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• Function of the exhaust valve is used for expelling the burnt gases from the engine cylinder. • Function of the inlet valve is used for allowing fresh air from turbocharger or manifold entering the engine cylinder • Both valves seals gases on compression and combustion periods
• Exhaust valves are subject to arduous conditions, and require regular overhaul. To aid this, exhaust valves are often fitted in separate cages. This allows the exhaust valve to be changed and overhauled without removing the cylinder head. The cages have water cooling passages connected to the cylinder head cooling water.
• The cage is of cast steel. The exhaust valve may be of a similar material or of a nimonic alloy. • Inlet valves are subject to much less arduous conditions and are not usually fitted in separate cages. . The cooled seats are made from a heat resistant molybdenum steel which may be stellite faced.
The two springs have different vibration characteristics. so the incidence of resonance is reduced. the other will prevent the valve dropping down into the cylinder.) . The reason for fitting two springs are that if one fails.Valve springs • Two different sized springs are fitted to aid positive closing of the valves. (resonance is where two items vibrate at the same frequency thus the amplitude of the vibration is amplified.
Winged rotators or spinners as used on the 2 stroke engine exhaust valves can also be used. Rotorcap or turnomat . A mechanical method is generally used.• Exhaust valves are designed to rotate in service. The reasons for this are to prevent uneven temperatures so it does not distort and leak by. but this entails using a ball bearing race between the spring carrier and the cover. and this is either the "rotocap" or the "turnomat". and to help dislodge any build up of deposits on the valve and seat which may prevent the valve closing properly and lead to "hammering" of the seating faces.
NON-POSITIVE VALVE ROTATOR Spring cap/retainer Tappet Tip cut Clearance when valve seated Retainer lock Valve spindle Spring Valve guide .
POSITIVE VALVE ROTATOR Bellville washer Cotter D Circlip Ramp Rotation Section D-D D Valve springs Spindle VALVE CLOSED POSITION VALVE OPENING POSITION Top view .
Valve cooling • Only exhaust valve since inlet valve working condition not severe. flowing gases assist cooling • Hot gases burn valve and seat process is cumulative • Heat transmitted thru’ seat (at closed position) and some thru’ stem .
• Centre of valve head hottest. cooled valve. Problem of cooling thus valve cage obsolete except in large highly rate engines • 3 common methods of cooling: valve cages cooling. air bled from air manifold and directed to valve another method is sodium-cooled valve .
Temperature distribution on valves 200 250 320 300 360 400 450 470 410 360 374 463 .
Spindle Cooling water outlet Cooling water inlet Cooling water outlet Valve housing Guide bush and spring retainer Exhaust gas outlet Cooling water inlet Water cooled stem guide Water cooled stem guide and seat .
Water cooled exhaust valve • Advantages – Temperature of valve during operation is lower – Due to above maintenance less – Valve life last longer • Disadvantages – Required flexible connections – troublesome – Cooling medium must be clean as blockage may lead to distortion results – manufacturing cost higher .
Cooling media inlet Flexible connection Cooling media outlet Flexible connection Plug Plug Water cooled exhaust valve Internal tube Hollow valve stem and head .
350 – 400oC 450 – 500oC 400 – 450oC 500 – 550oC 550 – 600oC 600 – 650oC Water cooled stem guide Water cooled stem guide and seat .
. It is to ensure that the valve closes properly when it expands as it gets to operating temperature.Rocker or Tappet Clearances • Rocker or Tappet clearances refer to the clearance between the top of the valve spindle and the rocker arm.
but usually done with the engine cold. and with the push rod follower on the base circle of the cam.) . (one way of ensuring this is to turn the unit being adjusted to TDC on the power stroke.• Clearances are set according to manufacturers instructions.
• If the clearance is too small. then the valve will open late and close early . then not only is there a chance that the valve will not close properly when it comes up to temperature. but it effectively will open early and close late. • Conversely if the clearance is too large.
Suction and Exhaust Valves .
Valve material • Inlet valve • Exhaust valve – Good quality steel and can be heat treated – Good strength at high temperature – Retain its properties after repeated heating to working temperature and cooling in air – no tendency to air harden – Having critical temperature above 800oC – Resist hot and cold corrosion – fuel – No tendency to scaling at high temperature – Must be easily forged or machined – Capable of consistent and reliable heat treatment .
C position and carry out the foregoing steps.D. when disassembling the valve spring or valve rotator without taking out the cylinder head. . bring the piston to T. Incidentally.Disassembling sequence • Set the valve spring detaching /attaching tool shown in the figure at right on the cylinder head. • Turn the handle of this detaching /attaching tool in the direction to press the spring.
• When the valve rotator is detached. . the valve rod might be damaged due to inferior contact of the cotter part . they should be used by a pair and more over to the same valve. disassemble it and check its interior too. carefully check the valve spring for any existence of crack and corrosion. • Two valve spring shoe cotters are being used foe each suction/exhaust valve. (unless they are handle by a pair.Cautions for disassembly check and reassembly. At the time of reassembly. • At the time of disassembly.
Suction / exhaust valve grinding. • Perform the first time's valve grinding earlier the usual as indicated in Table of Periodical Checking given in section 8 and judging the situation. • Prior to valve grinding. prolong the henceforth servicing interval. compare these measured values with the corresponding values indicated in Table of Clearance and Wear Limit of major parts given in the manual. . confirm the wear of valve guide and clearance between the valve guide and the valve rod that serve as criteria on valve working. and proceed to grinding work upon replacement of the pertinent parts as required.
And if this measurement is reaching the pertinent limit given. Correct particularly the valve upon careful checking of it because if the valve head face becomes too thin.• Measure the dimension of contact of the seat part of valve and seat ring. it will break and broken pieces will enter not only combustion chamber but the turbocharger. • Elaborate execute valve grinding. replace the parts involved with the new ones. causing serious secondary damage. . applying grinding compound of proper quantity to the valve to be ground and using the suction /exhaust valve grinding tool.
Valve problems • Mechanical difficulties or corrosion and oxidation which lead to burning – – – – – – Breakage Valve face and seat wear Face guttering Valve pounding or bouncing Shrouding of valves Corrosion and burning .
Breakage • May occur in valve head. Due to heavy leads created by overspeed operation or abnormal pounding created from excessive valve lash or weak valve spring . deposits or corrosion • May also occur at stem-head junction. Due to poor design from strength or heat transfer standpoint. Of from abnormal temperature caused by poor seat contact due to deformation of parts.
Valve face and seat wear • Common with intake valves due to pounding. fretting and scuffing • Not common with exhaust valve due to better materials and deposits at exhaust valve seat prevent intimate metallic contact between surface .
Face guttering • Not corrosion but high temperature oxidation due to leakage of hot gases .
by improving spring material and by means of hydraulic valve actuating gear .Valve pounding or bouncing • Caused by too much valve lash and or weak springs • May caused seat and valve face distortion and reduced valve life • Bouncing reduced by increasing number of springs instead of one heavy and bigger diameter spring.
Valve lift remains constant but effective opening area reduced by amount of shroud • Affect air or gas flow across valve due to less opening area and loss of stream lined flow • Removed by seat cutter. machining and special grinding machines .Shrouding of valves • Caused by repeated grinding and lapping.
Increased by increased valve temperatures . Corrosion accelerated by some lube oil additives in combination with certain fuel components and by combustion products.Corrosion and burning • Serious exhaust valve problems.
• Corrosion and deposits on valve face and seat are accelerated by high-ash lube oil. But as deposits thickens. Results is burning and ultimate failure. it partially crack off. leakage develops and valve temperature increased. Initially deposits make a smooth hard seat. . • Corrosion on stem and head destroys and roughens surface of material – results in fatigue failure.
MAINTENANCE • • • Doing overhauls according to the maintenance schedule or running hours Change the vales if necessary (before running hours) Taking care to valve tappet clearance .
pressure -cooling water (fresh water) • Choose correct grinding or lapping paste .• Correct cooling system • -L.O.
And donning maintenance according maintenance schedule.Conclusion • We should taking care about tappet clearance. valve cage. . valve spring. valve seat and so on to the valve perform in high performance. valve condition (surface area). cooling system. valve rotator.
THE END thank you .
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