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# PSpice™ based Examples

[Copyright © 2003, Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.mnpere.com]

TOC-1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section 1 Line-Frequency Diode Rectifiers 1. 2. 1-phase Diode Bridge Rectifiers (DBRECT1) 3-phase Diode Bridge Rectifiers (DBRECT3) Section 2 Line-Frequency Phase-Controlled Converters 3. 4. 5. 6. 1-phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge (THYRECT1) 1-phase Thyristor Inverters (THYINV1) 3-phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge (THYRECT3) 3-phase Thyristor Inverter (THYINV3) Section 3 DC-to-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Step-down (Buck) dc-dc Converter (BUCKCONV) Step-up (Boost) dc-dc Converter (BOOST) Step-down/up (Buck-Boost) dc-dc Converter (BUCK-BOOST) Full-bridge, bipolar-voltage-switching dc-dc Converter (FBBSDCDC) Full-bridge, unipolar-voltage-switching dc-dc Converter (FBUSDCDC) Section 4 Switch-Mode DC-to-Sinusoidal Inverters 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. PWM, bipolar-voltage-switching, 1-phase (1PHBSINV) PWM, unipolar-voltage-switching, 1-phase (1PHUSINV) Square-Wave, 1-phase (1PHSQINV) Voltage-Cancellation Control, 1-phase (1PHVCINV) PWM Inverter, 3-phase (PWMINV3) Square-Wave Inverter, 3-phase (SQINV3) Section 5 Soft-Switching Converters: Zero Voltage/Current Switching 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Series-Loaded Resonant dc-dc Converters Operating Above the Resonant frequency (SLRCM2) Parallel-Loaded Resonant dc-dc Converter Operating Above the Resonant Frequency (PLRCM2) Current-Source, Parallel-Resonant Inverters for Induction Heating (CSINV) Zero-Current Switching, Quasi-Resonant Buck Converter (ZCSCONV) Zero-Voltage Switching, Clamped-Voltage (Resonant Transition) Converter (ZVSCV) Section 6 Switch-Mode DC Power Supplies with Isolation 23. 24. 25. Flyback Converters (FLYBACK) Forward Converters (FORWARD) Forward Converter: Voltage-Mode Controlled (FOR_CNTL) Section 7 DC-Motor Drives 26. Ripple in the Armature Current (DC_MOTOR) Section 8 Semiconductor Devices 27. Power MOSFET switching characteristics (MOSFET)

1-1 Example 1 1-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier i Ld d + i load

Ls

+ -

1 Rs is

3

v s

C d 4 2

v d

R load

Nominal Values: Vs(rms) = 120V at 60 Hz Ls = 1 mH Rs = 10 mΩ Ld = 1µH Cd = 1,000 µF Rload = 20 Ω

Problems 1. 2. Execute DBRECT1 to obtain vs, is and vd waveforms. From the results of the Fourier analysis contained in the output file DBRECT1.OUT, calculate the input power factor and the displacement power factor. Make use of the Fourier analysis in DBRECT1.OUT to plot is, i 1, is3 and i 5. s s Superimpose the distortion current component idistortion = is - is1 on the above plot. Calculate Icap (the rms current though the filter capacitor) as a ratio of the average load current Iload. Plot the current and voltage associated with one of the diodes, for example, d1, and obtain the average and the rms values of the current as a ratio of the average load current.

3.

4.

5.

1-2 6. Vary L as a parameter to investigate its influence on the input displacement power s factor, the input power factor, %THD, and the peak-peak ripple in the dc voltage vd. Vary the filter capacitor Cd to investigate its influence on the percentage ripple in vd, input displacement power factor and %THD. Plot the percentage ∆Vd (peak-topeak)/Vd(average) as a function of Cd. Vary the load power to investigate its influence on the average dc voltage. In the nominal circuit input file, remove the limit on the maximum time step during the simulation and observe its influence on the circuit waveforms. Obtain the vs, is and vd waveforms during the startup transient when the filter capacitor is initially not charged. Obtain the peak inrush current as a ratio of the peak current in steady state. Vary the switching instant by simply varying the phase angle θ of the source vs. Replace the dc side of the diode bridge by a current source Id = 10 A, corresponding to a very large Ld. Make Ls almost equal to zero. Obtain Vd(average). Make Ls = 3 mH in Problem 10 and obtain Vd(average), displacement power factor, power factor, %THD, and the current commutation interval.

7.

8. 9.

10.

11.

12.

Reference: Section 5-3-4, pages 95 - 99. PSpice Schematic: DBRECT1 [Copyright © 2003, Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.mnpere.com]

5 Ω Problems 1. Compare the results with that in Example 1. 3. Investigate the influence of Ld on the input displacement power factor. Obtain va and ia waveforms 2. vd and id waveforms. (a) (b) Obtain vab.1 mH Rs = 1 mΩ Ld = 0. the input power factor and the average dc voltage Vd.1 mH to 10 mH. input displacement power factor and the input power factor.2-1 EXAMPLE 2 3-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier i Ld d R d i load + Ls 1 Rs ia 3 5 C d 4 6 2 v d R load Nominal Values: VLL (rms) = 208 V at 60 Hz Ls = 0. Ia1. calculate its harmonic components as a ratio of Ia1. Idis. . %THD in the input current. How do the results compare with the 1-phase diode-bridge rectifier of Example 1. 5. Calculate Ia.5 mH Rd = 5 mΩ Cd = 500 µF Rload = 16. Suggested range of Ld: 0. Calculate Icap (the rms current through the filter capacitor) as a ratio of the average load current Iload. By means of Fourier analysis of ia. 4.

8. Reference: Section 5-6. Plot the percentage ∆Vd (peak-to-peak)/Vd(average) as a function of Cd.2-2 6. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.000 µF. Investigate the influence of Cd on the percent ripple in vd.000 µF.com] . Suggested range of Cd: 100 µF and 2. pages 103 112. PSpice Schematic: Dbrect3 [Copyright © 2003. Suggested range of Rload: 50 Ω to 8 Ω.mnpere. Investigate the influence of Cd on the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. 7. Plot the average dc voltage as a function of load. Suggested range of Cd: 100 µF to 2.

Obtain vm and is waveforms.3-1 EXAMPLE 3 1-Phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge i d + Ls1 + v s + - Ld Ls2 is 1 3 vm _ v d R load 4 2 Nominal values: Vs(rms) = 120 V at 60 Hz Ls1 = 0. the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. By means of Fourier analysis of is. 2. vd and id waveforms. obtain the following from the voltage vm waveform: (a) Line-notch depth ρ(%) 3. obtain the commutation interval u and the dc-side current at the start of the commutation.0 mH Ld = 20 mH Rload = 5 Ω delay angle α = 45° Problems 1. (a) (b) (c) Obtain vs. %THD in the input current. At the point of common coupling. Obtain vs and is waveforms.2 mH Ls2 = 1. Calculate Is. 5. 4. . calculate its harmonic components as a ratio of Is1. From the plots.

Line-notch area and.9 Vs cosα Id. Reference: Section 6-3.3-2 (b) (c) 6. PSpice Schematic: Thyrect1 [Copyright © 2003.mnpere. Verify that 2ωLs Vd = 0. Obtain the average dc voltage Vd.com] .134. π where first use the average value of i for Id and then its value at the start of the d commutation interval as calculated in Problem 2. voltage %THD. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. pages 126 .

Calculate Is. Repeat the above procedure by reducing α slowly to its nominal value of 135°.2 mH Ls2 = 1. 2. PSpice Schematic: Thyinv1 [Copyright © 2003. Study the startup of inverter operation. pages 135 .4-1 EXAMPLE 4 1-Phase Thyristor Inverter i d + Ls1 + v s + - Ld Ls2 is 1 3 vm _ v d + E 4 2 Nominal Values: Vs(rms) = 120 V at 60 Hz Ls1 = 0. Increase the delay angle to a value close to 180° (for example.mnpere. vd and id waveforms using Thyinv1. Reference: Section 6-3-4. vd and id waveforms.com] .0 mH Ld = 20 mH E = 88 V (dc) delay angle α = 135° Problems 1.138. 150°) and look at the vs. Plot the average dc current Id versus α. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. 3. (a) (b) Obtain vs. the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. Obtain vs and is waveforms. %THD in the input current.

5-1 EXAMPLE 5 3-Phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge i + 1 L a s1 b c L s2 d 3 5 Ld ia v d R load 4 point of common coupling 6 2 VLL(rms) = 208 V at 60 Hz Ls1 = 0. the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. calculate its harmonic components as a ratio of Is1. From the plots. . Calculate Is. By means of Fourier analysis of is. (vab)pcc and ia waveforms. Obtain (va)pcc. 4. %THD in the input current. vd and id waveforms using Thyrect3. use the average value of id or its value at the start of the commutation. Verify the following commutation equation: cos(α+u) = cos α 2ωLs Id 2 VLL where Ls = Ls1 + Ls2.2 mH Ls2 = 1. 2.0 mH Ld = 16 mH Rload = 8 Ω delay angle = 45° Nominal Values: Problems 1. obtain the commutation interval u and id at the start of the commutation. Obtain va and ia waveforms. (a) (b) (c) Obtain va. 3. For Id.

obtain the following from the voltage vpcc waveform: (a) (b) (c) Line-notch depth ρ(%) Line-notch area and. u cosα + cos(α+u) ) ~ 2 2 At the point of common coupling.mnpere. Verify the following equation: Displacement power factor ~ cos(α + 6.35 VLL cos α 3ωLs Id.5-2 5. pages 138 .148. use the average value of id or its value at the start of the commutation. Obtain the average dc voltage Vd. Verify that Vd = 1. Reference: Section 6-4.com] . voltage THD% 7. π For Id. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. PSpice Schematic: Thyrect3 [Copyright © 2003.

the input displacement power factor and the input power factor.150. Obtain va and ia waveforms 2. Increase the delay angle to a value close to 180° and look at the va. Repeat the above procedure by reducing α slowly to its nominal value of 160°. Plot the average dc current Id versus α.6-1 EXAMPLE 6 3-Phase Thyristor Inverter i + 1 a b c Ls d 3 5 Ld ia v d + E 4 6 2 - Nominal Values: VLL(rms) = 480 V at 60 Hz Ls = 1. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. PSpice Schematic Thyinv3 [Copyright © 2003. pages 148 . Calculate Is. 3. (a) (b) Obtain va. Rd = 1 ohm E = 630 V delay angle α = 160° Problems: 1. Reference: Section 6-4-4. %THD in the input current. vd and id waveforms using Thyinv3. vd and id waveforms.0 mH Ld = 16 mH. Study the startup of the inverter operation.com] .mnpere.

max 2. Increase the load resistance to 10 Ω. (b) vo.75 Problems 1. iL and ic waveforms Obtain voi waveform and by means of Fourier analysis. obtain the following waveforms using Buckconv: (a) vL and iL waveforms. 3.7-1 EXAMPLE 7 Step-down (BUCK) dc-dc Converter + i V d + voi _ L v _ ic C L + v o _ R load io + L _ Nominal Values: Vd = 8 V (dc) L = 5 µH rL = 10 mΩ C = 100 µF Rload = 0. obtain its harmonic components as a ratio of its average value Vo. Check if the results agree with the following equation: Vo = Vd D2 Io 1 D2 + 4 ILB. Obtain vL and iL waveforms in the discontinuous conduction mode [Hint: use V(0) = 5.8V and IL(0) = 0]. 8Lfs .5 Ω fs = 100 kHz switch duty ratio D = 0. In steady state.max = . where Vd ILB.

Reference: Section 7-3. Calculate the rms value of the current through the output capacitor as a ratio of the average load current Io. Calculate the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage in the presence of the output capacitor Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) [Suggested ESR = 100 mΩ].mnpere. Plot the ripple across C. 5. Obtain the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage and check to see if the results agree with the analytical calculations. ESR and the total ripple in vo. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. pages 164 .com] .7-2 4. PSpice Schematic: Buckconv [Copyright © 2003. 6.168.

178. Obtain vL and iL waveforms in the discontinuous conduction mode [Hint: use Vo(0) = 28 V and IL(0) = 0].mnpere. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.8-1 EXAMPLE 8 Step-Up (Boost) dc-dc Converter i i L v L + + V d _ + _ ic C L D io v o _ R load Nominal Values: Vd = 9 V L = 10 µH rL = 10 mΩ C = 50 µF Rload = 5 Ω fs = 100 kHz switch duty ratio D = 0. Obtain the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage and check to see if the results agree with the analytical calculations. obtain its harmonic components as a ratio of its average value Io.625 Problems 1. PSpice Schematic: Boost [Copyright © 2003. pages 172 . 6. iL and vo waveforms as they reach their new steady state values. 3. Check if the results agree with the analytical calculations. change the load resistance as a step from its nominal value of 5 Ω to 50 Ω. After 10 ms. 5. 4. iD and ic waveforms 2. Increase the load resistance to 50 Ω. In steady state obtain the following waveforms using Boost: (a) vL and iL waveforms (b) vo.com] . Obtain iD waveform and by means of Fourier analysis. Calculate the rms value of the current through the output capacitor as a ratio of the average load current Io. Obtain vL. Reference: Section 7-4.

io and ic.9-1 EXAMPLE 9 Step-down/Up dc-dc (Buck-Boost) Converter + i V d v _ D _ + L i L L i C c vo + io R load _ Nominal Values: Vd = 8. In steady state. obtain its harmonic components as a ratio of its average value Io. 3. 5. 2. Obtain vL and iL waveforms in the discontinuous conduction mode [Hint: use V(o) = 28 V and IL(0) = 0]. 4.75 Problems 1. Check if the results agree with the analytical calculations.5 V L = 10 µH rL = 10 mΩ C = 100 µF Rload = 8 Ω fs = 100 kHz switch duty ratio D = 0. obtain the following waveforms using Buck-Boost: (a) vL and iL (b) vo. Obtain vL. After 10 ms. Increase the load resistance to 80 Ω. Obtain the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage and check to see if the results agree with analytical calculations. . change the load resistance as a step from its nominal value of 8 Ω to 80 Ω. Obtain iD waveform and by means of Fourier analysis. iL and vo waveforms as they reach their new steady state values.

Reference: Section 7-5.mnpere. Calculate the rms value of the current through the output capacitor as a ratio of the average load current Io. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.9-2 6. PSpice Schematic: Buck-Boost [Copyright © 2003. pages 178 .184.com] .

416 V with V tri = 1. 4. Obtain the following waveforms using FBBSDCDC: (a) vo. .10-1 EXAMPLE 10 Full-Bridge. calculate the average value of id and the rms value of the ripple.37 Ω La = 1. Obtain the rms value of the ripple in vo and check it with the analytical calculations.5 V Ra = 0.0 V) B2 B1 La + vo _ Ra io + V EMF Problems 1.5 mH Io(avg) = 10 A fs = 20 kHz duty-ratio D1 of TA1 and TB2 = 0. calculate the average value and the harmonic components in vo. 2. By means of Fourier analysis.708 ^ (∴ vcontrol = 0. Bipolar-Switching dc-dc Converter id + A1 A V d B A2 _ Nominal Values: N Vd = 200 V VEMF = 79. io and po(t) = voio (b) vo and id Calculate peak-to-peak ripple in io. By means of Fourier analysis. 3.

5V.37x10 = 75. 200 Calculate parts (a) through (c) of Problem 5 [Hint: use Io(0) = -11. Ia(avg) = 10A in the reverse direction. Therefore.8 Vcontrol = x 1.0. and that in o Problem 2.192. Vo(avg) = 0 V. (c) In part (a). and Vo(avg) = 79.5 .379.com] . Compare it with its analytical value.10-2 5. PSpice Schematic: FBBSDCDC [Copyright © 2003. (b) peak-to-peak ripple in i . Vcontrol = 0. the power flows from the load to the dc-bus at Vd. With VEMF = 0 and Ia(avg) = 0. label the intervals during which various devices are conducting. io and po(t) waveforms.67 A]. In the regenerative mode. pages 190 . Therefore.8V. 75.0 = 0. Reference: Section 7-7-1. Let VEMF= 79. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.67A]: (a) vo. Calculate the following [Hint: use Io(0) = -1.mnpere. 6.

Obtain the rms value of the ripple in vo.11-1 EXAMPLE 11 Full-Bridge. Reference: Section 7-7-2. 2. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. pages 192 . vB and vo using FBUSDCDC. Unipolar Switching dc-dc Converter i + A1 A V d B A2 _ N B2 d B1 L + vo _ a i Ra o + V EMF Nominal Values: Same as that in Example 10 except for unipolar-voltage switchings. 4.194. PSpice Schematic: FBUSDCDC [Copyright © 2003. Obtain the plot of vA. Problems 1. Check it with its analytical value and compare it with Problem 3 of Example 10. Obtain the plot of vo and io Obtain the peak-peak ripple in io. 3.com] . Check it with its analytical value and compare it with Problem 2 of Example 10.mnpere.

Phasor Diagram: R TH jX TH I o1 + Vo1 (at f ) 1 + _ V TH _ Therefore.866 pf (lagging). Vd = Vo1. Vo1(rms) = 153. RTH = 2Ω.8 sin (2πx40t). Io1(rms) = 10 A at a 0.8. Vo1.peak / ma = 271 V and. Frequency modulation ratio mf = 1000 / 40 = 25. Amplitude modulation ratio ma = 0. Inverter and Controller for Sinusoidal PWM: Switching frequency fs = 1 kHz . Therefore. Bipolar-Voltage Switching Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal Values: Frequency f1 = 40 Hz. vcontrol = 0.peak = 216. VTH (rms) = 124. .33 V.39o).39o V and vTH = 175.5.5 sin (2πx40xt .12-1 EXAMPLE 12 1-Phase.1 /-5. LTH = 10 mH.8V.

2.12-2 Problems 1. PSpice Schematic: 1Phbsinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /. [Copyright © 2003. Obtain v01 by means of Fourier analysis of the vo waveform.215. pages 212 . Using the results of Problem 2. Obtain the following waveforms using 1Phbsinv: (a) vo and io. Compare v01 with its precalculated nominal value. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.ripple in the input dc current. Obtain Id(avg) and id2 (the component at the 2nd harmonic frequency) by means of the Fourier analysis of the i waveform. obtain the ripple component iripple in the output current. 6. (c) vo. 4. Using the results of Problem 6.com] .mnpere.30o A. Reference: Section 8-3-2-1. (b) vo and id. obtain the high frequency ripple component id. Compare i 1 with its 0 o 0 precalculated nominal value. obtain the ripple component v ripple waveform in the output voltage. Compare them with their precalculated nominal d values. Using the results of Problem 4. Obtain i 1 by means of Fourier analysis of the i waveform. 5. the initial value Io(o) = -7 A. 7. 3. io and po. Calculate its rms value.

Compare i 1 with its 0 o 0 precalculated nominal value. Compare the peak-to-peak ripple to that in the bipolar-voltage switching inverter. 5. io and po. Using the results of Problem 2. Unipolar-voltage Switching Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal Values: Problems 1. Obtain Id(avg) and id2 (the component at the 2nd harmonic frequency) by means of the Fourier analysis of the i waveform. Obtain v01 by means of Fourier analysis of the vo waveform. (c) vo. obtain the ripple component iripple in the output current. Compare v01 with its precalculated nominal value. Compare the peak-to-peak ripple to that in the bipolar-voltage switching inverter.13-1 EXAMPLE 13 1-Phase. Using the results of Problem 4. 6. Similar to Example 12. obtain the ripple component v ripple waveform in the output voltage. Obtain i 1 by means of Fourier analysis of the i waveform. 3. (b) vo and id. Obtain the following waveforms using 1Phusinv: (a) vo and io. 4. 2. Compare them with their precalculated nominal d values. .

obtain the high frequency ripple component id. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.13-2 7. whereas the switches in the converter-leg B depend on (. PSpice Schematic: 1Phusinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /.30o A. Reference: Section 8-3-2-2. Calculate its rms value.vcontrol).com] . Compare the rms value of the dc-side current ripple to that in the bipolar-voltage switching inverter.ripple in the input dc current. pages 215 .mnpere. as in Example 12 is used.218. Using the results of Problem 6. Controller: The same controller PWM_TRI. The difference is that the switches in the converter-leg A depend on the control voltage vcontrol. [Copyright © 2003. the initial value Io(o) = -7 A.

page 218. Controller: Switches (A1. B2) and (B1. Also.27 V 4 4 Problems Similar to Example 12 but compare the results with both Examples 12 and 13.8 = 170. π π Vd = V01. the initial value Io(o) = -7 A.14-1 EXAMPLE 14 1-Phase.peak = 216. A2) form two switch pairs. [[Copyright © 2003. Reference: Section 8-3-2-3. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. each of which is gated on for alternate half periods. PSpice Schematic: 1Phsqinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /.30o A.com] . obtain the lower order harmonics in vo as a ratio of Vo1.mnpere. Square -Wave Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal Values: Same as in Example 12 except.

Reference: Section 8-3-2-4. ^ For Vd = 271 V and V 01 = 216.8 = 4 271 sin β π ∴ β = 38. at h = 1 216.15-1 EXAMPLE 15 1-Phase. pages 218 . Voltage-Cancellation Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal values: Same as in Example 14. . See the definitions of α and β.10 2 Problems Same as in Example 14. PSpice Schematic: 1Phvcinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /.30o A.2° α =51.219. the initial value Io(o) = -7 A.8V.9° and α = 180−2β = 102.

mnpere.15-2 Controller: A1 0 0 180 o A2 360 o B2 0 0 180 o B1 360 o [Copyright © 2003.com] . Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.

A)1 = 74. Amplitude modulation ratio ma = 0.619 VLL = x 230 = 182.A TH A1 A V d A2 _ B2 Nominal Values: Load: A 230 V. A 1 _ ∴ (VTH.54 V. rms 47.0 V 0. ∴ Xs = 2πx47.39/0°. 1 2Ω .612 ma .36° V (rms) Inverter and Sinusoidal PWM Controller: Switching frequency fs = 1 kHz.95 .97 V. With V tri = 1. 3-phase motor is operating at a frequency f1 = 47.16-1 EXAMPLE 16 Three-Phase PWM Inverter i + d B1 C1 L TH R TH iA B C C1 N n V . 60 Hz.39 V = 105. Therefore. 60 1 rms VLL rms 1 VAn = = 105.619x10x10-3 = 3Ω.76 /-12. Phasor Diagram: R TH jX TH IA 1 Rs = + V An1 (at f1) + _ V TH .866 = 10 /-30° A. rms VLL ^ 1 ∴ Vd = = 313. 1 3 rms IA = 10 A at a lagging power factor of 0.619 Hz. Ls = 10 mH.

obtain the ripple component iripple in the output current. 6.07 A. Reference: Section 8-4.A = 0. Problems 1. Obtain vAn1 by means of Fourier analysis of the vAn waveform.16-2 vcontrol. Controller: Three sinusoidal control voltages. (c) vAN and id.236. pages 225 . Obtain iA1 by means of Fourier analysis of iA waveform. Compare vAn1 with its precalculated nominal value. 2. Obtain Id(avg) by means of Fourier analysis and obtain the high frequency ripple id. obtain the ripple component vripple waveform in the output voltage. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. 7. Compare iA1 with its precalculated nominal value. Obtain the following waveforms using : (a) vAN and iA. the initial value IA1(o) = -7. Using the results of Problem 4. (b) van and iA. Obtain the load neutral voltage with respect to the mid-point of the dc input voltage. 4. Using the results of Problem 2. 3.mnpere.com] . one for each phase. 5.30o A.Id(avg) in the input current.90°) V.95 cos (2πf1t . are compared with a switching-frequency triangular waveform in PWM_Tri_3PH_Subcircuit. [Copyright © 2003. PSpice Schematic: PWMINV3 Based on IA1(rms) = 10 /.ripple = id .

54 V. PSpice Schematic: SQINV3 Controller: A1 0 0o B2 0 -60o C1 0 60 o 120 o C2 240 o 180 o B1 300 o C1 A2 360 o B2 [Copyright © 2003.A TH A1 A V d A2 _ B2 Nominal values: N The same as in Example 16. Reference: Section 8-4-2. except 182.230.78 rms where VLL = 182.mnpere. 1 Problems Same as in Example 16.03 V 0.com] .54 Vd = = 234. Square -Wave Inverter i + d B1 C1 L TH R TH iA B C C1 n V . Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. pages 229 .17-1 EXAMPLE 17 Three-Phase.

In a time range of 4. Check for zero voltage/current switchings.8µs. iL.75 V Problems 1.8µs to 5. RLoad = 50 Ω. isw2 and the gate signals to switches 1 and 2 (all on the same plot). fs /fo = 1. obtain and plot vAB1 and iL1. C2 = Large. plot the currents ics1 and ics2 through the snubber capacitors.32. iD2. Snubber Capacitors Cs1 = Cs2 = 0. Lr = 45. . 4. 3. Cout = 50 µF.5 µH. By Fourier analysis. fs = 100 kHz. Obtain vAB and iL waveforms.18-1 EXAMPLE 18 Series-Loaded Resonant (SLR) dc-dc Converter Operating Above the Resonant Frequency id + Vd _ 2 io D1 CS1 + C SW1 + Lr A 1 Cr iL + _ vc C out v o V d V _d 2 _ B + C SW2 D2 + vAB _ CS2 R Load _ _ 2 _ Nominal Values: Vd = 155 V. Obtain the voltage across and the current through the lower switch. Cr = 96. C1.9 nF ∴ fo = 132 kHz.1 nF Vo(0) = 69. 2. Note that the current lags in phase with respect to the voltage.

8 µs to 5. Obtain the voltage vc and the current iL waveforms.8 µs in Problems 3 and 4.18-2 5. 7.com] . Normalize the results by Vbase = Vd and Ibase = Vd / zo. Without changing the circuit parameters. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. pages 261 . Remove both the snubber capacitors and reexamine the switching interval between 4. PSpice Schematic: SLRCM2 [Copyright © 2003. respectively.mnpere. change the switching frequency to fs = 80 kHz. References: Section 9-4-1-3.262. Hint: Estimate the output voltage and use it as initial condition in the simulation. 6. Obtain Io(avg) and compare the normalized vc and iL / Io(avg) with those in Problem 3.

5 µs to 7. fs = 300 kHz Lr = 37. 4. 2. Problems 1. isw1 and the gate signals to switches 1 and 2 (all on the same plot). pages 266 . Obtain the voltage across and the current through the bottom switch.19-1 EXAMPLE 19 Parallel-Loaded Resonant (PLR) dc-dc Converter Above the Resonant Frequency id + Vd _ 2 io D1 CS1 + C 1 SW1 + Lr A V d V _d 2 _ B + C SW2 D2 + vAB _ CS2 iL Cr + vc _ v o C out R Load _ _ 2 _ Nominal Values: Vd = 155 V. . .267. 3.9926 A. Io = 0.96 µH. iD1.74 kHz. iL. Plot the fundamental frequency components of the inverter voltage vAB and the current iL.1 . Check for zero voltage/current switchings. plot the currents ics1 and ics2 through the snubber capacitors.97 nF ∴ fo = 272. Obtain vc and iL waveforms.5 µs. Does the current lag the voltage? If so. Cr = 8. Reference: Section 9-4-2-3. Obtain vAB and iL waveforms. 5. by how many degrees and why? In a time range of 6. fs / fo = 1.

Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.19-2 PSpice Schematic: PLRCM2 [Copyright © 2003.mnpere.com] .

Parallel-Resonant Inverter for Induction Heating i Ld d + 1 3 + Lc io C r L r R Load v d v o _ 4 Nominal values: fs = 4 kHz Lr = 78 µH. fs fo = 3. Obtain the fundamental frequency components of the output voltage vo and the output current io. . Obtain vo and io waveforms. Calculate the angle by which the current leads the voltage.11 . Compare this value with the phase angle of the impedance (at the switching frequency) seen from the output of the converter. 4. Compare with the average power input (Vd Id) calculated in Problem 3. Rload = 20 Ω. Lc = 20 µH 2 Cr = 25 µF. Obtain the voltage across the load and the average power supplied to the load. Obtain the waveform of the voltage across the dc input to the inverter. Calculate its average value Vd and the average power input VdId.20-1 EXAMPLE 20 Current-Source. fo id ~ Id = 25 A Problems 1.6 kHz. 3. = 1. 2.

pages 269 .270.20-2 5. Reference: Section 9-4-4. Plot the voltage across one of the thyristors and calculate the reverse recovery time (= γ/ωs) in µs available to the thyristors. PSpice Schematic: CSINV [Copyright © 2003.mnpere.com] . Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.

3.9 nF fs = 0.21-1 EXAMPLE 21 Zero-Current-Switching.0 A. 1 fo = = 1 MHz 2π LrCr Lr = 10 Ω Cr Zo = ∴ Lr = 1.5 A. Plot the voltage across and the current through the switch. Quasi-Resonant Buck Converter Lr i sw V d + v L f io Cr Dr C f + vo _ R + - c _ Load Nominal Values: Vd = 15 V. Cr = 15. Change Io in the PSpice circuit to 0. 5.59 µH. 2. isw and idiode waveforms. Change Io in the PSpice circuit to 2.614 MHz ∴ Ts = 1. Obtain Vo/Vd and the corresponding Rload/Zo. Check for zero voltage/current switchings. Compare the results and comment on how the switching frequency should be changed to bring Vo back to its nominal value. Obtain the average value of the voltage across the switch to check if Vo equals 10 V as the specified nominal value. Obtain vc. Vo = 10 V. 4.624 µs Problems: 1. io = Io = 1 A. . Look at the first switching frequency cycle and discuss the need for turning off a finite amount of current by the switch rather than the zero-current switching obtained earlier.

The switch is turned off when the current through it tries to reverse direction. Obtain the voltage vc and the inductor current iL by putting a diode in anti-parallel with the switch. a short pulse of 0.05 µs is produced. Obtain Vo/Vd. [Copyright © 2003.mnpere.21-2 6. PSpice Schematic ZCSconv: Controller: At the beginning of each cycle.278.com] . pages 274 . Reference: Section 9-5-1. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.

2. Obtain the voltage across and the current through one of the switches. 5. What should its value be to provide zero voltage switching? Change Cs1 and Cs2 to be 2. Rload = 10 Ω.5 nF. 3. Reference: Section 9-6-1. . 4. obtain the currents through one of the switches and through its associated diode and the snubber capacitors. Obtain the average value of vA.22-1 EXAMPLE 22 Zero-Voltage-Switching. Lf = 20 µH Cs1 = Cs2 = 5 nF Cf = 1000 µF. pages 280 . Comment on the zero voltage/current switchings. Obtain vA and iL waveforms. Repeat Problems 1 through 4. Around the blanking time. Vo = 10 V fs = 100 kHz. Problems: 1.283. 6. Clamped-Voltage dc-dc Converter id + SW1 D1 CS1 Lf V d A + CS2 A io iL C f + vo _ R Load v SW2 D2 _ Nominal Values: _ Vd = 21 V. How much lower is it compared to the nominal value of 10 V for Vo? Calculate the peak-to-peak ripple in the inductor current as a ratio of the average inductor current.

com] .5 us 15 us [Copyright © 2003.5 us vgate2 0 0 0. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.5 us 5 us 10.22-2 PSpice Schematic: ZVSCV Controller: vgate1 0 0 5.mnpere.5 us 10 us 15.

Neglect the leakage inductances. Obtain the waveform for the switch voltage vsw. 1-D 5. Change the load resistance to 50 Ω and repeat Problems 1 and 2 after a steady state is reached. fs = 200 kHz. and iD. Rload = 1 Ω Transformer: N1/N 2 = 4.23-1 EXAMPLE 23 Flyback dc-dc Converter id + + v1 N1 _ N2 C iD = i o + vo _ R Load V d _ Nominal Values: Vd = 32 V. Plot v1. . Magnetizing inductance Lm = 30 µH. Io Vd 4. Problems: 1. Vo ~ 4 V switch duty-ratio D = 0. id. Calculate the average values of id and iD in Problem 1 and verify that Id Vo = . Verify the results with the following equation: Vd vsw = . 3. Obtain waveforms for v1. and iD during a switching transition. 2.4. C = 100 µF. isw.

PSpice Schematic Flyback NOTE: 1. [Copyright © 2003. L1 = 30 µH. pages 308 . the coefficient of coupling (k) is assumed to be nearly 1. 2.310. Therefore. 3. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Since the leakage inductances are ignored. An R-C snubber is included across the switch. and L2 = L1 / (N 1/N 2)2 = 1.875 µH.com] . The transformer of the Flyback converter is represented by a component XFRM_Linear in the Analog library. A 1 MEG resistor is connected to ground at the output to satisfy connectivity requirements.mnpere.23-2 Reference: Section 10-4-2.

24-1 EXAMPLE 24 Forward dc-dc Converter id + + v1 N1 _ D3 i3 i D1 N3 N2 D1 D2 + Lf vL iL _ + vo _ R Load V d _ Cf Nominal Values: N1 N1 Vd = 50 V. In problem 2.. verify that tm N3 = Ts N1 D 2. Lf = 7. isw and i3 waveforms. Switch duty-ratio D = 0. the voltage across diode D2). Reference: Section 10-4-3. Problems: 1. where tm is the time interval during which i3 flows. PSpice Schematic: Forward . 3. = 4. pages 311 .5 µH Cf = 100 µF. show that the average value of v1 equals zero. Obtain v1. 4. Obtain the waveforms for iL and the voltage input to the output stage (i. RLoad = 1 Ω. =1 N2 N3 fs = 200 kHz.4 .e.314. Vo ~ 4. Lm = 100 µH. From the results of Problem 2. and Ts is the switching time period.5 V.

mnpere. [Copyright © 2003.24-2 Notes: 1. The 1-MEG resistor is for satisfying the connectivity requirement. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. L2 and L3 with almost perfect magnetic coupling. The 3-winding transformer is represented by three inductors L1. It is represented by a component XFRM_3W.com] . 2.

PSpice Schematic: For_Cntl [Copyright © 2003. 5. apply a step increase of 0.05 V in the nominal value of the output voltage Vo equal to 4 V at 200 µs. Vd = 24 V. Cf = 2. Observe the system response. Problems: 1. rL = 10 mΩ (ignore).25-1 EXAMPLE 25 Forward Converter: Voltage-Mode Controlled i + N 1 V d _ N 2 d D1 D2 rc rL Lf + vo _ R Load Cf Nominal Values: rc = 10 mΩ. RLoad = 200 mΩ. pages 322 . Lf = 5 µH. fs = 200 kHz.com] .000 µF. 2. Reference: Section 10-5.mnpere. Repeat Problem 1 by applying a step increase of 1 V in the nominal value of the input voltage Vd. Using the switching model in For_Cntl. Repeat Problem 1 by applying an additional load resistance of 800 mΩ in parallel with the nominal load resistance. Repeat Problems 1 through 4 with a Type-3 controller which provides a phase boost of 60 o with the same crossover frequency as before.34 ( -9. N1 / N2 = 3. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. 3.37 dB ) Voltage-Mode Controller: Designed with crossover frequency ω c =105 rad/s and phase margin φ pm = 45o . Vo = 4 V. PWM Modulator: Tm (s) = 0.336.

Compare the results with the unipolar-voltage switching scheme here. pages 388 .6V at 0. Calculate peak-to-peak ripple in ia. 2. Unipolar Voltage Switching KE = KT = 0. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 using a Bi-polar-voltage switching scheme.5 mH fs = 10 kHz.389. Reference: Section 13-6-3.26-1 EXAMPLE 26 Ripple in the DC Motor Armature Current id + A1 A V d B A2 _ N Nominal Values: Vd = 200 V Ra = 0.75 duty-ratio D1 of TA1 and TB2 = 0. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Apply a step increase in the control voltage to 0. Obtain the armature current waveform. Problems: 1. 3.708 ^ (vcontrol = 0.com] .0 V) The motor-load is as represented in the schematic DC_Motor.mnpere.37 Ω La = 1.416 V with V tri = 1. B2 B1 La + vo _ Ra io + V EMF 4.5 ms and observe the system response. PSpice Schematic: DC_Motor [Copyright © 2003.

PSpice Schematic: MOSFET [Copyright © 2003. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.com] . Look at the MOSFET switching waveforms. The stray inductance is represented by Lstray. the MOSFET is represented by IRF150 MOSFET in EVAL library of PSpice. Problems 1. 2.mnpere. Vary Rgate in a range of 10 Ω to 200 Ω and observe its effect on the switching waveforms.27-1 EXAMPLE 27 MOSFET Switching Characteristics In the schematic of MOSFET. The diode model within PSpice is used (where all its parameters have default values and rs = 1mΩ). Vary Lstray in a range of 20 nH to 200 nH and observe its effect on the switching waveforms. A pulse voltage is applied to the gate of the MOSFET where the rise and fall times are specified as 100 ns. 3.