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Use of the Oscilloscope

Use of the Oscilloscope

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1. PURPOSE To become familiar with the cathode ray oscilloscope and its uses. 2. APPARATUS A cathode ray oscilloscope with triggered sweep and X-Y operation mode. Signal generator or function generator. Multimeters. 3. REFERENCES
Fig. 1. Oscilloscope [Tektronix]

These instructions are intended to be sufficiently complete that you may not need to consult the equipment operation manual, but you should at least look at the manuals during the lab period to see what kind of information it contains. You may need this information in future applications. Before coming to laboratory, consult your textbook to find out about the following topics: period, frequency, angular frequency and phase of sine waves; Ohm's law; formulae for electrical power; use of voltmeters and ammeters; cathode ray oscilloscope (theory and uses); electrical safety precautions [ask for a handout sheet on safety if your textbook has insufficient information]; calculation of power in ac circuits; impedance and reactance; harmonic analysis. Consult your textbook to find definitions of the following terms: potential (voltage); current (amperage); power (wattage); phase angle; rms (root mean square) average (of voltage, current, etc.); attenuation; resonance; impedance; reactance; cathode ray tube; angular frequency; harmonic series; fundamental; harmonics; overtones. 4. INTRODUCTION The oscilloscope (or `scope') is a device which displays a graph of an electrical signal on the face of a cathode ray tube (CRT). This is usually done by displaying a time-varying potential (voltage) on the vertical axis (Y), and time on the horizontal axis. This is called the Y-T mode. Most oscilloscopes also allow the horizontal axis to be driven with another time- varying potential. In this mode, the horizontal axis is called the X axis, and this is called the X-Y mode of operation.

The CRT has much in common with computer monitors and the picture tubes of TV sets. A hot wire filament heats a metal cathode which then emits electrons. These electrons are accelerated by a high potential (typically 10 kV), collimated into a narrow beam and focused to a small spot on the front surface of the CRT. They give up their energy to the atoms in the phosphor coating on the front of the tube. These excited atoms quickly give up that energy in the form of light. Thus the small spot struck by the electron beam gives off visible light. The beam is `aimed' at a particular spot on the phosphor screen by two pair of electrostatic deflection plates, one set to deflect the beam up or down and the other to deflect the beam right or left. The deflection plates' potentials are controlled by the output of two independent electronic amplifiers. We'll refer to these as the `vertical' and the `horizontal' amplifiers. To observe the time variation of a signal, the signal is input to the vertical amplifier while the horizontal amplifier is driven by a sawtooth wave generator (within the oscilloscope.) The sawtooth generator drives the electron beam horizontally (left to right) at a constant speed, then quickly returns it to the left to sweep again. The right-to-left motion is usually so rapid that they eye cannot follow the motion, and only the left-to-right sweep is seen. The phosphor coating of the screen has `persistence' which causes it to glow for a short time after being excited. The persistence of the screen and the persistence of human vision combine to produce a flicker-free illusion of a continuously traced graph. Both the vertical and horizontal amplifiers have precisely calibrated gain (amplitude) controls which make it possible to determine potentials and time intervals accurately from measurements on the face of the CRT. The sweep generator of older oscilloscopes can only be adjusted in frequency. It is often tricky to stabilize the screen display of such a scope. More sophisticated oscilloscopes also have a `trigger' mode in which the sweep is initiated (triggered) by an electrical signal. One can choose whether the triggering signal is INTERNAL (taken from the waveform itself), or from an EXTERNAL signal. Usually one can set the sign and size of the voltage required to trigger the sweep. Some even allow you to choose to trigger on voltage level or on the slope of a waveform. Most modern oscilloscopes have a triggered mode. An oscilloscopes' horizontal deflection is generally driven by the internal sawtooth signal from a `timebase' generator. But oscilloscopes generally also have some provision to deflect the beam with an external signal. Modern oscilloscopes often have two independent amplifiers which may be used simultaneously. Each is called a `channel' and such a oscilloscope is a `dual channel' oscilloscope. Dual channel oscilloscopes can display two different signals

[See step (5)] (b) Beam intensity may be set too low. to trigger on the channel you wish to display (channel A). The beam's trace should be just bright enough to be clearly seen. 5. Set the triggering mode to INTERNAL. [See step (3)] (5) If the oscilloscope has two channels. It should have at least one setting for external input to the horizontal axis. if you see nothing on the screen. or left. and set it about midway of its range. for that can permanently `burn' the phosphor coating on the screen. look for a sweep off switch or control. (2) Find the INTENSITY (or BRIGHTNESS) control. Very often it is combined with one of the other controls. advance the INTENSITY control gradually until a spot or line is seen on the screen. This controls the intensity of the electron-beam's trace on the screen. low. right. PROCEDURE (1) See that your lab station has a complete set of the required apparatus. It may take a minute or so before you see anything on the screen. (7) Once you have achieved a stable line on the screen. which move the beam up or down. Find the HORIZONTAL POSITION control which moves it left and right. Choose that setting. You want to see a stationary spot of light on the screen (not a . Put the oscilloscope in the AUTOmatic TRIGGERing mode. (3) Find the POWER ON switch on the oscilloscope. since you aren't supplying an external signal. (4) If you don't see anything on the screen. and may have the capability to display their sum or their difference. select (with the MODE switch) channel A to display on the vertical axis.'] Make sure these controls allow you to move the beam anywhere on the screen. This usually defeats the horizontal sweep. (6) Find and test the VERTICAL POSITION controls of the vertical amplifier. After several minutes. find the SWEEP RATE or TIMEBASE control. Excess brightness spreads the trace and decreases resolution. If it doesn't. [Some oscilloscopes have `beam finder' buttons which give you a clue which direction the beam is when it is `off-screen.simultaneously on the screen. Plug the oscilloscope's power cord into an AC outlet and then turn on the POWER switch. usually the SCALE ILLUMINATION control. You may need to adjust the TRIGGER LEVEL control to stop the screen waveform from moving left or right on the screen. since the filament of the CRT (cathode ray tube) needs time to heat up. check: (a) The position controls may be set too high. Avoid excess intensity.

(9) Now set the sweep control to restore the horizontal sweep. Try different frequency settings of the signal generator. not moving left or right. Set the oscilloscope's horizontal sweep to something like 1 ms/cm. Refocus to reduce its size to the smallest point. move the beam to the center of the screen. Turn the BEAM INTENSITY to a lower value to avoid damaging the phosphor coating of the screen. (13) Experiment with different sweep rate settings. or the oscilloscope? [You may need to discuss this with your instructor if you do observe distortion. the astigmatism control changes its shape.] 6. If the oscilloscope is a good one. This control is usually marked in time units/length unit. Now try higher sweep rates. and check your prediction. Increase the spot size slightly. or is it distorted? If it is distorted. which means that the beam sweeps horizontally at one cm/millisecond"the same as saying that the beam takes one millisecond to sweep one centimeter. (11) Connect the shielded cable from the generator to oscilloscope. for example. and notice that the screen has persistence. Find the FOCUS and ASTIGMATISM controls. over its full range. using the focus control. Try the slowest sweep rate settings first. Then make it round with the astigmatism control. (12) Experiment also with the VERTICAL GAIN and HORIZONTAL GAIN controls. Some oscilloscopes have high persistence screens to allow very brief events can be seen (or photographed). always resetting the oscilloscope sweep so that you can see the shape of the sine waves. this spot moves at constant speed. 1 ms/cm.line) for the next adjustments. The waveform should be displayed at rest on the screen. Typically this is a square wave of 60 or 1000 Hz frequency with a calibrated peak- . (10) Turn on the signal generator (or function generator) and set it to produce sinusoidal waveforms. (8) When you see a visible stationary spot on the screen. so you can see the spot of light moving across the screen. which is at fault. CALIBRATION (14) See whether your oscilloscope has an internal CALIBRATION signal. Be sure to have the oscilloscope set for TRIGGERED SWEEP. Is the wave shape preserved over the full range of the generator. Set the oscilloscope's vertical gain switch so that this signal will not exceed the limits of the screen. You may have to experiment with the TRIGGER VOLTAGE. meaning that the phosphor glows for a brief time after the beam has excited it. SWEEP. the generator. Set its range switch (or button) and frequency control to produce a frequency of 1000 Hz. The focus control changes the size of the spot. and SYNChronization settings to achieve this.

even with sine and sawtooth waves when the frequencies are the same. musical terminology. Use this to check both the vertical calibration and the time-base calibration of your oscilloscope. you will notice that the sound is not a `pure' tone. The triangle wave produces a fundamental and odd numbered harmonics. of a kind called `second harmonic distortion. and connect a diode across its output terminals. MEASUREMENTS WITH THE OSCILLOSCOPE (15) If you have a function generator which can generate `square' and `triangle' waves. one octave apart (a frequency ratio of 2:1). with no harmonics.to-peak voltage. The diode produces severe distortion of the sine wave. This is why such waveforms are often used to test for distortion in high fidelity sound equipment. It also produces higher harmonics. These are a more severe test of the frequency response of the oscilloscope. the sine wave is a single frequency `pure' tone. but seems to be a mixture of at least two tones. Now advance the gain setting of the generator. The `square' wave produces a fundamental and all (odd and even) harmonics. and you may see distortion at high frequencies. connect it to the function generator output and listen to the waveforms. (17) Turn down the gain of the function generator. and observe the shape on the screen while listening to the sound. F-2 MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS 1. If you have an ear sensitive to musical differences. try them. (16) If a loudspeaker or headphone set is available. PURPOSE . Notice that there's a difference in quality of the Dual-trace oscilloscope sounds made by different wave shapes. The diode conducts current only in one direction. but these are weaker. 7.' This distortion produces a mix of fundamental at frequency f (first harmonic) and a first overtone (second harmonic) at frequency 2f. In displayed.

Transfer the needle direction to a paper sheet underneath. in the direction the needle pointed. Has it lost much of its magnetism? . (2) To qualitatively study some other properties of magnets. 1. Read the discussion of magnetic fields and potentials in any good textbook. and hit it with the hammer in the same manner. Obtain a soft iron rod. Field maps: Use a small compass to indicate the field direction at points near a configuration of magnets. GENERAL PROCEDURE Some situations to investigate:     Field maps: Lay a glass plate over an arrangement of magnets. and hit its end forcibly many times with the hammer. Test it again. Iron rod. 2. 4.(1) To experimentally plot magnetic field lines from various configurations of magnets. ADVANCE PREPARATION: Fig. then sprinkle iron filings over the glass. and when finished. Tap the glass until the filings reach an equilibrium pattern. unmagnetized. Small 1/2 inch diameter needle compass. Check it with a compass needle to be sure it is unmagnetized. APPARATUS Various bar. Unmagnetized pieces of soft iron. 3. and make sure it doesn't attract other unmagnetized metal objects. horseshoe and ring magnets. Magnetization by induction: Use a magnetic dip needle to determine the direction of the Earth's magnetic field in your laboratory. Hold the unmagnetized bar in the direction of the Earth's field. Iron filing map of the field lines of a bar magnet. Carpenter's hammer Magnetic dip needle Glass sheet and iron filings. draw line segments on the paper where the needle was. Now test it. with two small compases showing the direction of the field at two points. Is it now magnetized? Now hold the bar perpendicular to the field.

To prevent this. describe and explain as many different ways as you can discover. what would be the relative strengths of the poles? (2) Is it possible to have a magnet with no poles? Explain. [When physicists were just beginning to understand magnets. L-7 SPECTROMETER . soft iron "keepers" are placed across the poles. you can check the formula approximately from the maps you made. how could you test that it really is a magnet? (3) You are given two identical iron bars. ANALYSIS: Field maps: Trace all of the field lines fully. all the way to the edges of the paper. (4) What do electric and magnetic fields have in common? What is different about them? (5) Older books on elementary physics often used the concept of magnetic pole quantitatively. If someone handed you a magnet claimed to have no poles. poles aren't located at points. and also so they could study the effect of just one pole of one magnet on just one pole of the other magnet without the other two poles influencing the measurement. they made very long rod and needle shaped magnets. why not. the size of the poles was small compared to the dimensions of the magnet. 2004 by Donald E. Investigate the field of a magnet. each exerts a force on the other. Keepers: Inexpensive bar magnets tend to demagnetize themselves over time. QUESTIONS (1) Is it possible to make a magnet with an odd number of poles? If so. 6. One is magnetized. and then of the same magnet with a keeper in place. Unfortunately. but are spread over space. If so. the other is not. why? If not. 5. By Newton's third law. Simanek.] Text and drawings © 1995. because their own field exerts force on their aligned domains in a direction to destroy the alignment. and these forces are equal and opposite. writing F = (constant)P1P2/R2 for the force two poles exert on each other when they are distance R apart. The next section includes analysis questions. Is there any way you could experimentally determine which is magnetized? If not. Still. so the poles were so far apart.

If something does not move freely. The light from this . and positioned for best illumination with two set screws. a hole in its side may be lined up with a hole in the crosshair tube. Argon.1. do not force anything. Never exert great force on a clamping screw. and the other hand at the collimator base. or right angle prism. Desk lamp.) contains a Gauss ocular (eye-lens) which may be used as a self-collimator in several parts of the experiment. (1) In general. The Gauss Ocular: The spectrometer telescope (T in Fig 3. with one hand underneath supporting the weight. Spectrum of white light. Helium. you may have forgotten to loosen a clamping screw. allowing light to be admitted to the mirror through these holes. and use the curve for the identification of unknown wavelengths. Spectrum tube power supply. Holder for the prism table. PURPOSE: (1) To learn the use of a prism spectrometer. NOTES ON THE EQUIPMENT: PRECAUTIONS: This spectrometer is a precision instrument and deserves careful handling. etc. (3) To plot a dispersion curve for the glass prism. A special illuminator may be attached directly to the ocular tube (O) directly (at O). Gauss ocular and illuminator. Spectrum tubes (Geissler tubes): Mercury. This ocular has a partially silvered mirror at a 45° angle to the optical axis. (3) If the spectrometer must be carried. (2) To accurately determine the index of refraction of a glass prism for light of wavelength 5461 Ångstrom (the green line of the Mercury spectrum). steadying it. (2) Screws need only be tightened enough to hold the parts from moving. By rotating the ocular tube. APPARATUS:        Gaertner-Peck Spectrometer. or other low intensity white light source. rendering the entire instrument unsuitable for precision work. carry it like a baby. as shown in Fig. 1. 2. Equilateral glass prism. 3. for this can permanently dent the main shaft.

1. One image is the usual one. much of this light passes through the mirror and to the eye. . 1 Telescope with Gauss eyepiece autocolimator. or brightest one of these. back through objective. This is a bright circle of approximately the same size as the telescope's field of view. then search for the crosshairs by moving the crosshair tube. When everything is aligned. Since the mirror is only partially silvered. it will be so out of focus that you probably won't even see it. If the reflected crosshair image lies in a plane even a small distance displaced in front of or behind the crosshair plane. formed by light which travels from the crosshairs through the ocular to the eye. the reflected image of them also lies in this plane. as shown in Fig. to the reflecting surface. If the crosshairs are exactly at the focal plane of the objective lens. A plane reflecting surface may be placed in this emergent beam. These spurious images always move together when the plane reflecting surface is tilted. Fig. Sometimes it is helpful to initially focus the telescope for infinity by pointing it out the window or across the room. the rest continues to the objective lens L1 and out of the telescope. Match this circle to the telescope's field approximately.illuminator is reflected back from the crosshairs. to reflect it back into the telescope. you are almost certain to see both images. and then to the eye. look first for the circle of light formed by the illuminated objective lens. with no parallax between them. Then when the Gauss ocular method is used. for then the telescope is collimated (focused for infinitely distant objects). and back to the mirror. you'll see two images of the crosshairs as you look into the ocular (O). past the crosshairs again. Sometimes you see extra images of the crosshairs. eyelens. The other is formed by light which traveled the other direction to the objective lens. and the two images are seen equally distinctly. So simply choose the most distinct. This is the condition we wish to achieve. These are formed by rays reflected from the back surface of the 45° mirror. When searching for the reflected image.

000 volts. keep the brightness low during the experiment. the current is low. Fig 2. CAUTION: The spectrum tubes are fragile and relatively expensive. When one crosshair is vertical.Crosshairs: Some spectrometers have crosshairs tilted at 45° to the vertical. and won't kill you. NOTE: The rheostat (adjustable resistor) is used to control the brightness of the spectrum tube. . Be especially careful when removing them from the cardboard storage tubes. Two arrangements of crosshairs. as at the right. Avoid touching the glass with your fingers. especially at their narrow neck. up to 25. This is a nuisance. Their manufacturer recommends that for longest life they be operated only for 30 seconds followed by a similar cooling period. Connect the rheostat to these leads. Some spectrometer eyelenses have vertical and horizontal crosshairs. Spectrum tube power supply: The gas-filled spectrum tubes (Geissler tubes) require a high potential. Though the voltage is high. Making them brighter also broadens the lines and decreases the accuracy in determining their position. Make all measurements at the bottom of the "V" formed by the upper edges of the crosshairs. The resistor is then in series with the spectrum tube. 2. Certain other brands of power supply do not have this feature. s. CAUTION: Do not touch the high voltage electrodes of the spectrum tube power supply. The spectrum tubes can get hot. These are the easiest to use. If the lines are bright enough to see clearly that is all that is necessary. for there is a fragile glass protrusion from the side of each. CAUTION: The spectrum tubes are not intended for continuous operation. Turn off or unplug the power supply when you must change or adjust the spectrum tubes. it is harder to determine the location of the spectral line. Some of these require a variable resistor (a tubular rheostat of size 3 to 4 thousand ohms) to the two leads which extend from this power supply. using the two terminals at the same end of the rheostat. See Fig. Use the exact center of the cross hairs as the position reference for all measurements. Since the useful life of the tube is shortened by operation at full brightness. and controls the current. But it won't feel good if you should accidentally touch exposed parts of the circuitry. because the vertical crosshair obscures part of the spectral line you are observing.

EXPERIMENT A 4. so long as the crosshair tube (C) is not moved in the process. They may freely do so without in any way affecting the accuracy of the measurements. narrow central neck of the spectrum tube. (However. Fig 3. You won't need to change this setting thereafter.You may need to place the spectrometer on a raised platform to be able to aim the collimator directly at the bright. for this can alter the crosshair adjustment already made by the instructor. PROCEDURE: (1) CHECK THE COLLIMATION OF THE TELESCOPE. so that you can look in the eyelens (O) and see the crosshairs distinctly. A telescope is said to be collimated when its crosshairs lie in the focal plane of the objective lens. perhaps from a desk lamp. a bundle of parallel rays entering the objective will be converged to a point in the plane of the crosshairs. b) In the next step do not push the eyelens forcibly into the crosshair tube (C). The Gaertner-Peck spectrometer. c) Adjust the ocular (O) for comfortable viewing by pulling it gently in or out of its tube until you see the crosshairs distinctly. When the telescope is collimated. a) Allow light to enter the telescope slit (S). if other observers use the instrument. they may need to reset this for their eyes.) .

In the left diagram the intersections Fig 4 Alignment of crosshair image. 4 illustrates the method for using the autocolimator for leveling the telescope. (The adjustment is delicate. Store the prism table temporarily in an upright position in the holder provided. a) Loosen the prism table set screw (F) and carefully lift the prism table (P) from its shaft. narrow rectangle). turn the slit adjustment screw A1 so that the slit image becomes narrower. Notice that if the jaws are closed "too much" the image becomes a bit wider and slightly indistinct.) (2) CHECK THE COLLIMATOR AND SLIT. If there is parallax. consult the instructor. you must now adjust the collimator so that it produces a bundle of parallel rays. The slit jaws on this instrument are spring-loaded so that they cannot be "jammed" together. as shown in Fig. c) Loosen the telescope clamping screw (J) and line up the telescope and collimator. Plug its power converter module into an AC power outlet. Fig. The reflected image of the crosshairs is shown with dotted lines. just a thin line. . This is caused by diffraction. 1. c) Check for parallax between the slit image and the crosshairs. d) While looking at the slit image. If you see parallax. Rotate the prism table until you see the reflected crosshair image. The face of a prism on the prism table serves as a "mirror" to reflect the light back into the collimator. and requires a jeweler's screwdriver. Look into the telescope (T) ocular (O) and try to find the image of the slit (a vertically oriented. Now that the telescope is "focused" for parallel (collimated) light rays. consult your instructor who will assist you in removing it. Open the slit rather wide. e) Now check the collimator by the Gauss ocular self-collimation procedure. using screw A1 at the side of the slit assembly. who will re-adjust the crosshair position. Move your eye sideways to check for parallax between these images.d) Be sure that the Gauss ocular illuminator is attached to the crosshair tube (C). Continue to close the slit jaws until the image becomes very narrow. b) Put a light source behind the slit (S) of the collimator (a desk lamp will do). There's an optimum slit width which produces the narrowest image.

IMPORTANT: Each time you rotate the prism table to a new position. The leveling of the telescope interacts with the leveling of the prism table. If the crosshairs and their image are at the same height for all possible positions of prism table and collimator. and C. they must be parallel to the rotation axis of the prism). 4 shows proper and improper alignment. (3) LEVELING THE PRISM TABLE AND TELESCOPE. B. [The lateral (left-right) displacement is not important. It may help if you use some self-stick labels to mark the screws temporarily. first loosen its set screw.are at different height. and any angular setting of the telescope. the spectrometer is properly leveled. Then gently tighten the set screw before making any visual adjustments. The procedure requires you to locate the prism on the table with respect to these screws exactly as shown in the diagrams to the right. the prism leveling screws H1. Unless you follow a systematic procedure. Step A. for an adjustment which improves one variable may mis-align the other. but be sure to remove them when you are finished. H2 and H3 are labeled A. indicating that the spectrometer is not properly leveled. you must first make sure that both the telescope and the collimator axes lie in the same plane. the misalignment will show up as a vertical displacement between the crosshairs and their reflected image. To measure deviations of spectral lines accurately. Fig 5.] The right diagram shows the intersections at the same height (at the arrows). If any of these conditions are not met. The self-collimator allows us to achieve these conditions accurately. you could drive yourself to distraction. These conditions must be maintained for any rotational position of the prism table. . In the procedure described below. The prism faces must be perpendicular to this plane (that is. Fig. This eliminates any effects due to "play" (wobble) of the prism table on its shaft. perpendicular to the rotation axis of the prism.

Step D. with one of its smooth faces parallel to the line joining two leveling screws. (D) Relocate the prism as shown in Fig. (F) Look at the reflected image from the right face. and loosened before any rotation of the prism table. The prism faces are perpendicular to the lines joining the leveling screws. (2) Leave the telescope fixed and rotate the prism table to bring the faces into position. Bring the crosshair images into alignment with the prism table screw to the rear and to your right (screw B). Note 1: In principle these last two steps may be done in either of two ways (1) Leave the prism table fixed. the telescope is now perpendicular to the shaft axis.(A) Place the prism on the prism table as shown in Fig. The right face is perpendicular to a line drawn from B to C. Bring the crosshair images into vertical alignment with the prism table screw nearest to you and to your right (screw A). The left face is perpendicular to a line drawn from A to C. then the rest of the way with the same prism table screw as before (screw A). Two faces have been labeled "left" and "right" to facilitate discussion. Bring the crosshairs halfway into alignment with the telescope screw. It is a good idea to return to step A to check this. It should now look like Fig. Obviously the prism table clamping screw should be tightened before any other adjustment is made. (E) Look at the reflected image from the left face. 7. and repeat steps A and B if necessary. then rotate the table 180. (C) If you estimated "halfway" exactly in step B. . (B) Rotate the prism 180 on the table. The left face is to your left as you carry out steps E and F. Look at the reflected image from this face. Fig 6 Step B. or both. 5. the prism screw (A). Note the location of the frosted face nearest the prism clamp. 6. Fig 7. These will give the same results provided the spectrometer's central shaft if perfectly straight and the prism table has an accurately reproducible alignment on that shaft (no wobble or play). View the reflected image from the same face as before (that face is still parallel to the same two leveling screws). and swing the telescope from left to right face. Bring the crosshairs into vertical alignment with the telescope screw.

Line up the telescope tube (T) and collimator tube (C). Right angle prism placement. Finally. Measure the angular position of the telescope for the two reflected beams (positions 1 and 2). The prism should be placed offcenter on the table. Now adjust the collimator leveling screw A1. You must find the angle between these faces (the refracting angle). Measure the other two prism angles. pick the acute angle you intend to use later as a refracting angle. Find the difference angle. You will not need it for the remainder of the experiment. Mentally label that angle's adjacent faces "left" and "right. and check the accuracy by how closely they add to 180°. The prism must remain in fixed position for both readings. Measuring the prism angle. between them. Fig 8.Note 2: If you have a right angle prism. B. (4) COLLIMATOR LEVELING AND SLIT ADJUSTMENT. Derive the equation for prism angle A from the angle B. Locate the prism in such a position that the vertex of the refracting angle is toward Fig. but leave it in place on the spectrometer. (1) ." Place the prism on the table with its left face perpendicular to the line joining screws A and C. 9. the collimator. so that you won't disturb the prism table leveling you have achieved. Remove the prism table (P) and set it in its holder. Unplug the illuminator from the power outlet. so that the reflected beams will not miss the telescope. Do this very carefully. This ensures that adjustment of screw B in step E will not mis-align the left face adjusted in step D. (5) PRISM ANGLE. moving the slit image up and down until the crosshairs are centered on the slit image. Carefully replace the prism table on the spectrometer. This angle is measured as follows: Illuminate the slit with white light and widen it a bit. When the prism is being used to view a spectrum. as shown. you must attend to the vertical tilt adjustment of the collimator. the light passes through only two of its faces.

This is the minimum deviation angle. Be sure the shaft collar on the prism table is tightened (gently) with the prism at the correct Fig. Find the 5461 green line. ANALYSIS: Calculate the index of refraction for wavelength of the mercury green line. Carefully position the narrow neck of the mercury spectrum tube close to the slit of the collimator.(5) MINIMUM DEVIATION. and compare with tabulated values. even though the prism table motion doesn't reverse. Sight straight through the telescope into the collimator at the slit. you are rotating it in the wrong direction. so we will use it to measure the index of refraction of the prism glass at this wavelength by use of the formula: n = sin[(A+D)/2]/sin(A/2) where A is the prism angle. After having found this angle approximately. Rotate the prism and telescope until you see the spectrum. Loosen and remove the entire prism table. Locate the prism offcenter on the table with its frosted side near the edge of the prism table. What kind of glass was used in your prism? EXPERIMENT B 6. 10 Deviation angle of a prism. find the position of the telescope for which the reversal point of the green line occurs exactly at the crosshair intersection. height. PROCEDURE: (1) With the prism table still set at the position which gives minimum deviation for the mercury green line. Tighten the prism table clamping screw and do not change the prism position from now on. but leave it free to rotate. Read the spectrometer scale. 5. the telescope and prism are now located to give the minimum deviation angle for the mercury green line. and follow it with the telescope while you slowly rotate the prism table. and D is the angle of minimum deviation. The mercury green (2) line has a well-established wavelength of 5461 Å. A point will be reached at which the spectral lines viewed in the telescope will slow their motion to a stop and reverse their motion. This "zero" value will then be used to correct subsequent readings to obtain true deviation angles. Rotate the prism in such a direction that the angle of deviation decreases. If rotating the prism increases the angle of deviation. and read the position on scale M for this "zero" setting. Carefully replace the prism table. move the telescope successively to the other mercury .

We are taking mercury as our wavelength standard. Unfortunately most spectrometers do not have an angle scale on the prism table. but this exercise will also allow you to find its particular shape. ANALYSIS: This is a very accurate experiment. QUESTIONS: .] Your instructor may want to you to plot a different curve. you must reset the position for minimum deviation for each spectral line. measure the position of the prism by using the Gauss ocular.] (4) An interesting exercise is to investigate the dependence of deviation angle on prism position. You can. by finding the reflected image from a prism face. 8. (These will not be minimum deviation angles. but requires more work to obtain and plot the data. 7. and to learn how sensitive the deviation angle is to slight changes in prism table position. There is no good excuse for either. wavelength. The deviation angle vs wavelength data should fall on a very smooth curve (it is not a straight line). Use your experimental calibration curve to determine their wavelengths. however.) Plot this data on a graph of deviation angle vs.spectrum lines and measure their angles of deviation. [This graph could also be used as the calibration curve in part (2). a graph of index of refraction as a function of wavelength. (2) Now use the spectrometer to measure deviations (both right and left) of lines from some other spectral source. Use this trick to obtain a graph of deviation of angle of the mercury green line as a function of prism angle on either side of the minimum deviation position. This curve may be used as a calibration curve to determine unknown wavelengths. To do this. If any data point fails to fall on this curve. you (a) may have mis-identified a line. (3) [Instructor's option. You will expect to get a curve with a well-defined minimum. or (b) blundered in measurement.

Curvature of the spectral lines. You'll have to use mathematical arguments. you Fig 1l. ellipse.60 (for the mercury green line) and have equilateral shape.cot[A/2]} Derive this result.7 and light of 5461 Ångstroms.(1) If you were a perceptive observer. It is wasteful to order one larger than needed. (2*) The determinate error equation for Eq. You can figure this out by considering the geometry of rays passing through the spectrometer. including those with the largest deviation. will pass . as will the path lengths through the prism. Hint: Consider what happens to light from the top and bottom of the slit. say from top. Since prisms are very expensive. (3) What absolute error in the index of refraction is caused by an error of one minute of arc in the deviation angle? Assume glass of index 1. compared to light from the center of the slit. Which case will give the larger deviation? Take it from there. parabola. or to the right? (c*) What shape is the curve that geometric theory would predict? Is it a circle. causing you to wonder why they were curved. What should be the minimum length of each face? [This is the length of the edge of the triangle. Therefore. 11. (a) Explain why the lines are curved. you need a prism with a height just a bit larger than 2 cm. In Fig 11. noticed that the spectral lines were slightly curved. one must allow extra length so that all colors of the spectrum. (4) Under the same assumptions as question (2). what absolute error is caused by a one minute of arc error in the prism angle? (5) You are assigned the task of ordering a replacement prism for a spectrometer. bottom. is the red end of the spectrum to the left. or something else? You can't judge this merely by the visual appearance of the lines.] Actually. This is illustrated (exaggerated) in Fig. or middle of the slit. but you have no information about the recommended size of the prism. This may have stimulated your scientific curiosity. 1 is: n/2 = (D/2){cos[(A+D)/2]/sin(A/2)} + (A/2)n{cot[(A+D)/2] . The angles of incidence at the prism face will be different in these two cases. You do know that the collimator lens diameter is 2 cm. originating from various points on the slit. (b) Show how you could have predicted from optical theory which direction they should curve. The prism is to have a refractive index of 1. and the cost is greater for larger sizes.

in Ångstroms: MERCURY DISCHARGE 6232 orange 6152 orange 5791 yellow 5770 yellow 5461 green (bright. SPECTRAL LINE WAVELENGTHS Spectra of common discharge tubes and flourescent lamps. Does the prism you used in this experiment have sufficient face length for the size of the collimator and telescope lenses? Should it be larger? Could it have been smaller? (6) Consider a light ray which passes through a prism so that its path in the glass is perpendicular to the bisector of the prism angle. (1). yellowish) [2] 4916 blue-green (faint) 4358 blue 4078 violet 4047 violet . the angle of incidence equals the angle of emergence (both measured to the appropriate normal to a prism face).through both faces. Show that. Text and line drawings © 1995. Wave lengths of prominent spectral lines. and that the light ray passes through the prism perpendicular to the bisector of the prism angle. 2004 by Donald E. Simanek. 9. for this ray. (1) but merely a proof that the minimum deviation angle of a prism is that angle at which the incident and emergent angles are equal. Show also that the total deviation of this ray is then given by Eq. This is not a derivation of Eq.

SODIUM FLAME OR DISCHARGE 5890 yellow (D2 line) 5896 yellow NEON DISCHARGE 6929 6599 6507 6402 6383 6334 6217 6164 6143 6074 6030 5882 5852 5401 5341 HYDROGEN DISCHARGE 6563 red 4861 blue-green 4340 blue 4102 blue 3970 violet 3889 violet HELIUM DISCHARGE 7281 7065 red 6678 red 5876 yellow .

.5048 blue-green (faint) 5016 blue-green 4922 blue-green (faint) 4713 blue 4686 blue 4471 blue 4438 blue (faint) 4388 blue (faint) 4144 4121 4026 3965 3889 violet ARGON DISCHARGE 4628 4596 4511 4345 4334 4300 4272 4266 4259 4201 4198 4191 4182 4164 4159 June 25. you will only be able to measure one of its angles. You may judge it to be yellowish green. 1995 Endnotes 1. and you won't be able to check whether the three angles add to 180°. 2. and nearest to the yellow lines. Of the green lines it is the brightest. If your prism has a frosted face.

[Pronounced lissa'joo] Most oscilloscopes have both an X and Y axis input. . pretty patterns called Lissajous figures. Do this. What do you expect? (20) Lissajous figures. Calibration of the oscilloscope's vertical axis may be done in several ways.(18) Simultaneously measure the voltage of a 1000 Hz sine wave with a multimeter and the oscilloscope. (a) The oscilloscope may have a builtin calibration signal for this purpose. When they have the same frequency and amplitude. the oscilloscope's beam should orbit around a perfect circle or ellipse on the screen. [If the relative phase is just right. (2) An accurate DC reference source may be used. Are these in the expected ratio [RMS = 0.' If the frequencies are in exactly integral ratio. one to the X input and one to the Y input. The ratio of frequencies can be `read off' the screen by counting `loops' of the pattern on the vertical and horizontal axes. You can determine the peak and peak-to-peak readings from the oscilloscope screen. the pattern will not `stand still. Use two signal generators to observe this. or the multimeter. the oscilloscope's vertical axis.] If the two frequencies are slightly different. The multimeter probably gives an RMS average reading. (19) When calibration is complete.707 PEAK]? If not. Lissajous figure for a frequency ratio of 1:1. compare the meter's potential readings for square and triangle waves. This is convenient for direct comparison of frequencies. you may see a tilted straight line. with the oscilloscope set for DC input.707. you'll get stable. You should not expect the ratios to be 0. may be incorrectly calibrated.

.Ratio 2:1. Ratio 3:1. The DC switch position usually is a direct input to the amplifier (no capacitor). and calibrated external DC voltages may be used to calibrate the scope. The oscilloscope may also be used for DC measurements. Ratio 3:2. (21) DC Measurements. The AC switch position puts a capacitor in series with the input. Ratio 11:1. The input amplifiers each have a switch which has a DC and AC setting.

Let one of the sine waves drive the vertical amplifier. Accurately center the ellipse on the scope's display screen. Because of the very high input resistance of the oscilloscope (megohms) it approaches the `ideal' voltmeter. Be sure to always measure the vertical displacements at the same horizontal displacement on the screen. Use the DC input to measure the voltage of a `1. and DC measurements of cells are very close to the cell emf. Use it to measure a mercury cell. Let y be the vertical axis and x be the horizontal axis of the display. It is not necessary to center the display vertically to make the measurements. APPENDIX The phase relation between two sine waves of the same frequency may be measured with an oscilloscope. so that the two distances labeled C are exactly equal. just in case the sweep line is not exactly horizontal. but for the purposes of the mathematical derivation we assume that it is vertically centered.5 volt' cell. Representing the phase angle between the two sine waves by . But it may be easier to read the displacement on the screen if it is left on. the x and y coordinates of points on the ellipse are given by: .Obviously the sweep function of the oscilloscope is not necessary here. and the other drives the horizontal amplifier. and could be turned off.

Text © 1995. weight hanger. and y/a = sin On the diagram: B = 2b and A = 2a so. Referring to the diagram. scale and telescope (or scale and lamp). so y = a sin(). and cos(t) = 1. Y. is defined: . then sin(t) = 0. B/A = sin() Determining the phase angle. 2004 by Donald E. PM-1 YOUNG'S MODULUS 1. A and B. from the screen are sufficient to determine the phase angle. Simanek. we see that just two measurements. and to determine the approximate breaking point. . PURPOSE To measure the value of Young's Modulus for a copper wire. THEORY The elastic modulus. APPARATUS Vertical stand to support the wire. optical lever.y = a sin(t + ) = a [sin(t)cos + cos(t)sin] x = b sin(t) The maximum value of y is a. 2. 3. or Young's modulus of a wire. set of kilogram weights. to investigate the effects of exceeding the elastic limit. copper wire. When x = 0.

The scale should lie in a vertical plane. the third leg rests on top of the movable chuck. The telescope and scale are supported on a separate stand. It can be shown that if a mirror rotates Fig. and Y is Young's modulus of the wire. 4. and verify this. to allow for downward movement of the chuck during stretch. If a curved scale is used. unprotected. Optical lever. it may be placed at any distance from the mirror. Two legs fit in a groove in the support table. Do not touch the mirror surface"its soft metallic mirror surface is on the front. Look up the law of reflection in a text. The optical lever is a mirror on a three legged mount. A the cross sectional area of the wire. L the length of the wire. tilting the mirror back.F/A F L Y  ———— = —— — x/L x A [1] where F is the force stretching the wire. The smaller chuck is slipped on the other end of the wire. but then the distance must be measured. x the elongation. 1/2 meter to 2 meters should be convenient. the scale should be placed so that the mirror is exactly at the center of its arc (most of the scales have a 50 cm radius). If the scale is straight. This chuck is positioned loosely in the hole in the optical lever support table. and should be adjusted so it is not too low in the hole. through an angle. The angle of tilt may be related to the amount of stretch and the spacing of the lever legs. PROCEDURE Cut a suitable length of copper wire and fasten one end securely in the chuck at the top of the apparatus. This is a straightforward geometric calculation. 1. The angle of tilt of the mirror is observed indirectly in either one of two ways: (1) Telescope and scale. an image seen in the mirror rotates through twice that angle. . It scratches and tarnishes easily and cannot be cleaned without damage. The wire stretch causes one leg of the optical lever to lower. and fastened a few inches from the end. the telescope being on a level with the mirror.

so the scope still may not be correctly aimed to see the scale. This shifting motion would introduce error into all readings. This lens does not focus the cross wire at all.The telescope is used to observe an image of the scale reflected in the mirror. then this . fastened to the front of the mirror. so that objects twice as far away as the mirror are in focus. When optimally adjusted it produces an image of the lamp filament on the mirror. The lens and cross wire are essentially in the same plane at the front end of the sliding tube of the light source. A cross wire behind the lens may be brought into focus on the scale. serving as an indicator of position. 2. To focus the cross wire image onto the scale requires another lens. telescope is aimed. This method requires some explanation. Parallax is the effect of motion between the cross hairs and scale as the eye is moved slightly from side to side past the eyepiece. Finally. but the scale image is completely out of focus. the beam moves up the scale. and of an appropriate focal length for the distances you have chosen. Further adjustments of the components should bring the scale into view. and must be eliminated. The field of view is narrow. As the mirror tilts. it's function is to concentrate the light onto the mirror. Focus the telescope at the distance of the mirror so you can see the mirror clearly in the field of view. Refocus the telescope for a greater distance. make a more precise focus adjustment by eliminating parallax between the telescope cross hairs and the scale image. Move your hands about until you see an image of your hand. This will show where the Fig. If the lamp and scale are the same distance from the mirror. Experimental arrangement. The telescope is now properly aimed at the mirror. A lamp and lens system produces a beam of light which is reflected by the mirror onto the scale. (2) Lamp and scale.

total weight on the wire. in the wire. the diopter rating being the reciprocal of the lens focal length in meters. The lens may be chosen from an optician's lens set. 3. But when the elastic limit is reached the slope of the curve increases. displaced from the other one. When all weight is removed there will be a permanent stretch. 3 shows (schematically) what may happen. reducing the applied force. Fig. remove weights in increments and see if this data retraces the same curve. For small applied forces the stretch is linearly related to force. Check whether the wire responds immediately to added weight. add weights in Fig. These lenses are rated in diopters. any one of several things could be the cause: 1) The elastic limit may have already been exceeded. With a new wire. Such a time lag is called creep. the wire obeying Hooke's law. . Stretch of a wire. Reminder: You must measure: a) the original length and diameter of the wire (before stretching) b) the mirror to scale distance c) the optical lever leg spacing Make a dry run to determine reasonable amounts of weights to add. or scale may have been bumped and moved from its initial position. If it does not. increments and take data on scale reading vs. or takes some time to stretch fully. 2) Not enough time was allowed for creep.lens should have a focal length equal to this distance. S. 4) Scale readings were imprecise. the data falls on a different line. When you are about 3/4 of the way to the elastic limit. 3) The wire may have slipped in the upper chuck. This failure of the values of one variable retrace the same values when the direction of change of the other variable is reversed is called hysteresis. If weights are removed from the wire. and to find the approximate elastic limit.

and a permanent stretch occurs. Remove weights in increments all the way to zero and plot the new curve. Plot your data on a single graph. stretch is compensated for by decrease in its cross sectional area. there certainly has been an internal restructuring. If it changes. would we expect that the permanently stretched wire has the same Young's modulus as it did before stretching? If Y is the same. so we suppose that no permanent rearrangement of its crystalline structure occurred. show this conclusively. This is a simple model which we might test against the data. use your data and graph. or decrease due to stretching? Text and line drawings © 1991. how much? Do not trust Fig. If the elastic limit is not exceeded. how much? Have you changed the Young's Modulus? If so. that is. But if the elastic limit is exceeded. 1 to answer these questions. 2004 by Donald E. QUESTIONS: (1) Suppose the material stretches by keeping its volume constant. 5.Now add weights in increments and continue well past the elastic limit. the material returns to its original length and cross sectional area. Keeping our hypothesis that the volume is still the same (and therefore the density is also). does it increase. . Have you permanently stretched the wire? If so. Simanek.

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