòã éøñç íäéðù äìà éë éîìú ®ïåøñçå íåî ìòá àåä ¬ãìåðä ìò äøåéù ¬çîåöä ìæîä ìòá äðäå ¬ïåøñçäå Deformities.3:1–23. as will be shown in the notes. Metals. or because the signs that have a human shape have no deformities. on account of the water. ing on quotations from an underlying text. this is the correct explanation in my opinion. There is a constellation in Leo called “Ship. are quotations: Tb § 2.” so it indicates water. and this has been verified by experience. This is known through experience.appendix 4 QUOTATIONS FROM AN UNDERLYING TEXT IN TE #AMIM II . § 2. These are the signs that are so-called because all of them can withstand fire. § 2. The reason is that when it begins to rain and the Moon is in any of these constellations . Trees. and Sagittarius is included among them.3:17–23. Rain. so too Aquarius. In each case relatively short explanations or definitions are headed by lemmata. . (I) The first example relates to the description of various categories of zodiacal signs and cites a fragment of a larger section (Tb § 2. The quotations are in bold type.

For the “trees.” “commoners. deformities. Some of the lemmata—“deformities. and foolishness.348 appendix 4 Crooked. Ptolemy said that these two are foolish because the sixth mundane house indicates diseases. as shown in the corresponding notes. and the earthy signs.” note that there is no astrological connection between this word and the constellations referred to. the peculiar and curious manner in which these lemmata and their explanations are formulated imply that they were not written as self-contained statements. Note that the same categories are found in other introductions to astrology.” “slaves. Now we turn to the peculiar characteristics of the remaining lemmata and their explanations. to the slaves.” note that “the signs” in the ensuing explanation remain unspecified.” “crooked. as I shall explain. And as for “rain. In sum.” “kings. Because the nature of fire is to rise. is deformed and foolish. With regard to “metals. followed by the zodiacal signs belonging to each of these categories.” nothing substantial is said except that “this is known through experience. which gives an indication about the native.” and “physicians”—certainly refer to various categories of zodiacal signs. Scorpio is the planetary house of Mars and its house indicates diseases because it is the sixth. Mars and Venus have a partnership in the science of medicine. They are so named because they rise anywhere in the ecumene in less than two equal hours. The fiery signs seek power by force. Kings. but the lord of the sign of the ascendant. (II) The second example. It may be safely posited that here Te #amim . may be considered typical of the full section (§ 5) on the properties of the seven planets as well as of the Head of the Dragon and its Tail: . Prophets. because the exaltation of the Sun is in it—and the watery signs to the commoners. Libra and Taurus. Ibn Ezra meant them for readers in possession of another text to which they were supposed to turn for additional information. because Mars indicates wounds and Venus all the essences with a pleasant smell.” As for the mysterious “prophets. which relates to the properties of Saturn. and the signs with a human shape are mixed and temperate. the fiery signs were assigned to the kings . Physicians. rather.” the purported meaning is totally divorced from the explanation that follows. the lowest of all. and the opposite applies to the straight signs . II is commenting on and quoting from another text where the same type names appeared.” “viceroys. and the airy to the nobles—particularly Aries.

which is cold. and also leprosy. on account of the cold. and blindness because it is the opposite of the luminaries and its image is dark. and it indicates anything that is ancient and old. and madness. which is cold. chronic. It indicates the angel of death because it [Saturn] is the opposite of life … The reason it indicates a ship’s captain or sailor is because it generates abundant moisture. because Saturn produces the black bile. It also indicates quartan fever. Similarly with its nature. since it has the spleen assigned to it .3:1–11: 349 íéðæåàäù øåáòá ¬úéðîéä ïæåàä åðúðå ¬íéúøùî äòáùä ìò ùàøä éá÷ð å÷ìç ®éàúáù ¬úéðîéä å÷ìçì åðúð ÷ãö ìò íâ ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòáå ¬ïåéìòä éàúáùì ¬úåðåéìò øå÷ ãéìåî àåäù åéìò åøîàå ®äø÷ àéäù äøåçù äøîä ãéìåé éàúáù éë ìåçèäå ìò åøîàå … íééçä úãìåúë åððéà åìù íåçä äðäå ¬õøàäî ÷åçø åúåéä øåáòá íîçé õøàä ìà áåø÷ åúåéäá éë ¬ùáé àåä ÷öåîä ìâìâä úåäáâá åúåéäá éë éàúáù úàôî åúãìåú éåðùå ®åì íãàì êøåö ùéù äî íîçé àìù ô§§ò§§à ¬äçéì ãéìåéå øúåé ïéàù íéëåøà íòèå ¬øå÷äî íéëåøà íéàåìçú ìò äøåéå ®äðáìä êøãë ¬ïè÷ä ìâìâ ¬äø÷ àéäù äøåçùä äøîî àéäù úéòéáøä úçã÷äå ¬åäåîë èòî êìéù úøùî êì øåáòá íéðôä úåçéôðå ¬ïë íâ úòøöäå ¬äçìäå øå÷ä øåáòá àåáéù åðîî ùéù úåèùäå äøîä øåáòá ùôðä úåîîùå ¬äëåùç åúåîãå úåøåàîä êôä àåä éë ïéòä êùçå ¬äçìä ¬ïùéå ïåîã÷ øáã ìë ìò äøåéå ¬åðîî ÷åçø åúåéä øåáòá áàä ìò äøåéå ®äøåçùä øåöòé àåäå ìåçèä åì ùéù øåáòá ¬úåò÷ø÷ä ìò äøåé àåä éë øåáòá øá÷ä íòèå ¬åúòåðúá ãáë àåä éë åúãìåú äëëå ¬åðîî íãà æåæé àìù íå÷î øá÷äå óåâä çë ãéìåî àåäù øåáòá çìî åà ìáåç áø íòèå … íééçä êôä àåä éë úååîä êàìîå ¬íéôì÷ä äëëå ¬íéîá íúãåáò éë úåøåò éãáòîå ¬íéîéäå íéîä àéä äðäå ¬äáø äçéì úîàä úîëç ìò äøåéå ®úåîöòä åìù ïë ìò ¬øôòä ìò äøåé àåä éë íéúî éøáå÷å ìò äøåéå ¬åúëéìäá õø åððéàù øåáòá úçà êøã ìò ãîåòå ¬ïåéìò åúåéä øåáòá íòèë ¬íãàä íù ãåîòéù íå÷î øäåñä úéáå ®äðåùî åúãìåú úåéä øåáòá úåðáæë ¬íéø÷ íäù øåáòá ¬íéðáàáå íéöòá úåëîå ìáëä íòè äæå ¬äøäîá àöé àìå ¬øá÷ä ®øéäî åððéà éë ìöò àåäå Saturn. which comes from the black bile.appendix 4 Tb § 5. inasmuch as the ears are uppermost. because its motion is sluggish. as in the case of the Moon. and the grave is a place from which a man does not move. It indicates the father because it is far from it [the Earth]. and facial edema. The change in its nature is because of the epicycle. They assigned it the spleen. which checks the power of the body. and emotional depression because of the black bile. they assigned the right ear. and because it is higher than Jupiter they assigned to it the right ear . The reason it indicates the grave is that it indicates the ground. They said that it produces cold because it is far from the Earth. It indicates chronic diseases. They divided the orifices of the head among the seven planets. because when it is close to the Earth it warms more and generates moisture. because no planet is as sluggish as it is. hence its heat is not in accord with the nature of life … They said of Saturn that when it is at the apogee of the eccentric circle it is dry. which is . on account of the moisture. To Saturn. which sometimes comes because of cold and moisture. even though it does not warm as much as man needs. the uppermost.

7. and it indicates curriers because they work with water.1:11. § 4.1:2. § 5. ing the same stylistic formulas can be found in the descriptions of the other planets.7.5:1–5: ïåáùç éë øåáòá íéòåáù äùìù íòèå ®úåìæîä ïë éë øùòä íéðù íòèå … íéòåáùä ìò äòáù íäù ¬íéòáøàå äòùú íäî àöåä ¬íéðùå íéùéîç íä äðùä ìë úåòåáù äòáøà úåìæîä úôå÷úì úç÷ì íòèå ®íåé úéòéáøå íåé øàùðå ¬äùìù åøàùé ¬äòáù ¬äðîùå íéòáøà íäî àöåä ¬íéúùå íéùéîç íä íéòåáùä ïåáùç éë äðù ìëì íéòåáù àåäù ¬íåéä úéòéáøå íåéä íâ úåòåáù òáøà åøàùðå ¬øùò íéðù øùò íéðù íàéöåúù íåé øùò íéðù äìòî ìëì úúì íòè ®íéîéä úôå÷ú ®äðùä úåòåáù ìò äðù ìëá óñåð . § 4. Also prison. § 8.” and “emotional depression” are mentioned indicates that they were extracted from another text and inserted into Te #amim II to be explained there. § 3.9.11.3:2.” “ship’s captain or the sailor. because they are cold.” “angel of death.3. § 4. and which he does not leave quickly. which deal with nativities: Tb § 8. before some property is recorded. § 7. § 2. (1) Note the use. § 3. Similar examples reflect. . and this is why the bones belong to it. § 5.8:1–11. and similarly tanners. § 3.4 et passim). because it indicates the dust. a place where a man stays. this is the reason for the fetters and blows on trees and stones. § 4.” “leprosy. idiosyncratic feature helps us discern possible quotation in other parts of Te#amim II as well (see.1:2. the same device is often used in Te #amim I to intro. for example.” “gravediggers. in the opening statements of this fragment.2:3.11. just like the grave. This formula enables the detection of quotations in many other parts of Te#amim II (see.5:8.12.2:2. § 2.” ( íòèå… øåáòá…).10.” “blindness. and it is stable in one way because it does not run in its course. (III) The third example is a fragment that explains chronological values. It is idle because it is not quick. § 6. This . § 5.4.4:1–4.9.2:4–5). § 5.4:1.” and particularly “fetters and blows on trees and stones.350 appendix 4 the water and the seas.2:17.” are all of them quotations.2:7. (3) The disjointed manner in which properties like “chronic diseases. of the third person plural. (2) An unequivocal link between a quotation and the explanation that follows is the use of the formula “and the reason for … is because….4.1:2.9:4.8. .5. It indicates the science of truth because it is uppermost.” “quartan fever. and it indicates deceitfulness because its nature is ill-assorted. § 2. § 2.8.” “tanners.4:15.3:4.” “curriers. and gravediggers. from which one may learn that the “grave.11:1. It may be considered to be representative of sections § 6 and § 8.” “facial edema. Three points deserve our attention. duce verbatim quotations from Reshit Hokhmah (see Appendix 2).

The reason for “subtracting 4 weeks for the revolution of the signs for every year” is that the number of weeks in one year is 52. subtract 48 by casting out twelves and the remainder is four weeks plus a day and a quarter. The reason for “3 weeks” is that the number of weeks in a complete year is 52. … The reason for “12” is that this is the number of the signs.3:4. Two features indicate that all six chronological values (underlined) commented on in this fragment are quotations: (1) all six emerge out of the blue and are completely unconnected to any other part of Te #amim II . and there is still a remainder of one and a quarter days.9. Ya#qub al-Kindî’s reason for assigning ‘one degree less one arc minute to each day’ is that this is the mean motion of the Sun in one day. .g.appendix 4 351 ¬úåøùé úåìòî íéùìù ìò äðùä úåîé ìë å÷ìçúé ïëù äòù úéùéìùå úåòù éúù ãåòå øåáòá ÷ìç úåçô úçà äìòî íåé ìëì úúì éãðë ìà á÷òé íòèå ®óåñä úéá íäù éë úçà äìòî úåòù éúùá úúì íòèå … ãçà íåéá éòöîàä ùîùä êìäî àåä äæù ®äìòîä äøùò íéúù ïúé äìéìáå íåéá The weeks. which is seven times seven. subtract 49. § 4.10. and the remainder is three weeks . Revolution of the days.11).. (2) the use of the formula (marked with an underline) “the reason for … is …” (… øåáòá … íòèå). … The reason for assigning “one degree to every two hours” is that day and night together are equal to 12 degrees.7. which precedes the explanations here and elsewhere (e. . which is the excess each year to the full weeks of the year. The reason for assigning “12 days plus two and a third hours to each degree” is that in this manner all the days of the year are divided into 30 equal degrees. which is the terminal house.

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§ 3. § 5. § 8. § 3.7:3 § 1.2:6.5:1.59:2 § 3. section. § 4.3:6 ìàòîùé éîëç § 4.8:2.1:1.5:10. § 5.2:6. § 3.8:3. the .4:3 Tb Chapter. § 2.4:2.12:7.13:8.2:17 § 3.9.appendix 5 AUTHORITIES AND SOURCES MENTIONED IN TE #AMIM I AND TE #AMIM II .6:19 § 2. § 2. § 9. Prince Abû Ma#shar (the) Ancients Ta íäøáà §ø àéùðä øùòî åáà íéðåîã÷ä Chapter.9.1:1. § 4.2:6. § 3.6:18. passage § 4. § 2. § 10. § 2. § 8.3:17. § 5.6:3. § 1.11 Andruzagar ben Sadi Faruk the Jew Arab scholars Aristotle Astrologers ïá øâæåøãðà êåøô éãàæ éãåäéä ìàòîùé éîëç ñåìèåèñéøà úåìæîä éîëç § 2.2:19.3.3:3 úåìæîä éîëç Astrology Book by Abraham Bar Hiyya. § 10. section. § 8.7:2.2:5. § 10.7:1.3. § 5.4.4:5 . Prince Book by Abû Ma#shar Book by Andruzagar ben Sadi Faruk the Jew Book by Doronius Book of Conjunctions (Ibn Ezra) íäøáà §ø åøôñá àéùðä úåìæîä úîëç åáà øôñ øùòî øâæåøãðà øôñ êåøô éãàæ ïá éãåäéä ñåéðåøåã øôñ øôñ úåøáçîä § 2. § 4. .12:2.3. § 10. § 3.7:3.2:12. § 5.2:4.1:7.2:6.12:5.1:1.5. § 2. § 7. the .18:1.5:2.10.2:4. § 2.17:9.6:19 § 6. § 4.7:5 § 1.6:7.8:8 § 1.5:1.1:2 § 2.3:5. § 7. § 7. § 4.5:3.3:10.19.3:6.9:2.1:12 § 1. § 4. passage § 10.6:19 íéðåîã÷ä § 2. § 2. § 2.2:2.7 10. § 2. English Abraham Bar Hiyya. § 6. § 2.1:1.5:7.

9:2.8:1 § 2.2:11.2:3 úåçåìä øôñ § 2.6:1 éìë øôñ úùåçðä § 10.1:1 § 1.2:3.6:13. § 3.1:9.1:2 § 2.6:13.354 English Book of Nativities (Ibn Ezra) Book of the Astrolabe (Ibn Ezra) Book of the Beginning of Wisdom (Ibn Ezra) Book of the Longitude (Enoch) Book of the Tables (Ibn Ezra) Book of the World (Ibn Ezra) Book on the Use of Tables (Ibn Ezra) Books of the Ancients Books of the astrologers De Anima by Aristotle Doronius Doronius.2:11 § 1.7:7.3:10.5:20 Tb úåãìåîä øôñ Chapter.3:3 § 6.5:19 úéùàø øôñ äîëç § 1. § 6.31 § 5.5:1. § 6.5:6. passage § 1.2:1 äùòî øôñ úåçåìä § 8.8:3. passage § 6.3:3. § 8. § 10. § 2.16:8.1:5 § 2.5:2 § 3.1:11. § 4.4.5:5.6:19 § 2. § 3.12:14 § 1. § 9. the King Egyptian scientists Enoch éøôñ íéðåîã÷ä éîëç éøôñ úåìæîä ùôðä øôñ ñåìèåèñéøàì ñåéðåøåã ñåéðåøåã êìîä íéøöî éîëç êåðç íìåòä øôñ êøàä øôñ appendix 5 Ta úåãìåîä øôñ Chapter.4:9 § 10. § 5.3:6. § 2. section. § 2.22. § 7. § 4. § 8.5:1.2:6 . § 9.4:9 § 2. § 6.1:2 § 2.8.2:18.2:4. § 8.2:3 íéøöî éîëç êåðç ñåéðåøåã § 2.3:4. § 2.4:1 § 4. § 10.4:2. § 6.1:5.4:3. § 10. section.6:3 § 3.18:2 § 2.9:2 Expert in the zodiacal signs Experts in (astrological) judgments Experts in the astrolabe úåìæîä ìòá ïéðéãä éìòá úåìæîä ìòá éìòá íéèôùîä éìë éìòá úùåçðä éìë éîëç úùåçðä § 3.3:5.9:4 íìåòä øôñ § 6. § 6.

§ 5.2:8.1:2. § 3.2 äììàùî ñøô éîëç äééùåúä éîëç § 6.6:1 § 2.5:6.3:5. § 9. § 3.3:11. § 4.4.7:8 .1:3 ïåé éîëç § 5. § 7.5. § 8.7:1.7:5 § 2.2:26. § 5.1:13. § 8.15:4.9.1:5. § 8.5:1.4:2. § 6.7:5 íéàôåø ñåéîìèá éîìú Ptolemy.1:5 § 4.4:5.5:7.16:2.1:3.1:1.12:1. § 10. § 8. § 2. § 6. § 2.9:1. § 5. § 10.3:10.2:19. § 2. § 5. § 7.5:12.15.9:2. § 5. § 5.12.9:1 § 1.2:3.2:10. § 9.5:3. § 5.9:1 § 2.1:3. section. § 2. § 2. § 10.1:6. § 8.2:3.6:4.8:3.12:11 åãåä éîëç § 2. § 4.9. § 4.1:1. the King Scholars of our generation Scholars of the images åðøåã éîëç êìîä éîìú § 5.appendix 5 English Experts in the images Experts in the science of the proportions Geometricians Greek scholars Hipparchus Ibn Abi Damina Indian scientists ñëøáà éáà ïáà äðéîã åãåä éîëç úîëç éìòá íéëøòä úåãîä éìòá 355 Tb úåøåöä éìòá Ta Chapter.7:11 åãåä éùðà åãåä éùðà § 2.9:1. § 2.2. § 3. § 2. § 2. § 1. § 8.6:2. § 10.1:2.18:1. § 7.3:3.8:1. § 8.5:12 § 1. § 4. § 5. § 2. § 2. § 2.1:1 § 10.1:8.2:3. passage Chapter. § 6.11. § 2.4.1:13.7:6 knowledgeable about the poles Mâshâ"allâh Persian scientists philosophers physicians Ptolemy íéðãñä éìòá äììà àùàî ñøô éîëç § 2.1:1 § 2.3:1.12:4 § 4. § 2.8.2:3.3:1. § 4.19.13.16:3. § 2. § 10.2:3. passage § 5. § 5. § 9.9.8:2. § 6. § 8.6:4. § 6.2:11.3:1 § 2. 6.10:1.1:5 § 2. § 3.1:7.9:1.5. § 5.1:1 § 2.7:4. § 7. § 2.13:8.1:11.10:1 úåøåöä éîëç § 2.2:3.5:12.4.18:2.11.9:1.12.2:3.5:7. § 4.5:7.9:1.3:14.2.6:2. § 6. § 2. § 5.6:4 § 3. section. § 2. § 5.3:1.9.2:2. § 6.2:10 § 3.12:5.7.

13:9.3:2 § 10.1:4 § 2.15 Tb Chapter.1:5 § 2.6:13 § 1. § 4. § 10.7:1.12:14 äòáùì úåçåì íéúøùîä § 8.2:10. section.5:1.1:11. § 2.12:14.7:6 § 5.3:2.5:1 § 1. section. § 10.8:1.1:2 úåøåöä úîëç § 8.7:2 . § 5.1:4 § 6.4:1.1:3 § 3.8:7 ìâìâ çåì øùåéä åãåä úåçåì ñøô úåçåì éîìú úåçåì § 6.5:2 § 5. § 10.1:2.356 English Scholars who rely on experience Science of medicine Science of proportions Science of the images (of the stars) Sphaera recta table Tables of India Tables of Persia Tables of Ptolemy Tables of the scholars who rely on experience Tables of the seven planets Tetrabiblos (Ptolemy) Vettius Valens Ya#qub al-Kindî Year of India äòáøàä øôñ íéøòù ñéìàå éãðë ìà á÷òé ìù ùîùä úðù åãåä éîëç úåçåì ïåéñðä ìâìâ çåì øùåéä úîëç íéëøòä appendix 5 Ta ïåéñðä éîëç Chapter. § 6. passage § 2.5:13. passage úîëç úåàåôøä § 1. § 2. § 8. § 3.4:2.5:2 § 8.1:4 § 6. § 10.5:5.12:11 äòáøàä øôñ íéùàø éãðë ìà á÷òé åãåä úðù § 4. § 2.5:6 § 3.

2:1–6.7:1–11 . Subject Nature of the signs Planetary houses Exaltations Mundane houses Aspects Nimubar Selection of the hyl"eg Beginning and length of the solar year. § 3. § 2. pits.1:1–5 § 6.7:1–14 § 3.5:1–10.2:1–11 § 8.3:1–7 § 4.7:1–8. physical properties of the planets and signs.1:1–12. astrological influence of the stars of the eighth orb Tb § 2.appendix 6 DIGRESSIONS IN TE #AMIM II. dark and bright degrees.6:1–7 § 2.1:1–13 § 2. § 4. § 4. .8:1–3 § 6.6:1–6. § 3.

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as shown in the first example of Appendix 4. These two fragments—enumerating and describing various categories of zodiacal signs—were selected for this purpose for several reasons: (I) Fragment A was chosen because. Four types of links between fragments A and B are studied and marked in the Hebrew texts and English translations.4:1–21: øéåàä äéäù øçà äðäå ¬äìè ìæîá ùîùä ñðëäá ïîæä äðúùéù øåáòá ®íéëôäúîä ¬úåùáéä äîå÷îá äéäúå úåçìä øåñúù ¬ïèøñ äëëå ®êôäúî àø÷ð ¬íç äéäé çìå ø÷ êôäúúå úùåáéä øåñúù ¬éãâá äëëå ¬øå÷ä ìà êôäúéå íåçä øåñé ¬íéðæàî äëëå íééòöîà íäù øåáòá ¬éìã áø÷ò äéøà øåù íäå ¬íéãîåò íéøçàä åàø÷ðå ®úåçìä äìåúá íéîåàú íäå ¬íéôåâ éðù íéøçàä åàø÷ðå ®úçà úãìåú ìò íá øéåàä ãåîòéå ®äàáä úãìåúä íò íééòöîà íäå äðåùàøä úãìåúä óåñá íäù øåáòá ¬íéâã úù÷ íéùìùî øúåéá áåùéá íå÷î ìëá äìòéù ìæîä øåáòá ïë åàø÷ð ®íéëåøà úåìæî ®ìåãâä ÷ìçä ®úåçåìç øôñá áåúëù åîë äæ êôä íéøö÷äå ¬íäî ãçà ìë ¬úåìòî äëëå ¬íãà ïá úåîãá úåøåöä äìàù øåáòá ®úåøåöä úåìæî … äæ ìò øáãà ãåò éîëçå íúåîãë íä øùàë ìò äøåé ïë ìò ®õç åãéá íãà éöç úøåö ïåùàøä úù÷ éöç éë íéøëæä íä ®íéîçä íéøëæä ®äîäá úøåö ìò íäù èôùî äëëå äëë åñð úåøåöä øåáòá éìã ïë àìå ¬íéôé íä íãàä úøåö ìò íäù ®éôåéä ®äá÷ðäî íç íìåòì øëæä . ff. §2. Tb § 2.appendix 7 A COMPARATIVE SCRUTINY OF TE #AMIM . (II) Fragment B was chosen because it is organized in the form of a double-entry list of the names of categories of signs and their corresponding signs.ei ha-Mazzalot t (fragment B: Mishpetei haMazzalot. bnf 1058. 13b–14a). as follows: (a) double underline: identical phrasing in both texts. This appendix subjects to scrutiny two parallel fragments from Te#amim .4:1–12) and Mishpe.3:1–23. § 2. II (Fragment A: Tb § 2.3:1–23. (c) underline: totally different names in the two texts for the same categories of signs. it includes quotations from an underlying text. in an at. II AND MISHPETEI HA-MAZZALOT . (b) bold: similar but not identical phrasing. (d) bold underline: quotations in fragment A that are not mentioned at all in fragment B. tempt to determine whether the latter could be the underlying text of the former. which is the precisely the organization of fragment A.

Taurus.360 appendix 7 ®ìå÷ä ®íéøçàäå äìè ïë àìå íéâã äëëå ¬äîéìù äøåö åîë éãâ íâ ¬éàúáù úéá åúåéä úåîäáäå ¬åãáì øáãîä àåä íãàäù ¬íìù ìå÷ íäì ùé íãàä úøåö ìò íäù úåìæîä ïë ìò ¬øåáã éë óà ìå÷ íäì ïéà íéâãå áø÷òå ïèøñ ®øåáã íäì ïéàå ìå÷ íäì ùé íâ ¬äîäáá øåáâ àåä éë äéøà ®çëä ®íéøáã èåòéî ìò åøåéù íòèäå ¬íéîìà íä éìãå ®åáðæá ìåãâ çë äéøàìå ¬äéøàä áðæ àø÷ðä åá ùéù ìåãâä áëåëä øåáòá äìåúá ¬ø÷ àåäå úåá÷ðä ÷ìçá àåä éë éãâ ïë àìå ¬øëæ úéá àåäå éàúáù úéá åúåéä øåáòá úåìæîä éîëç åäåòãé äæ øáã ®íéîåîä ®ïåéìò àåäù íéúøùîä ìëî óé÷ú éàúáùå »íäîò úù÷ íâ ¬íåî íá ïéà íãà ïá úøåö ìò íäù úåìæîä éë åà ¬ïåéñðä êøãá äæ ®íéðìéàä ®ùàá åñðëé íìåëù øåáòá úåìæîä íä ®úåëúîä ®éðéòá ïåëðä àåä äæå ¬íéîä ìò äøåú ïë ìò ¬äðéôñ úàø÷ðå äøåö äéøàá ùé ®øèîä ®ïåéñðä êøãá òãåð óé÷úå áø äéäé äìàî úçàá ìéçúé øèîä øùàë éë íòèäå ®íéîä øåáòá éìã ìæîå éúùî úåçô áåùéä ìëá íúåìò øåáòá ïë åàø÷ð ®íéúååòîä ®äñåðî øáãä äæå ¬ãàî ääåáâ úåéäì ùàä úãìåú úåéä øåáòá ®íéëìîä ®íéøùéä äæ êôäå ¬úåøùé úåòù íéîä úåìæîå ¬åá ùîùä ãåáë øåáòá äìè øúåéå ¬íéðâñì øéåàäå ¬ùàä úåìæî åéä íéù÷áî ùàä úåìæî ®íéàéáðä ®íéãáòì äðîä äèîì ïéàù øôòä úåìæîå ¬íééðåðéáì äâðìå íéãàîì ®íéàôåøä ®íéøùé íéëñåîî íä íãà ïá úøåö úåìæîå çëá äøøù ìë ìò äâðå íéòöôä ìò äøåé íéãàîù øåáòá ïë äéäéå ¬úåàåôøä úîëçá úåôúåù íéàåìçúä ìò äøåé åúéáå íéãàî úéá àåä áø÷ò ¬äðäå ®áåè çéø íäì ùéù íéø÷ò éøñç íäéðù äìà éë éîìú øîàéå ®øåù íò íéðæàî ®ùøôà øùàë ¬éùùä àåäù øåáòá ìæîä ìòá äðäå ¬ïåøñçäå íéîåîäå íéàåìçúä ìò äøåé éùùä úéáäù øåáòá úòã íéáëåë äìåúáá ùé ®íéôðë éìòá ®ïåøñçå íåî ìòá àåä ¬ãìåðä ìò äøåéù ¬çîåöä äåáâ úåìæîá ìæî ïéàå çåøä úåìæîî àåä íéîåàú ®íéîùä ®íéâãá ïë íâ íéôðë úåîãá ®øéåà àåä íéîùäå ¬íéîä úãìåúî àåä éë ïèøñ ïë àìå ¬ïåôö óåñ àåäù øåáòá åðîî äøîä ìò äøåé àåä éë ¬éàúáù úéá àåäù øåáòá íéãù ìæî éìã éë åøîà ®íéãùä ®åá éàúáù çë úåàøä øåáòá ¬éãâ àìå äëë éìã éë åøîàå ¬íéãùä äàøîä äøåçùä ®íìåòá äø÷éù øáã ìë ìò äøåú õøàä ìà äáåø÷ äðáìä úåéä øåáòá ®íìåòä ìæî äøåà ìçé ïë øçàå ¬òåãé ïîæ ãò ìãâéå åîà íçøî åúàöá ãìåì äøåàá äîåã àéä íâ äëë áëåëä äøåéù äî ìë éë ¬íìåòä ìæî åäåîù äúéá ïèøñ úåéä øåáòáå ®øñçäì çì øéåàä äéäé íéðåùàøä úåìæîä äùìùá ùîùä úåéäá éë òåãé ®ìâìâä … åúéá äøåé øåáòá ®íùä úãåáò éúá ®úåìæîä øàù äëëå ¬íéãìåðä úãìåú úòãì ìéòåé äæå ¬íçå íäá úååúùä éðôî ¬úåìæîä ìëî øúåé íéëñåîîå íéáåè úåìæî íéðæàîå äìè úåéä ®ìâùîä … íùä úãåáò éúá ÷ãöäîå ¬÷ãöä øáã ìò åøåé ïë ìò ¬äìéìä íò íåéä úåøåöä úåîã øåáòáå ¬äìåãâ äàåú íäì ùé äéøàå øåùå ¬äìè úøåö ìò íä äìà éðá éë øåáòá íéø÷ò íä íãàä úøåö ìò íäù úåìæî ìë ®íéø÷òä ®äëë íúåà åðã åãéìåé ¬íéîá íä øùàå úåîäá úøåö ìò íäù ¬íééðåðéáä ®íéèòåî íéðá íéãéìåî íãà äúãìåúá íéîä ìò äøåú äðáìäå ¬äðáìä úéá àåäù øåáòá ¬ïèøñ íéä ìæî ®íéáø ãìåð ìë éë ¬ùàøä ìò úåàì úåéäì åäåîù úåìæîä úìçú åúåéä øåáòá ®äìè ìæî … ®ùàøá úåòø åì åéäé àì ¬÷éæî áëåë íò àåä íàå ¬äìè ìæîá åéìò ãé÷ôä äéäéù ®íéìâøä ìò úåàì íéâã úåéä ãò íãàä éðá éøáà ìò ìæî ìë å÷ìçå Tropical signs . Similarly with Cancer. hence. and similarly with Capricorn. since moistness departs and is replaced by dryness. and Aquarius—because they are . Aries is called tropical. Leo. and similarly with Libra. Because the weather changes when the Sun enters Aries. The other signs are called fixed—namely. since dryness departs and is transformed into moistness. since heat departs and is transformed into cold. inasmuch as after the air was cold and moist it turns hot. Scorpio.

Mars and Venus have a partnership in the science of medicine. because it belongs to the feminine signs and is cold. such a sign gives an indication about things that resemble its shape. Beauty. meaning that they indicate brevity of speech. Power. because it is the house of Saturn and it is a masculine house. The larger portion. and Sagittarius is included among them. Prophets. Scorpio. Because the nature of fire is to rise. Masculine and hot. therefore they are mute. and Pisces—because they are at the end of the first nature and are intermediate with respect to the next nature. Deformities. animals have a voice but do not have speech. and similarly with Pisces but not Aries and the others. and also to Virgo. because it is the mightiest among the animals. Rain. I shall say more about that in due course . These are the masculine signs because the male is always hotter than the female. and the scholars of the images verified by experience such and such an astrological judgment about the constellations that have the shape of an animal. Capricorn. as is written in the Book of the Tables. Hence. Crooked. and Pisces have neither voice nor speech. Astrologers discovered this through experience. such as the first half of Sagittarius. and this has been verified by experience. the fiery signs were assigned to the kings . except for Aquarius. They are so named because they rise anywhere in the ecumene in less than two equal hours. These are the signs that are so-called because all of them can withstand fire. The reason is that when it begins to rain and the Moon is in any of these constellations . Saturn is the strongest of the planets inasmuch as it is uppermost. for man is the only speaker. This refers to Leo. There is a constellation in Leo called “Ship. Physicians. The others are called bicorporal—namely. because it is the house of Saturn. Metals.appendix 7 361 intermediate and the air in them keeps them in one nature. This also refers to Aquarius. Scorpio is . this is the correct explanation in my opinion. but not to Capricorn. They were called this because these shapes have a human image. The signs that have the shape of a man have a complete voice. Trees. and the short signs are just the opposite. They are called this because each of these signs rises more than 30 degrees anywhere in the ecumene. Voice. The fiery signs seek power by force. and the airy to the nobles—particularly Aries. on account of the water. Gemini. because the exaltation of the Sun is in it—and the watery signs to the commoners. The signs that have the shape of a human being are handsome. Cancer. the lowest of all. Long signs. on account of the big star in it. too. Kings. … Signs with shapes. and the opposite applies to the straight signs . to the slaves. or because the signs that have a human shape have no deformities. which is called the Tail of the Lion. it will be abundant and very strong. which has the shape of half a man with an arrow in his hand. and a lion has great strength in its tail. Virgo. so too Aquarius.” so it indicates water. and the earthy signs. because Mars indicates wounds and Venus all the essences with a pleasant smell. This is known through experience. Sagittarius. which is like a whole image. and the signs with a human shape are mixed and temperate.

no harm will befall the head of any native whose lord is in the sign of Aries. and foolishness. Demons. Those signs that have the shape of a ram. Intermediate signs . All the signs were assigned to the limbs and organs of the human body down to Pisces. Mishpetei haMazzalot. and in Pisces as well. but the lord of the sign of the ascendant. since the power of Saturn is perceptible in it. They said that Aquarius is the sign of demons because it is the house of Saturn. is deformed and foolish. deformities. and similarly with the other signs. which have the shape of animals that live in water. and then its light begins to wane. and the heavens are air. … The sign of Aries. All the signs that have a human shape are sterile. Heavens. Because Aries and Libra are more benefic and temperate than the other signs. which gives an indication about the native. … The circle. because anything that is indicated by the planet is also indicated by its house. And because Cancer is its house. they made it signify the head. There are stars in Virgo that resemble wings. as I shall explain. produce many offspring . Gemini is one of the airy signs and no sign is higher than it is because it is in the extreme north. fols. they indicate justice. bull. Since it is the first sign. because it is the house of the Moon. Sterile. and they said that Aquarius is like that but not Capricorn. »éãâå íéðæàî ¬ïèøñå äìè ºíéëôäúîä ®úåìæîä éèôùî úéùàø ìò øáãì ìçà äúòå ¬äéøà ¬øåù ºíéðîàðä ®äðùä úåôå÷ú §ã íä éë ¬úòä êôäúî úåìæîä äìàá éë §éô ¬äìåúá ¬íéîåàú ºúåôåâ éúù éìòá ®íúðåëúîá íéúòä íéãîåò íäáù §éô »éìã ¬áø÷ò çëîå íäéðôì äéäù úò ïéðò çëî ¬úåçë éúù íäì ùé äìà éë §éô »íéâã ¬úù÷ ¬íééðåôö äìåúá óåñ ãò äìè ùàøî ®äæî èòîå äæî èòî ¬íäéøçàù úòä ïéðò æà íéîåàú óåñ ãò éãâ ùàøîå ¬ãøåé ùîùäù ¬íéøùé úù÷ óåñ ãò íéðæàî ùàøîå ¬ùîùì ìåãâä ìâìâä ÷ìç éöç ¬éãâ óåñ ãò äéøà ùàøî ®äìåò ùîùäù ¬íéúååòî úåìæî ®úù÷ ¬äéøà ¬äìè ºùàä úåìæî ®äðáìì ïåè÷ä éöçä ¬ïèøñ óåñ ãò éãâ óåñîå ¬ïèøñ ºíéîä úåìæî ®éìã ¬íéðæàî ¬íéîåàú ºçåøä úåìæî ®éãâ ¬äìåúá ¬øåù ºøôòä . even though it is together with a malefic planet. and this is useful for knowing the nature of the natives. since it indicates the black bile which makes the demons visible. 13b–14a: . Sign of the world. … Sexual intercourse. it was made the sign of the world. it is also similar to the fetus that emerges from its mother’s womb and grows until a certain time.362 appendix 7 the planetary house of Mars and its house indicates diseases because it is the sixth. because it is of a watery nature. Because the Moon is close to the Earth. inasmuch day and night are equal in them. bnf 1058. Ptolemy said that these two are foolish because the sixth mundane house indicates diseases. Houses of divine worship. not so Cancer. which represents the feet. and the houses of divine worship begin at the equator. Libra and Taurus. It is known that when the Sun is in the three first signs the air is moist and hot. and lion are lustful. The sign of the sea is Cancer. Winged. and the Moon by its nature indicates water. it indicates anything that occurs in the world. and it is on account of these shapes that they concluded that they are like that. because human beings produce few children. In its light.

. Libra. Pisces. Virgo. Pisces. Tropical: Aries. Virgo. half of the great circle is assigned to the Sun. Leo. explanation: because within these signs the weather varies. Leo. Libra. Faithful: Taurus. Aquarius. Western: Gemini. Capricorn. Pisces. Aquarius. From the head of Leo until the end of Capricorn. Taurus. Sagittarius. Earthy signs: Taurus. Virgo. explanation: because within them the weather maintains its pattern. Pisces. Virgo. Leo. Physicians: Taurus. Leo. Scorpio. Bicorporal: Gemini. Pisces. Aquarius. Scorpio. Scorpio. Aquarius. Leo. Airy signs: Gemini. Capricorn. Aquarius. Virgo. and from the head Capricorn until the end of Libra they are crooked. one power derives from the circumstances of previous weather and the other power from the circumstances of subsequent weather. Leo. Cancer. Pisces. a little from the former and a little from the latter. Capricorn. Aquarius. Virgo. Eastern: Aries. Scorpio. Watery signs: Cancer. Intermediate: Gemini. explanation: because these signs have two powers. Leo. since these are the four annual turning points. Bald: Cancer. Sagittarius. Handsome: Gemini. Scorpio. Capricorn. Aquarius. Taurus. Strong: Leo. Scorpio. Capricorn. Fiery signs: Aries. Virgo. Half-voiced: Aries. Gemini. Libra and the first half of Sagittarius and Aquarius. Libra. Libra. Haughty rulers: Aries. Libra. Sagittarius. Scorpio. Leo. Maimed: Aries. Strong-voiced: Gemini. because the Sun descends. Northern: Cancer. Pisces. Scorpio. Commoners: Cancer. Pisces. Libidinous: Aries. Feminine: Taurus.appendix 7 363 ¬ïèøñ ¬øåù ºúåá÷ðä ®éìã ¬úù÷ ¬íéðæàî ¬äéøà ¬íéîåàú ¬äìè ºíéøëæä ®íéâã ¬áø÷ò ®éãâ ¬äìåúá ¬øåù ºíééîåøãä ®úù÷ ¬äéøà ¬äìè ºíééçøæî ®íéâã ¬éãâ ¬áø÷ò ¬äìåúá ºìåãâ ìå÷ éìòá ®íéâã ¬áø÷ò ¬ïèøñ ºíééðåôö ®éìã ¬íéðæàî ¬íéîåàú ºíééáøòîä ºíéîìàä ®éãâ ¬äéøà ¬øåù ¬äìè ºìå÷ éöç éìòá ®éìã ¬úù÷ ¬íéðæàî ¬äìåúá ¬íéîåàú ¬äìåúá ¬øåù ºíéìôùä ®úù÷ ¬äéøà ¬äìè ºíéìùåîä íéàâúîä ®íéâã ¬áø÷ò ¬ïèøñ ºíéããåáúîä ®íéâã ¬áø÷ò ¬ïèøñ ºõøàä éîò ®éìã ¬íéðæàî ¬íéîåàú ºíééòöîàä ®éãâ éöçå íéðæàî ¬äìåúá ¬íéîåàú ºíãàä úøåö ®äìåúá ¬äéøà ºíé÷æçä ®éìã ¬äéøà ¬ïèøñ ¬øåù ¬äìè ºïéîåîä éìòá ®äéøàå øåù ºíéúøëðä ®éìã íâ úù÷ ìù ïåùàøä ¬äìåúá ¬íéîåàú º íéôéä ®íéâã ¬äéøà ¬øåù ¬äìè ºìâùîä éìòá ®íéâã ¬éãâ ¬áø÷ò ®äéøà ¬ïèøñ ºíéçø÷ä ®áø÷ò ¬øåù ºíéàôåøä ®íéâã ¬úù÷ ¬áø÷ò ºéôåé éöç ®íéðæàî Now I commence speaking about the beginning of the judgments of the signs. Capricorn. Masculine: Aries. From the head of Aries until the end of Virgo the signs are northern. Leo. Image of a man: Gemini. Pisces. Libra. and Capricorn. Sagittarius. Mute: Cancer. and from the end of Capricorn to the end of Cancer. and from the head of Libra until the end of Sagittarius the signs are direct. Southern: Taurus. Sagittarius. Taurus. Sagittarius. Half beauty: Scorpio. Despised: Taurus. Libra. Virgo. Solitary: Leo. Virgo. because the Sun ascends. Sagittarius. Cancer. Cut in their limbs: Taurus. Cancer. the smaller half is assigned to the Moon. Sagittarius.

364 appendix 7 The comparison of fragments A and B focuses on 39 likely quotations and yields the following conclusions: • 44 % of the quotations in fragment A (17 of 39) do not appear in fragment B. but use different nomenclature. are the last to be presented in fragment B. • After the three first quotations. the “Physicians” (íéàôåøä). 13% are exact matches (5 of 39) and 28 % approximate matches (11 of 39). • 15 % of the quotations in fragment A (6 of 39) are alluded to in fragment B. of them. found in the middle of fragment A. . the correspondence in the order of presentation of the quotations of fragments A in B disappears gradually. • 41 % of the quotations in fragment A (16 of 39) are mentioned in fragment B. For example.

Qu. Staatsbibliothek Cambridge. BNF. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek New York. ff. Cod. Hebr. Bodleian Library Moscow. 1517. Columbia University Library Nürnberg. Zydowski Instytut Historyczny Manuscripts of Te#amim I . Österreichische Nationalbibliothek ˙ Warsaw. 304 (IMHM: F 01109). 1044. Add. Jerusalem. . 30b–55b (14th–15th cent. (IMHM: F 17454). Biblioteca de la Real Academia de la História Munich. 65b– 87b (1367). Jewish National and University Library. 192b–217a (14th cent. ff. 25a–34b (14th–15th cent. Russian State Library St. 160 [Neubauer 2518] (IMHM: F 22230). MS héb. MBS. Add.). University Library New York. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Wien. OBL. ebr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BNF. BNF.). 1055 (IMHM: F 14658). CUL.). Columbia University Library Dresden.). MS héb. ff. Jerusalem. ff.appendix 8 MANUSCRIPTS Abbreviations BNF BS CUL CUL DSL IMHM JB JTS MBR MBS NCUL NS OBL RSL SPI VAV WÖN ˙ WZIH Paris. Sächsische Landesbibliothek Institute for Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts. 15b–21b (14th–15th cent. VAV. 1058 (IMHM: F 14642). ff. MS héb. Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences Vatican.). ff. 99a–123a (13th cent. Petersburg. ff. Benyahu New York. Jewish Theological Seminary Madrid.). 28a–38a (14th cent. Bibliothèque nationale de France Berlin. Stadtbibliothek Oxford. 47 (IMHM: F 00686).

99a–116a. MS héb. 160a–196b (1772).). NS. 45 [Neubauer 2024] (IMHM: F 19309). 2a–69b (1512). Mic 9356. ff. 1a–1b [fragment] (19th cent. Mich. Add. 52b–68b (15th cent. ff. (IMHM: F 17052). RSL. ff.). CUL. 1057 (IMHM: F 14641). ò133. ff. 34a–46b (1770). Mic 2636. (IMHM: F 10122).). 1a–33b (16th cent. OBL. CUL. 1056 (IMHM: F 14659). MBS. ff.). . Add. 1a–19a (18th cent.). MS héb. ff.). ff. 3a–28b (17th cent. JTS. Mich. ff. ff. 72b–87b (15th cent. Qu. BNF. B447. 117b–127a (15th cent. 221 [Neubauer 2246]. 20a–31a (16th cent.). ˙ WZIH. ff. ebr. 129a–187a (17th–18th cent. 3a–34a.). Cod. ff. (IMHM: F 20765). Eb 384. 69a–83b (17th cent. 390 (IMHM: F 00472). BNF.366 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 appendix 8 VAV.). JTS. Günzburg 414.). 97a–114a (17th cent.V. (IMHM: F 47781). . 679]. 18a–34a (17th cent.). 54. (IMHM: F 08783). BRESLAU. BNF. ff. 202 (IMHM: F 01649). JB. (15th–16th cent. Hebr. (IMHM: F 17118). 1a–32a (16th–17th cent. ff. MS héb.app. JTS. (IMHM: F 28889). 36b–51b (1590). X 893 Ib 53.). Mic 2623. Cent. 189 (IMHM: F 04173). ff. (IMHM: F 46890). RSL. 32a–41ª (15th cent. (IMHM: F 43036). 4. ff. ff. ff. (IMHM: F 53618). . ff. BS. 1501. 1a–29b (1750) (starts with the introduction to Te#amim II but continues with the text of Te#amim I ). 1186. OBL.). (IMHM: F 42426). Mic 9531. 1045 (IMHM: F 33996). ff. 46a–63b (16th–17th cent. (IMHM: F 44867). OBL.). Mich. 255. BNF. DSL. 56 [Neubauer 1662] (IMHM: F 17403).). 25b–37a (1460). ff.). 220 [Or. ff. (IMHM: F 28876). (IMHM: F 01779). ff. JTS. 85a–108a (1436). ff. (IMHM: F F49957).). SPI. ff. MS héb. NCUL. 31a–20b (17th cent. ff. Günzburg 421.

202 (IMHM: F 01649). (IMHM: F 53005). (IMHM: F 28879). ff. BS. 707 [Neubauer 2025] (IMHM: F 19310). 679]. MBS. ff. ff. Cod. 45 (IMHM: F 01139). BNF. Qu. JB.).). JTS. (IMHM: F 11609). 26a–38b (15th cent. ff.). ˙ WZIH. 217b–239b (14th cent. ff. ff. 191b–113a (1410). ff. 1044.). Magl. Cod. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 367 BNF. Add. 481.). ff. Hebr. 18a– 19b (14th–15th cent.). 1058 (IMHM: F 14642). Mic 2626. MS héb. 143a–160a (15th cent. 44b–53b (14th–15th cent. Mic 2625. Jewish National and University Library. WÖN. 282. ff. B70. Hebr. BNF. ff. ff. Firenze. BNF. 30a–32a (18th cent.). Hebr. MBS. 1058 (IMHM: F 14642). ò133. MBR. VAV. ebr. NCUL. ff. 137a–153b (1489). (IMHM: F 16778). (IMHM: F 01406). 17a–31a (18th–19th cent. (IMHM: F 07370). MS héb. ff. (IMHM: F 44867). CUL. B294.). VAV. 31a–42b (1750). 220 [Or. MS héb. ff. (IMHM: F 28878). 30b–55b (14th–15th cent. ff. . 44b–53b (1545). 33a–40a (16th–17th cent. JTS. (IMHM: F 53427).). ff. 118b–133b (15th cent. ff. X 893 Ib 53.appendix 8 Manuscripts of Te#amim II .). 138a–152b (18th cent. SPI. 461a–477b (1532). Jerusalem. ff. OBL. Add. 132 [Schwarz 185]. 37b–52b (15th cent. 91a–122a (19th cent. CUL. Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale. III. Mic 2629.). 47 (IMHM: F 00686). 125a–139a (15th cent. 477 (IMHM: F 00530). ff. (IMHM: F 01779). 52b–73b (15th cent.). (IMHM: F 28882). JTS. Hebr. 259 (IMHM: F 27838).). 7. ff.139 (IMHM: F11978). ebr.). ff.). MS héb. 1186. Opp. (IMHM: F 17052).). 87a–100a (1590). ff. 98b–123a (13th cent.).). MBS. SPI. 304 (IMHM: F 01109). ff. 18a–31b (16th cent. 96b– 102b. 143a–157b (beginning is lacking) (14th cent. Cod. Cod. (IMHM: F 42426). 4° 43.

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