Viscose Rayon Pre
treatment,dyeing and finishing
0 times the original pulp weight to obtain an accurate ratio of alkali to cellulose. This step provides increased surface area of the alkali cellulose. Shredding: The pressed alkali cellulose is shredded mechanically to yield finely divided. In this step the average molecular weight of the original pulp is reduced by a factor of two to three to get a viscose solution of right viscosity and cellulose concentration. Aging: The alkali cellulose is aged under controlled conditions of time and temperature (between 18 and 30 C) in order to depolymerize the cellulose to the desired degree of polymerization.Steeping: Cellulose pulp is immersed in 17-20% aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at a temperature in the range of 18 to 25°C in order to swell the cellulose fibers and to convert cellulose to alkali cellulose. fluffy particles called "crumbs".
(C6H10O5)n + nNaOH ---> (C6H9O4ONa)n + nH2O
Pressing: The swollen alkali cellulose mass is pressed to a wet weight equivalent of 2.5 to 3. thereby increasing its ability to react in the steps that follow.
(C6H9O4ONa)n + nCS2 ----> (C6H9O4O-SC-SNa)n
Side reactions that occur along with the conversion of alkali cellulose to cellulose xanthate are responsible for the orange color of the xanthate crumb and also the resulting viscose solution. The orange cellulose xanthate crumb is dissolved in dilute sodium hydroxide at 15 to 20 °C under high-shear mixing conditions to obtain a viscous orange colored solution called "viscose". The viscose solution is then filtered (to get out the insoluble fiber material) and is de-aerated.
. which is the basis for the manufacturing process.Xanthation: In this step the aged alkali cellulose crumbs are placed in vats and are allowed to react with carbon disulphide under controlled temperature (20 to 30°C) to form cellulose xanthate.
Because the cellulose xanthate solution (or more accurately. or crystalline. suspension) has a very high viscosity.Dissolving: The yellow crumb is dissolved in aqueous caustic solution. Because of the blocks of un-xanthated cellulose in the crystalline regions. The CS2 that is lost reduces the solubility of the cellulose and facilitates regeneration of the cellulose after it is formed into a filament. The large xanthate substituents on the cellulose force the chains apart.
Degassing: Bubbles of air entrapped in the viscose must be removed prior to extrusion or they would cause voids. in the fine rayon filaments. or weak spots. leading to solution of the otherwise insoluble cellulose. it has been termed "viscose". the yellow crumb is not completely soluble at this stage.
(C6H9O4O-SC-SNa)n + nH2O ---> (C6H Filtering: The viscose is 10O5)n + nCSto nNaOH filtered 2 + remove undissolved materials that might disrupt the spinning process or cause defects in the rayon filament. reducing the interchain hydrogen bonds and allowing water molecules to solvate and separate the chains. Two important process occur during ripening: Redistribution and loss of xanthate groups. the ordered.
. The reversible xanthation reaction allows some of the xanthate groups to revert to cellulosic hydroxyls and free CS2. Ripening: The viscose is allowed to stand for a period of time to "ripen". regions are gradually broken down and more complete solution is achieved. This free CS2 can then escape or react with other hydroxyl on other portions of the cellulose chain. In this way.
Spinning .(Wet Spinning): Production of Viscose Rayon Filament: The viscose solution is metered through a spinnerette into a spin bath containing sulphuric acid (necessary to acidify the sodium cellulose xanthate). Stretching and decomposition are vital for getting the desired tenacity and other properties of rayon. Slow regeneration of cellulose and stretching of rayon will lead to greater areas of crystallinity within the fiber. and zinc sulphate (exchange with sodium xanthate to form zinc xanthate. (C6H9O4O-SC-SNa)n + (n/2)H2SO4 --> (C6H10O5)n + nCS2 + (n/2)Na2SO4
. as is done with high-tenacity rayons. rapid coagulation of the rayon filaments occurs which is followed by simultaneous stretching and decomposition of cellulose xanthate to regenerated cellulose. The dilute sulphuric acid decomposes the xanthate and regenerates cellulose by the process of wet spinning. The outer portion of the xanthate is decomposed in the acid bath. Sodium and zinc sulphates control the rate of decomposition (of cellulose xanthate to cellulose) and fiber formation. to cross link the cellulose molecules). Once the cellulose xanthate is neutralized and acidified. sodium sulphate (necessary to impart a high salt content to the bath which is useful in rapid coagulation of viscose). forming a cellulose skin on the fiber.
.. the group of filaments (termed "tow") is passed through a rotary cutter to provide a fiber which can be processed in much the same way as cotton. Washing: The freshly regenerated rayon contains many salts and other water soluble impurities which need to be removed. As the chains become more parallel. Several different washing techniques may be used Cutting: If the rayon is to be used as staple (i. discreet lengths of fiber).e. This causes the chains to stretch out and orient along the fiber axis.Drawing: The rayon filaments are stretched while the cellulose chains are still relatively mobile. giving the filaments the properties necessary for use as textile fibers. interchain hydrogen bonds form.
the average size and size distribution of the molecules. The structure of cellulose derivatives could be represented by a continuous range of states of local molecular order rather than definite polymorphic forms of cellulose which depend on the conditions by which the fiber is made. they all entail the formation of crystallites or ordered regions. Rayon fiber properties will depend on: how cellulose molecules are arranged and held together. Essentially.
. The most popular models of fiber fine structure are the fringed micelle and fringed fibrillar structures.In regenerated celluloses. Many models describe ways in which the cellulose molecules may be arranged to form fiber fine structure. designated as cellulose II (other allotropic modifications are also known as cellulose III and cellulose IV). the unit cell structure is an allotropic
modification of cellulose I.
The skin-core effect is very prominent in rayon fibers. The extent to which this occurs reflects the order that exists in the fiber structure. water retention is lower in the skin than in the core although moisture regain is higher in the skin. It also swells less than the core. U-shaped. Yshaped.
When rayon fibers are worked in the wet state. E-shaped. compared to the core. The skin is stronger and less extensible.the filament structure can be made to disintegrate into a fibrillar texture. This is explained by an increased number of hydroxyl groups available for bonding with water as a result of a larger total surface area of the numerous small crystallites. Various shapes include round. Another important structural feature of rayon fiber is its cross-sectional shape. T-shaped and flat. as a consequence of the way in which the cellulose molecules are brought together in spinning. The skin contains numerous small crystallites and the core has fewer but larger crystallites. hence.
. irregular. Mass transfer in wet spinning is a slow process (which accounts for the skin-core effect) compared to the heat transfer in melt spinning.
whereas bases do not seem to significantly attack rayon. Tenacity ranges between 2. Dry and wet tenacity extend over a range depending on the degree of polymerization and crystallinity. The higher the crystallinity and orientation of rayon. Prolonged exposure to sunlight causes loss of strength because of degradation of cellulose chains.PROPERTIES OF RAYON Variations during spinning of viscose or during drawing of filaments provide a wide variety of fibers with a wide variety of properties.3 dtex. Percentage elongation-at-break seems to vary from 10 to 30 % dry and 15 to 40 % wet.0dtex.7 and 3. the lower is the drop in tenacity upon wetting.6 g/den when dry and 1. Chemical properties: Hot dilute acids attack rayon. Rayon is attacked by bleaches at very high concentrations and by mildew under severe hot and moist conditions. Rayon has
. Thermal properties: Viscose rayon loses strength above 149°C.7 to 5. It does not melt or stick at elevated temperatures. Modifications in the production process have led to the problem of low wet strength being overcome.0 to 1.5 g/den when wet. Wet strength of the fiber is of importance during its manufacturing and also in subsequent usage. dominate large scale production. These include: Fibers with thickness of 1. Abrasion resistance is fair and rayon resists pill formation. Elongation-at-break is seen to decrease with an increase in the degree of crystallinity and orientation of rayon.0 to 2. particularly those between 1. chars and decomposes at 177 to 204°C.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF RAYONS Rayon fibers are engineered to possess a range of properties to meet the demands for a wide variety of end uses. High wet modulus rayon: These fibers have exceptionally high wet modulus of about 1 g/den and are used as parachute cords and other industrial uses. Specialty rayons: Flame retardant fibers: Flame retardance is achieved by the adhesion of the correct flame.retardant chemical to viscose. Flame retardant rayons have the additives distributed uniformly through the interior of the fiber and this property is advantageous over flame retardant cotton fibers where the flame retardant concentrates at the surface of the fiber. phosphonates and polyphosphonates. relatively low water retention and very high wet modulus. These fibers are used in surgical nonwovens. They have a unique fibrillar structure. These fibers are obtained by including water. phosphazenes. Some of the important types of fibers are briefly described.holding polymers (such as
. Fortisan fibers made by Celanese (saponified acetate) has also been used for the same purpose. Super absorbent rayons: This is being produced in order to obtain higher water retention capacity (although regular rayon retains as much as 100 % of its weight). achieved as a result of very high stretching (up to 300 %) during processing. aryl and halogenated alkyl or aryl phosphates. high dry and wet strength. Examples of additives are alkyl. low elongation (8 to 11 %). Polynosic rayon: These fibers have a very high degree of orientation.
These can be used to substantially improve fabric strength and absorbent properties. Wood pulp is dissolved in an amine oxide. Fabrics made of these fibers have considerably enhanced absorbency. The clear viscous solution is filtered and extruded into an aqueous bath. Cross section modification: Modification in cross sectional shape of viscose rayon can be used to dramatically change the fibers' aesthetic and technical properties. pleasing drape and handle. which precipitates the cellulose as fibers. Lyocell is manufactured using a solvent spinning process. wood cellulose is dissolved directly in n-methyl morpholine n-oxide at high temperature and pressure.Acordis and Lenzing AG. and can then be purified
.0 are now being developed and introduced into the market. a flat cross sectional fiber sold in Europe. cover and wet rigidity all of which are suitable for usage as nonwovens. Tencel is produced by a straight solvation process. Lyocell: A new form of cellulosic fiber.Micro denier fibers: rayon fibers with deniers below 1. is starting to find uses in the nonwovens industry. This process does not involve any direct chemical reaction and the diluted amine oxide is purified and reused. The cellulose precipitates in fiber form as the solvent is diluted. Lyocell. which does not lead to undue degradation of the cellulose chains. One such product is Viloft. bulk. and is produced by only two companies -. Tencel rayon: Unlike viscose rayon. Another modified cross section fiber called Fibre ML(multi limbed) has a very well defined trilobal shape. which gives a unique soft handle. To produce Lyocell. This makes for a completely contained process fully compatible with all environmental regulations.
In aqueous liquors. Bleaching chemicals can be reduced. In their swollen state.
. naturally clean. Fabrics become much more stiff when wet because the fibres are so swollen. viscose fibres can become set to a certain extent. ● Viscose is creamy white in colour. motes and seeds. viscose fibres tend to swell more strongly than Modal fibres or cotton. Cool at a gradient of not more than 1° C per minute to prevent hydro plastic creasing. Little preparation required. Fabrics free from natural fats and waxes. This is called hydro plasticity. This swelling process happens very quickly and is almost complete after ten seconds at the lower temperature range. Always give SOME preparation to avoid carry over of sulphur. Mild peroxide bleach may be necessary to ● The water retention value (swelling index) of viscose is very remove sulphur. much higher than that of cotton.Viscose has lower tenacity in both wet and conditioned state than cotton – more care is necessary to prevent fabric breakages and tears in wet processing. Fabric must always be run at temperatures of 50° C or higher.
R.Different ratio of crystalline and amorphous regions compared to cotton Viscose has higher dye affinity than cotton. Swelling an heat can set creases Use longer L.
Viscose has irregular serrated skin and cross section. Very important in package dyeing. Use suitable anti-crease lubricants. OUT to IN should be < 30 seconds
Swelling of fibres makes wet fabrics stiff. Inferior diffusion and penetration. Keep liquors above 50° C. Liquor circulation should mainly be IN to OUT. More kinetic energy needed.
Viscose loses tenacity when wet More care needed to avoid damage Wet swelling increases with temperature. Hot reactive dyes. Cool at maximum 1° C per min. Add salt after dye
. than for cotton.
Dyes have higher substantivity and faster fixation Use ‘Migration’ dyeing techniques (at up to 110° C).
Slower turn around time and dyeing machines with winches to help the
. particularly where there is lengthways tension on the fabric. not straight across. Best avoided by sewing the fabric at an angle.Pretreatment
Scouring and bleaching need to be mild in nature. There should be as little tension on the fabric as possible. because of the higher water retention but also because of the high swelling. because of the low wet modulus it will stretch easily and dimensional stability may never be achieved. and never put straight into dyeing because it is important to remove any residual sulphur to prevent dye reduction. ● Fabrics will tend to stiffen in tight constructions so lubrication is important. ● Spinning lubricants used on viscose tend to yellow with heat. ● The liquor ratio may need to be a little higher than for cotton. and so should be removed for best whites and bright pastels. Use multiple "zig-zag" stitching for additional security. The fabrics should always be scoured. (Reduce jet capacity) ● Break outs are always an issue on viscose.
wash-off. polyvinyl alcohol systems or a combination of both.g.Better base white than cotton. modified starch. many factories will opt to use their standard cotton desize treatment :
e. therefore bleaching mainly required only for full white or pastel shades.2 g/l wetting agent impregnate at 60°C . applying in the quench box of a singeing machine : Pad 2 . pick-up 80 % .4 g/l amylase enzyme 1 .
Woven fabrics Warps of viscose rayon can be sized with a variety of agents : starch based systems. however.
. starch ethers or CMC or combinations of these Identification of the size present is important prior to deciding on a suitable desizing procedure. batch minimum 4 hours – normally overnight .
5 – 1–3
Run 20 to 30 minutes at 60-90° C.5 – 0. are free from natural fats and waxes. and can be based on soda ash or tetra sodium pyrophosphate recipes rather than caustic soda.Viscose rayon fibres. motes and seeds. and the scouring process. unlike natural cellulosic fibres. Hot rinse
Knitted fabric – on jet or overflow machine ml/l lubricant 1 g/l detergent 2 g/l sequestering agent g/l Soda ash (about pH 9)
2–4 0. need not be as severe as for cotton.
There is a high risk of forming permanent creases in rope dyeing machines because viscose fibre swells and fabrics
.5 ml/l catalase enzyme (Perkill ECO). to the same bath after neutralizing with to prevent oxidative damage to dyes by residual peroxide. omit optical brightening agent.1 – 0.0 – 3 ml/l lubricant 2 – 4 g/l stabilizer 2 – 6 ml/l Hydrogen peroxide 35% 1 – 2 g/l soda ash 0.3 – 0.Peroxide bleach on jet or overflow machine for full white
1. add 0.7 % OBA Run 40 minutes at 85° C Hot rinse at 60 – 80° C Neutralize with Dyapol NEU for 10 – 15 minutes at 5060° C If dyeing after bleaching.
yield gains of up to 50% are possible. Liquor pick-up of about 120% should be achieved. Rinsing should be done as hot as possible to minimize swelling and ensure rapid and complete removal of caustic soda An addition of 2 – 4 g/l soda ash in the initial wash boxes will
.8° Bé caustic soda at 25° . where long diffusion times are employed. The best after-washing device is probably a sieve drum continuous open-width range.
Pad-Batch processing is popular although dedicated continuous plant.30° C for at least 2 minutes followed by low tension washing with boiling water to assist the rapid removal of alkali. Typical conditions for pure viscose are treatment with 6° . Low uniform processing tensions are essential for consistent results and good quality. Benefits are therefore more obvious in printing than in dyeing. is preferable. employing a spray or conveyor for tensionless swelling and reaction.Causticising Causticising modifies the viscose fibre surface or skin to enable more rapid diffusion of dye into the fibre. and with selected reactive dyes.
After heat setting the fabric will feel very soft and bulky compared to fabric heat-set without auxiliaries.Where blends of viscose/elastane contain more than about 5 or 6% elastane. a quick hot rinse is applied.
.g. When the heat set fabric is loaded into the dyeing machine. No further addition of anti-crease agent is necessary in the scouring/bleaching bath. it will be very difficult to achieve satisfactory dimensional stability in the final garment (e.195° C (depending on type of elastane). less than 5% shrinkage on washing) unless the fabric is pre-set before wet processing. and when put into water the knitting and spinning oils and charred colour are immediately rinsed out of the fabric. then the fabric is scoured/bleached to complete the removal of silicone oil.
For best results we recommend: Pad the greige fabric in: 20 g/l lubricant 15 g/l Dyamul SLX Heat set for 30 – 60 seconds at 190° .
Viscose/Lycra ® (e. especially when the fabric is so brown after setting. A batch bleaching process using TAED (tetra acetyl ethylene diamine) at lower temperatures has been developed to provide improved whiteness and minimum strength losses.5%) fabrics can be susceptible to damage and loss of mechanical strength when bleached by conventional high temperature peroxide bleaching processes.g.5%/9.
S is increased and secondary exhaustion is less – more similar to cotton.If the dyeing is started at a higher temperature. This can solve problems of colour separation – e. blue – yellow
and held for 20 minutes at 95° C before cooling back to 80° C at 1° C per min.0. Hold at 80° C for 10 minutes before adding the alkali in a linear manner over 15-20
. Predissolved dyes are then added in a linear manner over 15 – 20 minutes.5 to 2° C per min. The temperature is raised to 95° C (or even up to 110° C) at 1. auxiliaries and the pH adjusted with acetic acid to around pH 6.The bath is set at 50° C with the required amount of electrolyte.
Mild peroxide bleaching and addition of reduction inhibitor Ludigol from the start of dyeing is recommended.
. ● Fabric circulation speed should be set to between 80 – 120 seconds. otherwise appreciable colour value will be lost. there must be sufficient displacement and this is best achieved for woven fabrics in jets with aerodynamic systems. It is essential that viscose is thoroughly desulphurised. In order to guard against the danger of formation of running creases. 80% of the maximum load. Keep fabric thoroughly wetted until drying machine/ stenter is available. To prevent abrasion marks. on top of trolley – edges of folds – these areas may be visible as a physical / optical patch after finishing. ● When dyeing in rope form. in enclosed machines. the slippage (difference between winch speed and fabric speed) should be as low as If dyed viscose fabrics are allowed to begin to dry unevenly – possible. the size of the load should not exceed approx. viscose is especially prone to cause problems of dye reduction. The liquor temperature should not fall below 50° C and a suitable running crease inhibitor should be used in all hot baths.Further precautions ● Under alkaline conditions.