P. 1
non_trad

non_trad

|Views: 1|Likes:
Published by ravindrababug

More info:

Published by: ravindrababug on Feb 07, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/29/2014

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • Non-Traditional Machining
  • Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
  • USM (Cont.)
  • USM Parts
  • Water-Jet Machining (WJM)
  • WJM (Cont.)
  • WJM Examples
  • Abrasive-Jet Machining (AJM)
  • AJM Process Capability
  • Chemical Machining (CM)
  • CM (Cont.)
  • EDM-History
  • Process-Basics
  • Volume of the crater
  • EDM Process Capability
  • EDM Applications
  • EDM Limitations
  • Wire EDM
  • Wire EDM (Cont.)
  • Wire EDM Parts
  • Reverse micro-EDM
  • High-Energy-Beam Machining
  • Laser-Beam Machining (LBM)
  • LBM (Cont.)
  • Schematic of LBM Device
  • Heat Source Modeling
  • Gaussian Circular
  • Uniform Circular/Rectangular
  • LBM Capability
  • EBM (Cont.)
  • EBM Characteristics
  • Comparative Performance
  • Focused Ion Beam Technologies
  • Dual Beam System
  • Summary

Non-Traditional Machining

ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh; Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton

1

Introduction
• Machining is a broad term to describe removal of material from a workpiece. • Machining categories:
– Cutting involves single-point or multipoint cutting tools, each with a clearly defined geometry. – Abrasive processes, such as grinding. – Nontraditional machining, utilizing electrical, chemical, and optical sources of energy.

ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh; Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton

2

Nontraditional Machining
• Ultrasonic Machining (USM) • Water-Jet Machining & Abrasive-Jet Machining • Chemical Machining • Electrochemical Machining (ECM) • Electrical-Discharge Machining (EDM) • High-Energy-Beam Machining
– Laser-beam machining (LBM) – Electron-beam machining (EBM)

ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh; Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton

3

Nontraditional • Primary source of energy – Traditional: mechanical. optical • Primary method of material removal – Traditional: shearing – Nontraditional: does not use shearing (e.Traditional vs. chemical. Notes: Profs.g. Singh/Melkote/Colton 4 .. – Nontraditional: electrical. abrasive water jet cutting uses erosion) Water jet machining Grinding 2D cutting process ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.

Singh/Melkote/Colton 5 . strong. Notes: Profs. – Part shape is very complex with internal or external profiles or small holes. – Requirements for surface finish and tolerances are very high. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.Why Nontraditional Machining? • Situations where traditional machining processes are unsatisfactory or uneconomical: – Workpiece material is too hard. – Workpiece is too flexible to resist cutting forces or too difficult to clamp. – Temperature rise or residual stresses are undesirable or unacceptable. or tough.

is vibrated at low amplitude (0. Singh/Melkote/Colton 6 . which is negative of the workpiece. – The tool is gradually moved down maintaining a constant gap of approximately 0. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs. – The slurry also carries away the debris from the cutting area.1 mm between the tool and workpiece surface.Ultrasonic Machining (USM) • Process description – The tool.013 to 0.08 mm) and high frequency (about 20 kHz) in an abrasive grit slurry at the workpiece surface.

Singh/Melkote/Colton 7 . Notes: Profs.USM (Cont.) • Cracks are generated due to the high stresses produced by particles striking a surface. • The time of contact between the particle and the surface is given by: 5r  c 0  t0 ≈   c0  v  1/ 5 (10 − 100 µ s ) Force of a particle on surface: r: radius of a spherical particle c0: workpiece elastic wave velocity = E / ρ F = d (mv) / dt Average force of a particle striking the surface: v: velocity of particle striking surface Fave = 2mv / t 0 ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.

Hence. if any. takes place in the magnitude of the impact force of a particle in ultrasonic machining as the temperature of the workpiece is increased. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Solution: Here. E decreases and t0 increases. Singh/Melkote/Colton 8 . F decreases.USM (Cont. Notes: Profs. m and v are constant. 5r  c 0  t0 =   c0  v  1/ 5 ⇒ t0 ∝ 1 c04 / 5 ∝ 1 E 2/5 When temperature increases.) • Example: Explain what change.

Singh/Melkote/Colton 2π (dh) 3 / 2 3 9 .USM (Cont. Notes: Profs.) Assuming hemispherical brittle fracture V= 2π  D    3 2 3 D ≈ 2 dh V= MRR = ηV Z f where V = volume removed by a single grain f = frequency of operation Z = number of particles impacting per cycle η = efficiency ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.

does not produce electric.) • Applications – USM is best suited for hard.6 µm. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. (Why?) • Capability – With fine abrasives. machining area and depth are limited. tolerance of 0. brittle materials. precious stones.2 – 1.8 cm3/min). carbides. makes tiny holes (0. – Cons: low material removal rate (typically 0. • Pros & Cons: – Pros: precise machining of brittle materials. such as ceramics. thermal. glass. and hardened steels. Notes: Profs.3 mm). Ra varies between 0. chemical damage because it removes material mechanically.0125 mm or better can be held. tool wears rapidly.USM (Cont. Singh/Melkote/Colton 10 .

USM Parts Ceramic ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton 11 .

flowcorp.cfm?id=360 ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.com/waterjet-resources. Singh/Melkote/Colton 12 .Water-Jet Machining (WJM) also called hydrodynamic machining WJM is a form of micro erosion. It works by forcing a large volume of water through a small orifice in the nozzle. Notes: Profs. http://www. The extreme pressure of the accelerated water particles contacts a small area of the workpiece and acts like a saw and cuts a narrow groove in the material.

composite. no workpiece deflection (hence suitable for flexible materials). • Cons: limited to material with naturally occurring small cracks or softer material. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.WJM (Cont. leather.) • Pros: no need for predrilled holes. Notes: Profs. rubber. etc. minimal burr. plastics. • Applications: – Mostly used to cut lower strength materials such as wood. paper. no heat. – Food preparation – Good for materials that cannot withstand high temperatures of other methods for stress distortion or metallurgical reasons. environmentally friendly. Singh/Melkote/Colton 13 .

WJM Examples PWB (printed wire board) ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton 14 .

Metallic materials can be cut.Abrasive Water-Jet Machining (AWJM) The water jet contains abrasive particles such as silicon carbide. Particularly suitable for heat-sensitive materials. Notes: Profs. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. thus increasing MRR. Singh/Melkote/Colton 15 .

Notes: Profs.waterjets. Singh/Melkote/Colton 16 .org/ ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.AWJM Parts Bullet Proof Glass Part Steel rack (75 mm thick) Ceramic Part Source: http://www.

or carbon dioxide containing abrasive particles is aimed at the workpiece surface under controlled conditions.Abrasive-Jet Machining (AJM) A high-velocity jet of dry air. nitrogen. Notes: Profs. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. The gas supply pressure is on the order of 850 kPa (125 psi) and the jet velocity can be as high as 300 m/s and is controlled by a valve. Singh/Melkote/Colton 17 .

AJM Process Capability
• Material removal
– Typical cutting speeds vary between 25 -125 mm/min

• Dimensional Tolerances
– Typical range ±2 - ±5 µm

• Surface Finish
– Typical Ra values vary from 0.3 - 2.3 µm

ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh; Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton

18

AJM Applications & Limitations
• Applications
– Can cut traditionally hard to cut materials, e.g., composites, ceramics, glass – Good for materials that cannot stand high temperatures

• Limitations
– Expensive process – Flaring can become large – Not suitable for mass production because of high maintenance requirements

ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh; Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton

19

Chemical Machining (CM)
• Chemical machining, basically an etching process, is the oldest nontraditional machining process. • Material is removed from a surface by chemical dissolution using chemical reagents, or etchants, such as acids and alkaline solutions. • The workpiece is immersed in a bath containing an etchant. The area that are not required to be etched are masked with “cut and peel” tapes, paints, or polymeric materials. • In chemical milling, shallow cavities are produced on plates, sheets, forgings, and extrusions for overall reduction of weight (e.g., in aerospace industry). Depths of removal can be as much as 12 mm.

ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh; Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton

20

– spray etched to dissolve the unprotected areas and leave the finished part. – coated and the image of the part is imprinted.) • Chemical blanking is used to produce features which penetrate through the material via chemical dissolution. – soaked in a solvent that removes the coating. Notes: Profs. The metal that is to be blanked is – thoroughly cleaned with solvents. except in the protected areas.CM (Cont. Singh/Melkote/Colton 21 . ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.

thin sheet-metal stampings. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. and the production of complex or small shapes. and tooling costs.CM (Cont. Singh/Melkote/Colton 22 . surface defects.1 mm/min). maintenance. suitable for low production runs on intricate designs. small. Notes: Profs. decorative panels. delicate parts can be machined. Cons: slow (0. – Chemical milling: weight reduction of space launch vehicles.025-0. chemicals can be extremely dangerous to health.) • Typical applications – Chemical blanking: burr-free etching of printed-circuit boards (PCB). Pros: low setup.

Electrochemical Machining (ECM) • Process description: – In ECM. a dc voltage (10-25 v) is applied across the gap between a pre-shaped cathode tool and an anode workpiece.1-0. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.6 mm) to dissipate heat and wash away the dissolved metal. Notes: Profs. – The electrolyte flows at high speed (10-60 m/s) through the gap (0. The workpiece is dissolved by an electrochemical reaction to the shape of the tool. Singh/Melkote/Colton 23 .

MRR=mm3/min. η=current efficiency. Notes: Profs.) • The material removal rate by ECM is given by: MRR = C I η where.ECM (Cont. Feed rate (mm/min): f = MRR / A0 Assuming a cavity with uniform cross-sectional area A0 ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. which typically ranges from 90-100%. Singh/Melkote/Colton 24 . I=current in amperes. C is a material constant in mm3/A·min.

high power consumption. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs. very high tooling (dedicated) and equipment costs. • Cons: workpiece must be electrically conductive. Singh/Melkote/Colton 25 .ECM (Cont. in aerospace industry for mass production of turbine blades. highstrength materials. mirror surface finish possible. esp.) • Pros: high shape complexity possible. high MRR possible. • Applications: complex cavities in high-strength materials.

EDM-History ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton 26 .

ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs. EDM is one of the most accurate while quite affordable mfg process.Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) EDM is a thermal erosion process whereby material is melted and vaporized from an electrically conducive workpiece immersed in a liquid dielectric with a series of spark discharges between the tool electrode and the workpiece created by a power supply. Singh/Melkote/Colton 27 .

The part is connected to a power supply to create a potential difference between the workpiece and the tool. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Singh/Melkote/Colton 28 . Notes: Profs. When the potential difference is sufficiently high. 2) acts as a flushing medium. The dielectric fluid 1) acts as an insulator until the potential is sufficiently high.) The EDM system consists of a shaped tool or wire electrode. and the part. removing a very small amount of metal from the workpiece. a transient spark discharges through the fluid. and 3) provides a cooling medium.EDM (Cont.

Singh/Melkote/Colton 29 .Process-Basics ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs.

EDM (Cont.25 Tr−2.38 Wt=mm3/min Tt=melting point of electrode material (ºC) Wear ratio of workpiece to electrode: R = 2.23 w MRR=mm3/min I=current in amperes Tw=melting point of workpiece (ºC) Wear rate of electrode: Wt = 11× 10 3 I Tt −2.) MRR is basically a function of the current and the melting point of the workpiece material.3 Tr=ratio of workpiece to electrode melting points (ºC) ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. An approximate empirical relationship is: MRR = 4 × 10 I T 4 −1. Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton 30 .

mm D = diameter of crater. Singh/Melkote/Colton 31 . J h = height of crater.EDM • Experimental Approach TOOL (-) DC VOLTAGE h D WORKPIECE (+) Scheme of Crater Formation Metal removal is function of pulse energy and frequency: h = K1Wn D= K2Wn where W = Pulse energy.MRR . mm K1. Notes: Profs. π 3  Vc = h D 2 + h 2  6 4  MRR = Vc f η π 3 2 2 3n where f = frequency of operation and η = efficiency Vc = K1  K 2 + K1 W 6 4  ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. K2 = constants depending on electrode materials and dielectric n = constant depending on work tool combination The crater volume from geometry.

Singh/Melkote/Colton 32 .Volume of the crater ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs.

Singh/Melkote/Colton 33 .EDM Process Capability • MRR – Range from 2 to 400 mm3/min. having a molten and recast structure with poor surface integrity and low fatigue properties.5 µm – New techniques use an oscillating electrode.125 mm • Surface Finish – Depends on current density and material being machined – Ra varies from 0.05 – 12. Notes: Profs. providing very fine surface finishes. • Dimensional Tolerances – Function of the material being processed – Typically between ±0. High rates produce rough finish. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.005 .±0.

moldmaking. small deep holes. and die casting to produce die cavities. narrow slots. and intricate shapes.EDM Applications Widely used in aerospace. turbine blades. Singh/Melkote/Colton 34 . Cavities produced by EDM Stepped cavities ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs.

– Produces slightly tapered holes. – Finishing cuts are needed at low MRR. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. – Beneath the recast layer is a heat affected zone which may be softer than parent material. Singh/Melkote/Colton 35 . Notes: Profs.EDM Limitations • Limitations – A hard skin. or recast layer is produced which may be undesirable in some cases. specially if blind.

Notes: Profs. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Singh/Melkote/Colton 36 . cutting the workpiece. with the discharge sparks acting like cutting teeth.Wire EDM A wire travels along a prescribed path.

Notes: Profs.Wire EDM (Cont. b = d w + 2s MRR = mm3/min Vf = feed rate of wire into the workpiece in mm/min h = workpiece thickness or height in mm dw = wire diameter in mm s = gap between wire and workpiece in mm ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Singh/Melkote/Colton 37 .) MRR in Wire EDM MRR = V f h b where.

Singh/Melkote/Colton 38 . Notes: Profs.Wire EDM Parts ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.

5 20 20 20 12. Your objective is to minimize the cutting power required. Singh/Melkote/Colton 10 12.Example • Example: You have to machine the following part from a 85mmx75mmx20mm steel block.2 mm • Gap: s=0.5 Assumptions: – EDM process: • Wire diameter: dw=0.1 mm 40 – Conventional machining: • Negative of the part has to be removed 12. You have to choose between EDM and Conventional machining.5 39 . Notes: Profs.5 ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. which process will you choose? 12.

Power comparison u M VM u EDM VEDM ≤ We will choose machining if tM t EDM let’s assume tEDM=αtM u EDM VEDM then machining if α ≤ u M VM ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Singh/Melkote/Colton 40 .EDM process VEDM = lc*(dw+2s)*t = 1440 mm3 .Example Solution: . Notes: Profs.Conventional machining VM= Vtotal – Vpart = 99500 mm3 .

Singh/Melkote/Colton 41 .Reverse micro-EDM • Fabrication of high aspect ratio micro-electrode arrays • Potential application in machining hole arrays via microEDM/ECM ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs.

Arrays Fabricated via R µ-EDM @IITB 6x6 array 4x4 array 42 ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton .

Singh/Melkote/Colton 43 .Experimental Setup ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs.

Notes: Profs.Fabricated Texture ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Singh/Melkote/Colton 44 .

Singh/Melkote/Colton 45 . Notes: Profs.High-Energy-Beam Machining • Laser-Beam Machining (LBM) • Electron-Beam Machining (EBM) • Focused Ion-Beam Machining ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.

Laser-Beam Machining (LBM) • Laser Concept – Add energy to make electrons “jump” to higher energy orbit – Electron “relaxes” and moves to equilibrium at ground-state energy level – Emits a photon in this process (key laser component) – Two mirrors reflect the photons back and forth and “excite” more electrons – One mirror is partially reflective to allow some light to pass through: creates narrow laser beam ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton 46 .

Singh/Melkote/Colton 47 .) Excited State Electron Ground State Photon Nucleus Orbits Electron is energized to the excited state Electron relaxes to ground state and photon is produced Photon Emission Model ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.LBM (Cont. Notes: Profs.

) • More precise • Useful with a variety of materials: metals. Singh/Melkote/Colton 48 . and ceramics • Smooth. plastics. composites. clean cuts • Faster process • Decreased heataffected zone ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.LBM (Cont. Notes: Profs.

Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton 49 .Schematic of LBM Device ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.

Indian Patent Application No.Laser Setup • Laser Processing Center – 100 W SPI single mode fiber laser (Power and frequency modulated) – Optics for variable intensity distribution and spot size – 3 axis (Z decoupled) translational stages and controls – Provides uniform/Gaussian intensity – 7 µm -900 µm spot size possible – Hardening/Cladding/Texturing/Brazing “Method and device for generating laser beam of variable intensity distribution and variable spot size”. 442/MUM/2011. Machine Tools Laboratory Micromachining Cell .

) • Important physical parameters in LBM – Reflectivity – Thermal conductivity of workpiece surface – Specific heat and latent heats of melting and evaporation • The lower these quantities. Singh/Melkote/Colton 51 . and d is the laser-beam-spot diameter. v is the cutting speed. the more efficient the process.LBM (Cont. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. • The cutting depth t: t = P / vd P is the power input. Notes: Profs.

Notes: Profs. dT '( x. ρ = Density.Heat Source Modeling • Solution for stationary point using Green’s Theorem: The differential equation for the conduction of heat in a stationary medium assuming no convection or radiation. z’) and time t’. z. y. y. gives the temperature increment at position (x. t ) = sem i − in f in ite dT '( x. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. z. heat capacity. z) and time t due to an instantaneous heat source δq applied at position (x’. C = sp. y. t ) = 2δ q 3 2 δq ρ C (4 π a ( t − t ')) 3 2 ( x − x ') 2 + ( y − y ') 2 + ( z − z ') 2 ex p [ − ] 4 a ( t − t ') ρ C (4 π a ( t − t ')) ( x − x ') 2 + ( y − y ') 2 + ( z − z ') 2 ex p [ − ] 4 a ( t − t ') δq = instantaneous heat generated. y’. is This is satisfied by the solution for infinite body. α = diffusivity. Singh/Melkote/Colton 52 . K = thermal conductivity. t = time.

y.Moving point heat source in semi-infinite body In moving coordinate system: dT '( x. Singh/Melkote/Colton . z. z. Notes: Profs. t ) = 2δ q ρ C (4 π a ( t − t ')) 3 2 ( X − x ') 2 + (Y − y ') 2 + ( Z − z ') 2 exp [ − ] 4 a ( t − t ') In fixed coordinate system: dT '( x. t ) = 2δ q ρ C (4 π a ( t − t ')) 3 2 ( x − vt '− x ') 2 + ( y − y ') 2 + ( z − z ') 2 ex p [ − ] 4 a ( t − t ') 53 Note that δ q = Pdt ' ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. y.

y. During a very short time heat released at the surface is dQ = Pdt’. This will result in infinitesimal rise in temperature at point (x. z) at time t given by. t ) = ∫ 2 Pdt ' t '= 0 ρ C (4 π a ( t − t ')) 3 2 ( x − vt '− x ') 2 + ( y − y ') 2 + ( z − z ') 2 ex p [ − ] 4 a ( t − t ') The total rise in of the temperature can be obtained by integrating from t’=0 to t’= t . z. y. t '= t dT '( x.Moving point heat source: Consider point heat source P heat units per unit time moving with velocity v on semiinfinite body from time t’= 0 to t’= t.

y ')dx ' dy 'exp[− ] 4a(t − t ') 2( x '2 + y '2 ) dT ' = ρ C (4π a(t − t ')) πσ 2 ∫ ∫ −∞ ∞ exp[− −∞ σ2 ( X − x ')2 + (Y − y ')2 + ( Z − z ')2 ]dx ' dy 'exp[− ] 4a(t − t ') In fixed coordinate sytem 4P T − T0 = ρ C π 4 aπ dt '(t − t ') −0. y ') = 2P πσ 2 exp[− 2( x '2 + y '2 ) σ 2 ] • Gaussian circular heat source dT '( X . Notes: Profs.Gaussian Circular • Gaussian beam distribution I ( x '.5 2(( x − vt ') 2 + y 2 ) z2 ∫0 σ 2 + 8a (t − t ') exp[ − σ 2 + 8a (t − t ') − 4 a (t − t ') ] t '= ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Singh/Melkote/Colton t '= t 55 . Z . t ) = 2dt ' 2P 3 2 2dt ' ρ C (4π a(t − t ')) ∞ 3 2 ( X − x ') 2 + (Y − y ') 2 + ( Z − z ') 2 I ( x '. Y .

Singh/Melkote/Colton 56 . Notes: Profs.Uniform Circular/Rectangular • Circular T − T0 = 2P 8 π 2σ 2 K ∫ 0 t dt ' ( t − t ') σ ∫ −σ (( x − vt ') − x ') 2 ex p [ − ]d x ' × 4 a ( t − t ') y − σ 2 − x '2 y + σ 2 − x '2 [ − erf ( ) + erf ( )] 2 a ( t − t ') 2 a ( t − t ') • Rectangular T − T0 = l 2δ q d t ' 4 b l ρ C ( 4 π a ( t − t ') ) 3 2 b z2 exp[− ] 4 a ( t − t ') ( ( x − v t ') − x ') 2 ( y − y ') 2 exp[− ]d x ' ∫ e x p [ − ]d y ' ∫l 4 a ( t − t ') 4 a ( t − t ') − −b ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.

4 – 6. Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton 57 .LBM Capability • MRR – Cutting speed can be as high as 4 m/min. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.015 . • Dimensional Tolerance – Typical ranges from ±0. – Typical material removal rate is 5 mm3/min.±0.3 µm.125 mm • Surface Finish – Ra varies between 0.

Nd:glass. welding. Nd:YAG.LBM (Cont. to cool and blow away the vaporized or molten material and slag. Singh/Melkote/Colton 58 . Notes: Profs. blanking. – High-pressure gas streams are used to enhance the process by aiding the exothermic reaction process. – Types of lasers used: pulsed and CW CO2. ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. engraving and trimming. ruby and excimer. surface hardening. drilling.) • Process Variations – Laser beam machines can be used for cutting.

Notes: Profs. heat affected zones.) • Applications – – – – – Multiple holes in very thin and thick materials Non-standard shaped holes and slots Prototype parts Trimming. scribing and engraving of hard materials Small diameter lubrication holes • Limitations – Localized thermal stresses. Singh/Melkote/Colton 59 . recast layer and thermal distribution in thin parts – Difficulty of material processing depends on how close materials boiling and melting points are – Hole wall geometry can be irregular – The cutting of flammable materials is usually inert gas assisted ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.LBM (Cont.

heating. The beam is focused onto the surface of the work material.Electron-Beam Machining (EBM) How it Works • A stream of electrons is started by a voltage differential at the cathode. melting. The anode applies a potential field that accelerates the electrons. and vaporizing the material. Notes: Profs. The concave shape of the cathode grid concentrates the stream through the anode. The electron stream is then forced through a valve in the electron beam machine. • • • ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Singh/Melkote/Colton 60 .

ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. LBM doesn’t need vacuum because the size and mass of a photon is numerous times smaller than the size of an electron. Notes: Profs.EBM (Cont. Singh/Melkote/Colton 61 .) The entire process occurs in a vacuum chamber because a collision between an electron and an air molecule causes the electrons to veer off course.

cutting contours in sheets. Notes: Profs. cutting narrow slots • Limitations – very high specific energy consumption. work speed. Singh/Melkote/Colton 62 . melting temperature • Materials application – all materials • Shape application – drilling fine holes. necessity of vacuum. beam diameter. expensive machine ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.EBM Characteristics • • • • • • Mechanics of material removal – melting. vaporization Medium – vacuum Tool – beam of electrons moving at very high velocity Maximum MRR = 10 mm3/min Specific power consumption = 450 W/mm3/min Critical parameters – accelerating voltage.

Singh/Melkote/Colton 63 . Notes: Profs.Comparative Performance ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.

Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton 64 .Focused Ion Beam Technologies • Ga+ ion beam raster over the surface similar to SEM • Milling of small holes and modifications in the structures can be done • Most instruments combine nowadays a SEM and FIB for imaging with high resolution. and accurate control of the progress of the milling • Process is performed in vacuum ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.

Y is sputter yield of surface atoms per incoming ion. Notes: Profs. using a probe of current I is given by A is the etched area. M is atomic mass of target material and e is charge ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Singh/Melkote/Colton 65 .Mechanism Rate of etch depth Where. ρ is the density of target material.

Notes: Profs.Dual Beam System ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Singh/Melkote/Colton 66 .

Notes: Profs.ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Singh/Melkote/Colton 67 .

Notes: Profs. WC – Polishing of single crystals – Deposition – Site-specific analysis – FIB lithography – TEM samples • Capital investment ~ 5 Crore ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.Focused Ion Beam Technologies • FIB finds application in: – Ablation of hard materials: diamond. Singh/Melkote/Colton 68 .

Process Capabilities of FIB • • • • • • Deposition Etching Low material removal Very high cost Nanometric imaging resolution Can process conducting and non conducting materials ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh. Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton 69 .

Notes: Profs. Singh/Melkote/Colton 70 .Summary • Process description and capability – – – – – Ultrasonic Machining (USM) Water-Jet Machining & Abrasive-Jet Machining Chemical Machining Electrochemical Machining (ECM) Electrical-Discharge Machining (EDM) • High-Energy-Beam Machining – Laser-beam machining (LBM) – Electron-beam machining (EBM) – Focused Ion Beam (FIB) ME 338: Manufacturing Processes II Instructor: Ramesh Singh.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->