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Outline

Introduction

Basic Fluid Mechanics Drag and Friction Bicycle Aerodynamics Position Velocity & Power Output Reducing Drag Drafting Crosswind effects

Introduction

Aerodynamics, or wind resistance is an everyday

experience to bicyclists. At average speeds aerodynamic drag is the largest resistive force aside from the gravity of a large hill

Due to the fluidity of air.

Composed of normal (Pressure) force and tangential

(frictional) force. Extremely geometry dependent.

**Fluid Mechanics & Dynamics
**

Fluid – a material that deforms continuously and

**permanently under the application of a shearing stress. Important properties Shear Force
**

Density (ρ)

Specific weight (γ) Specific Gravity (SG)

Velocity Gradient

Viscosity (μ)

Velocity of fluid is zero along surface due to friction . (No slip condition)

**Fluid Mechanics & Dynamics
**

Streamline Lines tangent to the velocity vector throughout the flow field

Figure from Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics pg. 97

**Fluid Mechanics & Dynamics
**

Stagnation Point Largest pressure obtainable along a streamline Velocity is zero

Figure from Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics pg. 108

**Fluid Mechanics & Dynamics
**

Air as a fluid When studying aerodynamics air is treated as a fluid. Follows all laws of motion and all laws of fluid mechanics

•ΣF = mâ •Conservation of Energy •Conservation of Mass

http://pico1.e.ft.fontys.nl/aot/newton.jpg

**Fluid Mechanics & Dynamics
**

Continuity equation Mass is conserved V1A1=V2A2

V1 A1 A2 V2

Bernoulli equation P1+1/2 ρV12 +γz1 = P2+1/2 ρV22 +γz2 Relationship between Pressure, Velocity, and Elevation Based on conservation of linear momentum (Kinetic Energy)

Aerodynamics

Two effective forces Pressure Friction For cyclists, pressure effect is much larger than friction due to non-streamlined body. Streamlined bodies incorporate gradual tapering to minimize pressure effect and (a) Normal pressure and friction forces (b) Attached and separated flow around a cylinder (c) Attached flow and separation of fluid pressure recovery along a streamlined body

Figure from Bicycle Science pg. 174

Aerodynamics

Drag Coefficient CD = drag/(area x dynamic pressure) Dynamic Pressure can be

**approximated for speeds under 100 mi/h as:
**

Dynamic pressure = ρV2/2gc

gc = 32.174 lbm-ft/lbf-s2

Drag The force in the direction of relative flow. Propulsion power to overcome drag: Ŵ = drag force x relative vehicle velocity

Aerodynamics

**Drag coefficients of various geometries
**

Figure from Bicycling Science pg. 191

Aerodynamics

Laminar Flow Layers of fluid flow slide smoothly over one another Turbulent Flow Boundary layer is composed of vortices that increase surface friction. Common at rear end of non-streamlined vehicle

Turbulent

http://www.cheng.cam.ac.uk/research/groups/electrochem/JAVA/electrochemist ry/ELEC/l2fig/laminar.gif

Laminar

Bicycle Aerodynamics

Bicycle is responsible for 20-35% of drag.

Loose Clothing increases drag by up to 30%.

**Bicycle Aerodynamics - Position
**

Positions Goals: reduce frontal area & reduce drag coefficient

CD Tops Hoods Drops 1.15 1.0 .88 Frontal Area .55 m2 .40 m2 .36 m2 CDA .632 m2 .40 m2 .32 m2 Power to Overcome Drag 345 W 220 W 176 W

**Bicycle Aerodynamics - Position
**

Drag Coefficients

Figure from Bicycling Science pg. 188

**Bicycle Aerodynamics - Position
**

Rearward vs. Forward position (23.57 – 22.28 N drag)

•Forward seat position decreases drag at the expense of comfort and pedaling mechanics. •Union Cycliste Internationale limits the fore-aft position of the saddle requiring it be at least 5 cm behind the bottom bracket spindle •Injury preventive measure

Image and caption from Road Cycling Handbook

Bicycle Aerodynamics

Fairings

http://www.lightningbikes.com/sf40blu.jpg

Image from Bicycling Science pg. 191

Reduce Drag Coefficient up to 50 %

**Bicycle Aerodynamics - Drafting
**

Drafting

Traveling close behind

http://pro.corbis.com/images/AX93354 8.jpg?size=67&uid={51D3B79C-B5D04A72-B318-B002D5C78EBC}

another rider Broken up air vortices propel second rider Offers advantage to both front and rear rider Riders in group expend 40% less energy than solo riders

**Bicycle Aerodynamics - Drafting
**

Drafting

Negative drag propels object forward at close distances(~ 1 diameter and under)

Image from Bicycling Science pg. 199

**Bicycle Aerodynamics - Drafting
**

Drafting

Higher CD occurs at distances less than the of the width of the strut (or rider)

No advantage

**to side by side drafting.
**

Aerodynamic interference of two side by side struts.

Image from Bicycling Science pg. 201

**Bicycle Aerodynamics -Crosswinds
**

Aerodynamic drag is usually calculated assuming

**calm weather Crosswinds create aerodynamic moments and instability.
**

CG CP stable CP

Fcrosswind

CG

Fcrosswind

instable

CP (point of action of aerodynamic forces) should be

behind the CG for maximum stability.

References

"Efluids bicycle aerodynamics." EFluids. 04 Apr. 09

<http://www.efluids.com/efluids/pages/bicycle.htm>. Gregor, Robert J. Road Cycling - Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science. Malden: Oxford, 2000. Munson, Bruce R., Donald F. Young, and Theodore H. Okiishi. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. 5th ed. Jon Wiley & Sons, 2006. Tamai, Goro. The Leading Edge - Aerodynamic Design of Ultra-streamlined Land Vehicles. Cambridge: Robert Bentley Publihsers, 1999. Wilson, David G., and Jim Papadopoulos. Bicycling Science. 3rd ed. MIT P, 2004.

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