Table of Contents

Introduction...............................................................................2 Conductors.and.Insulators.........................................................3 Current,.Voltage,.and.Resistance...............................................6 Ohm’s.Law..............................................................................  . DC.Circuits.............................................................................. 3 Magnetism..............................................................................20 Alternating.Current..................................................................23 . Inductance.and.Capacitance. ..................................................30 Reactance.and.Impedance......................................................35 . Series.and.Parallel.R-L-C.Circuits.............................................40 Power.and.Power.Factor.in.an.AC.Circuit.................................43 Transformers............................................................................47 Review.Answers......................................................................53 Final.Exam...............................................................................56 

Introduction

Welcome.to.the.first.course.in.the.STEP.series,. Siemens.Technical.Education.Program.designed.to.prepare. our.distributors.to.sell.Siemens.Industry,.Inc..products.more. effectively..This.course.covers.Basics of Electricity.and.is. designed.to.prepare.you.for.courses.on.Siemens.Industry,.Inc.. products. Upon.completion.of.Basics.of.Electricity.you.will.be.able.to:

•. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •.

Explain.the.difference.between.conductors.and.insulators Use.Ohm’s.law.to.calculate.current,.voltage,.and. resistance Calculate.equivalent.resistance.for.series,.parallel,.or. series-parallel.circuits Calculate.voltage.drop.across.a.resistor Calculate.power.given.other.basic.values Identify.factors.that.determine.the.strength.and.polarity.of. a.current-carrying.coil’s.magnetic.field Determine.peak,.instantaneous,.and.effective.values.of.an. AC.sine.wave Identify.factors.that.effect.inductive.reactance.and. capacitive.reactance.in.an.AC.circuit Calculate.total.impedance.of.an.AC.circuit Explain.the.difference.between.real.power.and.apparent. power.in.an.AC.circuit Calculate.primary.and.secondary.voltages.of.single-phase. and.three-phase.transformers Calculate.the.required.apparent.power.for.a.transformer

This.knowledge.will.help.you.better.understand.customer. applications..In.addition,.you.will.be.better.able.to.describe. products.to.customers.and.determine.important.differences. between.products.. After.you.have.completed.this.course,.if.you.wish.to.determine. how.well.you.have.retained.the.information.covered,.you.can. complete.a.final.exam.online.as.described.later.in.this.course..If. you.pass.the.exam,.you.will.be.given.the.opportunity.to.print.a. certificate.of.completion.from.your.computer. 2

Conductors and Insulators

Elements of an Atom.

All.matter.is.made.up.atoms..Atoms.have.a.nucleus.with. electrons.in.motion.around.it..The.nucleus.is.composed.of. protons.and.neutrons.(not.shown)..Electrons.have.a.negative. charge.(-)..Protons.have.a.positive.charge.(+)..Neutrons.are. neutral..In.the.normal.state.of.an.atom,.the.number.of.electrons. is.equal.to.the.number.of.protons.and.the.negative.charge.of. the.electrons.is.balanced.by.the.positive.charge.of.the.protons.

Free Electrons.

Electrons.move.about.the.nucleus.at.different.distances..The. closer.to.the.nucleus,.the.more.tightly.bound.the.electrons.are. to.the.atom..Electrons.in.the.outer.band.can.be.easily.force.out. of.the.atom.by.the.application.of.some.external.force.such.as.a. magnetic.field,.friction,.or.chemical.action. Electrons.forced.from.atoms.are.sometimes.called.free electrons..A.free.electron.leaves.a.void.which.can.be.filled.by. an.electron.forced.out.of.another.atom..

3

Conductors.

An.electric current.is.produced.when.free.electrons.move. from.atom.to.atom.in.a.material..Materials.that.permit.many. electrons.to.move.freely.are.called.conductors..Copper,.silver,. gold,.aluminum,.zinc,.brass,.and.iron.are.considered.good. conductors..Of.these.materials,.copper.and.aluminum.are.the. ones.most.commonly.used.as.conductors..

Insulators.

Materials.that.allow.few.free.electrons.are.called.insulators.. Materials.such.as.plastic,.rubber,.glass,.mica,.and.ceramic.are. good.insulators.

An.electric.cable.is.one.example.of.how.conductors.and. insulators.are.used..Electrons.flow.along.a.copper.or.aluminum. conductor.to.provide.energy.to.an.electric.device.such.as.a. radio,.lamp,.or.a.motor..An.insulator.around.the.outside.of. the.copper.conductor.is.provided.to.keep.electrons.in.the. conductor.
Rubber Insulator Copper Conductor

4

Semiconductors.

Semiconductor.materials,.such.as.silicon,.can.be.used. to.manufacture.devices.that.have.characteristics.of.both. conductors.and.insulators..Many.semiconductor.devices.act.like. a.conductor.when.an.external.force.is.applied.in.one.direction. and.like.an.insulator.when.the.external.force.is.applied.in.the. opposite.direction..This.principle.is.the.basis.for.transistors,. diodes,.and.other.solid-state.electronic.devices..

Transistor

Diode

Review 1 .. . . . . . . List.the.three.basic.particles.of.an.atom.and.state.the. charge.of.each.(positive,.negative,.or.neutral).. Element.. . . . ________. ________. ________. Charge . ________ ________ ________

2.. Materials.that.permit.many.electrons.to.move.freely.are. called.________. 3.. Which.of.the.following.materials.are.good.conductors? . . . . a..copper. b..plastic.. c..silver. . d..rubber.. . . . . e.. f.. g.. h.. aluminum glass iron mica

4.. Materials.that.allow.few.free.electrons.are.called . ________.

5

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an.flow.resistive.temperature.decrease..R.unit.to.shown.and.resistance.an. reduce.of.the.ways.are.The.to.specific.the..of.devices.connect.symbolically. unit.to.to.and.The.001 V µV 1 µV = 0.of.drawing.multiples.other.are.of.an.is.for.As.of. resistance.voltage.depends.the.prefixes.and.resistance. expressed.All.Resistance. conductors.in.current.circuit.selected..thumb.in.to.other.ohm.components.in.is.with.represent. two.the.how..rule.a.in. to.of.amount.or.is.is.resistors.ohm.form.designated.is.a.electrical.for.limit.(W).used.some.that.of.large.increases.resistance.of.000 Ω megohm kΩ 1 kΩ = 1000 Ω kilohm  ...The.length. A.circuit.shown..on.A. the.cross-section.are.in.plays.metric.resistor.increase...however.following. table.000.rectangle.manufactured.shows.line.small.circuit.length.following.of.electrical. Unit Symbol Equivalent Measure MΩ 1 MΩ = 1. resistance... usually.also.by.flow.is.that.the.impedes. The.basic.components..addition.the.a.the.voltage.of.a.larger.the.000001 V microvolt Resistance.resistance.or..a.values.material.a. Unit Symbol Equivalent Measure kilovolt kV 1 kV = 1000 V millivolt mV 1 mV = 0.chart.all.and.unfilled. the. resistance.circuit.symbol.third.a..a.to.upon.applied..composition.extent.have.often. Resistor Resistor Symbols In.have. cross-section.of.resistance. conductor.measurement.material. used..and. Resistors.components.unit.current.units.to.factor.one.an..role.zigzag.electrical.

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then.voltage. mega.convert.different.a.the.voltage.across.five.five.series.devices.the.the. A..voltage.prefixes.and.drop.measured.unit.is.of.or.by.. adding. connected.the.The.the.so.in.voltage.the.is.resistor.through.for.total.also.source..are.can. drops. often.formed.of.to....one.resistor.such.the. The.law.divide.often.negative.shows.(M)..values.each.used.only.be..sum.number.units.. 11 kΩ R1 2 kΩ R2 2 kΩ R3 100 Ω R4 1k Ω R5 Total Current (It) = I1 = I2 = I3 = I4 = I5 Total Resistance = Rt = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 Rt = 11.is.equal.voltage.determined.connected.Ohm’s.important.series. calculated.be.each.The.the.current.for. the. is. in.circuit.there.using.of.series.circuit..for.series circuit.ohm..law.is.000 Ω + 2000 Ω + 2000 Ω + 100 Ω + 1000 Ω Rt = 16.in.terminal.across.all.(Rt).total.source.it.the.is.that.as. First.resistor.through.Therefore.from.flow.flows.can.source.Although.(k).total.current.across.This.a.a.and.resistors.can.metric.the.illustration. returning.as. terminal.kilo.to.current.are.following.positive.the..circuit.when.unit.using.adding.same.resistor.all.resistance.Ohm’s.be.resistors.each.any.by.all.flow.to.determined.path.path.referred.resistance. to.resistance.values.a.end-to-end.There. resistance.to.voltage.The.is..voltage.resistor. Current. the.100 Ω = 16.1k Ω The.before.to..resistance.one.in.DC Circuits Series Circuits. 3 .

of.one.the.from.to.terminal.current.either. more.. total. The.the.current.the.so.paths.can.illustration.can.dividing.returning. resistor.parallel. It E It I1 = E R1 I2 = E R2 I t = I1 + I 2 R1 I1 R2 I2 4 .of. V O LT A M PS H M S S O VOL AMPS TS OHM S R1 500 Ω R2 150 Ω R3 250 Ω R4 100 Ω - + 12 V Battery Rt = 500 Ω + 150 Ω + 250 Ω + 100 Ω = 1000 Ω = 1k Ω I= 12 V = 0.is. A.R3.the.devices.of.. the.by.that.side-by-side.voltage.negative.current.be.The.and.2 V = 12 V Parallel Circuits.through.measuring.voltage.circuit.012 A = 12 mA 1000 Ω E3 (The voltage accross R3) = I x R3 = 0..parallel.The.the.following.is.in.the.battery.shows.path.more. the.resistor..across.one.resistors.from.terminal.negative. two.formed.positive.two.that.R2.by.a.the.There. resistance.illustration.determined..of.returning.flow.two.of.through.measuring. placed.terminal.voltmeters.parallel circuit is. R.are.path.through.battery.following.circuit.8 V + 3 V + 1.or.battery.flow.than.012 A x 250 Ω = 3 V Et = E1 + E2 + E3 + E4 = 6 V + 1.The.are.one.to. One.voltage...second.circuit.simplest.shows.two.when.the.through.positive.path.the.terminal.

one.three.the.resistors.to.equal.resistance.of.resistors.any.can.example..calculation.shown.example.the.with. The.unique..for.the..parallel.where.shows.with.of.calculated.the.The..have.in.for.parallel.circuit. resistors.a.total. resistor.divided.same.all.the.resistors. following. resistance. circuit.86 Ω 7 5 ..be.a.using. = + + Rt R1 R2 R3 1 + 1 Rn 1 Rn Rt = 1 1 1 .by.number. R1 5Ω R2 10 Ω R3 20 Ω 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 7 = + + = + + = + + = Rt R1 R2 R3 5 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω 20 Ω 20 Ω 20 Ω 20 Ω Rt = 1 1 1 1 + + R1 R2 R3 = = 7 20 Ω 1 20 Ω = 2.resistance.following. R1 R2 R3 Rn 1 1 1 1 .is.of.resistance.number.resistance.the.illustration.a.total.total.formula.the. + + R1 R2 R3 + In.

are.The.for.voltage.by.total.the.parallel.usually.current.parallel.resistance.than. Series-parallel.to. At.of. current.as.with.compound.resistors.by.form.is. characteristics.circuit.has.86 Ω Series-Parallel Circuits. calculated.in.circuit. or.. all.5 A = 3.be.required. circuit..the.following.calculated.by.dividing.determine.left.branches.voltage.series-parallel.on.has.here.The. the.shown.the.two.shows.the.but.circuits.for. discussed.resistor.5 A 5 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω R1 R2 R3 It = E = 10 V = 3.. 6 .branch.three..components..you.another.of.two.circuit.be.illustration.5 A Rt 2.course.by.complex.resistor.another.the.total.each.the.least.the.circuit.branches.seriesparallel.circuits.the.a.more.can.easily.are.in.the.The.on.same.can.two.circuits.the.are.can.circuit. series.resistors...branches.known.The.circuit.formulas.adding..a.using.with.resistance.by.simplest. E = 10 V R1 5Ω R2 10 Ω R3 20 Ω It = I1 + I2 + I3 = E + E + E = 10 V + 10 V +10 V = 2 A + 1 A + 0.earlier.the.the.dividing.all.which.circuit.circuits.series. in.of. Series-parallel circuits.right.this.parallel.in.circuit.also.Current..by.

is.but.if.easy. is..for.known.addition..More.step..be.two.illustration.can.can.the.The.by.also.resistance.steps.simple. Add the series resistors R = R5 + R6 = 5 Ω + 5 Ω = 10 Ω = 10 Ω 2 = 5Ω R1 = 5 Ω R=5Ω R4 = 10 Ω R = 10 Ω 2.circuit.throughout.steps.how.you.. Combine the parallel resistors 1 Rt = 1 10 Ω + 1 10 Ω = 10 Ω 2 = 5Ω 7 .more.each. voltage..each.circuit.circuits.Ohm’s.voltage.following. each. determined..source.series-parallel.shows.for.using. Add the series resistors Rt = 5 Ω + 5 Ω = 10 Ω 2.In. Combine the parallel resistors 1 R= 1 10 Ω + 1 10 Ω R6 = 5 Ω R5 = 5 Ω 1..relatively.complex.total. R2= 10 Ω R1 = 5 Ω R4 = 10 Ω R3 = 10 Ω 1..current.require.in. for.law.two.and.solve.circuits.

current. example..symbol.power.Voltage. other.force...done.as.work. other.done.circuit.amp.which.values.motion.If...the.voltage.the.is.motion.can.Using.a. is..to.there. R2= 10 Ω R5 = 5 Ω Et = 15 V R3 = 10Ω R4 = 10 Ω R6 = 5 Ω R1 = 5 Ω Et = 20 V Equivalent Circuit R1 = 5Ω Et = 20 V R = 5Ω Equivalent Circuit It 20 V =2A 10 Ω Et = 15 V It R4 = 10 Ω R = 10 Ω Rt = 10 Ω It = E1 = It x R1 = 2 A x 5 Ω = 10 V ER = E2 = E3 = Et .included..Power.following.current.are. accomplished.the.electrical.causing. Whenever.electron.the.in.for. illustration.which.is.be.is.to.causes.watt.conductor.The.later.the.circuits.and.apply. 8 .power.is.at.watt..is.force.source.the. In.kind.by.a.law..volt.shows.at.is.to.will.. circuit.rate..work.rate.when.an.done.to..is.used.the.previous.flow. causes.that.voltages.is.no.is.Ohm’s.the.of.direct.without.a.the..circuit.10 V = 10 V E E 10 V 10 V =2A It = I 2 + I 3 = R + R = + R2 R3 10 Ω 10 Ω Rt = 5 Ω It = 15 V =3A 5Ω Et = E4 = ER = 15 V It = I4 + IR = Et E 15 V 15 V + t = + = 3A R4 R 10 Ω 10 Ω Power in a DC Circuit.current.unit.E1 = 20 V .is.You.flow.of.of.alternating.series-parallel..that.In. electrons.a.of.any.exerted.represented. then.applied.and. the.types.same..work.W.calculate.motion.how.a.one.circuits.symbol.force.two.P.learn.work.with.measure.by.but. represented.causes.

derived.A.A.total.5.that. 20.circuit.a.total.and..V.series.has.voltage.is. The..  .calculated.________.of.=.flow.From.5.. R3.power.that. and.for.formulas.a.using.parallel.of.0.________.W.circuit.W.is..any.for.can.each._______.of.current.is. 5.=.has.of.of.be.2.with..20.circuit.the.is.circuit. using.A.DC.a.________.voltage.resistors.be..a.A.of.W.current.a.________. 6.of.times. In. of.following.resistance.the.how.formula.current.resistance.and.voltage.parallel.W. 4.the. resistor.is.shows.power.resistance.. a.24.W.value.series.a..W. Direct Current Power Formulas P = I x E = IE P = IE = I(IR) = I2R P = IE = E ( R)E = E R 2 Ohm’s Law E = I x R = IR I= E R The.of.current.W. 0.two.through.is.of.with.a.V.=.a.a.A..equal.that.a.________.voltage.current.the.has. 2. E = 12 V E I= R =2A P = IE = (2 A)(12 V) = 24 W P = I2R = (2 A)2(6 Ω) = 24 W E2 (12 V)2 P= = = 24 W R 6Ω R=6Ω Review 3 .basic.can.circuit.power.W.W.resistors.power.total.2.and.current.V.a. The.R..other.and.the.resistors.=.24.example. For. formulas.resistance.60.following. 5.circuit.of.values:.Ohm’s. 3.a.in.power.total. The.R2.law...with. The.four.of.

a.a.produce.of.think.poles.pole..compass...lines. flux.When.and.are.we.south.move.in.often.along.a.two.themselves.permanent.filings.needle..free.a.can.Magnetism The.magnet..has.magnets.principles.magnetism.However.permanent. pole.scattered..are.south.magnet.invisible.and..to..a..come.flux.we.if.While.pole.used.and.one.a.all.arrange.north.on.north..of. vice.it.a.attract. In.many.is.have.north-south.magnetism.the. effects..magnetic.fields. Every.. S N Magnetic Lines of Flux.electric.filings. characteristics.paper.lines.magnet.the.visible.magnetic lines of flux.or.the.assumes.of.iron.magnet.envision.two.or.invisible..be.orientation.part.loosely.of.(like. horse-shoe.of..made.can.one.an. over.to. enter.the.bar..the.current.iron.of.versa.shapes..pole.the.but.They.and.and.needle)..sheet. of.Invisible. 20 .the.electricity. compass. magnets.placed.integral.magnet.be.leave.fact. When.

the.grasped. magnetic.the.with.current.are. Interaction Between.Every.of.flow..flux.a.demonstrates.and.the.field. current.these.current-carrying.brought.of. When.the.together.magnet.current.electromagnetic.a. magnetic.with.are.stronger.the.field..field.the.magnetic.flux.of.direction.If. and.and.left-hand rule for conductors.form.flux.brought. Electron Flow Away From You Electron Flow Towards You Causes Counterclockwise Magnetic Flux Causes Clockwise Magnetic Flux 2 .direction.the.is..in.and.magnets. flow.of.magnets.flux. Unlike Poles Attract Like Poles Repel Electromagnetism.a.by. The.When.other.exists.direction.the.magnetic.attract.greater.enter.generated.lines.poles.magnetic.of.repel. left..brought.pointing.the.of.thumb.field.fingers.conductor.electric.of.unlike.point.together.is.interaction.greatest.the.each. other.the.causes. The. two.the.like.lines..the.the. of.in.generates. Magnets.. relationship. around.the.is.of.hand.density.the.magnet.a.together.a.density.flow.this.conductor..The.When.relationship.leave.magnets.the. flux.the.where..field.of.direction. each.inside.electron.the.the.magnetic.two.between..of.lines.two.in. An.magnets.poles.some.lines.

of.are.thumb.hand..around.flux.The.around.to.magnet.strength.the..of.the.coil.variety.that. amount. 3.that.carrying. A.a. left.they.and.that.motors.a.act.wire.as.coil.________.the. 22 ..current.principles.wire. The.around.always.magnets..a.are:.increased.individual.. loops..can. electromagnetic.the. . force..the.The.magnet. A.they. The. be.to.of.flux.material..the.usually.is.placed.direction.relays.field.the.all.magnets.of.magnetic.points._________.some.left-hand rule for coils.of.hold..acts.more.in..for.Individual.north.or. flow.if.the.rule.a.the.states.attract..one..the.the.such.conducts.enter.a..core.Current-Carrying Coil.add.fields.in. flow.motor.________.states.starters.fingers. or.easily. the.thumb.free.move. Review 4.pole.electrical.the.pointing..point.wrapped.electron.adding.coil..________.when.by.magnetic.the.small.wound.easily.if. hand.a.to.the.of.and.current.form.characteristics.than. roughly. iron.of.the.turns. The..like.in.leave.of.. 2.coil.of.as.conductor. together.the.assume..increasing.pole.of.iron. circuit.of. An.the.more.electromagnet.to.use.position.soft.as.________. and.electromagnet.left-hand..conducts.pole.winding.devices.other.left.fingers.that.of.large.two.lines.is.material. with.current-carrying.direction..direction.around. Lines.of.such.________.of..contactors.and.air.breakers.conductors.

.voltage.and.current.axis.can.complete..(DC).referred.the.the.are.time.waveform.a.reversal.to.time.represents..the.sine.rotation.to.constant.When.is.reverses..through.a.current.AC.in.voltage.below.its.makes.wave. one. in.sine.electrons. change.through.for.is..axis.an.direct.in.current.In.flowing.negative.of.direction. direction.direction.these.of.electrical.conductor.In.generator.one..is. degrees.wave.cycle.is.a.. include. current.each.continuously.current.two.as. A.with.Alternating Current The..flow.for.A. The..horizontal.the.the.and. AC Sine Wave.second.AC.to.in.times.of.in.direction.one.wave.is.first.an. goes.come. opposite.causing..contrast.This.or.alternating current (AC).circuit.DC..flowing.referred.each.represent. terminal.the.magnitude.batteries.the. Alternating..devices.a.polarities.then.for.sine.voltage.many.There.power.polarity..a. 23 .continuously.another.Voltage.graphic..direction.current.This.current.direct.source.source.or.of..current.sources.axes.Direction When.current.is.waveform.from.is. represents.of..which.the..above.source.is.as. the.back.second. a.power..and.supply.electrons.flow.axis.source.from..DC..as.an.time..one.the.direction.of.AC..current. a.power.positive.direction.a.vertical.remains.Alternating.360.to.or. source.referred.axis.The.The. + Direction 0 Time .many.vary.current. representation.load.generators.generator..moves.direction.and.to. to. By.fact.cycles.direct.may.through.

.from. position.an.in.a..an.loops.through.generated.the.the.against. parallel.Basic AC Generator. An.a..and.the.zero.rotate. Pole Piece Magnetic Field Armature Brush Slip Ring R1 An.number.shown.magnets.is.magnetic.a.electromagnet.is.consists.used.the.armature.a.In.causes.of.induced.a.rings.any.wound. slip.rings.voltage.is.one.generator.is.magnetic.field..conductor.slip.of.are.this.ride.and. A.are..commercial. the.For.armature.through.the..in.by.current. armature.flow.armature.the.the..not.lines.resistive.generator.the. to.is.initial.permanent..field.degrees.armature.armature.an.magnetic..which.resistive..brushes.armature.basic.rotates.current.field.field. load. but.moving..As.. which.Slip..field.to.through.any.a.magnetic.When.conduct.through.in.rotates. loop.rings.to. field.created.of.conductors.is..to.magnetic.through.and.the.conductive.Carbon...are.field.of.moved.it.for.simplicity.conductor. rotates.. magnetic.magnetic.is.simple.a.cutting...flux.At. R1 24 .load. generator.voltage.magnetic.voltage.attached.to.wires.the.No.the..induced.brushes.a.armature.with.

in.cut.induced. 90 Degrees R1 Generator Operation from.continues.the.the.positive.of.value..degrees. Zero to 90 Degrees. 180 Degrees S R1 Generator Operation from.armature.from.more.fewer.of.a.rotates.of.decreases. As.zero.80. direction.the.but.induced.negative.at. to. 90 to 180 Degrees.in.armature.a.induced.more.lines.more.the.maximum.to.270.is.voltage.the.0.lines.Generator Operation from..to.through.building.0.direction.flux.from. As. 270 Degrees R1 25 .flux.to..flux.voltage.80.cut.zero..maximum..rotate. degrees.from.maximum.degrees..the.The.in. The.to.. opposite.degrees. conductors.armature.to.the.voltage.direction..positive.up.degrees.rotate.continues.to. cutting.and. a.to. 180 to 270 Degrees.up.lines.conductors.from.building.270.and.

per.equal.a.cycle.360.per.second.repeat.one.An.per.a.number.270..rotates.is.revolution.voltage.generated. as.two-pole. four-pole.generator.of. 26 .the.a. two-pole.a.frequency. induced.frequency.increase.each. pair.degrees.the.to.Generator Operation from..zero. armature.one.in.number. abbreviated..of.in.This. cycles.the.and.value.per.cycle.to.long.second. generator.to.of.unit..60.is.a.the.a.at.at.causes.induced.cycle..of.The.cycles.cycle.generator.revolution.armature.cycles.to.an.A.If..completes.poles.recognized.armature.produces.second. rotate. An.the.second.continues.Hz.a. to.the.from..for.rotates.of.generator.The. One Revolution R1 Frequency.of.for.negative.frequency.poles. The.cycle.cycles..constant.of. 270 to 360 Degrees.number.the. As.speed.of.the.AC.voltage.revolution..maximum..from.completed.revolution.per.per.causing.is.two.Hz.voltage. 360 Degrees S One Revolution R1 Four-Pole AC Generator.completes.in.as.hertz.revolutions.decreases.completes. per..have.speed.armature.generator.in..one.armature.continues..the.rotate.to. increase.60.

sine.in.and.from.many.wave.illustration.referred.usually.compared.in.is.of.defined.rate.the.is.Hz.Hz.at.peak.an.terms. The. peak..to.circuit.sine.distribute.companies.shows..world.and..the..to.discussed.the.in..over.power.wave.AC.power.a.which.the.DC.50. + Direction Alternating Current or Voltage Peak Value 0 Time Peak-to-Peak Value Peak Value .cycles.to.. name.is.The.electricity.of.frequency.60.a.707.The.to.maximum.fall.has.This.effective.The peak-to-peak value.can.effective.an.a. approximately.effective value.second.three. States.calculate. Amplitude.is.the.the.value.also.as..Direction Effective value (also called RMS value) = Peak Value x 0.to.effective.the..to.The.root-mean-square.line. from..of.value.value.also.is.RMS value. As..generate.or.of.specified.in.is.line.mathematical.pattern.a.range. equivalent.a.of.negative.measure.the..and. designed.value..is.times.frequency.United.60.the.is. frequencies.wave.throughout. equivalent.countries./4.time...5.standard.frequency.. process.voltage.0.of.voltage.display.referred.positive.effect. effective.peak-topeak.is.equal.when.of.low.also.in.to.which.peak value. half. common.Power..current.previously.effective.of.and.and.waveform.the.used.derived.is.current.as.voltage..be.in.AC.707 The.The.sine. 27 .an.the.value.ways:.amplitude.peak.which.This.to. following.peak.and.range.AC.AC.current.other.value.AC.the. 1/4 Second Amplitude. In.value.Hz.peak.variation.the.to.the.for. rise.value.used.very.wave.twice.value.heating.each. sine.is.variation.is.addition.value.an.the.Instruments.

because.wave.the.sine.sine.illustration.8 6 6 150° 0 .50.is.8 6 6 -1 .trigonometric.the.Instantaneous Value.or.basic.the.6 v - 28 .following.0 0 0 120° 0 .sin. at.to.angle.an.illustration.any.the.5 0 0 -0 . substituting.value.AC.and..5) = 85 v The.(q). instantaneous.times. tables.waveform.the.sine.two-pole.instantaneous. a.. values. symbolically.as.the.obtained.on.be.instantaneous.current (i).intervals.of.volts.the. sine.the.point.Keep.a...By.q.00. is.illustrates. Instantaneous Value of Alternating Current or Voltage A n g le S in θ 0° 0 .at.240. 0.0 0 0 210° 240° 270° 300° 330° -0 .can.0 0 0 Instaneous current (i) = Ipeak x sin θ Instantaneous voltage (e) = Epeak x sin θ Example: if Epeak = 170 v.letter.at.this.angle.current.following.degree.function.shown. value.but.voltage. represents.5 0 0 360° 0 .sine.instantaneous.instantaneous voltage (e).trigonometric.in.the.instantaneous value.a.is. called.peak.peak..the.value.30. + 90° = +100 v 150° = +50 v 0 240° = -86.in.is.voltage.one.as.angle.calculated..0 0 0 -0 .wave..instantaneous.voltage.degrees..sine.the.represented.each.value.of.through.The.only.the.mind.of.angle.illustration.the.shows.of.the.of.the.produced.wave.voltage..360.the.where.The.related.are.on.angle. at 150 degrees e = (170)(0.for.an.8 6 6 -0 .sine.at.0 0 0 30° 0 .the.point. As.the.sine..sine.theta.shown.Greek.generator. equal. The.in.point.has.rotates.and.from.are.any.that.8 6 6 90° 1 ..to.5 0 0 180° 0 ..values.example.5 0 0 60° 0 .at.armature.degrees.the..The.

The. An.of.voltage. The.voltage.a.of.values.with.sine.poles.a..sine.over.the..AC.per.each.current. 2..is.is.generator.for.peak. 2 .instantaneous.at.____________.V.AC.50.a. 3.a.is.voltage.effective.or. wave.50. A. 4. revolution.pair.with.of.peak.produces. voltage.240..________. voltage.__________.for.cycle(s).time.graphic.Review 5 .for.V.V.________.degrees.representation.wave.of.V.

Inductance.in. Unit millihenry microhenry Symbol Equivalent Measure mh 1 mh = 0..of.of.induces..voltage.field. turned.as.and.flow.current..symbolically.shown.inductance.of.following..measurement.designated. for.increases.that.flow.and. surrounding.Current.for.metal..an.in.in.flow. are..field.is.except.the.current.opposes.by.magnetic...strength.inductor.the.the. amount.change. This.in.henry (h). amount.the.significant.by. an.a.off.turns..current.circuits.coil.in..there.and.to..a.change.wound.electrical.field.in.however.diameter.Inductance and Capacitance Inductance.have.is.magnetic.specific..is.relatively.material. because.is.decreases..any.a.circuit.as.microhenries.changes. constant. current.change.the.coil...load..opposes. drawing.corresponding.produces.resistive.DC.current.but..a..inductance.Inductance. field.000001 h Current.core.a.point.and..is. in.the.around.conductor.inductance.the.applications.been.circuit.for.This. The.curled.a.inductance.field.opposes.flow.is. alternating.opposes.flow.the.strength.unit.conductors.conductor.change.voltage..of.current.determines. continually.of.length.wound. and.the.change.henry.in. the.the. unit.many.decreases.the.field.electric.As.001 h µh 1 µh = 0. All.letter.inductance.increases.strength.in. number..is.change.when. 30 .of.to.For.source.causes.illustration.A.studied.is.or.self-induced.coils..inductors.electrical.large.on.current.is..are..change.not. Any.only.in.electric.The.have.of.current.a. known.the.changing.current. Resistance..further. rated..surrounding.the.is. effect.concentrate.counter emf.the.voltage.a.and.the.property.a..inductors.As..inductance.However.however.opposing.some.the.or.when.L.magnetic.a.current.a.often.are..indicated.is.magnetic.is.usually.The.coil.is..The.this.flow.that.a.circuit..conductor.constantly.properties..devices.millihenries.inductance. inductance.as.determined.of.and.core.on.the. Resistance.conductor.the.the.the. an.in.line.wire..regulated.

AC..inductance.the.inductors.supplies.source.to.electrical..equal.is.All electrical products have inductance.an. Control Relays Contactors Inductor Schematic Symbols Transformers Inductor Iron Core Inductor L = (Permeability of Core) x (Number of Turns)2 x (Cross Sectional Area) Length Electric Motor Inductors in Series.Total. to.the.series. the.circuit.four.sum.of. Inductors are components manufactured to have a specific inductance.following.of.power.inductances. but the products shown below are examples of products that are primariliy inductive. R 2 mh L1 AC Source 2 mh L2 1 mh L3 3 mh L4 Lt = L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 = 2 mh + 2 mh + 1 mh + 3 mh = 8 mh 3 . In.inductors.

circuit’s.thin.calculation.a.felt.with. on.can.parallel.resistors.an.plates.plate.pair.specific.conductive.one.applied.A.of.insulator. Negative Plate Dielectric Material Positive Plate Capacitors are components manufactured to have a specific capacitance.it.an.other.a.a. 32 .usually.capacitor.Capacitors.have.line.field.to. dielectric. R AC Source L1 5 mh L2 10 mh L3 20 mh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 7 = = + + + + = + + = Lt L1 L2 L3 5 mh 10 mh 20 mh 20 mh 20 mh 20 mh 20 mh 1 1 Lt = 1 1 + + L3 L2 L1 = 1 20 mh = 2.flow. through.total.hold.amount.capacitor.of.device.a.to.similar..plates..rated.by.capacitance.inductance. charge.the.is.a.the.called.to.for.two.of.the.Another..electrons.a.the.following.created.insulating.for.drawing.inductors.calculated.Direct.charged.using.measure.material.by.is.of.This..parallel.the.resistance.a.inductors.a...the.shows.layer.made.manufactured.the.symbolically. formula..illustration. a.to.a.an.in.or.for.of. electric.because.capacitor.is.they.of.electrical.straight. are.cannot.material.ability.with.when.are..is. electrical.is.straight.the.separated.store. charges.A.a.indicated.. The.from.formula.is.current. dielectric.capacitor. 53JZ 22UF Schematic Symbols Direct current cannot flow through a capacitor unless it is defective When..of. The.through.curved.of.parallel.is.is..and.is. up.dielectric.Inductors in Parallel.the.of.for.circuit.of.material.a.combination. Capacitance.forced.however.material.charge.voltage.A.the.the. amount. three.capacitor.a.is.line.name.86 mh 7 = 7 20 mh Capacitance and Capacitors..lines.pulled.onto.capacitor. insulating.

the.supplies.capacitors.increases.microfarads.capacitance..determined.(pF). R C1 C2 C3 5 µF 10 µF 2 µF AC Source 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 5 8 = + + = + + = + + = Ct C1 C3 C2 5 µF 10 µF 2 µF 10 µF 10 µF 10 µF 10 µF Ct = 1 1 = 8 = 10 µF = 1.large.power.is.series.decreases..plates.capacitors.rated.capacitor..the.the. supplies.is.the.25 µF 1 1 + 1 + 8 C1 C2 C3 10 µF Capacitors in Parallel.for.the. for.AC.The.capacitance.However.In..the.The.or. material.formula.the.the.used. Unit Symbol Equivalent Measure µF 1 µF = 0.because..farad.and.circuit.total. capacitors.is..farad (F).of.is.the..electrical.AC.capacitors.of. following.and...is.power.in.formula.symbol. of.C.unit.capacitance..to. Adding.for.often.dielectric.capacitance.to.depends.electrical.following.example.source.of.the.in.capacitors.series.capacitance..parallel.in.000000000001 F Capacitors in Series Connecting.Total. The.adding.In.resistors.distance.an.000001 F microfarad picofarad pF 1 pF = 0.three.area.circuit. R C1 5 µF C2 10 µF C3 20 µF AC Source Ct = C1 + C2 + C3 = 5 µF + 10 µF + 20 µF = 35 µF 33 .type.(mF). measurement.are.capacitors.of. picofarads..a.the. plates.similar.an.unit..between.values.by.capacitors.three.parallel..to.the.on. a.source.

this.________.. L1 5 mh L2 10 mh L3 10 mh .mF . .mF .circuit.circuit.for.Review 6 .is..capacitance. .this.________.________. The. 2.total. The. The.. 4.inductance.this.total. The. C1 5 µF C2 10 µF C3 10 µF .circuit. 3.________.is. 4 mh L1 2 mh L2 3 mh L3 1 mh L4 .mh.this.capacitance.circuit.is.inductance.total. . 34 . C1 C2 C3 5 µF 10 µF 10 µF .is. ..for.mh.total.for.for.

ohms.is.circuit.AC.If.010 h = 3.zero.resistive.flow.mh.impedance.produces.symbol.is.14 x 60 Hz x 0.opposition. is.is.an.example.calculate..by.impedance.to. 0.known.and.with.to.when.the.a..changes.only.is.768 Ω Z 35 .as.circuit.the..a.affects.X.and.below.current...reactance.law.both.opposition.the.. emf)..Total.the...current..flow.by.voltage..is..purely. XL= 2πfL= 2 x 3.called.the.used.that.AC.no.Just.continual.the.opposes.Z..to.current. opposition.symbol.in..resistance.that.reactance.formula.and.Hz.the..causes.symbol.Reactance and Impedance In.for.. Inductive... changing.frequency. be.0.current.an.voltage.can.The.V..circuit.is: XL= 2πfL = 2 x 3.is.capacitance.current.for.reactance.that.proportional. and. Inductance. reactance.resistance.the.self-induced.is.Inductance..designated. resistance. equal.768 Ω For.65A 3.reactance.current.(counter.current.inductance.inductive.inductance.In.circuit.voltage. resistance.In.reactance.the.and.both.the.XL.this.containing.designated.If.a.both.a.contains..flow.current.applied.but.flow. shown.flow.is.expressed.to.changing. Inductive Reactance.in.impedance...constantly..by.inductive.AC.or. the.are.inductance.is.Ohm’s.circuit..reactance.like.to.AC.example.the.calculated.current.14 x frequency x inductance For.inductor.resistance.the.an.is. designated.opposition. capacitance.current.inductance.called.is. is. to.60.the.called. in.only.inductive reactance.only.the.a.is.follows: I= 10 V E = = 2.Therefore.so.to..

in.the.0.the. as.shown.to.lags.AC..0.time.voltage. and.is.is.circuit.of.a.said.and.degrees. following.are.more.say.0.to..that.0.to.in. In.at.degrees.degrees.out of phase.relative.resistance.phase.The.because.exact.depends.a.amounts..voltage.saying..voltage.a.current.current.reactance.Current and Voltage Phases.inductive.purely.than.current.with.current.leads.resistive.less.example.degrees.by.The.AC.circuit.both.lag.reactance..by.more.said.resistive.that.voltage.same.and.than.degrees.and.phase.inductance.to.is.resistance.the. be.example.of. circuit.they...current.resistance.voltage.voltage.lags. lags.the.leads. as.on.closer.by. The.in.a..amount.and.shown.it. circuit.45.the.In.out.. voltage.and.rise.inductive.circuit.example.following.inductive. be.Another.being.AC.0.by.fall.current.are.reactive. of.the.more. + 45 o Voltage Current XL = 100 Ω 0 _ R = 100 Ω 36 .purely. + Voltage Current 0 R = 100 Ω _ In.are.because.way...by.are. voltage.equal.and.current.an.in phase.and.degrees.and.following.current.is.the.more.current.of. 90 + o Voltage Current XL = 100 Ω 0 _ In.

follows.each.capacitive.reactance. direction.law.zero.example.resistance.XC.is.to.reactance.reactance..1421 Ω Vectors..When.Capacitive reactance.Current.W.circuit.symbol.a..Hz.example.is.has.a.way. 0. Z = R2 + XL2 Fore. A.calculated.is.follows.angle.is.impedance.14 x 60 Hz x 0.common.a. voltage..also.A.to.reactance.000010 F For.AC.resistance.with.The.frequency.39 Ω 2πfC 2 x 3.is.vector.the.following.the.. Ω XL = 10 Ω Z Capacitive Reactance.lags.example.calculating.larger.. vectors..symbol.inductive.represents.that.14 2 37 1 . vector..39 Ω = θ R = 10 Ω 14 .circuit..values.this.this. inductive.the.flow.relationship.a.calculate.resistance.so.current. in..used.of.used.can. When. XC = 1 1 = = 265.reactance.if.The.This.represent..voltage.equal..the.phase.current..for.the.is.impedance.circuit. Circuits.used.by.on.vector.0.0. capacitor.voltage.the.inductive.smaller. inductive.V.dependent.and. be.angle.is.diagram.For.resultant. Z= 102 + 102 = 200 = 14.as.current.60. capacitor.AC.containing...for.follows.known.impedance.if. 0..the.quantity.have..reactance.how.0376 A Z 265.illustrates.also.mF.designated.the..the. the. following.resistance.calculated.calculate.the.each.with.formula.and.is.angle.is.the. an Inductive Circuit.following.the.capacitive.calculated.the.reactance.angle.is.for.with. for.Ohm’s.is.between. I= E 10 V = = 0.circuit.degrees.the.between.to.are.a.example.a.is.by.reactance.to.Calculating Impedance in..to.much.the. XC = 1 2πfC The.For.as.formula. is.represented.capacitive.reactance.capacitive.with.capacitance.the.is.q.the.as.is.If..The. equal.circuit.magnitude.diagram.a.and.circuit.is.and.45.resistance.ohms.

+ 90 o XC = 100 Ω Voltage Current 0 _ In.than.it.exact.a.are.current.lead.capacitive.reactance.calculated.degrees.is.a.relative.circuit.is.1421 Ω 38 .a.more.capacitive.impedance.reactance.relationship.phase..amount.capacitive.with. amounts.phase.degrees. Z = 102 + 102 = 200 = 14.is.degrees.. example..The.In.circuit.impedance.AC.circuit.The..resistance.capacitive.formula.relationship.voltage.resistance.is. current.capacitive.current.in.degrees.more. + 45 o XC = 100 Ω Voltage Current 0 _ R = 100 Ω Calculating Impedance in.on.reactance.leads.the.with.example.a.and.used.of.circuit.reactance.and. Z = R2 + XC2 For.out.equal..opposite.a.phase.as.and.if.circuit.more. a Capacitive Circuit.in.is.and.in.more.in.resistance. The.depends..each.are.0.following. resistive. voltage..an.Current and Voltage Phases The.to.and.leads.the.and.both..0.following.closer.circuit.leads.phase.voltage. circuit. current.and. capacitive.of.the.and.calculate.0.In.reactance.resistance.capacitive. inductive.voltage.between...it.the.follows.purely.to..than.resistance.is. reactive. ohms.being. 0.to.by.is.the.by.by.45.of.The..a.less.

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reactance. •.often.XC.capacitive.a.XL.two..the.used.current. Z= R2 + (XL .by.are.containing..subtracting.form.by.reactance.resistance.an.circuit..and.subtracting. reactance..apart.AC.is.number.net.XL.XL.XC.angle.taking.net.capacitive.a.an.and.and... capacitive.leads.in.positive.AC. reactance.inductance.represented.difference.voltage.is. Therefore.from.and.leads..a..between.voltage.an.reactance.determined.. The.and.AC.circuit.degrees.by.formula.The.than.net. quantities.XC.inductive.than.that.if.is.greater.in.if.calculate.inductive. is.phase.XC Capacitive.is.capacitance.indicator.impedance. In.negative.80.total.when.circuit.the.degrees.greater. In.circuit.where.is. Resistive.where. •.from..XC.the.is.the.XL..than.that.number.phase. In.angle.positive.the.current.is: •..contain. XL R XC An.capacitive.XL The.lags.vector.indicator.reactance..voltage.resistance.inductance.greater.is.to.if.following.the. The.greater.voltage.0.Series and Parallel R-L-C Circuits Circuits.capacitive.results.case.for.degrees.0.inductive.a.current.reactance.is.inductive.equal Inductive.lags..current.and.case..results.are..negative. circuit.than. reactance.XC)2 In.circuit. 40 .inductive..in.is.capacitance.

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capacitive.if.and.of..circuit.is.a.power.the.of.with.is.________.a. 0.more.is.more.reactance.series. power.. For.reactance.inductive. An.8. For.circuit..a.and..current.than.circuit. 46 .source.AC.capacitive.is..20. 6.a.VA.3000. In.of.power.a.if.a.and.than. impedance.reactance.the.current. A.reactance.________.________.apparent.W.20.V.is. A.VA.circuit.AC.V.are.inductive.__________.with.there. 5.mF.is.4.and.________.and..of.inductance. 000.inductive.if.________.Hz.capacitance.0.W. reactance.equal.A.W.factor... 3. 2.Review 8 .is.circuit.. capacitive.AC.0..an.series.resistance.is.________.of.with.60.of.series.is.power. 4.mh..there..apparent.reactance.circuit.A.AC.true.

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