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The equation of motion of a spherical aerosol particle of mass m and diameter d is given as m du p 3πµd f = (u − u p ) + mg dt Cc (1)

Here u p is the particle velocity, u f is the fluid velocity, g is the acceleration of gravity and the buoyancy effect in air is neglected. Here it is assume that the particle is away from walls and the Stokes drag is assumed.

Drag Gravity

Figure 1. Schematics of an aerosol motion in a gas flow. Dividing Equation (1) by

3πµd and rearranging, we find Cc (2)

**du p = (u f − u p ) + τg dt where the particle response (relaxation) time is defined as τ
**

τ= mC c d 2 ρ p C c Sd 2 C c , = = 3πµd 18µ 18ν

(3) πd 3ρ p , ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and S = ρ p / ρ f is the density where m = 6 ratio. In practice, for non-Brownian particles, Cc ≈ 1 and

ME437/537

1

G. Ahmadi

93 µm/s 9.03 µm 0. T = 20 o C).03 mm/s 3.03 × 10 −6 3.τ≈ d 2ρ p 18µ (4) Terminal Velocity For a particle starting from rest.09 × 10 −4 50 7.1 0. Ahmadi .62 mm 76.6 µm 0. As t → ∞.0357 mm 1 35 µm/s 3. the terminal velocity of particle u t is given by u t = τg = ρ p d 2 gC c 18µ (6) Table 7 – Relaxation time τ for a unit density particle in air (p = 1 atm.57 × 10 −6 5 0.39 µm/s 4 × 10 −4 mm 4 × 10 0.77 mm/s 78.6 µm 0. Diameter.0103 mm 0.1 µm/s 1. µm τ sec Stop Distance Stop Distance ut = τ g u o = 1 m/s u o = 10 m/s −8 0.09 mm 10 3.5 10.2 mm 7.04 µm 0.786 mm 7. for a particle with an initial velocity of u .47 cm/s 7.15 × 10 −8 1. the solution to (2) is given as u p = (u f + τg)(1 − e − t / τ ) (5) where u f is assumed to be a constant vector. the solution to (2) is given by p o x p = u p τ(1 − e − t / τ ) o u p = uoe − t / τ (7) (8) where x p is the position of the particle.62 × 10 −3 Stopping Distance In the absence of gravity and fluid flow.86 × 10 −5 309 µm 3.092 µm 0.05 0.15 × 10 −4 mm 9. For u f = 0 and large t. u p → 0 and p xp = uoτ (9) ME437/537 2 G.

integrating Equation (5). Variations of the particle vertical position with time. 0 -2 α =0.is known as the stopping distance of the particle. Particle Path For constant fluid velocity. For an initial velocity of 1000 cm/s. For a particle starting from rest. when the fluid velocity is in x-direction and gravity is in the negative y-direction.1 y/utau -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 0 1 2 3 4 α =1 α =2 5 6 t/tau Figure 2. the position of the particle is given by x p = x p + u p τ(1 − e − t / τ ) + (u f + τg)[t − τ(1 − e − t / τ )] o o (11) p Here x o is the initial position of the particle. Equation (10) reduces to x p / u f τ = [ t / τ − (1 − e − t / τ )] y p / u f τ = −α[ t / τ − (1 − e − t / τ )] where the ratio of the terminal velocity to the fluid velocity α is given by (12) (13) α= τg uf τ (14) Figure 2 shows the variation of vertical position of the particle with time. ME437/537 3 G. the stop distance for various particles are listed in table 7. Ahmadi .

the buoyancy effect must be included.1 y/utau -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 α =2 α =1 x/utau Figure 3. 2 ME437/537 4 G. Equation (1) is replaced by (m + m a ) du p 3πµd f = (u − u p ) + (m − m f )g dt Cc Thus. Buoyancy Effects For small particles in liquids. Figure 3 shows sample particle trajectories. 1 ma = mf . it follows that y p = − αx p (15) That is the particle paths are straight lines. For spherical particles.From Equations (12) and (13). (16) where m f is the mass of the equivalent volume fluid given as mf = πd 3ρ f 6 (17) and m a is the apparent mass with ρ f being the fluid density. 0 -2 α =0. Sample particle trajectories. Ahmadi .

ME437/537 5 G.Keeping the same definition for particle relaxation time as given by (3). Ahmadi . Equation (2) may be restated as 1 du p 1 (1 + )τ = (u f − u p ) + τg(1 − ) 2S dt S The expression for the terminal velocity then becomes ρ p d 2 gC c ρf 1 (1 − p ) u t = τ g (1 − ) = 18µ S ρ (18) (18) Note that the Basset force and the memory effects are neglected in this analysis.

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