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Span Deflection

Span Deflection

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Span Deflection Of a beam
Span Deflection Of a beam

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BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method

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TITLE : SPAN DEFLECTION (DOUBLE INTEGRATION METHOD) _______________________________________________________________________ _ 1.0 OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between span and deflection. 2.0 INTRODUCTION A beam must posses sufficient stiffness so that excessive deflections do not have an adverse effect on adjacent structural members. In many cases, maximum allowable deflections are specified by Codes of Practice in terms of the dimensions of the beam, particularly the span. The actual deflections of a beam must be limited to the elastic range of the beam, otherwise permanent distortion results. Thus in determining the deflections of beam under load, elastic theory is used. 3.0 THEORY

X L/2 - x A

P x/ 2

C B

X L/2 L/2

Beam with point load at mid span

Wong Siew Hung AF040176

y = 0 .x = EIy = When x = 0 .x = EI d 2 y P L  PL Px =  − x = − 2 2 2 4 2 dx  dy PLx Px 2 = − +A dx 4 4 PLx 2 Px 3 − + Ax + B 8 12 Vx . y mak = − x = L/2 v mak = PL 3 (mind span .BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method) M x .2 4.x = EI Yx . dy = 0∴A = 0 dx ∴0 = PL 3 48 PL 3 PL 3 − +B 32 96 When x = L/2 .1 4. c) 48 EI PL 2 (at support) 16 EI where E can be obtained from the backboard I= bd 3 12 b d 4. Brass or Steel) Digital Dial Test Indicator Hanger and Masses Wong Siew Hung AF040176 . B =− When x = 0 .0 APPARATUS 4.3 Specimen beam (your group may choose one of the following material : Aluminiun.

0 PROCEDURE 5.72 x 105 1.66 x 10-5 .0.0. Zeroed the digital reading. Place the hanger and the digital dial test indicator at mid span.962 2.0.93 x 10-4 .15 x 10-5 .3 5. 1 2 3 Mass* (N) 0.45 x 105 1. 1 2 3 Mass* (N) 0.0.15 . 6. Place the chosen beam on the support.72 x 105 Experiment 3 : Span = 200 mm No.0.45 x 105 Experiment 2 : Span = 300 mm No.72 x 105 1.14 .42 Theoretical Def.943 Deflection (Experimental) . Apply an incremental load and record the deflection for each increment in the table below.07 .1.55 x 105 1.2 5.4 5. (ymax) .981 1.21 Theoretical Def. Mass* (N) Deflection Theoretical % Difference Wong Siew Hung AF040176 .90 x 10-4 % Difference 1.0 RESULT Experiment 1 : Span = 400 mm No.0.2.8. (ymax) .07 x 10-5 .943 Deflection (Experimental) .28 . Repeat the above using span of 300 mm and 200 mm.1.9.22 x 10-4 % Difference 1.1 5.4.962 2.BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method) 5.981 1.5 Positioned the moveable knife-edge supports so that they are 400 mm apart.

21 x 10-5 .45 x 10-3 Mass* (N) 2.01 x 105 1. 3).0.13 x 10-3 19.42 x 10-5 . Esteel = 207 x 109 Nm-2 Width.981 1. (ymax) .11 x 10-3 m Thick.BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method) 1 2 3 • 0. Reading 1 2 3 Average Width / b (m) 19. I = bd 3 12 Wong Siew Hung AF040176 . No.943 (Experimental) .45 x 105 7.2.62 x 10-5 2.54 x 10-3 3.93 x 105 Used any mass between 10 to 500 g For Extra Calculation/Experiment with 400 mm span and x=L/3 (400 (from experiment 1.33 x 10-3 3.1.48 x 10-3 3.3.0.19 x 10-3 19.11 x 10-3 Thick / d (m) 3. 3 Given.05 .45 x 10-3 m From Equation.48 x 105 2. d = 3. (ymax) .2. the hanger and the digital dial test indicator is place at the L/3 (400mm / 3) of the span. b = 19.0.0.0 DATA ANALYSIS / CALCULATION Given.962 2.00 x 10-3 19.90 x 10-4 % Difference 1.41 Theoretical Def.03 . Esteel = 207 GNm-2 = 207 x 109 Nm-2 Width and Thick of the Span . no.07 Def.943 Deflection (Experimental) .

981 )( 0.00345 ) 3 12 = 6.962 )( 0. N = 2. N = 0.4) 3 48 (207 x10 9 )( 6. N = 1.BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method) = (0. N = 0.4) 3 48 (207 x10 9 )( 6.01911 )( 0.93 x 10-4 m When.943 )( 0.90 x 10-4 m For Experiment 2 : Span = 300 mm When.54 x10 −11 ) = – 1.981 )( 0.981 N y mak = − PL 3 48 EI =− (0.943 N y mak = − PL 3 48 EI =− ( 2.66 x 10-5 m When.981 N y mak = − PL 3 48 EI =− (0.54 x10 −11 ) Wong Siew Hung AF040176 .54 x10 −11 ) = – 2.3) 3 48 (207 x10 9 )( 6.54 x 10-11 m4 For Experiment 1 : Span = 400 mm When.4) 3 48 (207 x10 9 )( 6.54 x10 −11 ) = – 9.962 N y mak = − PL 3 48 EI =− (1.

54 x10 −11 ) = – 8.07 x 10-5 m When. N = 1.3) 3 48 (207 x10 9 )( 6.54 x10 −11 ) = – 1.962 N y mak = − PL 3 48 EI =− (1.22 x 10-4 m For Experiment 3 : Span = 200 mm When.962 )( 0.943 N y mak = − PL 3 48 EI =− ( 2.981 )( 0.2) 3 48 (207 x10 9 )( 6.21 x 10-5 m Wong Siew Hung AF040176 .15 x 10-5 m When.943 )( 0. N = 2. N = 0.3) 3 48 (207 x10 9 )( 6.BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method) = – 4.981 N PL 3 48 EI y mak = − =− (0.54 x10 −11 ) = – 1.

2) 3 48 (207 x10 9 )( 6.962 N y mak = − PL 3 48 EI =− (1. N = 1. N = 0.42 x 10-5 m When.962 )( 0.55 x 105 % When.54 x10 −11 ) = – 2.981 N % Difference = {– 0.962 N Wong Siew Hung AF040176 .62 x 10-5 m Percentage of Differences Between the Experimental Deflection and Theoretical Deflection For Experiment 1 : Span = 400 mm When.2) 3 48 (207 x10 9 )( 6.15 – (– 9.943 N y mak = − PL 3 48 EI =− ( 2.66 x 10-5 )}÷ (– 9. N = 2.BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method) When.66 x 10-5) x 100 = 1.943 )( 0. N = 1.54 x10 −11 ) = – 3.

07 – (– 4.48 x 105 % When. N = 0.07 x 10-5)}÷ (– 4. N = 2.28 – (– 1.21 x 10-5) x 100 = 2.42 – (– 2.01 x 105 % Wong Siew Hung AF040176 .72 x 105 % When.22 x 10-4) x 100 = 1.42 x 10-5) x 100 = 2.962 N % Difference = {– 0. N = 1.72 x 105 % For Experiment 3 : Span = 200 mm When. N = 0.981 N % Difference = {– 0.45 x 105 % When.45 x 105 % For Experiment 2 : Span = 300 mm When.90 x 10-4) x 100 = 1.962 N % Difference = {– 0. N = 2.93 x 10-4)}÷ (– 1.03 – (– 1.22 x 10-4)}÷ (– 1.93 x 10-4) x 100 = 1.42 x 10-5)}÷ (– 2.07 x 10-5) x 100 = 1.21 – (– 1.943 N % Difference = {– 0.BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method) % Difference = {– 0.15 x 10-5) x 100 = 1.15 x 10-5)}÷ (– 8.14 – (– 8.90 x 10-4)}÷ (– 2.21 x 10-5)}÷ (– 1.05 – (– 2.72 x 105 % When. N = 1.943 N % Difference = {– 0.981 N % Difference = {– 0.

21. is shorter than experiment 1. When the load is increased to 1.943 N respectively. When the load is increased to 1.93 x 105 % 8. test indicator give us the reading of deflection with -0. While for the span with shorter length.962 N and 2. 2.15. N = 2. The values of the deflection for both theoretical and experimental results increase proportionally to the load when the load of 100g. Thus.14 and -0.943 N % Difference = {– 0.981 N was place at the mid span.962 N and 2.62 x 10-5) x 100 = 1. we can notice that. the span with longer length will give us the bigger value of deflection when the load is place at the mid span for both theoretical and experimental results. Referring to the results from the calculation.07. the different between the theoretical and experimental results are very big for both Experiment 1.BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method) When.07 – (– 3. we can conclude that. Wong Siew Hung AF040176 . 200g and 300g is place on the mid span. the deflection is slightly small compare to the longer span. the percentage (%) of the difference between the theoretical and experimental results are extremely big and high. the deflection recorded by test indicator are -0.28 and -0. when the load of 100g or 0. 300mm.943 N respectively. and 3.42.0 DISCUSSION Comment on the different between the theoretical and experimental results. the value of deflection for this experiment is smaller than the experiment 1.62 x 10-5)}÷ (– 3. From the experiment done. For Experiment 2 (span 300mm). the deflection recorded by test indicator are -0. For Experiment 1 (span 400mm). The values of the deflection for both theoretical and experimental results increase proportionally to the load when the load of 100g. test indicator give us the reading of deflection with -0.981 N was place at the mid span. 200g and 300g is place on the mid span. But. This is because the length of the span used. when the load of 100g or 0.

981 N was place at the mid span. 9. Check the result by placing the digital dial at this position. The values of the deflection for both theoretical and experimental results increase proportionally to the load when the load of 100g.33mm (400/3). Besides that. the deflection recorded by test indicator are -0. is shorter than the span used for experiment 1 and experiment 2. 200mm.943 N respectively.0 EXTRA QUESTIONS 9. This is because the length of the span used. Thus. the deflection of span is proportional to the load we place on it and the length of the span we used. we conclude that. when the load of 100g or 0.1 Calculate the deflection when x = L/3 (experiment 1.07. but the deflection in the span increase when the load is increase.05 and -0.BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method) For Experiment 3 (span 200mm). When the load is increased to 1. the value of deflection also increase when the length of span used is longer. no. The value of deflection for this experiment is smaller than the experiment 1 and experiment 2. the value for Deflection (Experimental) we get is – 0. test indicator give us the reading of deflection with -0. this mean that x = 133. From the results we get from this experiment. though the different between the theoretical and experimental results are very big. 200g and 300g is place on the mid span.41 and the Theoretical Deflection Wong Siew Hung AF040176 . Calculation : When x = L/3.962 N and 2. 3).03.

no.45 x 105 % 9. d = 3.00345 ) 3 = 12 From Equation.90 x 10-4) x 100 = 1.45 x 105 %.BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method) we get from the calculation is – 2.943 N % Difference = {– 0.4) 3 48 (207 x10 9 )( 6.45 x 10-3 m bd 3 12 (0.943 )( 0. N = 2.45 x 10-4 m Wong Siew Hung AF040176 . I = = 6.54 x 10-11 m4 From Equation.01911 )( 0.54 x10 −11 ) = 2.90 x 10-4 m. The percentage (%) of the difference between the theoretical and experimental results for this extra experiment is 1.3) 3 16 ( 207 x10 9 )( 6.90 x 10-4)}÷ (– 2. v mak = PL 2 16 EI = (1. N = 2.11 x 10-3 m Thick.54 x10 −11 ) = – 2.90 x 10-4 m When.2.41 – (– 2. b = 19.962 )( 0. When.943 N y mak = − PL 3 48 EI =− ( 2.2 Calculate Vmak in experiment 2. Esteel = 207 x 109 Nm-2 Width. Given.

0 CONCLUSION From this experiment. “Mechanic Of Materials. the span with longer length will give us the bigger value of deflection when the load is place at the mid span for both theoretical and experimental results.0 REFERENCES Yusof Ahamad (2001). R.BFC 2091 Structure Lab – Span Deflection (Double Integration Method) 10. C. we notice that. “Mekanik Bahan Dan Struktur. ed. our group managed to determine the relationship between span and deflection. England: Prentice Hall International. elastic theory is used. While for the span with shorter length. Though the different between the theoretical and experimental results are very big. the deflection of span is proportional to the length of the span and the load we place on it. Hibbeler (2000). Thus. we conclude that. the deflection is slightly smaller compare to the longer span though the load used is same with the longer one.” Malaysia: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Skudai Johor Darul Ta’zim. Wong Siew Hung AF040176 . In determining the deflections of the beams under load. Inc. From the experiment and the results we get from this experiment. 11. but the deflection in the span also increase when the load is increase.” 4th.

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