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Pond Construction

Pond Construction

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Published by Andrei Ciobanu
DIY pond
DIY pond

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Andrei Ciobanu on Feb 07, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • Introduction
  • Water needs
  • Livestock
  • Irrigation
  • Fish production
  • Field and orchard spraying
  • Fire protection
  • Recreation
  • Waterfowl and other wildlife
  • Landscape quality
  • Multiple purposes
  • Preliminary investigations
  • General considerations
  • Area adequacy of the drainage
  • Minimum pond depth
  • Drainage area protection
  • Landscape evaluation
  • Pond capacity
  • Estimating storm runoff
  • Hydrologic groupings of soils
  • Runoff curve numbers
  • Table 2 Runoff curve numbers for agricultural lands 1/
  • Table 3 Runoff curve numbers for other agricultural lands 1/
  • Table 4 Runoff curve numbers for arid and semiarid rangelands 1/
  • Volume of storm runoff
  • Table 5 Runoff depth, in inches
  • Rainfall amounts and expected frequency
  • Rainfall distribution
  • Peak discharge rate
  • Time of concentration
  • Figure 16 Time of concentration (Tc) nomograph
  • Average watershed slope
  • Flow length
  • I a/P ratio
  • Table 6 Ia values for runoff curve numbers
  • Estimating peak discharge rates
  • Example 1 Estimating peak discharge rates
  • Figure 17aUnit peak discharge (qu) for Type I storm distribution
  • Figure 17cUnit peak discharge (qu) for Type II storm distribution
  • Embankment ponds
  • Detailed soils investigation
  • Site surveys
  • Spillway requirements
  • Table 7 Minimum spillway design storm
  • Table 8 Permissible velocity for vegetated spillways 1/
  • Table 9 Guide to selection of vegetal retardance
  • Figure 21 Excavated earth spillway
  • Pipes through the dam
  • Figure 23 Drop-inlet pipe spillways
  • Table 12 Discharge values for smooth pipe drop inlets 1/
  • Table 13 Discharge values for corrugated metal pipe drop inlets 1/
  • Figure 24 Dam with hooded inlet pipe spillway
  • Figure 25 Pipe inlet spillways that have trash rack and antivortex baffle
  • Figure 26 Water is piped through the dam’s drainpipe to a stockwater trough
  • Planning an earthfill dam
  • Table 16 Recommended side slopes for earth dams
  • Table 18 Volume of material needed for the earthfill
  • Staking for construction
  • Building the pond
  • Excavated ponds
  • Soils
  • Spillway and inlet requirements
  • Planning the pond
  • Sealing the pond
  • Compaction
  • Clay blankets
  • Bentonite
  • Chemical additives
  • Waterproof linings
  • Establishing vegetation
  • Protecting the pond
  • Wave action
  • Operating and maintaining the pond
  • Pond safety
  • Before construction
  • During construction
  • After completion
  • References
  • Glossary
  • Appendix A Estimating the Volume of an Excavated Pond
  • Appendix B Flood-Tolerant Native Trees and Shrubs

Almost all states have laws on impounding water and
on the design, construction, and operation and mainte-
nance of ponds. In many states small farm ponds are
exempt from any such laws. You should become
familiar with those that apply in your state and be sure
that you and your engineer comply with them.

Find out what your community or state laws are
regarding your liability in case of injury or death
resulting from use of your pond, whether you autho-
rize such use or not. This is particularly important if
you intend to open your pond to the public and charge
a fee for its use. You may find that you need to protect
yourself with insurance.

You should decide how the water is going to be used
so that you can plan the needed safety measures
before construction starts. For example, if the water is
to be used for swimming, guards over conduits are
required. You may wish to provide for beaches and
diving facilities; the latter require a minimum depth of
about 10 feet of water.

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